STANDARDS / MANUALS / GUIDELINES FOR SMALL HYDRO DEVELOPMENT

      SPONSOR:  MINISTRY OF NEW AND RENEWABLE ENERGY   GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

VERSION 2

GUIDELINES FOR SELECTION OF CONTROL SHP STATIONS

       
 

LEAD ORGANISATION:   ALTERNATE HYDRO ENERGY CENTRE  INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, ROORKEE 
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CONTENTS
ITEMS PAGE NO. 1 1 2 3 3 4 7 8 14

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Control System 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 Scope References Technology Control Function Considerations for Selecting Control System Computer Based Control of Hydroelectric Station Computer Based Control System for Power Plant above 5 MWA Computer Based Control System for Powerhouse upto 5 MVA

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Protection & Metering 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Protection System Protective Relay Technology Monitoring and Protection for Generating Units above 3 MW and upto 25 MW Monitoring and Protection for Generating Units above 100 kW and upto 3 MW Monitoring and Protection for Micro Hydel Systems

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Guide for Selection of Control, SCADA and Protection System for SHP upto 25 MW
1. Control System Control, automation and monitoring system in a hydroelectric power plant is associated with start and stop sequence for the unit and optimum running control of power (real and reactive), voltage and frequency. Data acquisition and retrieval is used to cover such operations as relaying plant operating status, instantaneous system efficiency, or monthly plant factor, to the operators and managers. Type of control equipment and levels of control to be applied to a hydro plant are affected by such factors as number, size and type of turbine and generator. The control equipment for a hydro power plant include control circuits/logic, control devices, indication, instrumentation, protection and annunciation at the main control board and at the unit control board for generation, conversion and transmission operation including grid interconnected operation of small hydro stations. These features are necessary to provide operators with the facilities required for the control and supervision of the station’s major and auxiliary equipment. In the design of these features consideration must be given to the size and importance of the station with respect to other stations in the power system, location of the main control room with respect to the equipments to be controlled and all other station features which influence the control system. The control system of a power station plays an important role in the station’s rendering reliable service; this function should be kept in mind in the design of all control features. 1.1 1.1.1 Scope

Purpose: The purpose of this guide is to provide guidance for selection of control, automation and monitoring system of SHP upto 25 MW by developers, manufacturers, consultants, regulators and others. The guide includes selection of technology extent of automation and monitoring system for different categories (micro, small upto 5 MW and above 5 MW to 25 MW) that is economical, easy to adopt and sustainable feasible and essential for safe operation. 1.1.2 Unit Type: SHP turbines and AC generator may be of any type commercially available as per following guides a) b) 1.1.3 Selection of SHP turbine and governor Selection of SHP generator and excitation system

1.1.4

Application: Small hydro units are commonly applied in situations where associated civil, construction work and costs are minimal. These applications include canal fall schemes, hilly hydros diversion schemes and new impoundment structures that can be inexpensively built. Operation and Control: Small hydro units are provided with equipment and circuitry to enable unattended operation.

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S. Perrault.S. Presented in Eleventh National Convention of Electrical Engineers and Seminar on Environmental Friendly Electric Power Generation. Thapar and D. So.1. Rakesh. 11807.A. Roorkee. WATERPOWER’85.Nov.E & M Equipment standardization and cost reduction Vol.E. system and personal. IEC: 62270 – 2004 – Hydroelectric power plant automation – Guide for computer based control IEC: 1116 – IEEE: 249 – 1996 – IEEE guide for computer based control system for hydroelectric power plant automation IEEE: 1010-1987 – Guide for Control of Hydroelectric power plant (ANSI) IEEE: 1020-1988 – Guide for control of small hydroelectric power plants (ANSI) IEEE: 1046-1991 . f) Report on study and design and development of Model SHP based self sustained projects . et. b) “Economic Computer Controls for Low Head Hydro” by R. Thapar.Guide for distributed digital control and monitoring for power plants (ANSI) The guidelines are based on the following: a) Technology recommended under UNDP-GEF Project for Himalayan range SHP project. North Creek Pkwy. 1995. U. d) “Microcomputer Based Control and Monitoring Systems”.A. III (a) prepared by Alternate Hydro energy Centre. I. a) UNDP/world bank recommendation for cost effective irrigation based Mini Hydro Schemes in India under Energy Sector Management Assistance programme (ESMAP) by standardization of designs and equipment. frequently at a distribution/sub transmission sub station. References This guide should be used in conjunction with the following publications/standards. Special interconnection requirements are set by each state to prot4ects its equipment.D. g) Design of al large number of SHP projects for different states and organization. The unit may supply a portion. and any surplus may be supplied to the local grid. The interconnection requirement should meet guidelines for interconnection with grid.A. 1. c) Thapar. WA 98011 U. Bothell. IIT Roorkee for Power finance corporation Ltd.E. DIGITEK INC. of its output to a local private load. “Microprocessor Controller for a small Hydroelectric System”.2 2 . October. World Literature review and local experience. or all.1. – Technical Literature.5 Interconnection: Small hydro units are generally connected to the local grid system. These recommendations were made by AHEC (Alternate Hydro Energy Centre) as Indian consultant based on specific recommendations of M/s Mead and Hunt – US consultant. – 2002. e) “Small Hydro-Electric – Technology for Economic Development” by O.al. 1986. M/s MHPG Group of European Consultants. and are connected either directly or through a main transformer.

modulating controllers and microprocessors in order to bring plant equipment into operation. Modern control rooms utilize the far more cost-effective computer based automation which implies (IEEE: 1249 definition) use of computer component. Modern systems still permit control of the entire plant from a single location. a centralized control board was provided. In interconnected system. the governor may be used to regulate the unit load and may contribute to the system frequency control.2 Generator Control This is the excitation control of synchronous generator.4. alarming. The SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) control scheme also provides flexibility in control.4. Data acquisition was manual. The excitation is an integral part of a synchronous generator which is used to regulate the operation of the generator. storage and retrieval is provided by the computer. Data acquisition. The main functions of excitation system of a synchronous generator are: 1. 1.4 1. If the plant had multiple units. optimize operation in a study state condition and shut down the equipment in the proper sequence under safe operating conditions.3 Technology Upto 1980s.1. The unit control board and centralized control board using relay logic contained iron vane meters. and hundreds of auxiliary relays to perform the unit start/stop and other control operations.1 Control function of control in a hydropower plant may be cateogrized into the following: Turbine Control This is the speed/load control of turbine in which the governor adjusts the flow of water through the turbine to balance the input power with the load. sequence of events recording. where excess load is diverted to dummy load to maintain constant speed. In case of micro plants in the range of micro hydel (100 kW unit size). 1. control of a hydro plant’s generating units was typically performed from governor panel or unit control switchboard. such as logic controllers. 3 . and remote communication that was not possible with the hardwired control systems. Voltage control in case of isolated operation and synchronising Reactive power or power factor control in case of interconnected operation. load control is also used.. sequence controllers. 2. the governor controls the frequency. hardwired control switches. allowing operator to control the entire station from one location. All the necessary sensors and controls required to operate the unit or units were hardwired to the unit control board and/ or centralized control board. With an isolated system. This includes programmable logic controllers (PLC’s) for control system and PC monitor and hard disc for data display and data acquisition system and distributed computer control systems with graphic display screens to implement a vast array of control schemes.

Plant control usually include monitoring and display of the plant conditions.3 Plant Control Plant control deals with the operation of the plant. normal and emergency shutdown. If the thyristor control (ELC) is used then the alternator needs to be oversized upto 2% on kVA to cope with the higher circulating current included.5 Considerations for Selecting Control System Governor and control systems for small hydro units especially in developing countries have to be selected keeping in view the following. Flow control turbine governors are expensive and not recommended for small hydro units in micro hydel range. in case of small units upto 100-150 kW size elimination of flow control governors by digital shunt load governor (electronic load controllers) will make these units economically viable and properly designed will eliminate continuous attendance requirement. Accordingly. It includes sequential operations like start up of the machine. The mode of control may be manual or automatic and may be controlled locally or from remote location.e. 1. Electronic digital flow control governors can take up plant control functions. unit control and plant control is high.4. Experience in successful operation of analog electronic control system in India for SHP is not good. loading of unit under specified operating conditions. Data storage function can be added to the digital governors. iii) iv) v) vi) vii) viii) 4 . The manpower as available for operation is unskilled and further adequate supervision is not feasible. etc. Cost of speed control and automation with electronic analaog flow control governors. This will make a saving of about 40% on capital cost. Electronic load control governing system with water cooled hot water tanks as ballast loads for unit size upto 100 kW be used. excitation control.1. Load factors for stand-alone micro hydels are usually low which affects economic viability. Further performance requirements of stability and sensitivity i. These systems require attended operation and are mostly based on large capacity hydro units. dead band. synchronization. ii) Traditional mechanical flow control governor with mechanical hydraulic devices is complex demanding maintenance and high first cost. Schematic overview of the plant controls are given in Figure 1. dead time and dashpot time especially for interconnected units may not be possible with mechanical governors. This is making most of the units very costly and uneconomical to operate.4.

unit protection and generation scheduling and have been successfully in operation for over ten years. PLC based system are reliable and suitable for hasrh conditions. Future systems using PC as controller and for SCADA with open architecture and use of commercially available software is recommended for economy and wide spread use. Dedicated PC based systems for complete generation control can be easily adopted for data acquisition and storage at low cost and can also be adopted to SCADA system.5 5 . x) xi) xii) xiii) Comparison of various options for control systems are given in table 1.ix) The dummy loads in the Shunt Load Governors (ELC) can be useful load system or can be used for supplying domestic energy needs. unit control and automation. These have been in operation in India and abroad. Analog electronic governors and plant controllers are also used for small hydro auto synchronizing and for remote control and monitoring of system. Customized software is used in these systems which inhibits wide spread use. Digital generation controllers were evolved to take care of speed control.

Fig. 1.4 6 .

Flow control Gov. Dedicated digital controller for Gov. Data not available Suitable – Indigenous system not available Low Low Moderate Medium Recommended Recommended with high speed PC suitable for harsh area Grid Notes: 1. Data storage and Retrieval SCAD A Cost including Gov. Comparison of various options for control system. PLC integrated controller with SCADA by PC SHP 100 kW to 5 MW Suitable Low Recommended Grid Iso. Mech.. SCADA data Aq.5 S. At high extra cost Very high cost High Moderate to high Moderate Not recommended 4. Grid At high extra cost Very high 100-500 & above 2. Grid Iso. and plant control with PC based SCADA backup. protection. 2. See note 3 Digital load control governor may be developed for SCADA Grid × Suitable Not feasible 3. 5 to 100 kW 100 kW to 25000 kW Iso. 7. PLC digital governor with plant controller and SCADA with redundant PC Data Logger with PLC load controller PC based integrated system for governing. Recommended in conjunction with partial water flow control 7 . Grid Iso.1. Load control governor 50-100 Suitable At extra cost Low Low Not considered Do not available 100-500 Iso. Analogue. Grid Iso. Cost normalized with main and backup SCADA system. Storage and Retrieval (see note-1) Capital O&M High without SCADA Not recommendation Recommendati on Remarks Turbine Gov. 3. & Plant Controller 50-100 Above 100 Iso. No. 50-100 Iso. Grid Iso. plant control protection and metering Above 5 MW 6. including turbine governing supervisory control and data acquisition Unit size kW Mode of operati on Suitability Turbine Gov. and Controller Type Unit control 1. control. Grid Suitable See not 2 High Moderate Recommended for units above 5 MW 5. Electronic Gov. Grid Iso. Unit Prot.

6.6. control hierarchy extent of computerization recommend for different categories are discussed.6. The local unit computer (PLC) should be part of the equipment.7 1.Local. could be applicable to any of the three locations Operator is available at all times to initiate control action Operation staff is not normally available at the project site 1.1. Inlet valves etc.6. Computer based automation system should permit operation of power plant.1 Computer Based Control System For Power Plant Above 5 MVA Functional Capabilities Functional capabilities summarised below may be provided to the extent economically feasible.1 Computer Based Control of Hydroelectric Station Current practice for control of hydroelectric plants is based on the combination of computer based and non-computer based equipment utilized for unit. i. 8 . could be applicable to any of the three locations Several operations are precipitated by a single initiation. 1.1. but within the plant Control location is remote from the project Each operation needs a separate and discrete initiation.2 – Summary of control hierarchy for hydroelectric power plants Control category Location Subcategory Local Centralized Offsite Manual Automatic Remarks Control is local at the controlled equipment or within sight of the equipment Control is remote from the controlled equipment. switchyard.2 Mode Operation Attended (supervision) Unattended Method of control.6 1. ii.7. Control as defined in the table 1. plant and system control.2 with details of control interface for plant equipment based on modern practice are discussed and control system design in accordance with standards mentioned. Manual/Local control should be provided by equipment located near the generating unit. outlet works. Methods of control:. Table 1. centralized and offsite modes of operation and supervision as per IEC 62270 and IEEE 1010 and recognized by industry is given in table 2. from a single control point.

1.7.gate position. flow. There is no objection to provide synchronising function as internal to the automation system. Minimization unit vibration or rouges running zone .1 9 . unit reactive power output. Auto synchronising should be computer based. v.gate position. Automation system should include capability to provide diagnostic information so as to isolate the problem and get the unit on line as fast as possible. unit vibration. TO REMOTE CONTROL CENTRALISED CONTROL STATION OPTICAL FIBRE COMMUNICATION NETWORK (DUAL) UNIT 1 LOCAL/MANUAL CONTROL PLC USER INTERFACE INDIVIDUAL UNIT CONTROL SWITCHYARD CONTROL STATION SERVICE CONTROL & MONITORING PLANT REAL POWER CONTROL & MONITORING AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE CONTROL WATER & POWER OPTIMIZATION AUTOMATIC GENERTAION CONTROL SWITCHGEAR AND RELAY STATUS REPORT GENERATION DATA LOGGING/TRENDING HISTORICAL ARCHIVING UNIT 2 LOCAL/MANUAL CONTROL PLC USER INTERFACE SART/STOP SEQUENCING SYNCHRONIZING TRASHRACK CONTROL BLACK START CONTROL UNIT AUXILIARIES CONTROL GOVERNOR/EXCITATION CONTROL/STATUS UNIT LOAD CONTROL UNIT ANNUNCIATION UNIT METERING UNIT RELAY STATUS UNIT FLOW DATA CONDITION MONITORING STATION SERVICE LOCAL CONTROL USER INTERFACE SWITCHYARD CONTROL PLC USER INTERFACE POWER HOUSE Fig. The computer system shall optimise individual unit turbine operation to enhance unit operation in respect of following: a) b) Efficiency maximization .iii. Check synchronising relay should be provided for security. iv. Automatic unit start/stop control sequencing should be part of computer based automation. unit kW output.

Forebay level control. plant voltage/Var control. ix.7.7. turbine manufacturers cavitation curve.) COMPUTER BASED CONTROL PROCESS INTERFACE LOCAL USER INTERFACE BACKUP CONTROL Fig. Black start control . flow. 1. 10 .2 c) d) e) Minimization of cavitation: Gate position. xiii. xii. switchyard. water and power optimization.LOCAL CONTROL SYSTEM PROTECTION SYSTEM STATION COMMUNICATION LINK PROCESS (UNIT. vii. viii. xi.this may including starting emergency generator. Hydraulic head.1 & 1. station service control.7.2. x. 1. SWITCHGEAR GATES.7. Data acquisition capabilities Alarm processing and diagnostics Report generation Maintenance and management interface Data archival and retrieval Data access Operator simulation training Provision of frequency relay for this operation in stand alone or in an isolated island for this purpose are should be made Relationship of local centralized and off site control function as per IEC: (62270-2004) guide in fig.3 A provision for a programming station with back up for operation is also included as redundant system. ETC. vi. Centralised Control – Individual units. A typical block diagram of computer based control system for 2 x 10 MVA Mukerian Stage –II powerhouse with offsite control is attached 1.

7. ii. Commercially available software should be used as far as possible.1. curves.2 System Architecture. bar charts. Events should be printed out spontaneously as they arrive.7. Each of these elements should be capable of being replaced by or communicate with system elements provided by other vendors. The entire customization of software for MMI and report generation should be carried out. Provision should be made for connecting a second colour monitor in parallel. 11 . An event printer should be connected to PC of the SCADA system.4 Man-Machine Interface (MMI) The operator’s station of the station controller (SCADA system) should have an elaborate and friendly man-machine interface. The screen displays should be suitably designed to provide information in most appropriate forms such as text. Touch control screen. Communications Operating system User Interface Data base i. Communication and Databases i. Provision should be made to connect and use another printer simultaneously. voice and other advanced modes of MMI are desired and should be preferred. A 19” or larger monitor should be provided for the display. 1. The scope of the bidder is not limited to the parts & components explicitly identified here in and shall have to provide any and all parts/components needed to meet the functional requirements laid down herein or are necessary for satisfactory operation of the plant.3 Control Data Networks Local area networks (LANs) should be configured to IEEE 802. 1.7. Interface or operating standards for the following shall be intimated and should comply with ISO/IEC 12119/IEEE 802. graphic symbols. all in colour. Hardware interconnectivity Time stamping of data. Open architecture system should be followed in accordance with IEEE-12491996.3 (Ethernet) standard. tables. dynamic mimic diagrams. A windows based operating system should be preferred.

3 – Redundant computer based control system for 2 x 10 MW Mukerian Stage II with remote control for stage I (proposed by M/s BHEL) 12 . 1.7.Fig.

1.7. card failure indicating LEDs.1. Portability and the exchange of I/O cards from one I/O location to another. etc. e. accuracy and resolution. position.7.g. ii. Status inputs shall be obtained from control switches and level and function switches indicative of pressure. iv. The proper combination of these inputs to the control system logic will provide 13 . such as the governor. and from various other accessory equipment. Availability of I/O cards to be replaced under power. The control system shall receive input signals from main equipment such as the turbine or the generator. capability for redundant I/O from field device to the database and operator interface. vi.5 Hardware Input/output system should have following capabilities. throughout the plant. This avoids the need to shutdown an entire I/O location to change one card. Availability of I/O signal types and levels that support the field device signals to be used. Anti-static carpet and proper grounding for all devices that an operator may contact should be provided.7. v. 1. This can reduce spare parts requirements. or through software in the system. i.7. Support of redundant field devices.8 Control and Monitoring Plant Equipment Information and control signal for proper control and monitoring of the required from the following main and auxiliary/associated equipment and shall be provided as tentatively detailed alongwith the equipment and out lined in this paragraph. Shielded cables should be used for analog signals between the transducers and the automation system.. each shield circuit should be maintained as a separate continuous circuit through such junction or termination boxes. Each shield should be tied to the signal common potential at the transducer end of the cable. If there are termination or junction boxes between the transducers and automation system. iii. and automatic synchronizer.6 Grounding Each equipment rack in which automation system components are located should be separately connected to the powerhouse ground mat by a large gauge wire. I/O diagnostics available at the card. 1. exciter.7 Static Control Equipment should be immune to static problems in the normal operating configuration. Deviation will be intimated in the bid 25% spare capacity for inputs and output shall be provided. Sequence-of –Events (SOE) time tagging at the I/O locations.

iv. Manual control facility is provided on PLC panel. The recommended control system is shown in drawing 1. the exciter. ii. vii. 1.8. 1. provide an alarm or initiate its shutdown. i.1 PLC Based System One PLC integrated controller per unit may be provided for unit control. x. xii. governor control. common auxiliaries etc.8 Generator Generator field excitation equipment Generator terminal equipment (Line and Neutral side) Unit generator breaker equipment Turbine Governor Generator cooling Service air Service water DC power supply AC auxiliary power supply Water level monitoring Fire protection Computer Based Control System For Powerhouses upto 5 MVA Most of the small powerhouses in the range have the control room at the same level as the machine hall. xiii. or if already on-line. Remote/Supervisory control and data acquisition all the unit may be provided by one PC. ix. v. Any abnormalities in the inputs must prevent the unit’s startup. 14 . unit control.outputs to the governor. Separate controllers may be provided for switchyard. and other equipment to start or shutdown the unit.1. iii. xi. viii. supervisory control and data acquisition and remote control provision AVR and measuring units and auxiliaries. Accordingly the unit control and supervisory control functions can be provided in the control room. vi.8.

manual/automatic control panel be combined with unit PLC panel PLC integrated unit controller with PC for supervisory control data acquisition and remote control facilities for Triveni canal fall SHP with provision for remote control of 3 nearly canal fall plants.See note-1 Fig. 1.1 Typical Configuration for Computerized Hydro Station (proposed for SHP) Note-1 In case machine level and station level is same. 15 .8.

2 – System Configuration Triveni SHP project (Punjab)`(Canal based) (Provided by M/s ALSTHOM) 16 . 1.Fig.8.

8. governor control and other functions provided for Sobla powerhouse is attached as drawing 1.3 is a cheaper alternative but lacks redundancy which can be provided by spare cards for each type.3 17 . Fig.PC based system for unit control. 1.8.

1. Generator and line protection and meytreing was however provided by conventional meters and electromagnetic relays as shown in figure 1.2 PC based Integrated Generation Controller Integrated governor and plant control system are discussed in guidelines for selection of turbine and governing system. 1. current. 2 2. differential. transformer bus bars. Protection gear must recognize an abnormal condition and operate to secure its removal with the minimum disturbance to normal system operation. loss of field Digitek USA integrated generation controller was installed in Sobla ( 2 x 3000 kW) SHP in U.3.frequency and voltage Generator protection .8. Protective gear 18 . Switchgear is designed to interrupt normal and fault current. generating unit.g.8.voltage. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Governor speed control Automatic sequencing for start up and shutdown including synchronizing Automatic sequencing for emergency shutdown Data recording and reporting Alarm enunciators Full remote control and monitoring Control via terminal keyboard Water level control Flexible architecture Modular card system Ability to communicate with other microprocessor based equipment Alarm and status logging Data logging at user selected intervals Event recording Line protection. reverse power. PC based integrated generation controller capable of following function was developed by M/s Digitek of USA and M/s Predeep Digitek in India for SHP.P.8. For minimum isolation following a break down the system is divided into zones controlled by switchgear in association with protective gears. Increasing spare capacity margins and arranging alternative circuits to supply loads are provided to take care of such failures. sub station and transmission lines affect reliability of power supply.3 Micro processor based control for micro hydel Electronic load controller and monitoring systems as recommended in micro hydel standards should be provided.1 Protection & Metering Protection System Forced outage due to faults in power system components e.

c. shunts. locating and initiating the removal of a fault or abnormal condition from the power system and includes a relay or group of relays and accessories to isolate electrical installation (machine.2 Benefits of Microprocessor Relays: The benefits of microprocessor relays include the ability to combine relay functions into economical unit. over current fault-detectors. Self calibration by software programming Programmable set point by software programming i) ii) iii) iv) Microprocessor relaying has gained widespread acceptance among both utilities and consumers. Microprocessor relays may have some disadvantages. Similarly. 2.2 Protective Relay Technology Protective relay technology has changed significantly in recent years. a microprocessor relay will often include three phases and a neutral. An electromechanical scheme will normally consist of individual relays for each zone of phase and ground protection.) or to activate a signal. separate fault-detectors. voltage. Because these relays have multiple features. and oscillography. and a. over/under voltage. it is typically replaced rather than repaired. d. and reclosing. however. It could also include reclosing. These same devices can include nonrelaying functions such as metering. A microprocessor relay has self-monitoring diagnostic that provide continuous status of relay availability and reduces the need for periodic maintenanace. but microprocessor relays have features that provide added benefits. sequence. Where an electromechanical overcurrent relay may be only be a single phase device. The relay functions are the same as those in electromechanical and solid-state electronic relaying. and over/under frequency. c. All of these functions are contained in an enclosure that requires less space than the combination of elays and other devices they duplicate. frequency. stator ground. A transmission line relay could combine multiple zone phase and ground distance elements. directional elements. Individual solid state static relays for protective function were introduced in the decade 1980-1990 and IS 3231-1965 was accordingly revised in 1987.1 Microprocessor based Multifunction Relays: Microprocessor based multi function relays are now being introduced. A microprocessor generator relay could include differential. Multiple protective functions in one relay reduces panel space and wiring end. overcurrent. Induction disk relays for each individual protective function were normally used. so that there are additional considerations when these are applied for protection in SHP. Advantage claimed for these relays are as follows: Self-monitoring of operating status on continuing basis and to alarm when to function.defines all equipment necessary for recognizing. 2. and additional relaying for pilot scheme logic.2. negative. wiring and auxiliary devices necessary to secure successful operation. 2. Accessories are current and voltage transformers.2. pilot scheme logic. 19 . If a relay fails. and other protective functions. event recording. a microprocessor transformer relay might combine differential and overcurrent protection. transformer etc.

Similarly. For instance. Although less frequent testing may be required. mitigates some of the loss of redundancy. For instance. Microprocessor relay also have communication capability that allows for remote interrogation of meter and event data and fault oscillography. Another disadvantages is that the multifunction feature can result in a loss of redundancy. 2. In a microprocessor scheme. As a failure may require replacement rather than repair.functions.4 Disadvantages: The operating energy for most electromechanical relays is obtained from the measured currents and/or voltages. They also increase the flexibility of CT connections. Also. it may not be possible to use an exact replacement. Both the utility and the consumer can benefit from the communication capability. a microprocessor generator/transformer package that has both differential and overcurrent relaying provided less redundancy than a scheme comprising separate relays. it permits stocking of fewer spares.2. it requires a higher level of training for the technician and more test equipment than is normally used with electromechanical relays in order to obtain the full benefit of all the features of the microprocessor relay. The increased relay setting flexibility is accompanied by an increase in setting complexity that requires diligence to avoid setting errors. the remote communication ability assumes there is a communication channel available to the relay.2. As a result. the phase and neutral elements are frequently combined in one package and a single failure can disable the protection. the failure of a single-phase overcurrent relay is backed up by the remaining phase and neutral relays. Also. and its ability to communicate failure alarms. The relays have low power consumption and low CT and VT burdens. The self-disgnostics ability of the microprocessor relay. Microprocessor relays require more engineering in the application and setting of the relay though less work in the panel design and wiring. 2. This also permits relay setting from a remote location. which may require more engineering and installation work. All of these features have economic benefits in addition to the lower initial costs and potentially reduced maintenance costs that microprocessor relays have when compared to individual relays. microprocessor transformer differential relays can compensate internally for ratio mismatch and the phase shift associated with delta-wye connections. and increased flexibility. 20 . a specific microprocessor relay model may only be available for a relatively short period of time. increased setting ranges. Microprocessor relays have relatively shorter product life cycles because of the rapid advance in technology.5 Interconnection of SHP with Grid A similar issue exists concerning the communication capability of microprocessor relays in SHP. It may also be economical to use multiple microprocessor relay. The self-monitoring capability of these relays is only effective if the alarm output can be communicated to a manned location such as a control center. when it is. some relays have experienced numerous software upgrades in a short period of time. but most microprocessor relays require a source of control power.

Both the utility and the consumer may be required to purchase software license for the communication software if that software is propriety. Back up electromagnetic relays with instrument transformers may be provided as mentioned below: 21 . Some relays have security passwords. individual solid state protective relays. main unit generators. However. Generally. repairs and the energy lost during the outage or repairs if appropriate. 2.6 Protection relays for SHP i) The application of relays must be coordinated with the partitioning of the electrical system by circuit breakers. and powerhouse bus. individual solid state protective relays and/or multifunction protective relays offer a single solution for many applications plus continuous self diagnostics to alarm when unable to function as required. There may be one password to permit read only access to meter and event records and a different password to make changes. Electromechanical protective relays. ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) 2.2. multifunction protective relays. will have to be mutually agreed on. so that least amount of equipment is removed from operation following a fault. Generators. and the high voltage busbar are normally protected with independent differential relays (above 1000 kW unit size). Also. main transformers. which restrict access. ideally only one party should have the necessary access to make setting changes. or some combination of these may be used as appropriate for the requirements. the recorded history of events can be very useful in analyzing relay operations after a fault.In particular. main transformers. generator transformers and feeders.3 Monitoring and Protection for generating Units above 3 MW and upto 25 MW The following protection may be provided by using integrated numerical generator protection relay on generator. for both to communicate directly with the relay will require special considerations. limited additional backup relays should be considered based upon safety the cost of equipment lost or damaged. The utility protection engineer will determine the protection required for the station service generators and transformers. the power transmitting agency protection engineer will coordinate with the utility protection engineer to recommend the functional requirements of the overlapping zones of protection for the main transformers and high voltage bus and lines. When multi-function relays are selected. When redundancy is required. preserving the integrity of the balance of the plant’s electrical system. Although both parties may have read only access. such as modem baud rate. they will both need to maintain the same versions of the software. The communication settings. Multi-function protective relays may be costcompetitive for generator and line protection when many individual relays would be required. a backup protective relay with a different design and algorithm should be provided for reliability and security.

6. Generator Differential Protection (87G) Negative Phase Sequence (46) (Phase Unbalance) Generator Reverse Power Protection (32) Voltage Restrained Over Current Protection (51V) Stator Earth Fault Protection (64 G) Loss Of Excitation Protection (40) Over /Speed (electrical) Protection (12G) Rotor Earths Fault Protection (64R) Over Voltage Protection (59) Fuse failure Protection (97) on PTS Under voltage (27) Check synchronizing Following additional back up electromagnetic relays from different set of CTs and PTs be also provided. 2. 3. 7. 8.3 33 kV Line Protection 1. Element (50/51. Under voltage (27) 22 . T/ F Winding Temperature High Alarm/ Trip (49T) T/ F Oil Temperature High Alarm/ Trip (38T) Buchholtz relay Following additional back up electromagnetic relays from different set of CTs and PTs be also provided. 4.64). 2. 2. 11. 1. 2. 5. 10. recording and shut down of the unit. Generator transformer differential protection ( 87 GT) Over current and earth fault protection with high set Inst. 3. 9. alarm. 3. Voltage restraint overvurrent relay Stator earth fault Following Mechanical Protections are proposed 1. 12. 4. Over speed mechanical for normal and emergency shut down. Power Transformer 1. Phase comparison/distance relays for 66 kV and above Digital Directional over current and earth fault relay with high set unit (50/51.3.3. 2. 2.1 Generator 1. 5. 2. 6.2.64) Stand by earth fault protection (64GT) on 33 kV side. 3. Governor oil pressure low.3.2 Embedded Temperature detector (PT-100) in stator core and in bearing for indication.

1 and Unit Metering and relaying is shown as figure 2.4 Bus Zone Protection Differential Bus Zone Protection with check features are proposed.T.3. 6. 4. 2. Metering System Power generated shall be metered at generator terminal through metering CT and PT. kW meter kWh meter kVA meter Ampere meter Voltmeter Power factor meter Frequency/speed meter Temperature meters.6 Fuse set on 33 kV side. 23 . Digital over current and earth fault relay with high set unit on B.4. 7. Directional over current and earth fault relay with high set unit 2. Following metering equipments shall be provided on relevant panels.2. side. 2. A typical single line diagram is shown as figure 2.3.3. Over voltage (59) Over/ under frequency (81) Reverse Power Relay Check Synchronizing Back up electromagnetic.3. 64). 5. 1.3. 8. 2.5 Station Transformer Protection 1. The power transferred to 33 kV feeder shall also be metered though CTs and PT. 3. 7. 2. 6. (50/51. 5.

METERING ACC.T.STATOR EARTH FAULT RELAY 64T -------. 5P10 CT CORE-2. / // P. T/F 51 POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER LIGHTNING ARRESTOR FUSE EARTH 87GT 87GT 11 KV BREAKER DG SET 11 KV CIRCUIT BREAKER 11 KV CIRCUIT BREAKER 11-1 11-2 CT TO P. L. 2.A.OVER CURRENT VOLTAGE RESTRAINT RELAY 51D -------. CT EXCITATION CONTROL RECTIFIER BRIDGE P.T. / // PS CLASS FOR BUS DIFFERENTIAL CT CORE-1.T.CHECK SYNCHRONISING 46 -------. CT EXCITATION CONTROL RECTIFIER BRIDGE P.BUCHHOLZ RELAY 64F -------.A.CLASS 1-0 P. PS CLASS FOR BUS DIFFERENTIAL CT CORE-1.T. 41G GENERATOR-2 G1 PS CT CT CT G2 45G PS 5P10 PS CT CT CT 5P10 PS FIG.3. METERING ACC.FIELD SURGE PROTECTION 51 -------.T. 41G GENERATOR- P. TRANSFORMER E/F RELAY 25 -------. CT TO P.ROTOR EARTH FAULT RELAY 64G -------.1 TYPICAL SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER 24 . 5P10 CT CORE-2.NEGATIVE SEQUENCE RELAY 52-3 52-5 LEGEND 331661132 kV BUS 52-6 ISOLATING SWITCH HV CIRCUIT BREAKER LINK CT CT TRANSFORMER 41G 52-1 52-2 EXCITATION BREAKER WITH DISCHARGE RESISTOR CURRENT TRANSFORMER CT 5P10 GENERATOR TRANSFORMER-1 64T 51 CT 87GT GENERATOR TRANSFORMER-2 64T SATTAION AUX.BACKUP POWER SYSTEM E/F RELAY 87G -------.T.OVER CURRENT RELAY 51V -------.EXCITATION BREAKER L.GENERATOR EARTH FAULT RELAY 87GT -------.GEN.T.EARTH FAULT RELAY 59 -------.CLASS 1-0 45G -------.TO 33 kV SUBSTATION TO 33 kV SUBSTATION NOMENCLATURE 40 -------.LOSS OF EXCITATION RELAY 41G -------.T. P.OVER VOLTAGE RELAY 63 -------.DIRECTIONAL OVER CURRENT RELAY E/F -------.

THE SCHEME MAY BE MODIFIED TO SUIT ACTUAL EQUIPMENT ORDERED 2. UNIT-2 IS SAME AS UNIT-1 52-1 BREAKER 87T 64T 5P10 CT 38T 87 GT GEN.T. 63FG 41G 64F TO 86 EB VAR. GROUP "A" LOCKOUT RELAY MECH. 63T 3.D.12 NO. PENSTOCK GATE CLOSURE AND ALARM PS 5P 10 CT CT CT 38-2 12 12G MISC 86 EB TRIP 52-1 & 41 G TURBINE SPEED NO LOAD AND ALARM LINK 86 EA TRIP 52-1 & 41 G RELEASE CO2.T.415 kV CENTRIFUGAL SPEED SWITCH ELECTRICAL OVERSPEEDC RELAY CHECK SYNCHRONISING RELAY AIR COOLER (OUTLET/INLET) AIR TEMPERATURE 26G TEMPERATURE DETECTORS FOR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM 26GS STATOR WINDING TEMPERATURE 32 REVERSE POWER RELAY 33AB AIR BRAKE POSITION INDICATION 33CW/80CW COOLING WATER VALVE POSITION/FL 38 BEARING TEMPERATURE DEVICE 38-2 38GT GUIDE BEARING TEMPERATURE 38QB BEARING OIL TEMPERATURE 38THT THRUST BEARING TEMPERATURE 40 45F 46 47 48 50/51 T 51V 60 63 63FG 63QTH 63 T 63 TX 64G 64F 65SN 65SL 71QBH/L 86 EA 86 EB 86 MA 86 MB 87G 87T 31 41G 51 EX 59 64F 86 EX LCD OER PAR COMP 12 12G 25 26AU/AI 51/64 C.COMMON TRIPPING RELAYS FOR SIMILAR FUNCTIONS WILL BE PROVIDED WITH LOCK OUT FACILITIES.T.COMP F F FIELD FAILURE RELAY FIELD SURGE PROTECTION NEGATIVE PHASE SEQUENCE RELAY PHASE SEQUENCE CHECK RELAY (FOR SYNCHRONIZING) INCOMPLETE SEQUENCE RELAY TARNSFORMER OVERCURRENT RELAY INSTANTANEOUS OVERCURRENT WITH VOLTAGE RESTRAINT RELAY VOLTAGE BALANCE RELAY GOVERNOR LOW OIL PRESSURE SWITC FIRE EXTIGUISHING SYSTEM OPERATIO THRUST BEARING HIGH PRESSURE OIL SYSTEM START INTERLOCK/FAILURE A MAIN TANK OVER PRESURE SWITCH AUXILIARY RELAY GROUND VOLTAGE RELAY . (C) TURBINE GUIDE BEARING . . S. 5.TRANSFORMER 50/51 CT PS LINK C. (RESISTANCE TEMPERATURE DETECTORS) ARE AS UNDER : (A) GENERATOR STATOR WINDINGS .V.STATOR ROTOR EARTH FAULT RELAY SOLENOID SPEED NO LOAD SOLENOID SHUT DOWN BEARING OIL LEVEL(HIGH/LOW) LOCKOUT RELAY ELECT.S.. CONTROL V RUN KWH F V INC F METERING SYN KVAR MANNUAL SYN. SYSTEM CT A3 38 63 48 MISC TRIP 52-1. PANEL A FM RECT SUPV.D.2 NO. 47 S.V.FIELD LOCKOUT RELAY LINE DROP COMPENSATION OVER EXCITATION RELAY PARALLEL COMPENSATION PT EQUIPMENT FROM BATTERY 31 FIELD FLASHING LDC EX.T. FIG.S.3. 5P10 TO 86 EB 11-1 87 GT RECTIFIER TRANSFORMER 25 TO P. GROUP "B" GENERATOR DIFFERENTIAL RELAY TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAY SYNCHRONISING SOCKET PT L L EXCITERS 27 V EXCITATION RELAY GENERATOR FIELD BREAKER INSTANTANEOUS TIME OVER CURRENTRELAY OVER VOLTAGE RELAY GROUND VOLTAGE RELAY . BREAKER 59 51V 46 40 32 OER 33CW/80CW 38TG TO 86 EB 38QB TURBINE GUIDE BEARING R.TRIPPING BLOCK DIAGRAM DOES NOT INCLUDE FIRST STAGE ALARMS 4. (B) GENERATOR THRUST BEARING .V. S. THYRISTOR BRIGES STATIC EXCITATION VOLTAGE REGULATOR AND CONTROL 59 SYNCH.S. 86 MA AND ALARM 86 MB 71QBH/L 87G TRIP 52-1 & 41 G TURBINE SHUTDOWN . SIGNAL TYPE CURRENT RELAYS FOR DISCRIMINATION OF FAULTS ARE PROPOSED TO BE PROVIDED IN THE INDIVIDUAL CIRCUITS OF COMMON TRIPPING RELAYS . 51 EX 11 KV GENERATOR BREAKER 250 kVA 11/. . .D. FROM EXCITOR 2 .33 K. & 41G TURBINE SHUTDOWN 27L 30 50/51DN 51 H 62 62L 64T 81H 81L 86H 87GT 94 52-1 UNDERVOLTAGE RELAY ANNUNCIATOR RELAY DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT AND GROUND FAULT RELAY INSTANTANEOUS TIME OVERCURRENT PHASE RELAY TIMING RELAY -DOH. 2.2 NO.V.T.DETAILS OF R.S. BUS NOMENCLATURE GENERATORS CT NOTES 1. SYSTEM STAND BY GROUND FAULT HIGH FREQUENCY RELAY LOW FREQUENCY RELAY LOCKOUT RELAY GENERATOR TRANSFORMER DIFFERENTIAL RELAY GENERATOR TRIP RELAY 66 K. TZ V VARM VS WHM WM AMMETER FREQUENCY METER TEMPERATURE MEASURING AND RECORDINGINSTRUMENT SUPERVISORY TRANSDUCER VOLT METER VAR METER VOLT METER SWITCH WATT HOUR METER WATT METER 60 38THT THERMOSTAT R. GROUP "B" LOCKOUT RELAY MECH.2 TYPICAL UNIT METERING SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM 25 . GROUP "A" LOCKOUT RELAY ELECT.T... 71QBH/L GENERATOR GUIDE & THRUST BEARING 12 33AB 63 QTH 39V RECT 38QB BLOCKS 50/51V & 40 ON LOSS OF RELAY POTENTIAL V SURGE ARRESTOR FM VS KW 63T PF 63TX V A 26G FIRST STAGE ALARM G 12G 26AO/AI 26GS 66 K. S. TURBINE SHUT DOWN WITH ALARM 64G 2 1 DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMER 1 2 RESISTOR RATED 15 SEC.

oil level of the speed increasers. oil level of the governor system. circulation of lubricant. oil pressure of the governor system. f). cooling air temperature.4. overcurrent (stator and rotor). oil level in the bearings.4 Monitoring and Protection for Generating Units above 100 kW and upto 3 MW Monitoring and protection with two levels of protection and recommended as follows in SHP as per IEC-1116. Elements to be considered are: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) speed of rotation. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) stator temperature. maximum and minimum voltage. g) and h) may have an alarm annunciated first if the station is manned allowing corrective action to be taken.2. c). oil temperature of the governor system. 2. but in any case. two levels of protection can be specified: alarm and tripping. bearing temperature. e). In some cases. tripping will eventually follow. d). bearing temperature.4. It is recommended that two independent overspeed shut-down devices be used on larger units which might not be designed for continuous runaway.1 Turbine In principle.2 Generator The following are normally monitored. power reversale) over/under frequency. circulation of cooling water Immediate tripping is required for items a). 2. oil level in the bearing sump. Items b). 26 . earth fault with current limits (stator and rotor). braking is used to reduce the time to standstill. in the absence of corrective action. i) and j). oil temperature of speed increasers.

(c). water-level and/or pressure indicator. energy meter. synchronizer. Items (a). 27 . reverse power relay. short-circuit current protection. Metering and Relaying single line for typical SHP of various system is shown in. A typical 50 kW micro hydel single line diagram showing protection is attached as Fig. (h) and (i) may have an alarm annunciated if the station is manned allowing corrective action to be taken.1 and Asynchronous generator as figure 2.4. Typical single line diagram for synchronous generators is attached as figure 2. frequency monitor. in the absence of corrective action.C. hours of operation counter.C. emergency stop device. based digital governor and generation control equipment. power factor meter.5. bearing monitor. overcurrent protection. MCCB could be provided with shunt trip coil for providing over voltage. Monitoring and control and data acquisition system (SCADA system) can be a part of the P. heating equipment to prevent condensation may be required.2. Micro hydel (100 kW) may be provided with series overcurrent and short circuit protection (M. It is advisable to consider differential protection when the size of the generator and/or its environment justifies it. wattmeter. This data could be retrieved on a floppy drive after one month for examination. (d). turbine opening indicator.5 Monitoring and Protection for Micro hydel systems Monitoring and Protection as recommend in micro hydel standards be provided. 2. overcurrent and nonbalance load trip as a part of shunt load governor if possible. (e) and (f).4.Immediate tripping is required for items (b). As the communication links develop the data can also be transmitted via a Modem to a remote point for examination and supervisory control. The instruments and devices generally recommended for monitoring and protection are as follows: voltmeter. tripping will eventually follow. Provision of data storage of one month with 16 MB of Ram memory and a 540 to 850 MB Hard Drive as part of the PC based governing and control system should be provided. tachometer. Residual current breakers for earth fault protection and surge protection equipment.D). Depending on the individual case. but in any case. (g).C. voltage monitor. ammeter. 2.

Lightning arrestor at transformer terminals may be omitted for single unit SHP 5.Synchronous Generator 28 .1 Single Line Diagram . Distribution transformer type earthimg may be provided if power supply at generation voltage is not required. for larger units.Protection LA 27 49 81 32 51V Under voltage relay Under frequency Over frequency relay Reverse power relay Overcurrent voltage restraint relay Stator earth fault relay Phase Unbalance relay Check Synchronizing Relay Rotor Ground fault relay Field excitation Overcurrent See note 5 V 64G 46 25 64F 51F Indication See note 1 SYNCHRONIZER V Voltage Current 25 A 50 51 LA kW kVA r Power Reactive power STATION SUPPLY FOR AUXILIARY SEE NOTE-4 kWh Energy 81 49 27V 59 V kVA R 51 V 51 F kWh kW A 32 46 v Synchronous Generator EXCITATION BRUSHLESS EXCITATION (SEE NOTE -3) VOLTAGE REGULAION G 64 F NOTE: See note-2 64 G 1.4. May use static excitation esp. 3. Station service transformer may be tapped from generator leads if LV side breaker is provided. 2. 6. Differential protection may be provided for unit sizes above 750 kW and for units below this size if environment justified FIG. Generator circuit breaker may be installed on low voltage side of the transformer 2. 4.

2 Single Line Diagram . 2.Asynchronous Generator 29 . Capacitor bank may be provided on HV side before HV breaker so that it is switched on and off with breaker 3. FIG. Lightning arrestor on transformer terminals may be omitted for single phase SHP. The circuit breaker may be installed on LV side of transformer 2.4.To Existing 33 kV line (300 m) Protection Lightning Arrestor 27 49 81 32 51V 64G 46 Under voltage relay Under frequency Over frequency relay Reverse power relay Overcurrent voltage restraint relay Stator earth fault relay Negative sequence relay PT 33/110 V 50 Indiaction V Voltage A Current kW STATION SUPPLY FOR AUXILIARIES Power Reactive power kVA r kWh 27 Energy V kVA r 32 50/ 51 kWh kW A G NOTE: 64 G EARTHING RESISITOR 1.

62 Grid 27 81 L 81 H R esidual C u rrent Operated C ircuit B reaker As A MC C B W ith Shunt Trip Coil MC C B As A Feeder-1 LEGEND 81L-Freq Relay (Low ) 81H-Freq Relay (High) 27-Under Voltage Relay 62-Timing Relay A. 2.5 30 .Ammeter F-Frequency Meter V-Voltmeter 32-Reverse Power Relay LA-Lightning Arrestor kWh-Kilo Watt Hour Meter MCCB-Moulded Case Circuit Breaker MCB-Miniature Circuit Breaker V Vs F kW h A 3 kW h 32 As A F F F F F F or MC B LA Surge Protection Controller Module Triacs H eater Module G 50 kW 415 V FIG.

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