By
Dr Stephen Hicks
HERA Manager Structural Systems
Composite Columns and
Innovations in Composite
Floor Construction
Brief Biography
• Heavy Engineering Research Association, NZ (2008 to date)  Manager
Structural Systems
• Steel Construction Institute (SCI), UK (1997 to 2008)  Senior Manager
Building Engineering
• Expertise
– Steelconcrete Composite Construction
– Floor Vibrations
– Coldformed steel structures
– Product development
– Development of design guidance and Standards
– Structural Reliability Methods
• Memberships
– Member of NZS Committee P3404: Steel Structures
– Chairman of SA subcommittee BD09006: AS5100.6 Bridge
design  steel and composite construction
– Board Member and Technical Advisor to National Association of
Steelframed Housing (NASH)
– Chairman of Sustainable Steel Council
– Member of European Convention for Constructional Steelwork
Technical Committee 11 “Composite Structures”
– UK representative on CEN Subcommittee 4: Eurocode 4  Design
of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures (CEN/TC250/SC4)
– Member of UK BSI Composite Structures Committee (B/525/4)
Part 1: Human acceptance of vibration
Part 2: Design guidance for floor vibrations
Part 3: Basis of new design guidance
Part 3.1: Steady state response
Part 3.2: Transient response
Part 4: Case studies
Contents
Part 1:
Human Acceptance of Vibration
• Movement of buildings
– Worry it is unsafe
• Being disturbed when resting
– Sleeping areas such as bedrooms and hospital wards
• Being disturbed whilst concentrating
– Sensitive activities such as surgery
• Users vary in sensitivity
– Work in terms of ‘low probability of adverse
comment’
Users don’t like:
Human perception of vibration
• Directions of incidence to the human body
specified using the basicentric coordinate
system
• Base curves are used to define the
threshold of human perception
• Acceptability s Base curve × Multiplying
factor
Information supplied by ISO 10137 and ISO
2631 (identical information given in USA by
ANSI S3.29 and UK by BS6472)
Supporting
surface
y
z
x
Supporting
surface
y
x
Supporting
surface
x
z
y
z
Basicentric coordinate system for vibrations
influencing humans
• Threshold of human
perception defined by
‘base value’ of rootmean
square acceleration
– zaxis vibrations
a
rms
= 5 ×10
3
m/s²
– x & yaxis vibrations
a
rms
= 3.57 ×10
3
m/s²
ISO 2631 frequency weighting factors for
human perception of vibration (asymptotic
approximations)
zaxis
x & yaxis
0.1
1
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
W
e
i
g
h
t
i
n
g
f
a
c
t
o
r
0.1
1
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
W
e
i
g
h
t
i
n
g
f
a
c
t
o
r
Human perception
of vibrations
reducing
ISO 10137 Base curves (threshold of
human perception of vibrations)
zaxis
x & yaxis
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
r
m
s
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
²
)
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
r
m
s
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
²
)
base value divided
by frequency
weighting
Base curves only
appropriate when
only one floor
frequency is being
excited (not normal
in most practical
floors using steel,
timber or concrete)
ISO 10137 multiplying factors for ‘low
probability of adverse comment’
Place Time
Multiplying factors to base curve for 16h day 8h
night
Continuous vibration
Impulsive vibration
excitation with several
occurrences per day
Critical working areas
(e.g., some hospital
operating theatres, some
precision laboratories,
etc.)
Day 1 1
Night 1
1
Residential (e.g. flats,
homes, hospitals)
Day 2 to 4 30 to 90
Night 1.4 1,4 to 20
Quiet office, open plan
Day 2 60 to 128
Night 2 60 to 128
General office (e.g.
schools, offices)
Day 4 60 to 128
Night 4 60 to 128
Workshops
Day 8 90 to 128
Night 8 90 to 128
ISO 10137 Building vibration curves
zaxis
x & yaxis
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
r
m
s
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
²
)
0.001
0.01
0.1
1
1 10 100
Frequency (Hz)
r
m
s
a
c
c
e
l
e
r
a
t
i
o
n
(
m
/
s
²
)
Curve 1
Curve 4
Curve 8
Part 2:
Design guidance for floor vibrations
General design guidance (UK)
SCI P 076 AD 253, 254 & 256
AISC/CISC DG11
General design guidance (USA &
Canada)
Floor vibration research and
development for steelframed floors
• 1997 – 1999 UK Department of Environment, Transport and the
Regions (DETR) Partners in Innovation project “Design guidance &
interpretation of Cardington composite frame tests”
• 20012004 EC project through the European Coal and Steel
Community (ECSC) entitled “Generalisation of criteria for floor
vibrations for industrial, office, residential and public building and
gymnastic halls”
• 2004 – 2005 UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Partners
in Innovation project “Holistic Assessment of the vibration
sensitivity of lightweight floor for various use patterns”
• 2003 – 2006 EC project for through the Research Fund for Coal
and Steel (RFCS) entitled "High quality acoustic and vibration
performance of lightweight steel constructions“
• 20072008 EC project through RFCS entitled "Humaninduced
vibration of steel structures
MultiInput MultiOutput (MIMO)
modal testing of operating theatre
Walking tests
Summary of work between 1997 and
2008
• In situ vibration tests on a wide variety of steelframed composite
floors undertaken in UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg,
Finland and Sweden (including longspan beams, standard UB’s and
UC’s, slim floors beams and light steel frame floors)
• Tests undertaken on floors within different environments (offices,
hospitals, retail, residential, dancefloors, gymnasium)
• Comparison of test data with existing design guidance showed that,
although floor frequencies compared favourably with predictions, the
predicted floor response was very variable (particularly AISC/CISC
DG11)
• Finite element models of tested floors constructed to understand in
situ behaviour
• To enable comparisons to be made with ISO 10137:
– General method for evaluating floor response from finite element model outputs
developed
– Simplified methods (conservative), which are amenable to hand calculations (one
approach based on FE models using general method)
New design guide on the vibration of steel
framed floors
SCI P354
• General approach using
the results from computer
models (can actually be
applied to any floor, stairs,
etc. made from any
material)
– Based on a modal
superposition approach
• Simplified (conservative)
approach using hand
calculations  for walking
activities only!
– Based on FE models of
composite floors with regular
grids
Simplified design guidance
(walking only) developed from
partners on EC projects
JRCECCS Publication ArcelorMittal
Design guide for vibrations on
concrete floors
• Modal
superposition
method (very
similar to SCI
P354)
• Simplified and
approximate
method (for hand
calculations)
Concrete Centre CCIP016 (2006)
Part 3:
Basis of new design guidance
SCI P354 – Design of Floors for
Vibration
Multiplying factors
• Multiplying factors in ISO 10137
don’t cover all environments within
buildings
• Supplementary multiplying factors
recommended in SCI P354 (based on
measured floor performance together
with historical evidence)
Assessments cf. measurements on 103 LSF
residential floors in Finland
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
8 13 18 23 28 33
Fundamental frequency [Hz]
I
S
O
f
a
c
t
o
r
accepted
not accepted
Multiplying factor = 16 for
vibrations within dwellings
Place Multiplying factor
Office 8
Shopping mall 4
Dealing floor 4
Stairs – Light use (e.g. offices) 32
Stairs – Heavy use (e.g. public buildings,
stadia)
24
vibrations within residential dwellings 16
Recommended multiplying factors to supplement ISO
10137 based on excitation from a single person
Damping
• For design, it is recommended that the
following damping values may be
assumed:
– , = 1.1%
• for bare unfurnished floors.
– , = 3.0%
• for floors in normal use.
– , = 4.5%
• for a floor with partitions, where the designer is
confident that partitions will be appropriately located
to interrupt the relevant modes of vibration.
• Floor loading should be taken as
expected loading, i.e. what will be
present in service.
• Generally dead loads plus a
maximum of 10% of partitions and
live loads.
Floor loading
Loadtime function (for walking at
2.0 Hz), into the first three
harmonic components
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0 0.5 1 1.5
%
o
f
p
e
r
s
o
n
'
s
w
e
i
g
h
t
Time (sec)
Decomposition of the loadtime
function, into the first three
harmonic components
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5
F
o
u
r
i
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
(
%
o
f
p
e
r
s
o
n
'
s
w
e
i
g
h
t
)
Time (sec)
First harmonic
Second harmonic
Third harmonic
Fourier coefficients for walking
activities after Rainer et al.
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency (Hz)
F
o
u
r
i
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
,
o
n
Harmonic, n
1
2
3
4
Fourier coefficients for
synchronized crowd movement
after Ellis & Ji
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
0 2 4 6 8 10
F
o
u
r
i
e
r
c
o
e
f
f
i
c
i
e
n
t
Frequency (Hz)
High impact aerobics
Normal jumping
High jumping
Activity frequency
= 1.5 to 2.8 Hz
Floor type
• For excitation from walking
–‘Low frequency floor’ has a fundamental
natural frequency, f
1
< 10 Hz
–‘High frequency floor’ has a fundamental
natural frequency, f
1
> 10 Hz
• For other excitations
–Depends on highest harmonic
Type of response vs Floor type
• Low frequency floors
–Steadystate response (at harmonics of
excitation frequency).
–Transient response (as higher modes
may dominate the response).
• High frequency floors
–Transient response (at frequencies of
the floor).
Part 3:
Basis of new design guidance
3.1  Steadystate response
Steadystate response
Steadystate response
• When a cyclic force (e.g. a walking activity) is applied to
a structure, it will begin to vibrate.
• If the cyclic force is applied continuously the motion of
the structure will reach a steadystate (constant
amplitude and frequency); this condition is known as
resonance.
• Resonance can occur even if the frequency of the floor
is above a minimum design value (due to components
of the walking activity exciting the floor).
• These components from the walking activity occur
because the force versus time graph is made up of
many different sine curves.
µ
e,n
is the mode shape amplitude, from the unity or mass
normalised FE output, at the point on the floor where the
excitation force F
h
is applied
µ
r,n
is the mode shape amplitude, from the unity or mass
normalised FE output, at the point where the response is to
be calculated
F
h
is the excitation force for the hth harmonic, where F
h
=
o
h
Q. [N]
M
n
is the modal mass of mode n (equal to 1 kg if the mode
shapes are mass normalised) [kg]
D
n,h
is the dynamic magnification factor
W
h
is the appropriate codedefined weighting factor for human
perception of vibrations, which is a function of the
frequency of the harmonic under consideration hf
p
.
h h n,
n
h
n r, n e, h n, r, e, peak, w,
W D
M
F
a µ µ =
Steadystate response per
mode/harmonic
Excitation force
o
h
is the Fourier coefficient of the hth harmonic
Q is the static force exerted by an ‘average person’
(normally taken as 76 kg × 9.81 m/s² = 746 N).
Harmonic Excitation
Frequency range
hf
p
(Hz)
Design value of
coefficient
o
h
Phase
angle

h
1 1.8 to 2.2 0.436(hf
p
– 0.95) 0
2 3.6 to 4.4 0.006(hf
p
+ 12.3) t/2
3 5.4 to 6.6 0.007(hf
p
+ 5.2) t
4 7.2 to 8.8 0.007(hf
p
+ 2.0) t/2
~0.4
~0.1
~0.1
~0.1
Q F
h h
o =
Dynamic magnification factor
h is the number of the hth harmonic

n
is the frequency ratio (taken as f
p
/f
n
)
, is the damping ratio
f
p
is the frequency corresponding to the first
harmonic of the activity
f
n
is the frequency of the mode under
consideration
( ) ( )
2
2
2
2
2
2
,
2 1
n n
n
h n
h h
h
D
, 

+ ÷
=
• Squareroot sum of squares (steady
state):
¿ ¿
= =


.

\



.

\

=
H
h
N
n
W D
M
F
a
1
2
1
h h n,
n
h
n r, n e, r e, rms, w,
2
1
µ µ
Total steadystate rootmean
square acceleration
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
First Harmonic
Second Harmonic
Third Harmonic
Fourth Harmonic
Total
Typical steady
state response
versus pace
frequency
Part 3:
Basis of new design guidance
3.2 – Transient response
Transient response
Transient response
• For the case when a structure possess a
sufficiently high frequency, so that it is out of
the range of the first four harmonic
components of the pace frequency (where
most of the excitation energy is concentrated
i.e., o
1
+ o
2
+ o
3
+ o
4
~ 0.7), the floor will
exhibit a transient response.
• In this case, the response is dominated by a
train of impulses, which correspond to the heel
impacts. As a consequence, successive peaks
and decays typify the overall dynamic
response of a floor of this type.
Transient response
µ
e,n
is the mode shape amplitude, from the unity or mass
normalised FE output, at the point on the floor where the
impulse force F
I
is applied
µ
r,n
is the mode shape amplitude, from the unity or mass
normalised FE output, at the point where the response is to
be calculated
F
I
is the excitation force [Ns]
M
n
is the modal mass of mode n (equal to 1 if the mode shapes
are mass normalised) [kg]
W
n
is the appropriate codedefined weighting factor for human
perception of vibrations, which depends on the direction of
the vibrations on the human body using the basicentric
coordinate system and the frequency of the mode under
consideration f
n
.
n
I
W
M
F
f a
n
n r, n e,
2
n n r, e, peak, w,
1 π 2 µ µ , ÷ =
Transient excitation force
f
p
is the pace frequency
f
n
is the frequency of the mode under
consideration
Q is the static force exerted by an ‘average
person’ (normally taken as 76 kg × 9.81 m/s²
= 746 N)
700
60
3 . 1
43 . 1
Q
f
f
F
n
p
I
=
Total transient acceleration
• Superposition of modal responses:
• Calculate rootmeansquare (rms)
( )
n
2 2
n
n
I
1
n r, n e,
2
n
1
n r, e, w, , e w,
n
1 2 sin 1 2
) ( ) (
W e t f
M
F
f
t a t a
t f
N
n
N
n
r
π
π π
,
, µ µ ,
÷
=
=
· ÷ ÷ =
=
¿
¿
( )
}
=
p
1
0
2
r e, w, p rms w,
f
dt t a f a
Typical transient response versus
pace frequency
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5
Frequency (Hz)
R
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
Evaluation of Response factors
• For zaxis vibration:
For x and yaxis vibration:
005 . 0
rms w,
a
R =
00357 . 0
,rms w
a
R =
If R s Multiplying factor from ISO 10137 or SCI P354, floor is acceptable
Contour plots on floor plan
• Assessment at
every point over
the floor area can
show hotspots of
response factors
and help with
architectural
layouts
Excitation and response points
(useful for sensitive areas)
+
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
P
r
e
d
i
c
t
e
d
r
e
s
p
o
n
s
e
Measured response
Floor H1
Floor H2
Floor H3
Floor H4
Floor H5
Part 4:
Case studies
Framing layout of St Richards Hospital UK
Slimflor floor
48% saving on steel
weight!
Verification of predictions through
testing on floor
Measured mode shape
R = 0.29
Worstcase accelerationtime trace measured
in operating theatre
Project Bay size
(m)
Overall
slab
depth
(mm)
Beam depth
Sec/Pri (mm)
f
0
(Hz)
R
Hospital 1
(bare)
11.3×7.2 300 625/571
Cellular beam
9.01 0.25
(2.70)
Hospital 1
(finished)
11.3×7.2 300 625/571
Cellular beam
6.38 0.34
(0.70)
Hospital 2 15×7.5 175 457×152UB/70
0 Cellular beam
4.88 0.58
(4.76)
St Richards
Hospital
5.9×5.5 335+80
screed
300ASB153/ 9.5 0.29
(1.10)
Sunderland
Royal Infirmary
6.8×5.7 337 300ASB185/ 9.6 0.54
(1.16)
Measurements taken on steelframed floors in
operating theatre areas
General approach now
implemented within commercial
software such as Oasys GSA
One Shelley Street, Sydney, Australia
Icon Hotel, Dubai, UAE
Conclusions
• Acceptance criteria for vibrations in buildings given in ISO
10137 and ISO 2631.
• New design guidance based 11years of research conducted
in UK and Europe.
• New design guidance based on actual measured
performance of floors as opposed to subjective
assessments.
• Application of general method of design has been simplified
through incorporation within software
• Methodology has been in use within the UK since 2004 and
is now being used internationally.
Brief Biography
• • • Heavy Engineering Research Association, NZ (2008 to date)  Manager Structural Systems Steel Construction Institute (SCI), UK (1997 to 2008)  Senior Manager Building Engineering Expertise – Steelconcrete Composite Construction – Floor Vibrations – Coldformed steel structures – Product development – Development of design guidance and Standards – Structural Reliability Methods Memberships – Member of NZS Committee P3404: Steel Structures – Chairman of SA subcommittee BD09006: AS5100.6 Bridge design  steel and composite construction – Board Member and Technical Advisor to National Association of Steelframed Housing (NASH) – Chairman of Sustainable Steel Council – Member of European Convention for Constructional Steelwork Technical Committee 11 “Composite Structures” – UK representative on CEN Subcommittee 4: Eurocode 4  Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures (CEN/TC250/SC4) – Member of UK BSI Composite Structures Committee (B/525/4)
•
Contents
Part 1: Human acceptance of vibration
Part 2: Design guidance for floor vibrations Part 3: Basis of new design guidance
Part 3.1: Steady state response
Part 3.2: Transient response Part 4: Case studies
Part 1: Human Acceptance of Vibration
.
Human perception of vibration
Users don’t like:
• Movement of buildings
– Worry it is unsafe
• Being disturbed when resting
– Sleeping areas such as bedrooms and hospital wards
• Being disturbed whilst concentrating
– Sensitive activities such as surgery
• Users vary in sensitivity
– Work in terms of ‘low probability of adverse comment’
.
29 and UK by BS6472)
• Directions of incidence to the human body specified using the basicentric coordinate system • Base curves are used to define the threshold of human perception • Acceptability Base curve × Multiplying factor
.Information supplied by ISO 10137 and ISO 2631 (identical information given in USA by ANSI S3.
Basicentric coordinate system for vibrations influencing humans
z z
• Threshold of human perception defined by ‘base value’ of rootmeany square acceleration – zaxis vibrations arms = 5 ×103m/s² – x & yaxis vibrations arms = 3.57 ×103m/s²
y x
x
Supporting surface Supporting surface
x
z
Supporting surface
y
.
1 1
Human perception of vibrations reducing
0.& yaxis
.ISO 2631 frequency weighting factors for human perception of vibration (asymptotic approximations)
1
1
Weighting factor
Weighting factor
0.1
10 Frequency (Hz) 100
1
10 Frequency (Hz)
100
zaxis
x.
timber or concrete)
0.001
0.001
1
10
Frequency (Hz)
100
1
10 Frequency (Hz)
100
zaxis
base value divided by frequencyweighting
x.1
rms acceleration (m/s²)
0.& yaxis
.ISO 10137 Base curves (threshold of human perception of vibrations)
1
1
rms acceleration (m/s²)
0.01
Base curves only appropriate when only one floor frequency is being excited (not normal in most practical floors using steel.01
0.1
0.
flats. offices) Workshops Day Night Day 1 1 2 to 4 30 to 90
Impulsive vibration excitation with several occurrences per day 1 1
Night Day Night Day Night Day Night
1.g.g. hospitals) Quiet office. schools.) Residential (e.. open plan General office (e.ISO 10137 multiplying factors for ‘low probability of adverse comment’
Multiplying factors to base curve for 16h day 8h night Place Time Continuous vibration Critical working areas (e. some precision laboratories. some hospital operating theatres. homes.4 to 20 60 to 128 60 to 128 60 to 128 60 to 128 90 to 128 90 to 128
.g. etc.4 2 2 4 4 8 8
1.
1
rms acceleration (m/s²)
0.01
0.ISO 10137 Building vibration curves
1
1
rms acceleration (m/s²)
0.1 Curve 1 Curve 4 Curve 8 0.001
1
10
Frequency (Hz)
100
1
10 Frequency (Hz)
100
zaxis
x.01
0.& yaxis
.001
0.
Part 2: Design guidance for floor vibrations
.
General design guidance (UK)
SCI P 076
AD 253. 254 & 256
.
General design guidance (USA & Canada)
AISC/CISC DG11
.
Transport and the Regions (DETR) Partners in Innovation project “Design guidance & interpretation of Cardington composite frame tests” • 20012004 EC project through the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) entitled “Generalisation of criteria for floor vibrations for industrial. residential and public building and gymnastic halls” • 2004 – 2005 UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Partners in Innovation project “Holistic Assessment of the vibration sensitivity of lightweight floor for various use patterns” • 2003 – 2006 EC project for through the Research Fund for Coal and Steel (RFCS) entitled "High quality acoustic and vibration performance of lightweight steel constructions“ • 20072008 EC project through RFCS entitled "Humaninduced vibration of steel structures
.Floor vibration research and development for steelframed floors
• 1997 – 1999 UK Department of Environment. office.
MultiInput MultiOutput (MIMO) modal testing of operating theatre
.
Walking tests
Summary of work between 1997 and 2008
• In situ vibration tests on a wide variety of steelframed composite floors undertaken in UK, France, Germany, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Finland and Sweden (including longspan beams, standard UB’s and UC’s, slim floors beams and light steel frame floors) Tests undertaken on floors within different environments (offices, hospitals, retail, residential, dancefloors, gymnasium) Comparison of test data with existing design guidance showed that, although floor frequencies compared favourably with predictions, the predicted floor response was very variable (particularly AISC/CISC DG11) Finite element models of tested floors constructed to understand in situ behaviour To enable comparisons to be made with ISO 10137:
– – General method for evaluating floor response from finite element model outputs developed Simplified methods (conservative), which are amenable to hand calculations (one approach based on FE models using general method)
• •
• •
New design guide on the vibration of steelframed floors
• General approach using the results from computer models (can actually be applied to any floor, stairs, etc. made from any material)
– Based on a modal superposition approach
• Simplified (conservative) approach using hand calculations  for walking activities only!
– Based on FE models of composite floors with regular grids
SCI P354
Simplified design guidance (walking only) developed from partners on EC projects
JRCECCS Publication
ArcelorMittal
.
Design guide for vibrations on concrete floors
• Modal superposition method (very similar to SCI P354) • Simplified and approximate method (for hand calculations)
Concrete Centre CCIP016 (2006)
.
Part 3: Basis of new design guidance
.
SCI P354 – Design of Floors for Vibration
.
Multiplying factors • Multiplying factors in ISO 10137 don’t cover all environments within buildings • Supplementary multiplying factors recommended in SCI P354 (based on measured floor performance together with historical evidence)
.
measurements on 103 LSF residential floors in Finland
120 accepted not accepted 100
80
ISO factor
60
Multiplying factor = 16 for vibrations within dwellings
40
20
0 8 13 18 23 28 33 Fundamental frequency [Hz]
.Assessments cf.
Recommended multiplying factors to supplement ISO 10137 based on excitation from a single person
Place Multiplying factor
Office Shopping mall
8 4
Dealing floor
Stairs – Light use (e. public buildings.g. offices)
4
32
Stairs – Heavy use (e.g. 24 stadia) vibrations within residential dwellings 16
.
0%
• for floors in normal use.
.1%
• for bare unfurnished floors.5%
• for a floor with partitions.
– = 4.Damping
• For design. where the designer is confident that partitions will be appropriately located to interrupt the relevant modes of vibration.
– = 3. it is recommended that the following damping values may be assumed:
– = 1.
i.
.e. • Generally dead loads plus a maximum of 10% of partitions and live loads. what will be present in service.Floor loading • Floor loading should be taken as expected loading.
2
0.5 Time (sec) 1 1.0 Hz).2 0
0.Loadtime function (for walking at 2. into the first three harmonic components
0.5
.6 0 0.4 % of person's weight 0.6 0.4 0.
3
First harmonic Second harmonic Third harmonic
0.4 0.4
0.Decomposition of the loadtime function.1 0. into the first three harmonic components
0.5 Time (sec) 1 1.2
0.5
.5 Fourier coefficient (% of person's weight) 0.2 0.5 0 0.3
0.1 0 0.
4
0.1
0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Frequency (Hz) 6 7 8 9 10
. n 1 2 3 4 0.
0.3
0. n
0.Fourier coefficients for walking activities after Rainer et al.6 Harmonic.2
0.5
Fourier coefficient.
6 Fourier coefficient
1.5 to 2.8 1.2
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Frequency (Hz)
Activity frequency = 1.2 1 0.6 0.Fourier coefficients for synchronized crowd movement after Ellis & Ji
2 1.4
High impact aerobics
Normal jumping High jumping
0.4
1.8 0.8 Hz
.
f1 > 10 Hz
• For other excitations
– Depends on highest harmonic
.Floor type
• For excitation from walking
– ‘Low frequency floor’ has a fundamental natural frequency. f1 < 10 Hz – ‘High frequency floor’ has a fundamental natural frequency.
.Type of response vs Floor type
• Low frequency floors
– Steadystate response (at harmonics of excitation frequency). – Transient response (as higher modes may dominate the response).
• High frequency floors
– Transient response (at frequencies of the floor).
Steadystate response
.Part 3: Basis of new design guidance 3.1 .
Steadystate response
.
g. • If the cyclic force is applied continuously the motion of the structure will reach a steadystate (constant amplitude and frequency). • These components from the walking activity occur because the force versus time graph is made up of many different sine curves.
. a walking activity) is applied to a structure. it will begin to vibrate.Steadystate response
• When a cyclic force (e. • Resonance can occur even if the frequency of the floor is above a minimum design value (due to components of the walking activity exciting the floor). this condition is known as resonance.
at the point where the response is to be calculated is the excitation force for the hth harmonic.Steadystate response per mode/harmonic Fh aw.n r.hWh Mn
e.h Wh is the mode shape amplitude.n r.peak. where Fh = hQ. from the unity or mass normalised FE output.e. [N] is the modal mass of mode n (equal to 1 kg if the mode shapes are mass normalised) [kg] is the dynamic magnification factor is the appropriate codedefined weighting factor for human perception of vibrations. which is a function of the frequency of the harmonic under consideration hfp.
.h e.n
Fh Mn Dn.r.n Dn. at the point on the floor where the excitation force Fh is applied is the mode shape amplitude. from the unity or mass normalised FE output.n.
3) 0.4 5.1
.Excitation force
Fh hQ
h is the Fourier coefficient of the hth harmonic
Q is the static force exerted by an ‘average person’ (normally taken as 76 kg × 9.6 to 4.2 to 8.2) 0.4 ~0.006(hfp + 12.6 7. Harmonic Excitation Design value of Phase angle Frequency range coefficient hfp (Hz) h h
1 2 3 4 1.1
~0.4 to 6.8 0.8 to 2.007(hfp + 5.1
~0.81 m/s² = 746 N).95) 0.2 3.007(hfp + 2.0) 0 /2 /2
~0.436(hfp – 0.
h
h
1 h 2h
2 2 2 n
h n
2
2
n
2
n
fp
fn
is the number of the hth harmonic is the frequency ratio (taken as fp/fn) is the damping ratio is the frequency corresponding to the first harmonic of the activity is the frequency of the mode under consideration
.Dynamic magnification factor
Dn.
9 2 2.5 Frequency (Hz)
First Harmonic Second Harmonic Third Harmonic Fourth Harmonic Total
Response
.5 1. rms.2 2. n r.3 2. r 1 2
16 14 12 10
Fh e.Total steadystate rootmeansquare acceleration
• Squareroot sum of squares (steadystate): 2 H N
a w.6 1.4 2.1 2. n M D n.hW h n h 1 n 1
Typical steadystate response versus pace frequency
8 6 4 2 0 1.8 1. e.7 1.
Part 3: Basis of new design guidance 3.2 – Transient response
.
Transient response
.
e.
.Transient response
• For the case when a structure possess a sufficiently high frequency. 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 0..7). the response is dominated by a train of impulses. As a consequence. so that it is out of the range of the first four harmonic components of the pace frequency (where most of the excitation energy is concentrated i. which correspond to the heel impacts. • In this case. the floor will exhibit a transient response. successive peaks and decays typify the overall dynamic response of a floor of this type.
at the point where the response is to be calculated is the excitation force [Ns] is the modal mass of mode n (equal to 1 if the mode shapes are mass normalised) [kg] is the appropriate codedefined weighting factor for human perception of vibrations.e.
.n is the mode shape amplitude. from the unity or mass normalised FE output. n 2π f n 1 e.peak. n
2
FI Wn Mn
e.n r.n
FI Mn Wn
normalised FE output. which depends on the direction of the vibrations on the human body using the basicentric coordinate system and the frequency of the mode under consideration fn. at the point on the floor where the impulse force FI is applied is the mode shape amplitude.Transient response
aw.r. from the unity or mass
r.
81 m/s² = 746 N)
.Transient excitation force
FI 60
fp f
1.43
1.3 n
Q 700
fp is the pace frequency fn is the frequency of the mode under consideration Q is the static force exerted by an ‘average person’ (normally taken as 76 kg 9.
e . r. n r. e.Total transient acceleration
• Superposition of modal responses:
a w. n ( t )
1 e. r t
0
fp
2
dt
. rms
fp
a w. r ( t )
n 1
a w. n
2
N
n 1
2 πf n
N
FI sin 2 πf n Mn
1 2 t e 2 π f n t W n
• Calculate rootmeansquare (rms)
1
a w. e.
5
Response
2 1.5 3 2.1 2.8 1.7 1.2 2.3 2.5 1.5 1 0.Typical transient response versus pace frequency
4 3.4 2.6 1.9 2 Frequency (Hz) 2.5
.5 0 1.
floor is acceptable
.rms 0.005 aw.and yaxis vibration:
R
If R Multiplying factor from ISO 10137 or SCI P354.00357
For x.Evaluation of Response factors
• For zaxis vibration:
R
aw.rms 0.
Contour plots on floor plan
• Assessment at every point over the floor area can show hotspots of response factors and help with architectural layouts
.
Excitation and response points (useful for sensitive areas)
14
Predicted response
12
10
8 6
4 2
+
Floor H1 Floor H2 Floor H3 Floor H4 Floor H5
0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Measured response 12 14
.
Part 4: Case studies
.
Framing layout of St Richards Hospital UK Slimflor floor
48% saving on steel weight!
.
Verification of predictions through testing on floor
.
Measured mode shape
.
Worstcase accelerationtime trace measured in operating theatre
R = 0.29
.
2 15×7.3×7.29 (1.54 (1.01 6.5 9.34 (0.2 11.88 0 Cellular beam 300ASB153/300ASB185/9.38
0.10) 0.Measurements taken on steelframed floors in operating theatre areas
Project Bay size (m) Overall slab depth (mm) 300 300 175 335+80 screed 337 Beam depth Sec/Pri (mm) f0 (Hz) R
Hospital 1 (bare) Hospital 1 (finished) Hospital 2 St Richards Hospital
11.7 Royal Infirmary
.6
Sunderland 6.76) 0.16)
457×152UB/70 4.8×5.5 5.9×5.3×7.58 (4.25 (2.70) 0.70) 0.5
625/571 Cellular beam 625/571 Cellular beam
9.
General approach now implemented within commercial software such as Oasys GSA
One Shelley Street. Australia
. Sydney.
UAE
.Icon Hotel. Dubai.
• New design guidance based on actual measured performance of floors as opposed to subjective assessments.Conclusions
• Acceptance criteria for vibrations in buildings given in ISO 10137 and ISO 2631. • Application of general method of design has been simplified through incorporation within software • Methodology has been in use within the UK since 2004 and is now being used internationally. • New design guidance based 11years of research conducted in UK and Europe.
.