You are on page 1of 6

Cauvel 1 Jacob Cauvel Mrs. Shafer Pd.

4,5 October 13, 2009 Thermodynamicsenthalpy of Reaction and Hesss Law Objective The point of this experiment was demonstrate Hesss Law through a series of chemical reactions. The values of heat change and enthalpy of reaction were both calculated and compared between the reactions. Data Initial temperature (C) 50.0 mL H2Oroom temperature 19.8C 50.0 mL H2Oheated 70.0C Mixing Data Time (sec) Temperature (C) 20 39.3 40 38.9 60 38.8 80 38.8 100 38.5 Tmix C 39.25 Tave, C 44.9 Time (sec) 120 140 160 180 Temperature (C) 38.5 38.4 38.3 38.2

qcal, J 2361.7 Ccal J/C -121.42


Temperature versus Time after Mixing

40 39.75 39.5 39.25 39 38.75 0 38.5 38.25 38 37.75 37.5 37.25 37

Temperature, degrees celsius

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

Tim e, Seconds

Cauvel 2

Initial temperature (C) 50.0 mL 2.0 M HCL 50.0 mL 2.0 M NaOH Mixing Data Time (sec) Temperature (C) 20 32.4 40 32.4 60 32.3 80 32.3 100 32.25 Tmix C 32.45 qrxn, J -365.9305

20.1C 18.4C Time (sec) 120 140 160 180 -30.53 Temperature (C) 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.1

H, kJ/mol

Temperature versus Time after Mixing


32.5 Temperature, degrees celsius 32.4 32.3 32.2 32.1 32 31.9 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Tme, Seconds

Initial temperature (C) 50.0 mL 2.0 NH4Cl 18.5C 50.0 mL 2.0 M NaOH 18.5C Mixing Data Time (sec) Temperature (C) 20 19.8 40 19.8 60 19.8 80 19.8 100 19.8 Time (sec) 120 140 160 180 Temperature (C) 19.8 19.85 19.9 19.9

Cauvel 3 Tmix C 19.76 qrxn, J -7422.5071 Temperature versus Time after Mixing
19.95 Temperature, Degrees Celsius 19.9 19.85 19.8 19.75 19.7 19.65 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Time, Seconds

H, kJ/mol

-79.65

Initial temperature (C) 50.0 mL 2.0 M NH3 18.9C 50.0 mL 2.0 M HCl 18.9C Mixing Data Time (sec) Temperature (C) 20 30.7 40 30.6 60 30.5 80 30.5 100 30.4 Tmix C 30.71 qrxn, J -3052.5307 Time (sec) 120 140 160 180 -81.37 Temperature (C) 30.4 30.3 30.3 30.2

H, kJ/mol

Cauvel 4

Temperature versus Time after Mixing


30.8 30.7 30.6 30.5 30.4 30.3 30.2 30.1 30 29.9 0 20 60 80 100 Time, Seconds 180 40 120 140 160

Temperature, degrees celsius

Series1 Linear (Series1)

Calculations

Cauvel 5 Questions 1. Write the net ionic equations for the three reactions involved in the experiment. Show how the first two reactions are arranged algebraically to determine the third.

2. Calculate the value of H for the third reaction for the values of H determined for the first two reactions using Hesss Law.

3. Find the percent difference between the calculated and measured values of H for the third reaction.

1. What is meant by calorimetry? Calorimetry is the experimental measurement of heat produced in chemical and physical processes. (definition from Chemistry the Central Science text book) 2. How does graphical analysis improve the accuracy of the data?

Cauvel 6 The graphical analysis improves the accuracy of the data by allowing a trend line to be added which was used to calculate the Tmix. 3. The equation for calculating the heat evolved in each reaction is: qrxn = -[9grams of solution x specific heat of solution x Tsolution) + (Ccal x Tsolution) What is the meaning of the negative sign in front of the brackets? When you calculate the equation without the negative, you are calculating the heat absorbed (endothermic + ) but, when you add the negative, you are calculating the heat given off (exothermic - ). 4. Do the lab results support Hesss Law? Due to error during either the procedure or lab calculations, the results do not support Hesss Law. 5. How could the procedure be modified to achieve greater accuracy? The procedure could be modified to achieve greater accuracy by using a more effiecient calorimeter that will not absorb heat from the reaction. 6. Find a table in a reference that lists standard heats of formation for the species included in your net ionic equations. Use them to calculate Hrxn for each of the three net ionic equations. Do these values support Hesss Law? Ammonia=-46.19kJ/mol HCl=-92.3kJ/mol Sodium Hydroxide=-469.15kJ/mol Ammonium Choloride=-314.43kJ/mol These values do support Hesss Law because the first two net ionic equations add up to equal the third equation. Conclusion In this experiment, a series of reactions were created, measured, and calculated to demonstrate Hesss Law. The most significant source of air in this experiment occurred with the calorimeter. Because some heat was lost during the reactions, and because it was not accounted for in the calculations, the concluding data is off. This made it so that Hesss Law didnt work out, however, if the lab was done properly, Hesss law would have worked, as proven by using a standard heats of formation chart.