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5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

Mathematical Models of PEM Fuel Cells

Zehra Ural, Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering/ Faculty of Engineering/ Firat University/ Elazig, Turkey, ABSTRACT Nowadays, new power sources which have infinite and low pollutant emissions are needed. Fuel cells have ability to fulfil all of the global power needs and environmental expectations. Therefore, fuel cells are thought as the power source of the future. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are the most popular type of the fuel cells due to its low temperature of operation, high power density and high energy conversion efficiency. The PEM fuel cells generally use hydrogen as the fuel. Mathematical models and simulations are needed as tools for design and optimization of fuel cells, stacks and fuel cell power systems. Recently, numerical modelling and computer simulation have been used for improving and analyzing better PEM fuel cell systems. In this study, the mathematical models of PEM fuel cells have been investigated. Followed steps for create mathematical model of a fuel cell have been researched. Fundamental models, dynamic models and Matlab-Simulinks model for PEM fuel cell have been investigated with details. Moreover, the various models for PEM fuel cells have been compared.
Keywords: Fuel cell, PEM fuel cell model, mathematical model, dynamic model.



Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy of a fuel directly to electric energy, with no internal moving parts [1], [2]. A new power source is needed that is energy efficient, has low pollutant emissions, and has an unlimited supply of fuel. Fuel cells are now closer to commercialization than ever, and they have the ability to accomplish all of the global power needs while meeting the efficiency and environmental expectations [3]. Among the various types of distributed generation, fuel cells generated considerable interest for electricity and heat generation due to their low operating temperature, fast start up characteristics, and ecological constraints. In the future, they are one of the most promising means of producing energy in an environmentally friendly way. Fuel cells are set to become the power source of the future. The interest in fuel cells has increased during the past decade due to the fact that the use of fossil fuels for power has resulted in many negative consequences [1]-[3]. Because of the increasing interest in fuel cell technology, the fuel cells have reached a high development status. This development was mostly advanced by the automotive industry, because fuel cells are suitable to substitute the fossil fuels and also to provide an environmentally propulsion [2], [4]. Fuel cell system models in literature are mostly steadystate models which are typically used for component sizing, cumulative fuel consumption or hybridization studies, and simulation models. These models represent

each component such as compressor, heat exchanger and fuel cell stack voltage as a static performance or efficiency map [5]. Fuel cells are low voltage, high current electricity generators, which is not practical in common applications. By using power electronics to convert the low voltage to a more efficient high level, one will introduce step currents, and other dynamics in the output of the fuel cell, which can certainly not be modelled by one of the two known steady-state models presented in the literature [6]-[8]. In the literature a transient model has been already described with operation temperature changes. It is a major disadvantage that this model requires temperature measurements. Commercial available fuel cells stacks are not always accoutred with temperature sensors. However, characterize the fuel cell dynamics is possible also by applying step load changes or small current variations at the output terminals. [6], [7]. In recent years, high-performance computing and advanced numerical algorithms have allowed researchers to model PEM fuel cell systems as well as individual components with greater accuracy than ever before. In general, PEM fuel cell operations involve simultaneously multi-component, multi-phase, multi-dimensional fluid flow with heat and mass transfer and electrochemical reactions. Therefore, a complete mathematical model is necessary to characterize more fully the physical behaviour and this aid our understanding of complex phenomena occurring in a fuel cell system and provide powerful tools for fuel cell design and optimization [9].

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

II. MATHEMATICAL MODELS Fuel cell modelling is useful for fuel cell developers because it can lead to fuel cell design improvements, as well as cheaper, better, and more efficient fuel cells. The model must be robust and exact and be able to provide solutions to fuel cell problems quickly. A good model should predict fuel cell performance under a wide range of fuel cell operating conditions. Even a modest fuel cell model will have large predictive power. A few important parameters to include in a fuel cell model are the cell, fuel and oxidant temperatures, fuel or oxidant pressures, cell potential, and weight fraction of each reactant. Some of the parameters that must be solved for in a mathematical model are shown in Figure 1[3].

Figure 1 Parameters that must be solved for in a mathematical model. Table 1 Comparison of recent mathematical models [3]. No. of Dimensions Dyn/SS Anode and Cathode Kinetics Anode and Cathode Phase Mass Transport (Anode and Cathode) Mass Transport (Electrolyte) Membrane Swelling Energy Balance One dimension, two dimension, or three dimension Dynamic or steady state Tafel-type expressions, ButlerVolmer, complex kinetics equations Gas, liquid, combination of gas and liquid Effective Ficks diffusion, NernstPlanck, Nernst-Planck + Schlogl, Maxwell-Stefan Nernst-Planck + Schlogl, NernstPlanck + drag coefficient, MaxwellStefan, Effective Ficks diffusion Empirical or thermodynamic models Isothermal or full energy balance

The essential improvements for fuel cell performance and operation demand better design, materials, and optimization. These issues can only be addressed if realistic mathematical process models are available. There are many published models for PEM fuel cells in the

literature, but it is often an intimidating task for a newcomer to the field to begin understanding the complexity of the current models. Table 1 shows a summary of equations or characteristics of the fuel cell models presented in recent publications. An important feature of each model is the mass transport descriptions of the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. Simple Fick diffusion models and effective Fick diffusion models typically use experimentally determined effective transport coefficients instead of Fick diffusivities, and dont account for convective flow contributions. The convective flow is typically calculated from Darcys law using different formulations of the hydraulic permeability coefficient. Darcys law can be used for mass transport inside the PEM. A very simple method of incorporating electro osmotic flow in the membrane is by applying the drag coefficient model, which assumes a proportion of water and fuel flow to proton flow. Maxwell-Stefan formulation for multi component mixtures has been used for gas-phase transport in many models. Very few models use this equation for both phases. Mass transport models which use effective transport coefficients and drag coefficients usually only yield a good approximation to experimental data under a limited range of operating conditions. The water uptake is described by an empirical correlation, and in other cases a thermodynamic model is used based upon the change of Gibbs free energy inside the PEM based upon water content. Including energy balance equations is an important parameter in fuel cell models because the temperature affects the catalyst reactions and water management in the fuel cell. A model is only as accurate as its assumptions allow it to be. The assumptions need to be well understood in order to understand the models limitations and to accurately interpret its results. Common assumptions used in fuel cell modelling are: Ideal gas properties, Incompressible flow, Laminar flow, Isotropic and homogeneous electrolyte, electrode, and bipolar material structures, A negligible ohmic potential drop in components, Mass and energy transport is modelled from a macro perspective using volume-averaged conservation equations, A porous area including membrane, catalyst layers and gas diffusion layers are considered to be isotropic [9]. The assumptions presented can be used on all fuel cell types, regardless of the fuel cell geometry [3]. Basic steps used for creating a mathematical model are the same regardless of the system being modelled. The basic steps of the model-building process are model selection, fitting and validation. The three basic steps are

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

used iteratively until an appropriate model for the data has been developed. In the model selection step, plots of the data, process knowledge, and assumptions about the process are used to determine the form of the model to be fit to the data. Then, using the selected model and data, an appropriate model-fitting method is used to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. When the parameter estimates have been made, the model is then carefully assessed to see if the underlying assumptions of the analysis appear reasonable. If the assumptions seem valid, the model can be used to answer the scientific or engineering questions that initiated the modelling effort. If the model validation identifies problems with the current model, however, then the modelling process is repeated using information from the model validation step to select and/or fit an improved model. Figure 2 shows the basic model-fitting sequence with the integration of the related data collection steps into the model-building process [3].

between model selection and model-fitting. The model selection and fitting must be chosen before collecting the initial data [3], [10], [11]. III. DYNAMIC MODELS Fuel cell is a complex system consisted of fluidheat electrochemistry variables. Also the fuel cell contains macroscopic level fluid flow, microscopic level mass diffusion and transportation and the temperature gradient. Such factors that heat produced by electrochemical reaction, the convection heat transfer to the surrounding atmosphere through the fuel cell surface, the convection heat transfer between fuel cell and anode/cathode channel change the fuel cell temperature. The heat produced during the reaction, will warm up the fuel cell body. For this reason, the mass diffusion within the anode diffusion layer, cathode diffusion layer and membrane will be affected. Occurred variation of gas temperature will change the pressure and flow rate within the channels, which therefore affects the gas diffusion within the diffusion layers. Fuel cell has two important dynamic properties. These properties are fuel/air flow and temperature. State of these dynamic properties will change according to any disturbances on surrounding operating conditions and load changes. The current drawn, cell temperature, H2 pressure, and O2 pressure will significantly affect the fuel cell voltage [12]. A mathematical approach is presented for building a dynamic model for a PEM fuel-cell stack. To simplify the analysis, the following assumptions are made [8], [13]. One-dimensional treatment, Ideal and uniformly distributed gases, Constant pressures in the fuel-cell gas flow channels, The fuel is humidified and the oxidant is humidified air. Assume the effective anode water vapour pressure is 50% of the saturated vapour pressure while the effective cathode water pressure is 100%. The fuel cell works under 100 0C and the reaction product is in liquid phase. Thermodynamic properties are evaluated at the average stack temperature, temperature variations across the stack are neglected, and the overall specific heat capacity of the stack is assumed to be a constant. A fuel cell stack is represented by combining parameters for individual cells [14]. The proportional relationship of the flow of gas through a valve with its partial pressure can be expressed as [15]: (1) and (2) For hydrogen, there are three relevant contributions to the hydrogen molar flow: the input flow, the flow that

Figure 2 Model-building sequence. The three basic steps of process modelling assume that the data have already been collected and that the same data set can be used to fit all of the candidate models. Although this is often the case in model-building situations, one variation on the basic model-building sequence comes up when additional data are needed to fit a newly hypothesized model based on a model fit to the initial data. In this case, two additional steps-experimental design and data collection-can be added to the basic sequence

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

takes part in the reaction and the output flow [15]. The relationship among these factors can be written as: (3) According to the basic electrochemical relationship between the hydrogen flow and the stack current can be written as [15], [16]: (4) Using (1) and (4), and applying Laplace transform, the hydrogen partial pressure can be rewritten in the s domain as [15], [17]: (5) where: (6)

shows a highly nonlinear voltage drop in the activation polarization region and in the region of the concentration polarization.

Figure 3 PEM fuel cell voltage-current characteristic. Similarly, using (5) the partial pressures of water and oxygen can be derived. The polarization curve for the PEM fuel cell is obtained from the sum of the Nernsts voltage, the activation over voltage act, and the ohmic over voltage ohmic. Assuming constant temperature and oxygen concentration, the fuel cell output voltage may be expressed as [16]-[18] (7) Assuming constant temperature and concentration, (7) can be rewritten as [16], [18]: oxygen (8) The Nernst voltage in terms of gas molarities can be written as [15]-[17] (9) IV. BASIC ELECTROCHEMICAL AND ELECTRICAL FUEL CELL MODELS A. Steady-State Model The ohmic overvoltage is calculated using (13) The concentration losses l are generated by the depletion of the reactants at the surface of the electrodes as the fuel is consumed. If a mixture of gases is used to supply the fuel cell, the consumption of one reactant causes a small reduction of the partial pressure. This is directly linked to a change in voltage (11). The limiting current Il is defined as the current at which the fuel is consumed at a rate equal to the maximum supply flow. Assuming that the partial pressure of the fuel gas falls down linearly to zero when the load current increases linearly to the limiting current, the concentration losses are expressed as [8] (14) The steady state fuel cell voltage, VFC, is then calculated using (10) The reversible voltage Erev is related to the change in Gibbs free energy and to pressure-effects, being expressed as [8] (11) The activation losses act are caused by the slowness of the reaction at the surface of the electrodes. The rate of these electrochemical reactions is expressed by the Tafel equation. A simplified expression for the activation overpotential is (12)

VI characteristics of fuel cells can be computed based on physical foundations of fuel cells. In order to model a fuel cell stack some parameters are required to fit the model. Despite most of the parameters are obtained from the manufacturers datasheet, a few are still required from experimentation and available literature [12]. Figure 3 shows the steady state fuel cell characteristic. This can be described by means of a reversible voltage, Erev, combined with irreversible loss voltages, or overpotentials. The loss voltage responsible for the activation polarization is the activation overpotential, act; the ohmic polarization is related to the ohmic overpotential, ohmic; and the concentration polarization is caused by the concentration overpotential, l. Figure 3

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

The basic fuel cell (10) combined with (12), (13) and (14) can be reduced to (15) where the numerical values of A, the activation polarization constant, and B, the concentration polarization constant [8], can be acquired by means of electrical test measurements [7]. B. Large-Signal Model Dynamics of a fuel cell can be estimated by a phenomenon called the charge double layer by concerning the transient behaviour. Two ideally polarized metal plates separated by a thin plastic sheet act as a capacitor by imagining from Figure 4. This capacitor is called the charge double layer capacitor, CDL. It can be seen from Figure 5 that the PEM fuel cell, the dynamics of the system can be modelled using this charge double layer capacitor in combination with a parallel and a series resistor, RP, RS respectively, [7], [8]. Two electrodeelectrolyte interfaces, namely the anode membrane and the cathodemembrane interface constitute a fuel cell as shown in Figure 4. Therefore, it may be expected that a fuel cell suffers from two charge double layer capacitances, resulting in two time constants. Moreover the anode and cathode reactions speeded up by platinum catalyst may result in time constant. As a result of hydrogen ion discharge, hydrogen adsorbs to the platinum catalyst surface. Hydrogen has the feature to transfer directly almost completely its electron charge to the catalyst, resulting in an immediate voltage response, while the current of the system. This phenomenon creates a phase shift between current and voltage, hence, an additional time constant [6], [7].

Figure 5 Equivalent dynamic circuit model of a PEM fuel cell. The dynamics of the model are caused by the double layer capacitor which is the capacitance of the anode and cathode separated by the membrane [7]. C. Small-Signal Model The small-signal model will have a double layer capacitor dominating a part of the frequency domain. The charge double layer capacitor is represented in Figure 6. The adsorption reactions or other electrode-electrolyte interface reactions cause possible additional time constants. These impedances can be modelled with the unspecified impedance, Z. All electrode-material systems have a geometrical capacitance, C and a bulk resistor R in parallel, leading to the dielectric relaxation time of the basic material. RDL is a reaction resistor [7].

Figure 6 Small signal equivalent circuit model of a PEM fuel cell. V. MATLAB-SIMULINK MODEL The fuel cell stack block implements a generic model parameterized to represent most popular types of fuel cell stacks fed with hydrogen and air. The block represents two versions of the stack model: a simplified model and a detailed model [19]. A. Simplified Model

Figure 4 Schematically drawn PEM fuel cell, with a) a metal plate (anode), b) is the diffusion layer, c) is the membrane, d) is a diffusion layer and e) is a metal plate (cathode).

The simplified model represents a particular fuel cell stack operating at nominal conditions of temperature and pressure. A diode is used to prevent the flow of negative current into the stack. This model is based on the equivalent circuit of a fuel cell stack shown in Figure 7.

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

The rates of conversion of hydrogen (UfH2) and oxygen (UfO2) are determined in Block A as follows:


The partial pressures and the Nernst voltage are determined in Block B as follows:

(20) Figure 7 Equivalent circuit of a fuel cell stack. B. Detailed Model and

The detailed model represents a particular fuel cell stack when the parameters such as pressure, temperature, composition and flow rate of fuel and air vary. These variations affect the open circuit voltage (Eoc), the exchange current (i0) and the Tafel slope (A). Eoc, i0 and A are modified as follows: (16) (17) (18) The equivalent circuit is the same as for the simplified model, except that the parameters Eoc, i0 and have to be updated on-line as shown in Figure 8.


From the partial pressures of gases and the Nernst voltage, the new values of the open circuit voltage (Eoc) and the exchange current (i0) can be calculated. Block C calculates the new value of the Tafel slope (A). The parameters , G and Kc are calculated based on the polarization curve at nominal conditions of operation along with some additional parameters, such as the low heating value (LHV) efficiency of the stack, composition of fuel and air, supply pressures and temperatures. The nominal rates of conversion of gases are calculated as follows: (22) and (23) From these rates of conversion, the nominal partial pressures of gases and the Nernst voltage can be derived. With Eoc, i0 and known and assuming that the stack operates at constant rates of conversion or utilizations at nominal condition, , G and Kc can be determined. If there is no fuel or air at the stack input, it is assumed that the stack is operating at a fixed rate of conversion of gases (nominal rate of conversion), that is, the supply of gases is adjusted according to the current so that they are always supplied with just a bit more than needed by the stack at any load. The maximum current the stack can deliver is limited by the maximum flow rates of fuel and air that can be reached. Beyond that maximum current, the voltage output by the stack decreases abruptly as more current is drawn.

Figure 8 Detailed model of a fuel cell stack.

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

The Nernst voltage is modified due to this effect as follows: (24) K is determined as follows: (25) Number of cells; if not specified, estimate it from the formula below: (26) No information is given, assume the rate of conversion of oxygen to be 50% (as it is usually the case for most fuel cell stacks) and use the formulae below to determine the nominal air flow rate [19]. (27) VI. CONCLUSION The fuel cell model can be characterized by performing small signal, steady-state and large-signal measurements. Because the modelling approach fully relies on these measurement results, electrochemical phenomena like temperature dependency, charge double layer and adsorption effects are decisively covered with the current dependent element values. The dynamic behaviour of a fuel cell is a complex phenomenon. The power of a PEM fuel cell also depends on operating conditions such as flow rates, relative humidity and temperature of the gases. Mathematical modelling is very important for understanding this complexity. The models and results of other researchers is compared and evaluated. Results for the VI characteristic of a fuel cell shows the expected output voltage is dependent on the load current. Dynamic interaction effects within a PEM fuel cell are significant, and detailed modelling for such transient effects is necessary. Using a simple procedure and data obtained from the literature, it is possible to obtain a model for a fuel cell stack. The fuel cells are modelled by using various mathematical equations. As well as base sense of these models was same, more parameters were used in some of them. For example, neglected parameters some mathematical models have been inspected in a dynamic model of fuel cell. Matlab-Simulink model is a comprehensive in model. A PEM fuel cell has been modelled with this model exhaustively using more parameters. Dynamical structure of the model can be obtained to be changed to input parameters as required in this model. The factors in the dynamic behaviour of a PEM fuel cell are the reactant gases humidity change, various load changes and liquid water formation in cathode channel.

The effects of these factors could be studied in future works. NOMENCLATURE R F T En N G Universal gas constant, 8.3145 J / (mol K); Faradays constant, 96485 A.s/mol; Stack temperature (K); Nernst voltage (V); Number of series fuel cells in the stack; Size of the activation barrier which depends on the type of electrode and catalyst used; Kc Voltage constant at nominal condition of operation; z Number of moving electrons; Charge transfer coefficient; k Boltzmann's constant = 1.38 1023 (J/K); h Planck's constant = 6.626 1034 (J.s); Hydrogen partial pressure inside the stack (atm); Oxygen partial pressure of inside the stack (atm); Partial pressure of water vapour inside the stack (atm); pfuel Absolute supply pressure of fuel (atm); pair Absolute supply pressure of air (atm); pairnom Nominal absolute air supply pressure (Pa); Vlpm(fuel) Fuel flow rate (l/min); Vlpm(air) Air flow rate (l/min); x Percentage of hydrogen in the fuel (%); y Percentage of oxygen in the oxidant (%); w Percentage of water vapor in the oxidant (%); nom Nominal LHV efficiency of the stack (%); n Number of electrons involved in the reaction; Rint Sum of electric and protonic resistance; Vnom Nominal voltage (V); Inom Nominal current (A); I0 Exchange current (A); Tnom Nominal operating temperature (K); K Voltage undershoot constant; UfO2(nom) Nominal oxygen utilization; B, C Constants to simulate the activation over voltage (V); E Nernst instantaneous voltage (V); E0 Open cell voltage (V); IFC Fuel cell stack current (A); Anode valve constant ( (atms)-1); Hydrogen valve molar constant (kmol/(atms)); Water valve molar constant (kmol/(atms)); Modeling constant (kmol/(sA)); Molar mass of hydrogen (kgkmol-1); Molar mass of water (kgkmol-1); Molar flow of hydrogen (kmol/s); Molar flow of water (kmol/s); Hydrogen input flow (kmol/s); Hydrogen output flow (kmol/s); Hydrogen flow that reacts (kmol/s); Oxygen concentration;

5th International Ege Energy Symposium and Exhibition (IEESE-5) 27-30 June 2010 Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey

Volume of the anode (m3); DC output voltage of FC system (V); Hydrogen time constant (s); act Activation over voltage (V); ohmic Ohmic over voltage (V); Vlpm(air)nom Nominal air flow rate (l/min); h0(H2O(gas)) = 241.83 103 J/mol. Van Vcell REFERENCES [1] Bucci, G.; Ciancetta, F.; Fiorucci, E.; Rotondale, E.; and Veglio, F. 2006. Experimental validation of a PEM fuel cell dynamic model. In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Power Electronics, Electrical Drives, Automation and Motion. S20, 1015. [2] Gencoglu, M.T. and Ural, Z. 2009. Design of a PEM fuel cell system for residential applications. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 34: 52425248. [3] Spiegel C., 2008. PEM Fuel Cell Modeling and Simulation Using Matlab. Elsevier Inc. [4] Lemes, Z.; Vath, A.; Hartkopf, T. and Mancher, H. 2006. Dynamic fuel cell models and their application in hardware in the loop simulation. Journal of Power Sources 154:38693. [5] Pukrushpan, J.T.; Stefanopoulou, A.G.; and Peng, H. 2002. Modeling and control for PEM fuel cell stack system. In Proceedings of the American Control Conference, Anchorage, 3117-3122. [6] Wingelaar, P.J.H. 2007. PEM fuel cell model representing steady-state, small-signal and largesignal characteristics. Journal of power sources, 171: 754-762. [7] Wingelaar, P.J.H.; Duarte, J.L.; and Hendrix, M.A.M. 2005. Dynamic Characteristics of PEM Fuel Cells. IEEE, 1635-1641. [8] Larminie, J. and Dicks, A. 2001. Fuel cell system explained. John Wiley&Sons Ltd., Chichester. [9] LE, A.D. and Zhou, B. 2008. A general model of proton exchange membrane fuel cell, Journal of Power Sources 182: 197222. [10] Barbir, F. PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice. 2005. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press. [11] Stone, C. and Morrison, A.E. 2002. From curiosity to power to change the world. Solid State Ionics. 152 153: 113. [12] Sharifi Asl, S.M.; Rowshanzamir, S.; and Eikani, M.H. 2010. Modelling and simulation of the steadystate and dynamic behaviour of a PEM fuel cell. Journal of Energy doi:10.1016. [13] Rowe, A. and Li, X. 2001. Mathematical modeling of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Journal of power sources, 102(1-2): 82-96. [14] Wang, C.; Nehrir, M.H.; and Shaw, S.R. 2005. Dynamic Models and Model Validation for PEM Fuel Cells Using Electrical Circuits. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 20 (2): 442-451.

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Zehra Ural was born in Elaz, Turkey in 1982. She received the B.Sc., M. Sc. degrees from Firat University, Elaz, Turkey in 2004, and Dicle University, Diyarbakr, Turkey in 2007, respectively, all in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. She was a research assistant at Dicle University from 2005 to 2008. She is currently a research assistant in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Firat University. She has worked in renewable energy, fuel cells and its applications. She is already a Phd student in Electrical and Electronics Engineering at Institute of Science and Technology at Firat University. Muhsin Tunay Gencoglu was born in Elaz, Turkey in 1973. He received the B.Sc., M. Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Firat University, Elaz, Trkiye in 1994, 1997 and 2003, respectively, all in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. He was a research assistant at Krkkale University from 1994 to 1996 and at Firat University from 1996 to 2003. He is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering. His research interests are High Voltage Insulators, Finite Element Method, Power Transmission, Analysis of Power Systems, Lighting Technique and Renewable Energy Resources.