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THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS

WILLIAMS REVISED AND SUPPLEMENTED FROM THE FIFTH GERMAN EDITION BY SYDNEY WATERLOW.'^^F^ THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS AND THE RELATION OF THE PHYSICAL TO THE PSYCHICAL BY DR ERNST MACH EMERITUS PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF VIENNA TRANSLATED FROM THE FIRST GERMAN EDITION BY C M. '^<^l-'' CHICAGO AND LONDON THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY 1914 . M.A.

HI32. Copyright in Great Britain under the Act of 191 .

M. 1897. Causality and Teleology " Chapter VIII.. on " Sensation. Chapter IX. by Dr.TRANSLATOR'S NOTE THIS butions to book the is not so much a new edition of the English translation of Professor Mach's Contri- Analysis is. Contributions to the Analysis ofthe Sensations.^ but indicates. appeared in The Contributions translation of 1886.. on The Will " . editions two of them. Chapter XL. originally more comprehensive an almost entirely new book. : Since then there have been three more fifth.. of 1897.. a book nearly twice as long as the original English translation. on " Biologico-teleological Con- siderations as to ^ Space " -. Ernst Mach. Williams. . chapters are entirely namely. most of which was embodied by Professor edition Mach in his second (1900). Chicago Open Court Publishing Co.. of the Sensations. The English 1897 contained a certain amount of new matter. It may therefore be convenient to mention respects in here the principal translation which Six this book differs from the new. : Translated by C. Chapter on "My " . the third and the containing important changes and additions of such extent that the fifth edition. III. of which this translation is is now offered to the English-speaking public. Relation to Richard Avenarius and other Thinkers Chapter V. as the which was title published in 1897. on " Physics j and Biology " .

Josef Pollak on recent research as to the functions of the labyrinth of the ear. must add whole of the present translation has been most kindly read. . to turn which he yet must but I feel. the eight chapters of been greatly expanded. two classes. It will be seen that the changes and additions into fall. on " Memory and How my Chapter Views have been received. commentator or eulogist ] may perhaps be allowed to point out the great interest attaching to the explanations here given by the (if veteran physicist and philosopher Professor Mach which will allow the word "philosopher") of the way in his views were developed. six sections Chapter VII. W..vi THE ANAL YSIS OF SENSATIONS Association. It ill becomes a translator to indulge the temptation. contains by Dr. London.C. or of explaining and justifying his relation more general views as to the between different branches of science and as to questions on the borderland between science and philosophy. now contains most of the matter which appeared as an appendix to the translation of 1897. on the whole. I Miss Williams's excellent that the translation. For those parts of the English edition of 1897 text I which are identical with the have availed myself largely of Finally." and Chapter XV. They are made with the object either author's of amplifying discussions and bringing up of points to date the original of detail. by Professor Mach himself. all Further. SYDNEY WATERLOW 28 John Street. in manuscript." the original edition have II. Bedford Row.

There is an insertion of some length on recent . A mistake as to Ewald's I theory of audition has been corrected. {VAme Vienna. 1905). who I has also been so kind as to read the proofs of the whole book and to correct the index. May 1906 PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION THE frequent excursions which I have all made into this province have sprung from the profound con- viction that the foundations of science as a whole. For all these services owe him my heartiest thanks. and of I . occurs in a book by Alfred Binet et le C^/^J. investigations as to the sense of orientation from the pen of Professor Josef Pollak.AUTHOR'S PREFACES PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION THE of text of this edition has been enlarged by a number new passages and this is notes. satisfaction that a view of the relation have noted with between the physical and the psychical. Paris. which is almost identical with the view advocated here.

So much the more. who have directed attention either to the matter of my writings or to my methodological expositions. considerably from the value of or perhaps even lay desultoriness. fact that The very in my investigations have been carried on. and especially from the analysis of the sensations. also. but my greatest . purely from a strong desire for self-enlightenment. no matter of the single facts investigated. by the conventional of the may not be entirely without value for others I even though may not be everywhere in the My natural its bent for the study of these questions received strongest stimulus twenty-five years ago from Fechner's Elemente der Psychophysik (Leipzig. that I have succeeded in con- tributing but little to the attainment of this end. Preyer and others. Hensen. W. present compendious and supplementary present- The ation of my views will. E. me open to to the silent reproach of therefore. await their next greatest elucidations from the side of biology. and less to that of philosopher. perhaps. of course. Hering.viii THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS physics in particular. I am aware. yet I venture to hope that the work thus undertaken. V. i860). not the way of a profession. place light. but only at odd moments. and must detract frequently only after long interruptions. title Although can lay no claim whatever to the physiologist. those am such I under as especial obligations investigators. my scattered publications. for it my attitude in a in somewhat more favorable all will be seen that cases I have had in how varied or I mind numerous were still the same problem. by a barriers physicist unconstrained specialist. right.

may judge from and others. the conception of the whole and the conception of the parts are so intimately related that I should scarcely be able to separate them. in a new edition. It is seems to have fulfilled its object. Cornelius. One of these. Prague. principally by inserting short chapters in the original text. for any reason. Petzoldt. the second. Loeb. by adding accounts of detail. book was intended if I to have the effect of an aperfUj and. now appears. however. For to allow the book to swell out into a bulky volume. H. it the occasional Kiilpe. . November 1885 PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION THIS Pearson. would not be in I character. has already appeared in the English edition published in 1897.A UTHORS PREFA CES problems referred to on pages 69 and 168. Yet was unwilling to let slip opportunity without once again saying something I on a subject which therefore have so much at heart. I last more the general recommend the omission of and chapters. James. This a rather bold undertaking. utterances of Avenarius. after fourteen years. Willy. I have added the supplements and elucidations most urgently required. For me. desire to avoid discussions. many experimental it researches on points of and by noticing was at length the literature first which has appeared since keeping with this last its published. ix assistance was derived from Hering's solution of the two To first readers who.

April 1900 . lay the book aside. this is in truth I opposed to my not from contempt of my opponents. Vienna.X THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS One and the same view underlies both . because their convictions are such that they cannot follow I me any further. in which a position closely allied to my of own is adopted. in a recently published work {Die Krisis in der Psychologies Leipzig. or to element. If I have not entered in these pages upon a detailed critical and polemical discussion of views own. and to make an honest complete the half-thought. Those readers who. that all metaphysical elements are to be eliminated as super- '^ fluous and as destructive of the economy of that are science. one's paradoxical idea — patiently effort to about with one for years. may find it useful to know that Willy. also aroused strenuous opposition. In its former shape the book met with but it much friendly acceptance. it may be. this but because am convinced that questions of kind cannot be decided by controversies and dialectic combats. namely. The only really profitable course is to carry one's half- thought — or. will only be doing exactly what myself have sometimes been compelled to do. my epistemodeal logico-physical writings and my present attempt to with the physiology of the senses I —the view. opposes my views in many points detail. turning over the first pages. 1899). Readers who wish to go more deeply into the subjects of which it treats. as the case strip away the paradoxical after may be.

have been cast in a clearer form. yet. I have not make certain additions light. and XV." this The author of W. 88). . p. there are also In addition to the school of Avenarius. the second edition exhausted a few months. my views in a clearer though without altering the text of [886 in any essential respect. such as H. 15) 7. But would be premature is to dispute it is about them " But the question one in peculiarly difficult to make out precisely what another man means. The differences that remain over seem which me not irreconcilable. younger thinkers. lecturer in physics in this University. Two passages only 11. and even what one means oneself. an interpretation which I in no wise intended. which may help to put . in which in the second edition are developed subjects touched upon at greater length." Lectures^ vol. Clifford. Lampa for giving me this information. Chapters IX.. p. of the second edition (paragraph p. K. A. the Nature of a writer with Things-in-themselves. delightfully humorous remark was the mathematician ("On ii. Unless as regards all indications are deceptive. was told by several readers that these passages were often understood in a one- sided idealistic sense. I am greatly obliged to Dr. my views. I no longer occupy.A UTHOR'S PREFA CES xi PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION CONTRARY was hesitated to to my in expectation. Gomperz. anything like so isolated a position as I did even a few years ago. who are approaching their my it point of view by still own to paths. 11. are new additions. and paragraph Dr. Lampa.

An attempt is made. The aim It is book is not to put forward any system of philosophy. that science ought to be confined to the compendious necessarily all representation of the actual. to that are all which any number of others may be attached. at A whole series of troublesome pseudo-problems of this once disappears. this only the consequences of single step. which merely kinds of ways consist the different which these elements are combined. that are widely removed . view is If this point of kept firmly in mind in that wide includes the physical first field of investigation which and the psychical. which is gradually coming to the front. myself in the direction of his Vienna. above of all assumptions that are metaphysical in Kant's sense. or in their dependence on one another. as our and most obvious step. November 1901 PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION THE opinion. involves as a consequence the elimination of superfluous assumptions all. or any comprehensive theory of the universe.xii THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS affinity to an extremely close thought. which cannot be controlled by experience. but to reach an epistemological position which shall prepare the way for the co-operation of special departments of research. the conception of the sensations as the all common in elements of possible^physical in and psychical experiences. and. examined here. we obtain. not to solve problems.

At that time I was only acquainted with Kant and Herbart. I may nevertheless be permitted to believe that I have not merely pursued a subjective phantom. but have contributed . in connexion. Expressions of extravagant praise and of equally extra- vagant blame. I hope that what succeeded. in the solution of important problems of from this point of view that the accounts of special investigations. we shall hope trace the is same exact physical. by moderating both. may promote a sober thirty-five years ago. We then expect to find. It is xiii from one another. have just said. about by overcoming my own prejudices. converge almost towards one point. in firmly establishing setting myself free my present position and in intellectual from the attained greatest discomfort of my life. spite of all their individual differences. corresponding to all the details the sensaI which physiological analysis can discover tions. as in many details of physical nerve-process. I thereby to a certain satisfaction.AUTHORS PREFACES detail. which we seek in everything that the relations between the physical and the psychical also. in these circumstances. To-day I see that a whole host of philosophers — positivists. When. adherents of the philosophy of immanence. have tried to describe this relation. so far as I have been able to do so. If there is which are given here. without any knowin ledge of one another's work. If. I judgment. should be regarded. critical empiricists. have I come to my ears. and isolated scientists as well certain — have all. essential difference no between the physical and to the psychical. entered upon paths which. I cannot rate very high the value of my individual labours.

Josef Pollak and Dr. November 1902 . for which I thank them most heartily. where ideas are concerned of which the leading threads reach back to antiquity. lecturers in the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Vienna. Vienna. Wolfgang Pauli. have been so extremely kind as to read the proofs. to set up any claims to priority. would of course be absurd.xiv THE ANAL YSIS OF SENSATIONS many others It towards the attainment of a goal at which besides myself have been aiming. Dr.

. 122 171 A. . 57 ^v.. The Relations of the Si. -^ IX. our Conception of Physics 310 354 373 377 How MY Views have been received Index of Subjects Index of Names .. BiOLOGico teleological Considerations as to Space X. . % XIII.ght-sensations to one another and to other psychical elements Sensation. . Memory and Association The Sensation of Time The Sensations of Tone . 46 The Chief Points of View for the Investiga tion of the senses .. VII. Influence of the preceding Investigations on A XV. ... .. . VI... 195 235 245 262 XIV. XII. . My Relation to Richard Avenarius and other Thinkers IV.. ... : Antimetaphysical . 83 102 The Space-sensations of the Eye The Will - Further Investigation of Space-sensations VIII... Physics and Biology : Causality and Teleology .. t .XI... . On Preconceived Opinions 38 ^iii..CONTENTS Introductory Remarks II..

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to exhaust all the subject-matter in question. INTRODUCTORY REMARKS: ANTIMETAPHYSICAL. nevertheless con- but a portion of a larger collective body of knowthat it ledge. is possible its the physiology of the senses. the physiology of the senses. THE modern ploy its great results achieved by physical results science its in times — not restricted to own sphere but embracing that of other sciences which em- help — have are brought it about that physical ways of thinking all and physical modes of procedure enjoy on associated drift hands unwonted prominence. and is unable. This tendency must appear to us as not altogether appropriate. despite stitutes its when we reflect that physics. it Without for renouncing the support of physics. In keeping with this of modern inquiry.I. gradually abandoning the method of investigat- ing sensations in themselves followed by men like Goethe. considerable development. created for limited and special purposes. with its limited intellectual implements. and that the greatest with their expectations application. has also assumed an almost exclusively physical character. not only to pursue own . Schopenhauer. and others. but with greatest success by Johannes Miiller.

by certain complexes of colors. features presented. and are called bodies. Relatively greater permanency is exhibited. which therefore receive names. forth. It is same friend with whom I take my . Its temperature varies. engraves on the memory. change. may His shape may be altered by motion. polished. spaces. always so great. it and replaced part by part. but also to afford to physical science itself The illustrate following this simple con- siderations will serve to relation between the two. pressures. assume a serious or a cheerful His complexion. that which is relatively forth. But. His countenance expression. Absolutely permanent such complexes are not. One of may be broken. pressures. remains the table at which I daily write. and expresses language. Colors. Out of this fabric. and so in forth. and so ways . times. or be Yet the number of the permanent definitely changed. are connected with one another in manifold and with them are associated dispositions of mind. and volitions. sounds. for me. My friend may put may on a different coat. My its table is now It brightly. may be repaired. functionally connected special time and space. compared with the is number of the gradual alterations. legs may It receive an ink stain. temperatures. more fixed itself and permanent stands prominently itself in first. that the latter the may be overlooked. sounds.2 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS powerful assistance. course of development. feelings. daily walk. under the effects of light or emotion. now dimly lighted.

Further. I . and as feelings. of relative permanency. partly voluntary and conscious economy of as is mental presentation and designation. which "I" I or "Ego. in slowness of its changes. and the little habits that are unconsciously and involuntarily kept up for long periods of time. the ego also is remain to identify the ego. The many thoughts and plans of yesterday that in are continued to-day. impel us to the partly instinctive. That which presented in a single image receives a single designation. a tear. There can hardly be greater differences in the egos of different people. or entirely wanting). that complex of memories. Of The apparent permanency in the single fact of its of the ego consists chiefly the continuity. may be quiet cheerful. constitute the groundwork of the ego. My very manner of expressing this shows that we are concerned here with a sum-total of permanency. only Yet. When I recall to-day my early youth. to which the new element is is added and from which taken away. and of which our environment waking hours incessantly reminds us (whence in dreams the ego can be very indistinct. its and the preponderance of importance for me as con- trasted with the changeable element. than occur in the course of years in one person. that which is lacking subsequently Our greater intimacy with this sum-total of permanency. is joined to a particular body (the called the human body)." manifests itself relatively permanent. excited and ill-humored. I may be engaged upon and cases apart. moods. this or that subject. doubled. pathological enough durable features course.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS My coat 3 may receive a stain. expressed in ordinary thought and speech. a single name.

Many an impresses article that myself penned twenty years ago me now as something quite foreign to myself. Ribot ascribes the principal rdle in preserving the continuity ofthe ego to the general sensibility. I. Such things are much very poorly. that has just entered. in death. I got into an omnibus. Treatise on Human Nature y Vol. thought I. for a different person. Beitrdge zur Physiognosie und Eantognosie. after a trying railway journey by night. . T/ie Diseases of Personality (second edition. Gruithuisen. by preserved in countless copies. Hume. ^ Cp. were for not I the existence I of the chain of memories. Generally. I am as in perfect accord with his views. 1888. That which is most valued or. was unknown to me. p. with the exception of it a few individual features. just as another man appeared at the " What a shabby pedagogue that is. part iv. The physiognomy of my class. I was not a little taken aback when a moment afterwards I found that it was my own face which.4 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS I should take the boy that . actually occurs in in us. when a young man. 1895). abundant remains measure." other end. accordingly. in passing by a shop where mirrors were sold. I had perceived reflected from two mirrors that were inclined at the proper angle to each other. ' in cases of exceptional Once. i8i2. 6. but in a much less degree than people imagine. I noticed in the street the profile of a face that was very displeasing and repulsive to me. It was myself: opposite me hung a large mirror. when I was very tired. Not long ago.pp. Paris. I noticed than the intellectual and the moral ego. people know themselves lines in When wrote these 1886. was better known to me than my own.. the annihilation life That which we so much dread of our permanency. Chicago. little The ego is absolutely permanent as are bodies. 37-58.^ little less analysed and Personally. Munich. then was. Ribot's admirable book. The very gradual character of the changes of the body also contributes to the stability of the ego.

other fruits is we are seeking found bodies in may be sweet. the loss of neither he himself nor others need regret. Thus. ultimate component parts. may pleasant thought. by the formation of the substance-concepts soul). the elements. ' Not to ^ If this process be regarded as . bitter. In the manifoldness of the colors. exhibited properties. first Here the component as its complex are . 5 even preserved of In the best human which being. the tangible. that to say. Indeed. death. however.TifE ^iV^LYS/S excellence. as we shall see. in fact. again. A sweet but it can also be red color neighborothers. The visible. make physiological death any the easier to After a first survey has been obtained. viewed as a liberation from individuality. complexes are found to be made up of common elements. —such into as and so ^ forth. is OF SENSATIONS itself. other component parts are discerned the primary disintegrated colors. gradually. Also. though here fewer in number. even become a Such reflections of course do not bear. are separated from bodies. many bodies. the will is "body" and "ego" (matter and impelled to a more exact examination of the changes that take place in these relatively permanent existences. \vhich hitherto we have been be taken in the metaphysical sense. different of unpleasant. exactly what moves the parts of the fruit is to this examination. the subsequent discussion of concepts in Chapter XIV. an abstraction. is The element of change in bodies will ^ and the ego. The complexes is are their into elements. at times. do not thereby lose anything of their importance. Cp. visible is The analysed into colors and into form. the audible. is The The that hood of some pleasant. there are individual traits.

body. Leipzig. W. seems to be something which exists in is taken ^'Inas- itself. and so forth Cp. may throw of light on it is We these need not here be disturbed by the the scientist fact that easier for to study relations relations of elements than the direct relations between them. F. at impressive. it is imagined to \that it is possible still to subtract a// the parts and have something remaining. sounds. elements need not be discussed that future investigations these at present it is possible it. Das Aergernis det Philosophic eine Kantsiudie. without going to the trouble each time of ' an analysis of their component parts. but subsequently re- cognized as monstrous.6 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The nature of . 1889. Schmidt.^ Thing. matter." different from its "appearance. component The vague image which we have of a given per- manent complex. of a *'thing-in-itself. . ' —the : colors. much as it is possible to take away singly every constituent part without destroying the capacity of the image to stand for the totality and to be recognised again. and of apprehending them by single thoughts. '' names. 1897. first Thus naturally arises the philo- sophical notion. Berlin. Schuppe's polemic against Ueberweg." and unknowable. is apt to come into strange conflict with the tendency to isolate the parts. being an image which does not perceptibly change when one or another of the component parts away. are nothing apart from the combi- nations of the elements. The useful habit of designating such relatively single permanent compounds by . printed in Brasch's Welt-und Lebensanschauung Ueberwegs. unable to subdivide any further.J.

is and greater precision not necessary. have both succumbed in conflict of points Who has not been worsted in similar .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 7 —nothing wfth its apart from their so-called attributes. The baby that does not is know this its with his hat on. electricity or and then measure the width of a Fraunhofer spectrum . willing to neglect all if deviations from the spherical form. the dog that of its perplexed at the new coat master. That protean pseudo-philosophical problem of the single thing many attributes. a thought of its contents (whether heat. A body one and unchangeable only so its long as it is unnecessary to consider details. But when we are obliged to carry on investigations in orography or microscopy. but are usually forced to sense-impressions. that summary comprehension and cannot be carried on precise analysis. Man tarily is pre-eminently endowed with the power of volunhis and consciously determining at own point of view. and immediately thereafter give attention to smallest details . arises wholly from a misinter- pretation of the fact. although both are provisionally justifiable and for many purposes profitable. now consider a stationary current. if Thus we are both the earth and a billiard-ball are spheres. of view. They do not it assume a point of view. He can one time disregard the most salient features of its an object. is simultaneously. both bodies cease to be spheres. without fluidity). line in the he can rise at will to the most general abstrac- tions or bury himself in the minutest particulars. Animals by their father possess this capacity in a far less degree.

. The physiology however. and the odors of bodies are evanescent. ajSy. when we have begun to recognize that seeing and touching are intimately akin in further consideration is. even -hearing. sounds. remains behind. A that owing to the singularly extensive development of mechanical physics a kind of higher reality is ascribed to the spatial .. But of this later. for the sake of clearness. gives to similar -pseudo.. real ground of justification. as the grotesque problem. above referred to. a sort of constant nucleus. the temporal and spatial links of colors. commonly be denoted. colors. sounds of the senses. but the ego rise /itself also.. that spaces and times appropriately be called sensations as colors may and sounds.. as not readily susceptible of annihilation. a. sounds. Let those complexes of called bodies. character. and to the temporal than to colors.problems. But their tangibility. and odors appear to be more real than the colors. just as and odors themselves. more properties attached to it.8 plights ? THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Even the man of philosophy at times succumbs. shows.. by .. sounds. t Not only the character -of relation of bodies to the ego. demonstrates. central keeps our thought firmly attached to this nucleus.. and so forth. briefly indicated as follows : the which may be Let us denote the above-mentioned elements by the letters ABC. sounds. Habit. appearing as the vehicle fugitive of the thus. and odors agreeably to which. XZM. the circumstances appear to furnish Colors. smelling. In this last case.

. .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ABC. by way of changes . we shall represent a> by a . . . . . and vice versa. .. appears to be more intimately connected with a latter y . and opposed to ence. M. . blush.. Usually. opposed J to the complex ABC at first as also. . . ABC. as . and with ABC. is ... the complex e^o. . making up the . 9 ^ / . . (As. for example.AjBC. appearance to the it is sometimes it appears double with closed eyes invisible. and the . now. objects. is always codetermined by at X/. . they appear conditioned by it. therefore. hand. when seen at a differs distance. making up the world of a /3 physical objects ego.s Now. appears that the group ' . it Precisely viewed. do to pass. .. much perceptible change being induced in ABC. and gives it is true. But where. . now. . ^^C . vice versa. . it appears inde- pendent of the ego. however.. .) At the same time the group than the KL M (3 . . and may change But many in complex u^ y .. is . The properties of one and the same body. as a separate exist- But this independence is only relative. . sometimes y .. a part of the former complexes distinguished by certain peculiarities. . when powerful ideas burst forth into acts. appear modified by our own body. /S ^y .. . with one another .. may be volitions.. . . 7 .a. looks large.y ABC. KL M . world of physical . . or when our environment induces noticeable changes in our body. . ^ \ composed of memory-images. A cube from when seen its close . . way upon in the closer inspection. known as our own body. is viewed as and X£M. and their relations find their expression in common thought and speech. small its appearance to the right eye left . changes in a KLM ^ 7 . Much. which the complex rest. . without . called KL M . the complex.

As these "circumstances. deceptions or illusions. in the sensory organs). when we only notice the if is external circumstances. All that can be said that with different KL M different ABC. or at least have not yet deemed necessary to incorporate the fact into our ordinary language. partly internal (inherent and partly interior (having their activity in the central organs). combinations which in the two cases its are differently conditioned. whereas under other and ordinary circumstances a tangible body as well corresponds to the visible image. All that can be truly said of the sense-organs is. Leipzig and Neuwied. A bright surface A long time ago (in the Vierteljahrsschiift fur Psychiairie." now. is.10 is f ' ' THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which appears so different 1 that same body. but is tactually fiat and metrically is straight. art. and we see crooked. as same conditions.^ A common is and popular way of thinking and speaking "appearance" with is it to contrast "reality. being partly external (inherent in the objects). ? fact rather than s another to be the and degrading com- the other to the level of appearance In both cases we different have to do with facts which present us with binations of the elements. In the latter is case we say that the pencil appears crooked. under it different circumstances they produce different sensations and perceptions. 1868. A . . are associated. . that the senses represent things neither wrongly nor correctly. " Ueber die Abhangigkeit der Netzhautstelien von einander") I enunciated this thought as follows: The expression ' . are extremely various in character." pencil held in front of us in the air seen by us as straight. that. it can sometimes appear. Precisely in because is of environment the pencil dipped it water optically crooked. But what justifies us in declaring one reality. An image in a concave or mirror only visible. dip it into the water. " sense-illusion" proves that we are not yet fully conscious. And it the organ acted differently under the customary to call the unusual effects. but in reality straight.

almost entirely lacking. ii brighter beside a dark surface than beside one brighter ( To be sure. dreams were more more conpractical more stable. final consequences. the real ^ often asked. In these cases. in which. distinction . We dream for what it . our dreams.I is THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS than itself. and substituting for one another different cases of the combination. dream is and waking. Similarly. with our backs turned towards the fire.When is the process reversed.Where there na and the between reality. in Plato's pregnant and poetical fiction of the Cave. would also have more importance for In our waking hours the relations of the elements to one another are immensely amplified in comparison with what they were recognize the is in is. we fall into the natural error of expecting what to. to speak of " appearance " may have a practical meaning. for j I example. much as any other. they us. appearance and quite otiose The popular notion and reality scientific of an antithesis between appearance has exercised a very powerful influence on and philosophical thought. we observe merely the shadows of what passes {Republic^ vii. The facts are not to blame for that. nected. between worthless. the is contrast contrast. not paying sufficient attention to the conditions. But this conception was not thought out to its i). whether the world it. our expectation is deceived when. the field of psychic vision is narrowed. we merely dream is devoid of is all scientific meaning. is but cannot have question which or whether is a scientific meaning. Even the If our wildest dream a fact as regular. We see this. with the result that it has had an \ . . we are accustomed although the case may be an unusual one.

became completely infinite separated and was removed an distance away. of which nevertheless we are a from us. part. first Similarly. The assertion. . according to circumstances. stellar light. If we touch we S. The visible point. and converted into mere mental symbols. unfortunate influence The universe. is correct that the world consists only of our sensations. bring it into connexion with our body. or of a reciprocal action between them. turns out to be quite idle and superfluous. as We can see S. to which the prick thing is annexed.12 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS on our ideas about the universe. as some- accidental. from which sensations proceed. these nuclei are deprived of entire sensory content. In which case we have knowledge on/y of sensations. From bodies the frequency of analogous occurrences all we ultimately accustom as ourselves to regard properties of " effects " proceeding from permanent nuclei and conveyed to the ego through the medium By this their of the body . then. and the assumption of the nuclei referred to. hearing for the time of the refraction of has thought that doubt was cast on the whole of astronomy. feel the prick But soon as we we find S on the skin. however. Such a view can only suit with a half- hearted realism or a half-hearted philosophical criticism. operation. receive a prick. is a permanent nucleus. therefore. whereas nothing is required but an easily effected and unimportant correction to put everything right again. without feeling the prick. see an object having a point S. many a young man. 6. We that is. which effects we -call sensations.

protect ourselves against pain. the tree. on whom the eyes of the audience are all converged. such as nervous people )ften endure. are my sensations. to the ego nowhere ceases. or in the case of the skilful orator. while arbitrarily displaceable. or in that of the able politician (|n. the metaphysical difficulties in this connexion.. . A t from the world. a pain. that more to as a prick. ^ The ego is not sharply off.. arise. on the other hand.body. its limits are very indefinite and to observe this limits. . the emotional the statement. ABC. involves a real extension of my On side also such extensions occur. \^ con- complex . elements oi ABC . we find ourselves obliged. are in wont /3 7 . Only by failing and by unconsciously narrowing those at the same time we enlarge them. Afterwards. in the conflict of points of view. ordinary man. . and who is controlling the thoughts of all . possesses as perfect a mastery of his instrument as he does of his who own . who is deftly guiding his party and so In conditions of depression. however. met with As soon as we have perceived "body" and "ego" are only provisional orientation that that the supposed unities makeshifts. . designed for and for definite practical ends (so we may take hold of bodies. . first only those . ^y . . to. the ego contracts and shrinks. it through observations of the kind just referred appears that the right to annex ABC. In con- formity with this view the ego can be so extended as ultimately to embrace the entire world. marked . and so forth. fact. be thought of as comprised strongly alter a the ego.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 7- 13 Ordinarily the complex trasted as ego with the a. and so forth). . in many ' When I say that the table. KL M At . as contrasted with the mode of representation of the ego. wall seems to separate .. as in the case of the virtuoso. .

This connexion nothing more or than the combination of the above-mentioned elements with other similar elements (time and space). . of which was only a partially appropriate and imperfect less expression. the earlier notion of an antithesis of body and needed spirit easily slips in again. The philosophical spiritualist is often sensible of the difficulty of imparting the . elements seem to be connected with greater stability and in a more permanent manner (being joined to solid nuclei as it were).14 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS scientific investigations. .. and to get it.. . then and world. 8. . . between sensation (appearance) vanishes. ABC.. KL M . . appears to be made up and of ABC. to more advanced insufficient abandon them and as and inappropriate. is . . . reflexion has evolved. bearings in without at once wanting to explain its existence. In the complex ABC. which easily clouded by our older and ~ more powerful instinctive notions. and we have simply (3 to deal with the connexion of ... yet even when has been recognized. when required to endow The monistic point of is the world of view. The difficulty referred to is particularly felt when we . the elements a this antithesis y . Science has its simply to accept this connexion. X much more evanescent elements in which last the Z J/ . The antithesis between ego thing. /3 On than a superficial examination the complex a y . Although on closer inspection the elements of this all complexes prove to be homogeneous. . . solidity to his is mind-created world of bodies the materialist at a loss matter with sensation. consider the following case.

. we find as not only our 15 parts. in the case of a three-year-old boy of my own. may experience a veritable enlargement of his worldview. (our body). the reciprocal relations of the elements of the complex . but also the bodies of . . once afterwards. ABC. they could have got there . . other persons (or animals) to A" L' M' . restricted to this course. Not only is the we add them domain which we now enter it far less familiar to us. Our habit of always following the same path. . But we are not first. which I have now long held. . on the piercing of the wall of a house in which he has long dwelt. similar to a 7 So long as we deal with K' L M' . . When I first five years. . . . ^ we imagine we is other a' ^' y' /3 . which. without regarding KL M . ^ Persons who adopt this only. reflexion of the text. I remarked the same astonishment. own body KL M . . . K" Z" M" . while walking on the walls I recall this feeling every time I occupy myself with the of Prague. . . from my point of view. as a boy of four or and was taken by my father upon the walls of the city's I fortifications.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which we have called the world of matter. find ourselves in a thorat every point accessible oughly familiar province which to our senses. was very much surprised to see people below in the moat. great enlightenment. tends greatly to confuse our field of A child.. came to Vienna from the country. will never thoroughly rid themselves of that sense of insecurity. we inquire after the sensa- tions or feelings belonging to the body K' L' : M' . . 1 . When.. which is a very fertile source of illusory problems.. by analogy.. and could not understand how./ y// ^ ^^ annexed. for the thought of another way of descent never occurred to me. Let us consider. We have the feeling as we were plungway of thinking ing into an abyss. however.. . .. but the transition into if is also relatively unsafe. . ^// ^. we no longer find these in the province of sense in thought. whether materially or psychically. and in the same manner a slight scientific hint may often aflTord survey. and I frankly confess that this accidental experi- ence of mine helped to confirm my opinion upon this point.

pressures." " complex of elements. The ball turns yellow before a sodium lamp. If If we press one eye to the side.. we close our eyes entirely. only in their functional dependence. to which the elements. a sound is heard.) . but form which will be perhaps more acceptable to scientists. . 1906. because most people are much more while familiar with the elements in question as sensations (colors. The elements extent. according to the popular conception is particles of mass that are con^ sidered as physical elements. spaces. A C SiS belonging to the ego. relation they are at the In another functional same time physical objects. no sound is heard.). We only use the additional term ''sensations" to describe the elements. 1905 (2nd edition." cast in a of this fundamental point. in the sense here used. B ..." the expressions " element.) . appear to be connected only with one another and to be independent of our body (JCL balls. it etc. therefore. M . that the elements are sensations. falls upon a bell . identical in essentials.i6 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS A white ball All physical investigations are of this sort. call To this and to this extent only^ do we ABC. sensations^ and regard what follows. sounds. In wherever the reader finds the terms " Sensaused alongside of or instead of it tion. ' A treatment Leipzig.. there is no ball there If we sever the auditory nerve. ). will be found in vay Erkenntnis und Irrtum^ Leipzig.." " Sensation-complex. are attached as "properties " or "effects. are not only con- nected with one another. the ball again turns yellow. But if we take santonine.." must be borne in mind that it is on/y in the connexion and relation in question. ABC. but also with K L M. red before a lithium lamp. times. we see two at all. Here the elements (ABC.

has a more extensive and . at certain places (as in the ego) firmly coherent thaii in others. . this I more have often made use of image in lectures. . and so forth. only. which. Compare my Grtindlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempjindun' Engelmann. a sensation.. KL M . between the material world and the spiritual world.54I there. Thus the great gulf between physical and psychological in our habitual research persists only when we acquiesce stereotyped conceptions. . P. by these processes. in which.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS In this 17 way. but definitely. all put in motion except that a disturbance in KLM . soon as we consider its dependence.. When we dependence upon the retina (the elements it is KL M ." B . constitute a single coherent mass is . bodies and sensations above described. . we do not find the gap between is. its . boulder shakes the earth but the severing of a nerve of elements. Leipzig. upon other colors. however.. consider. A magnet in our a neighborhood falling disturbs the particles of iron near it. between what without and what is within.' All elements ABC. and can be regarded as conditioned sensations. . upon temperatures..). accordingly. sets in motion the whole system Quite involuntarily does this relation of things suggest the picture of a viscous mass. we call in so far as they are connected with certain processes of our bodies. profound action than one m ABC . . for the first time. upon spaces. A color is a physical object as for instance. . 1875. when any one element is disturbed. upon its luminous source. " Appearance stated my view shortly. Not the subject- gen. a psychological object. in these words ' : may be subdivided into elements.

pp. different in the two domains. is the picture represented in the to accompanying cut presented my left eye. more * striking changes are determined than is if other bodies its A discussion of the binocular field of vision. will gain in strength and vividness facts Thus.l8 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is matter. idea is immediately exis pressed by a movement and that. to the sensations and thoughts of — that — other people. so differs far as visible. Otherwise there is no essential difference. by part of my and by my moustache. influence of our to complete own body upon our own observed facts we have is by analogy.. my eyebrow. environment. as well as in investigating the sensations. This accomplished with it much our greater ease and certainty. with peculiar all. say. from which they flow. to which they possess. omitted here. for although familiar to not as easy to describe. and cannot be represented by a single plane drawing. (Cp. The been if considerations just advanced. fully only to nervous processes. 43. which cannot be observed in own bodies familiar physical the psychical is. In a frame formed by the ridge of nose. when relates. . 44. if touched. when it is carried out in the more domain than when it is extended to domain. appears a with its my body. expressed as they have in an abstract form. it is stereoscopic features. also Chapter II. My fact body that from other human bodies — beyond it the every intense motor of it. but the direction of our investigation.) Both of other in reasoning from the observation of the bodies the sensations men or animals. we consider the concrete I lie upon my sofa. 10. If I close my right eye.

provided B. and investigate its connexion with another element B within the same field. that is it is only seen If I piecemeal. especially.. and.. ^iSfei^S^^jey?-. observe an element |i A within my field of vision. to use the . I step out of the domain of physics into that of physiology or psychology. I.^.. Fig. seen without a head.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS are touched 19 — by the circumstance.

much its is less is determinate. in which the following occurs ** : Problem Solution : To carry out the self. which always takes place ' when the image is vivid enough. a The represented tree has a much more changeable form ." I embarked on the above drawing. Popper of Vienna.. compelled me to read one of C. that see a green is. plainly appears in a different domain. we are perfectly aware of the difference of the two cases. ^ It was about 1870 that the idea of this drawing was suggested to me by an amusing chance. .. whose many eccentricities were redeemed by his truly amiable character. now long dead.." and at the same time to sophical notions that are apt to be carefully passed over in silence or involved in obscurity.20 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ^ apposite expression of a friend this of mine made upon seeing drawing. green much that paler it and more evanescent . A certain Mr L. Reference has already been made to the different . when we tree. As a matter of fact. what to execute of especial note. and. will is A movement we never more than a represented movement. F." this philosophical In order to illustrate in a humorous manner " much shew how the selfinspection of the Ego could be really "carried out. . Krause's writings. Mr L 's society was most instructive and stimulating to me. II. and a /3 7 . passes through my skin. and appears in a different domain from that of the executed movement. : It is carried out immediately. Now the statement J. or remember a green represent a green tree to ourselves. Reflexions like that for the field of vision may be made with regard to the province of touch and the perceptual domains of the other senses.inspection of the Ego. tree before us. character of the groups of elements denoted by ABC . owing to the naivety with which he gave utterance to philoado about nothing.

w
means,

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
that the elements
if

21

^

and a appear
bottom of
it,

in different domains,

we go

to the

simply

this,

that these

elements are united with different other elements.
far,

Thus
.

therefore, the
2'_j
• .

fundamental constituents oi
the
.

ABC
only

.

.,

a
t

/3

would seem to be
motor

same
.

(colors,

sounds,
the

spaces,

times,

sensations

.),

and

character of their connexion different.

Ordinarily pleasure and

pain are regarded as different
all

from sensations.

Yet not only tactual sensations, but

other kinds of sensations,

may

pass gradually into pleasure

and

pain.

Pleasure and pain also

may be

justly

termed

sensations.
familiar,

Only they are not so well analysed and so
perhaps,
limited to so few organs as the
fact,

nor,

common
pain,

sensations.
faint

In

sensations of pleasure
be,
all

and
an

however
part

they

may

really

constitute

essential

of the

content of

so-called emotions.

Any

additional
are

element that emerges into consciousness

when we

under the influence of emotions may be
William James, ^ and

described as more or less diffused and not sharply localized sensations.
after

him Theodule
mechanism of
is

Ribot,^ have investigated the physiological

the emotions

:

they hold that what

is

essential

purposive
cor-

tendencies of the body to action

—tendencies
and not

which

respond to circumstances and are expressed in the organism.

Only a part of these emerges into consciousness.
are

We
versa^

sad

because

we

shed

tears,

vice

says James.

And Ribot

justly observes

that a cause of
is

the backward state of our knowledge of the emotions

James, Psychology^ New York, 1890, II., p. 442. Th. Ribot, La psychologic des sentiments^ 1896. (English translation, The Psychology of the Emotions 1897.

W.

*

^

22
that

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
we have always confined our observation
At the same time he goes too
everything psychical
it

to so

much

of these physiological processes as emerges into consciousness.
far

when he main^^

tains that

is

merely

suraj'ouf^" to

the physical, and that
effects.

is

only the physical that produces

For us

this distinction is non-existent.

Thus, perceptions, presentations, volitions, and emotions,
in short the

whole inner and outer world, are put together,

in

combinations of varying evanescence and permanence, out
of a small number of homogeneous elements.
Usually, these

elements are called sensations.
sided theory inhere in that term,
elements, as
is

But as vestiges of a one-

we

prefer to speak simply of

we have already done.

The aim

of all research

to ascertain the
it

mode

of connexion of these elements.^

If

proves impossible to solve the problem by assuming one

set of

such elements, then more than one

will

have to be

assumed.

But

for the questions

under discussion it would be
in

improper to begin by making complicated assumptions
advance.
12.

That
is

in this

complex of elements, which fundamentally

only one, the boundaries of bodies and of the ego do

not admit of being established in a manner definite and
sufficient for all

cases, has

already been

remarked.

To

bring together elements that are most intimately connected

with pleasure and pain into one ideal mental-economical

Compare the note at the conclusion of my treatise, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Saizes der Erhaltung der Arbeit^ Prague, Calve, {History and Root of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy. 1 872. Translated and annotated by P. E. B. Jourdain, Chicago, Open Court
'

Publishing Co., 191 1.)

dlel'---v»ie»-!^Vw ^

A^^sf^
23

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
unity, the

ego

;

this is

a task of the highest importance

for the intellect

working in the service of the pain-avoiding,
will.

pleasure-seeking
fore,
is

The

delimitation of the ego, thereis

instinctively

eifected,

rendered familiar, and

possibly

becomes

fixed through heredity.

Owing
"

to their

high practical importance, not only for the individual, but
for the entire species, the

composites " ego

and " body

"

instinctively

make good
are

their claims,

and

assert themselves

with elementary force.
practical ends
is

In special cases, however, in which

not concerned, but where knowledge

an end
be

in itself, the delimitation in question

may prove

to

insufficient, obstructive,

and untenable.^
ego,
p.

The primary fact is not the (sensations). What was said on
" sensation
constitute
"

but the elements
21
as to

the term

must be
I.

borne

in

mind.

The elements
signifies

the

/

have the sensation green,

that the element green occurs in a given

complex of other
cease to have

elements (sensations, memories).
the sensation green,

When /

when /

die,

then the elements no

'

Similarly, class-consciousness, class-prejudice, the feeling of nation-

and even the narrowest-minded local patriotism may have a high But such attitudes will not be shared by the broad-minded investigator, at least not in moments of
ality,

importance, for certain pttrposes.
research.

All such

egoistic

views are adequate only
the investigator

for

practical

purposes.

Of

course, even

may succumb
;

to

habit.

Trifling pedantries

and nonsensical discussions

the cunning appro;

priation of others' thoughts, with perfidious silence as to the sources

when

the

word

of recognition must be given, the difficulty of swallow-

ing one's defeat,

and the too common eagerness

at the

same time

to set

the opponent's achievement in a false light: all this abundantly
that the scientist that the

shows

and scholar have also the battle of existence to fight, ways even of science still lead to the mouth, and that the pure impulse towards knowledge is still an ideal in our present social

conditions.

24

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
That
Only an ideal mental-economical
has ceased to exist.
sharply
-

longer occur in the ordinary, familiar association.
'

is all.

unity, not a real

unity,

The ego
unity.
all

is

not a definite,

unalterable,
attributes

bounded
for

None

of

these
the

are

important;
life
;

vary even within

sphere of individual

in

fact their alteration is

even
is

sought

after

by

the

individual.

Continuity

alone

important.

This view accords admirably with the position

which Weismann has reached by biological investigations.
("

Zur Frage der Unsterblichkeit der Einzelligen," Biolog.
Vol.
IV.,

Centralbl.,

Nos.

21,

22

;

compare

especially

pages 654 and 655, where the scission of the individual
into
*(

two equal halves

is

spoken

of.)

But continuity
is

is

only a means of preparing and conserving what
tained in the ego.
principal thing.

con-

This content, and not the ego, This content, however,
is

is

the

not confined
insignificant

to the individual.

With the exception of some
it

and
that

valueless personal memories,

remains preserved in

others even after the death of the individual.

The elements

make up

the consciousness of a given individual are

firmly

connected with one another,

but with those of

another individual they are only feebly connected, and
the

connexion

is

only casually apparent.

Contents of

consciousness, however, that are of universal significance,

break through these limits of the individual, and, attached
of course to individuals again, can" enjoy a continued exist-

ence of an impersonal, superpersonal kind, independently
of the personality by

means of which they were developed.
is

To

contribute to this

the greatest happiness of the
etc.

artist,

the scientist, the inventor, the social reformer,

The ego must be

given up.

It is partly

the perception

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
of this fact, partly the fear of
it,

25

that has given rise to the

many extravagances
numerous
religious,

of pessimism
ascetic,

and optimism, and to
absurdities.

and philosophical

In the long run we shall not be able to close our eyes to
this

simple truth,

which

is

the
shall

immediate outcome of
then no longer place so

psychological analysis.

We

high a value upon the ego, which
dividual
life

even during the

in-

greatly changes,
in

and which,
just

in sleep or during

absorption

some

idea,

in

our

very

happiest

moments, may be

partially

or wholly absent.

We

shall

then be willing to renounce individual immortality,^ and
not place more value upon the subsidiary elements than

upon the
preclude

principal ones.

In

this

way we
egos

shall arrive at

a freer and
the

more enlightened view of
disregard

hfe,

which
the

will

of

other

and

over-

estimation of our own.
this

The
is

ethical ideal
far

founded on

view of

life

will

be equally

removed from the
once with his

ideal of the ascetic,

which

not biologically tenable for
at
dis-

whoever

practises

it,

and vanishes
the
ideal

appearance,

and

from

of

an

overweening
I

Nietzschean

"superman," who cannot, and

hope

will

not be tolerated by his fellow-men.^
If a tions)

knowledge of the connexion of the elements
does not
suffice us,

(sensa-

and we

ask,

W/io possesses this

connexion of sensations,

W/io experiences it? then we

have succumbed to the old habit of subsuming every
'

In wishing to preserve our personal memories beyond death,

we

are behaving like the astute Eskimo,

who

refused with thanks the gift

of immortality without his seals and walruses.
^

However

far

the

distance

is

practical conduct,

still

the latter cannot in

from theoretical understanding to the long run resist the

former.

26

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
falling

element (every sensation) under some unanalysed complex,

and we are
lower,
,

back imperceptibly upon an
It is
is

older,

and more

limited point of view.

often pointed

out, that a psychical experience

which

not the experience
it is

of a determinate subject
in this

is

unthinkable, and

held that

way the

essential part played by the unity of con-

sciousness has been demonstrated.

But the Ego-conscious-

ness can be of
multiplicity of
i

many

different degrees

and composed of a
just as well

chance memories.

One might

say that a physical process which does not take place in

some environment
universe,
is

or other, or at least

somewhere

in the

unthinkable.

In both cases, in order to make

a beginning with our investigation, v/e must be allowed to
abstract from the environment, which, as regards its influ-

ence,

cases

may be very different in different cases, and in special may shrink to a minimum. Consider the sensations
to

of the lower animals,
features can hardly

which a subject with definite
It is

be ascribed.

out of sensations

that the subject

is

built up, and,

once

built up,

no doubt

the subject reacts in turn on the sensations.

The

habit of treating the unanalysed ego-complex as an

indiscerptible unity frequently assumes in science remark-

able forms.

First,

the nervous system

is

separated from

the body as the seat of the sensations.

In the nervous

system again, the brain
for this end,

is

selected as the organ best fitted

and
is

finally, to

save the supposed psychical

unity, a poin^

sought in the brain as the seat of the soul.

But such crude conceptions are hardly fit even to foreshadow the roughest outlines of what future research will do for the connexion of the physical and the psychical.

The

fact that the different organs

and

parts of the nervous

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
excited By, one another,
is

27
;

system are physically connected with, and can be readily

probably

at the

bottom of the

'^

notion of "psychical unity."
I

once heard the question seriously discussed,

"How

the perception of a large tree could find

head of a

man?"
it

Now, although

this

room in the little "problem" is no
spatially into

problem, yet
that

renders us vividly sensible of the absurdity

can be committed by thinking sensations

the brain.

When

I

speak of the sensations of another
they are mentally added, and

person, those sensations are, of course, not exhibited in

my
I

optical or physical space

;

conceive them causally, not spatially, attached to the

brain observed, or rather, functionally presented.

When

I

speak of

spatially in

my own sensations, these sensations do not my head, but rather my "head" shares
same
spatial
field,

exist

with

them

the

as
i

was explained above.

(Compare the remarks on

Fig.

on pp. 17-19 above.)^
not an argument in point.

The

unity of consciousness

is

* As early as the writings of Johannes Mliller, we can already find a tendency towards views of this kind, although his metaphysical bias prevents him from carrying them to their logical conclusion. But Hering (ffermann's Handbuch der Physiologic^ Vol. III., p 345) has

Ihe following characteristic passage:
objects consists
object,
is is

"The

material of which visual
setting sun, as a visual
color,
it

the visual sensations.

The

a

flat,

circular disk,

which consists of yellowish-red

that

is

to

say of a visual sensation.

We

may

therefore

describe

This sensation we have in the very place where the sun appears to us. " I must confess that, so far as the experiments go which I have had occasion to make in conversation, most people, who have not come to close quarters with these questions by serious thinking, will pronounce this way of looking at the matter to be mere hair-sphtting. Of course, what is chiefly
directly as a circular, yellowish-red sensation.

responsible for their indignation
sensible

is the common confusion between But anyone who takes his stand as I do on the economic function of science, according to which nothing is

and conceptual

space.

28

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
through the
senses
lies

Since the apparent antithesis between the real world and
the world given
entirely in our

mode <l

of view,

and no actual

gulf exists between them, a

complicated and variously interconnected content of consciousness
is

no more

difficult to

understand than

is

the

complicated interconnexion of the world.
If

in the following

we regard the ego as a real unity, we become involved dilemma either we must set over against
:

the ego a world of unknowable entities (which would be
quite idle

and

purposeless), or

we must regard the whole
which
difficult to yield

world, the egos of other people included, as comprised in

our

own ego
if

(a proposition to

it is

serious assent).

But

we take the ego simply

as a practical unity, put

together for purposes of provisional survey, or as a more
strongly^cohering group of elements, less strongly connected

with other groups of this kind, questions like those above

discussed will not
structed future.

arise,

and research

will

have an unob"

In his philosophical notes

Lichtenberg
is

says

:

We
be

important except what can be observed or everything hypothetical, metaphysical and
eliminated, must reach the same conclusion,

a datum for us, and
is

superfluous,
I

to

think that a similar

standpoint

is

to be ascribed to Avenarius, for in his

Der

menschliche
brain
is

Welibegriff, p. 76, the following passages occur:

"The
it is

not

the dwelling-place, seat or producer of thought

;

not the instru-

ment

or organ,
is

it is

not the vehicle or substratum, etc., of thought."
it

"Thought

not an indweller or command-giver,
is it

is

not a second
I

half or aspect, etc., nor

a product

;

it

is

not even a physiological

function of the brain, nor

is it

a state of the brain at all."
all

am
me

not
to

able or willing to subscribe to

that Avenarius says or to any interhis conceptioni

pretation of what he says, but 'still approximate very nearly to my own.

seems to

The method which he

terms.

^Tke

exclusion of introjection,"

is

onJy a particular form of the

elimination of the metaphysical.

which alone are accessible. spaces. which it is the task of physiologico-physical research to investigate. too. produce colors. Here.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS become conscious of dependent upon us. are dependent certain 29 presentations that are not least ? of us. in the assumption cf such a view. the physicist forgets. or postula- ego a mere practical necessity. // thinks^ is just as if going too far to say cogtto. / sensations." Though is the method by which Lichtenberg arrived assent to his conclusion. that all bodies are ^. The assumption. of sensations) make up the real. translate cogtto tion. . immediate. whilst the " elements " are regarded merely as their evanescent. sounds. which by interaction with equally mysterious entity. and ultimate foundation. the ego. We It should say. . and many spurious problems are disposed us. 13- at this result somefull what different from ours. are provisionally the ultimate . For therefore. we must nevertheless give our Bodies do not produce sensations. the world does their not consist of mysterious another. of the by is / think. transitory appearance. but complexes bodies. and thoughts. It lightens. others that we at think upon Where is the border-line We we we \ know only s^y^ the existence of our sensations. For us. of elements (complexes If. many points of physiology and physics assume more forms. the elements in question form the real. bodies appear abiding existences. to the physicist. entities. but thought-symbols for complexes of elements (complexes of sensations). distinct and more economical of. . presentations. By the recognition of this fact. times.

Popper in his beautiful book. on a copy of Kant's Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics. 1913).. too. 1863. 1878. Chicago. only seek to adopt in physics a point of view that need not be changed rl the moment our glance is carried over into the domain of another parts of physical theories necessarily absorb a ! we science . and J. and after having endeavored in vain to settle the conflict by a physico-psychological monadology (in my lectures on psycho-physics.30 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it elements. in the Zeitschrift fiir praktische Heilkunde.* ' is our business to It is precisely in this that the exploration of / . 1870. have I attained to any considerable I make no pretensions to the title of philosopher. in the library of my father. Compare also my paper Ueber 62). Das Rchte zu leben und die Pflicht zu sterben (Leipzig. yet this moment was decisive for my whole view. instinctive views would arise with great power and place impediments in my way. Vienna. have always felt it as a stroke of special good fortune. At times. Only by alternate studies in physics and in the physiology of the senses. English translation. the traditional. 4th edition. stability in my views. enlarged. with whose works I became acquainted in 1883. Some two or three years later the superfluity of the r61e played by "the thing in itself" abruptly bright dawned upon me. 364). offer this exposition . which it is very difficult to sift out from what deserves to be preserved. Co. who makes a careful survey of any extensive body of knowledge. With the valuable I I good dose of false metaphysics. that early in about the age of fifteen. have advanced allied thoughts. physics of to-day certainly does not meet this requirement. I also do not wish to of mine as a special achievement. C. O. p. the world with my ego suddenly appeared to me as one coherent mass of sensations. On a open air. It is rather my belief that every one will be led to a similar view. Pub. whose given connexion investigate. in his paper on Memory (^Almanack der Wiener A kademie. ulthnaJtel^j^^allrn^^ whole. Also Hering. p. especially when those theories have become very familiar to us. and by historicophysical investigations (since about 1863). Avenarius. I lighted. 258. say I The molecular What I have probably not been the Jiist to say. p. at reading. approaches my point of view {^Philosophie als Denken der Welt nach dem Princip des kleinsten Kiafimassesy 1876). Although the actual working out of this thonglit did not occur until a later period. for. The book made at the time a powerful and ineffaceable impression upon me. the like of which I never afterwards experienced in any of my philosophical I life. I had still to struggle long and hard before I was able to summer day in the retain the new conception in my special subject. only more strongly coherent in the ego.

179. 40. Science always has its origin in the adaptation of thought to some whole definite field of experience. different. Wahle's Gehirn und Bewusstsein. and not expounded of thought. which are able to represent the of course. a freer. If the field of experience is several fields heretofore discon- nected are united. matter. and life.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS reality consists. conforming to developed experience. have much additional matter to cite as more or less allied to this line my knowledge of the literature were more I . The outcome. reaching out beyond the requirements of practical must be substituted throughout. me also refer here to the introduction to W. In place of the traditional. 1894). p. note die okonomische Natur der physikalischen Forschung {Almanack der p. which disappear when the adaptation for others is perfected. The results is of the adapta- tion are thought-elements. fresher view. if at length until 1882 and 1883. field. problems arise. or if according to the character and extent of the field. the fittest forms of thought On in the must be created and by that research itself. ego. My views were indicated briefly in 1872 and 1875. I should probably extensive. to y' make room which have arisen meanwhile. 14. Wiener A kademie. English translation in Finally let my Popular Chicago. . just as is done in every special science. spirit.. 31 allow In this investigation we must not abridgments ourselves to be impeded by such and with delimitations as body. and to R. enlarged. In the struggle of acquired habit with the effort after adaptation. 1882. the traditional. instinctive ways of thought. 1884. which have been formed for special. practical purposes and wholly provisional and limited ends in view. Scientific Lectures. familiar thought-elements no longer suffice for the extended field. Preyer's Reine Empfindungslehret to Riehl's Freiburger Anirittsrede. etc. contrary.

physics and psychology meet. to give way before a better conever ready. any pretension to being a philosophy at present can it is be adhered to in all fields of experience itself consequently the one that accommodates ) with the least expenditure of energy. value. 'also. in is does not obtrude itself into fields which the current conceptions are also still adequate. however. the person with purely materially supported by the idea of the / or ego. ^ud physicist. but by . Furthermore. be consequently effected. unquestionably. It field upon subsecjuent extensions of the of experience. is So. in the consciousness of function.32 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS To the physicist. not by the and pure desire for knowledge as an end in itself. every form of thought that has been designedly or undesignedly constructed for a given purpose. to the present temporary collective state of knowledge. in the (p. practical aims. sense above defined If we regard sensations. and not the cause of disturbance. domain prove to be untenable in the From the attempt at mutual adaptation arise the various atomic and monadistic theories —which. all the problems referred to appear to be disposed of in essentials. however. presentations and conceptions of the average ception. more economically than any other. that is. and the first and most important adaptation to This fundamental view (without for all eternity) . as the elements of the world. For. It its purely economical this fundamental view is eminently tolerant. the ideas held in the one other. the idea of "body" is is productive of a real facilitation of view. The man full of the world are formed and dominated. possesses for that purpose a pennanent ''When. 13). never attain their end.

. .. he would certainly not be conscious He sees. as attached to them in the same way feelings. will. . Further. intimately connected. with which pain. . from his body KL M . etc. pleasure. The unpreto judiced man of normal psychological development takes the elements which we have called contiguous and external to ABC. . and existing outside As he does not observe . when he has observed that a wire possesses all the properties of a . an "external world ''ABC. . but at the same time also they are preserved from the monstrosities which easily result from a one-sided and impassioned pursuit of a scientific or philosophical point of view. with one another.. always . *rhe analogy impelling him to this result is the same as determines him. . ''This Ego formed by the observation of the special properties of the particular thing KL M are . . to be attached to himself. and these whose behaviour he thoroughly feel- understands as soon as he has thought of analogous ings. feeling. even were such a process to of it. the dependence of the A B Cs little on^Q ' K L M's but is . . sensations. as he observed sensations. he notices things K' L' M\ K" L" M'\ which behave in a manner perfectly analogous to K L M. there appears to him a world of things is independent of his Ego. .^ and he holds this view immediately. etc. then. exist.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS of life. 33 the struggle to adapt himself favourably to the conditions Consequently they are less exact.. at first . . and not by any process of psychological projection or logical inference or construction .. .. etc. (which are always repeating themselves in the same way and consequently receive attention). different it. be spatially the elements KL M . dwelling upon the fixed connexion of the AB C's .

always differently conceived according to the degree of civilization but this process. however. make their appearance alter- him according to the requirements of practical for the time being. and deafness. all so far as seems possible. un- and in science leads into a is maze of error. unity and consistency. memories. KL M . background tries. puts the emphasis now upon now upon the other factor. as was shown above. In this way dualistic and monistic systems arise. intolerable in practice. and persist in a state of nearly stable equilibrium.34 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS electric conductor charged with an current. he is led to ascribe to the sensations. The things plain man is familiar with blindness and knows from is his everyday experience that the look of . while he infers from the behaviour of his fellow-men that they are in the same position over against himself. a particular A B C . ^e would find an idealistic system. the falsification of small significance for practical These nately in life factors. . since he does not perceive the sensations of his fellow- men or of animals but only supplies them by analogy. influenced by his senses but it never occurs to him to regard the whole world as the creation of his senses. Thus. one. makes sometimes one and other its sometimes the starting-point. . to conclude that the wire possesses this one property as well. . determining as they do the intellectual outlook of the plain man. is he has reached necessary. The scientific conception of the world. although life. in its struggle for greater pre- cision.. to thrust into the but the most indispensable conceptions. except one which has not yet been directly demonstrated. or such a monstrosity as solipsism. and. etc. . . of a different nature. It may easily become a disturbing element in unpi ( .

. But the spectre vanishes matter as it at at the it were in a mathematical is and make is clear to ourselves that all that valuable to us the discovery to of functional relations^ and that what we want know is merely the dependence of experiences on one another.. K"L"M" The system scheme. ! . for example. this alone is important for us. . But even when we it allow this fiction. . KLM. ^It then becomes obvious that the reference to unknown funda- mental variables which are not given (things-in-themselves) is purely fictitious and superfluous. the . animals (lifeless) bodies and and plants. a'/3'y . K' . .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS judiced scientific theorizing 35 is is when a conception which strictly adapted to a particular and limited purpose promoted tion. . This conception gives us a tangle of metait physical difficulties which seems impossible to unravel. and . of the elements is indicated in the above lie Within the space surrounded by a single line elements which belong to the sensible world. a^7 . again. . . . — the elements whose regular connexion and peculiar dependence on one another represent both physical the bodies of men. be.' ABC. All these elements. in advance to be the foundation of a// investiga- This happens. . . stand in a relation of quite peculiar dependence to . uneconomical though first. when all experiences are regarded as " effects " of an external world extending into consciousness. to stand at we can " still easily distinguish different classes of the facts of con- mutual dependence of the elements of " the sciousness . a"^'i' . once when we look light. U M' .

Nothing be changed the actual facts or in the functional all relations.a^>t^ ^ . again. 327).. but is cannot be doubted that they are very closely allied to the latter. in so far as in would remain unexplained. sense-physiology are which the of expressed.^ Petzoldt's excellent paper *' ' Cf. p. • The space surrounded by a double line conlife. The presentations a' y of the contents of the consciousness of our fellow-men play for us the part of intermediate substitutions^ by of our fellow-men. These presentations. whether we regard the data as contents of con- Vsciousness.. .36 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS certain of the elements namely — by X L J/^the facts nerves of our body. important for us to recognize that in It is therefore questions in this connexion. Schuppe. ^iyr^ tjj. These may way be distinguished by accents. totality of the K L M.. ( Solipsismus auf praktischem Gebiet" 3. III. tains the elements belonging to the higher psychic memory-images and presentations. or as completely physical. and that in the last resort their behaviour . K L M (the /3' physical world). (associa- are connected with one another in a different tion. in That is the main point. which can be intelligibly asked and which can consideration relations ywill [ interest us. 339). p. Vol. fancy) from the sensational elements it ABC. means of which the behaviour — the functional relation of K' and V M' to for itself all A B C— becomes (physically) it intelligible. and especially by our body and nervous system. Vierteljahrsschi-iftfurwissentschafiliche Philosophie. fiir itrtwanente Philosophie. XXXV. everything turns different on taking into ultimate variables and different of dependence. determined by ^ ^ C . J. " Der Solipsismus" {Zeitschr. including those which we form of the psychic life of our fellow-men. or as partially so.

" but takes " to his beating as really received. and is preserved by nature. Each has importance only some given end.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The biological task of science is 37 to provide the fully developed human individual with as perfect a means of orientating himself as possible. is certainly not one in practice when he has to thank a Minister of State for a decoration conferred upon him. as compared with art.. The Pyrrhonist who is cudgelled in Moliere's Ze " II on saying me semble que vous Manage Force^ does not go me battez. ' . we may admit the biological every error justification of every advance. nay. It is a product of nature. permanent for validity. or when he lectures to an audience. No point of view has absolute. 'Professor X. has arisen in the process of immeasurable time without the intentional assistance of man. and any other must be meaningless. the one-sided intellectual The is every thinker. we have set ourselves is simply to show The task which why and for what lives. of — is. moment he forced to abandon his occupation by practical necessity. it. but an insignificant fact and ephemeral product of every philosopher. No other scientific ideal can be realized. Every- thing that philosophy has accomplished — though is. purpose we hold that standpoint during most of our and why and to for what purpose we are provisionally obliged abandon it. immediately returns to the general point of view of mankind. The that philosophical point of view of the average term may be applied to his naive realism It man — — has a claim if to the highest consideration. who theoretically believes himself to be a solipsist. Nor is it the purpose of these " introductory remarks discredit the standpoint of the plain man.

to be reflected on the upper part of the retina? this He If. parts of the retina situated lower To the subject itself. Let us illustrate this by a few examples. having the sensation such a question cannot present 38 . be transferred the domain of question up. when. and puts to himself very naturally the question. instead of the unprejudiced tion of that field for its investiga- own sake. answers question by the aid of studies in dioptrics. is this question. How does a point situated low down in space come now. The way why we see inverted retinal images the right as a psychological problem. no meaning The we light-sensations of the separate spots of the retina are connected with spacesensations from the very outset. ON PRECONCEIVED OPINIONS how may it THE physicist has frequent occasion to observe field of research greatly our knowledge of some be hampered. which perfectly legitimate to in the province of physics.11. views are transferred to in which have been formed knowledge. has psychology. and " give the name above" to those positions in space that correspond to the down. only obscurity will be produced. A physicist observes the inverted image on the retina of an excised eye. some other department of is Far more serious the confusion which arises from such transference of preconceived opinions from the field of physics to that of psychology.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS It is 39 external the same with the well-known theory of projection. at a spot say. in one another and outside one another. A the physicist (Mariotte) discovers that a certain spot retina is on to Wind. The entire theory of the psychological origin of the external world by the projection of sensations outwards is founded solely on a mistaken sensations of application of physical points of view. are that bound up with is various different sensa- tions of space to say. the gap in the image out. point on the image and the centre of the For the subject having the sensation this problem does not exist. for the simple reason that a defect of light-sensation can blind no more be noticed the blindness. and What do we see how is at the points the gap filled When the is illegitimate form of putting the question in physical terms it eliminated from the psychological inquiry. the is filled not felt. from the beginning than of . The physicist is accustomed correlate with every spatial point a point on the retinal image. to find the luminous object-point corresponding to a point on the retinal image. lie fills but a part. is will be found that no problem gap We not see nothing at the blind spots. spatial field. and with every point on the image a sensation. the house. A projection-problem never presents itself. or rather. the thus self-evidently outside my body. exists at all here. sight Our and touch . as the light sensations are connected from the beginning with determinate space-sensations. is neither consciously nor unconsciously solved. The problem of the physicist is. by prolonging the ray that passes through the eye. Hence out ? the question arises. The table. in a which our body tree. in other words. corresponding to the blind spot. they exist by the side of exist.

" "Matter *' to fill space continuously." and so on.40 the skin THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS of the back can cause a gap in the visual field. when we claim absolute field of physics." practice of canni- By its side lay the book of an English inquirer who finds deals with the same course subject. and comes to under- stand the position the Hindus take in the matter of view that occurred once to — a point boy who ! my five-year-old while eating a piece of meat stopped. The latter simply puts the question why the certain South-Sea Islanders are cannibals." oug/i/ not "The earth 02/g/if not to rotate. which is valid and serviceable in one field. out in of his inquiries that our own ancestors also were once cannibals. validity for views reached in the and transfer them to the field of psychology without having first tested their applicability. as they can best make clear what unnecessary confusion is caused by the thoughtless transference of a conception or mode of thought. But a and we shall say. In the work of a celebrated German ethnographer recently read I the following sentence : " This tribe has become deeply degraded through the balism. suddenly shocked. and " cried out. " IVe are cannibals beings " is to the animals Thou maxim shalt not eat . In such cases . our procedure from that just characterized only in degree and not in kind. human a very praiseworthy it but in the mouth of the ethnographer destroys that mild and sublime glow of freedom from prepossession inquirer." I believe that Energy m?ist be differs constant. by which we delight to recognize the true step further. into another quite different field. I have intentionally chosen simple and obvious examples. *' Man mus^ not be descended from monkeys.

when I ascertain the fact that an electric current ampere develops 10 J cubic i centimetres of oxyhydrogen gas at 0° C. like our scholastic forefathers. lie or not of the sensations (elements) that at their base. I may perhaps be is to explain my position with regard to the dualism of the physical artificial and the psychical. and 760 mm. dogma forced upon us from ourselves. yet to that which result of research is we have created very skill And what there that could not become a dogma by long habit ? The which we have acquired to deal with constantly recurring intellectual situations deprives us of the freshness and open-mindedness which we so situations.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS we succumb to 41 to dogma. greatly need in new able After these general remarks. without. attribute I am I readily disposed to to the objects defined a reality wholly inde- pendent of to arrive at for my sensations. in order what have defined. to conduct the current. In the investigation generally that as of purely of so physical abstract processes we employ concepts a rule a character at all. having the intensity of mercury-pressure in a minute. For example. shall turn the magnetic needle a certain meridian. of the volume the . through a circular wire having a definite radius. if not. the existence of which my sensations are my only warrant. This dualism to my mind and unnecessary. I But am obliged. angular distance out tion of the The determinaof of the magnetic intensity. so that the current. we think only cursorily. the intensity of terrestrial magnetism being given.

whose contraction produces In so doing felt new I physical changes in the environment. These elements resolution — elements as . which must precede the can easily happen to the the experiment. is | oxyhydrogen statement is no less intricate. world built up. The whole based upon an almost unending series of if sensations. etc. he does not trees for (to reverse that a well-known saying) see the the wood. me nor deceive me with respect to my Long prior to the development of a scientific psychology people had nevertheless perceived that the behaviour of .. he overlooks of his the sensory I elements that at the foundation physical work. through a sensitive nerve to the it central organ I can thence trace by various paths to the muscles. and the assurance that " everything depends on "the motion of molecules can neither console ignorance. our complete comprehension of the details of this process. the sense that no further has yet been made of —are the simplest materials out of which the physical. particularly we take it into consideration the adjustment actual of the apparatus. and also is the psychological. . what physical object. Now physicist who does not study that psychology of his operations. am is precluded from thinking of any sensation by the man or animal a purely to under observation. Physiological research also character.42 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS gas. Now maintain every concept means nothing but a certain definite kind of connexion of the sensory elements which I have denoted by in A B them C. I am is investigating lacking. . as it may be of a purely physical I can follow the course of a physical process itself propagates . it Very much is true. .

can be predicted much if greater accuracy. inert. Psychological analysis has taught us that this surprise is unjustifiable. to can be better underanimal I we like I attribute the sensations and memories our own. . This antithesis appears even more abrupt to the scientific inquirer who is investigating a nervous process by the aid of colorless abstract concepts. situation above described is is therefore an illusion. — which serves to lies the Before me the leaf of a plant. sensory confined to dispel my own illusion. To that which observe.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS an animal under physical with stood. This may actually appear as something entirely new and strange.e. or by is elements which possibly be observed. which are not be found in the field my own sensations. There also another consideration. 43 influences i. . currents. and is required. and we ask ourselves how it is that this miraculous thing electrical is produced from chemical processes. for example. — a consideration sphere. The same mentally analysis also shows us that complexes of y/" the process of supplementing sensations according to analogy by means of elements the which at moment cannot are not being observed. since the physicist is always operating with sensations. one which is daily practised by the physicist as. have to supply mentally the sensations of to the animal. to add mentally last to that process the sensation green. heavy The totally strange character of the intellectual mass. to my of sensations. when he imagines the moon a tangible. and the like.. for example.

. Now in its dependence its upon BCD. If there doing this for my own eye. is psychical. . also connected with a certain process of is my There nothing to prevent me in principle from investigating this process in my own . not altered at our attention to the one or to the other form of dependence. —the is green (A) will pass into white (G). I take it. and the gap filled other physical investigations. eye in exactly the same manner it as in the previous cases. I see. and can also be element. with a sensation of touch and with the visibility of the sun or the lamp (D). —an operation by All which can be represented. . therefore. connected with a certain optical sensation of space {B). and from reducing are difficulties in to its elements X YZ .. like the preceding one. these observations are But the green (A) retina. exactly as in else's eye. once physical and psychical The obscurity of this intellectual situation has. the green (A) will pass into brown (F).. in itself. elements. p. . in is depend- ence on X is Y Z . physical observations. no opposition of physical and elements. .44 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS {A) of the leaf is The green (C). chlorophyl granules be removed by alcohol. arisen solely from the transference of a physical preposses- . whethef we direct however. it can be done with some one out by analogy. as a sensation. but simple identity as regards these In the sensory sphere of at my consciousness everything (cp. 17). considered a psychical all The green '(^). ^ is it a physical element. If the yellow (E) of a sodium flame takes the place of If the the sun.

this The psychologist second portion of declaration.) =o (zero). For him. method of combination of the symbolically by saying ABC that This is may be expressed it the object of special research to find equations of the form f{A BC . must be something I entirely different from the physical objects accepts the is deal with. therefore. for are immediately and indubitably and me they can never afterwards be volatilized away by considerations which ultimately are always based on their existence. which has is not been to made the superfluous peculiar by this general survey. . must be quite is different from sensations. Or are we here being led round the . as . . conformably with the pre- possession. The task of specialized investigation in the sensory physico-psychical sphere. as it now the one and now the other appears unattainable and involved in impenetrable obscurity. sensations are the primary dafa physical but to these there corresponds a mysterious something which. in a circle by some I evil spirit? believe that latter is the case. The physicist says I everywhere bodies and the motions of bodies only. For me the elements given. ? But it what is it that the really mysterious thing ? Is It the Physis or the Psyche Or is is it perhaps both ? would almost appear that so. ABC. no sensations sensations. . proper. . .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS sion to find 45 : the field of psychology. ascertain s.

MY RELATION TO RICHARD AVENARIUS AND OTHER THINKERS.III. borders closely physical facts. My on that of the representatives of the philosophy of immanence. I perhaps with some small modification. I. This is especially true in the case of Schuppe. philosophers and philosophically inclined A not I enumeration of these points of contact would require to begin with Spinoza. as sources of knowledge. would be hopeless to reach an underthe views of Avenarius. In this book I have found scarcely anything to which. the afifinity As to between them and my own is as great as can possibly be 46 . To be it sure. constitutes cannot yield a of the . from Comte in holding that the psychological facts are. HAVE I full already alluded to points at which the views here advocated are in touch with those of various scientists. moreover. me That my is starting-point is essentially different differ from Hume's of course obvious. his conception Ego a point of difference between us but not a point on which standing. hearty assent. with whose packed writings I became acquainted in 1902 : his OutH?ie of is Theory of Knoivledge and Logic^ a work which with thought and which can be read without a special dictionary. at least as important as the position. struck a particularly sympathetic chord in me.

my words have often critic enough been misunderstood. Thus. exhaustive indeed but highly generalized. I willingly I admit my distaste for an artificial terminology have perhaps fallen into the opposite extreme to that of Avenarius. is The agreement somewhat obscured by the great difference of form. nor shall if it is I be offended that in regarded in that light. since he already results to knows the which investigation ot^g/iif to lead). structions of this kind I For con- had neither occasion nor vocation. first and foremost. might be seen leading not only into the field of physics but also into that of psycho-physiology. Avenarius presents us with a scheme. process of development. whence practicable paths. or only be understood after much study. While Avenarius to is often not to be understood. you have to choose a system then within the walls of that . yet in brevity it has the form of a mere aperp^. battle With the attainment of this. Although my theory is the of long years of meditation from earliest youth upwards. neither inclination nor talent. which is made more difficult to grasp by a strange and unfamiliar terminology. shrouded no metaphysical clouds. since I use ordinary language. safe What in I aimed at was merely to and clear philosophical standpoint. I am a scientist and not attain a a philosopher. and proceeds to reproach me with being it is difficult to place. that One acute considers many of my results are results is which I oi/g/if not to have reached (he therefore in a position to save himself the trouble of investigation. .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS imagined where two writers have 47 different undergone a fields. work in different and are completely independent of one another. fruit my its was won. and to consequently impossible to see what "system" I adhere.

its somewhat hypermetatasting the full phorical terminology prevented rapture elderly me from of agreement. In this way all kinds of current popular views have been comfortably read into my words. have been accused of idealism. by means of Avenarius' publications. I recognized the affinity between our views at a very early stage. which are in a fair bring to light and . 1891. which had appeared in 1876 and had dentally acci- come in my way It shortly before the publication of my Mechanik. Cornelius. and 1894." of I believe myself to be innocent. although time I was only able to refer to one of Avenarius' minor kleinstefi works (Denke?t der Welt nach dem Prinzip des Kraftmasses). It is asking rather much of an man that to the labour of learning the languages of the nations he should add that of learning the language of an individual. that the similarity of our tendencies was fully revealed to me. however. and expressed my conviction of it in the Mechanik (1883) and at that in the first edition of this book (1886). Hauptmann and to Petzoldt. to the writings of H. and of other "-isms. It was consequently the I reserved for the to younger generation to turn work of Avenarius good use : in this connexion am way glad to be able to refer J. Kritik der reinen Erfahrung^ Der menschliche Weltbegriff^ and his psycho- logical articles in the Vierteljahrssch7ift. C.48 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS may I system you think and speak. But the difference of form has had a prejudicial effect also . all even of materialism.on the mutual understanding between Avenarius and myself. of which The has its fact is that each of the two methods of exposition advantages and disadvantages. was only in 1888. Berkeleyanism. first As to the of these works.

this conception. is it A and broad foundation light is laid for the theory in question. as P. I should now like to indicate more particularly those points of agreement between us to which I attach importance. 1 summary essential fashion in 187 and 1872. acquaintance with works is. as I am forced to infer from remarks to made by him been in the past third persons. in spite of that. new. in conformity all with the stimulus given by Darwinism. was by no means quite be traced back to in its Adam Smith.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS to 49 work. and. fully developed in Avenarius (1876). we conceive of . As have shewn elsewhere. only I to have developed gradually. Volkmann it can holds. which implicitly contains and anticipates Kirchhoff's notion of "perfectly simple description" (1874). and noticed in the books that appeared too. The economy of the of thought. as being the 1882 and 1883 I I task of science. first — this was indicated by me. beginnings even to Newton. if. We find the same con- ception again. ally. a profounder coincidence of view between us seems. with the exception of one feature that does not come out clearly. but. Yet with him. real value of Avenarius' his Avenarius. I am glad to say. the economical reprein sentation actual. and in gave considerably enlarged expositions of this idea. affinity develop further the too. The man himself efforts have never known person- Unmistakable are being made to minimize his his importance. the conviction of from 1888 to 1895. shed upon from new sides. on the increase. acknowledged it on side the between us.

self is In doing this he merely basing him- on the very general assumption that the central organ subject to an impulse of self-preservation. to Dr. of development. not only as a whole. particularly In my writings too. and of selection. It articles that I first was by means of his psychological became convinced of this coincidence In order to be sure of addressed an inquiry on the subject I between x\venarius. This agrees very well with the conceptions developed by Hering as to the behaviour of living substance. but definitely expressed. Avenarius is brought into close contact with in physiology. but also in parts. such as we find in Avenarius. In holding these views. making no mistake. I Rudolf Wlassak. briefly indeed. and in 1883 expounded these opinions at greater length. to the theory the Darwinian conceptions of and if we apply struggle for existence. For me this is the main point at issue. who knew would be intimatelv acquainted with Avenarius' standpoint. I appeared as long ago as 1863. thanks to his associa tion with him for many years. a tendency to its maintain its equilibrium. modern positive research. and myself. But relation it is to our agreement in the conception of the I between the physical and the psychical that attach the greatest importance. His reply was as follows : . The theory is inseparable from the hypothesis that eacli entity his in is and every determined. psychical physically founded and Now. though without develop- ing a complete system. is in Kritik der reinen Erfahru?ig^ detail that all theoretical Avenarius tries to shew and practical activity determined by change in the central is nervous system.50 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS life psychical —including science — as biological appearance. opinions of a corre- sponding nature.

and on the other are the objects If I investigate the by psychology." ' ' ' Vierteljahrsschrift^ xix.' fallacy in or rather of the introjection. ' " This task is performed by the exposure of Introjection. p.' stands the this beginning of natural philosophizing. 'the natural view of the all world. i8)..' to one's own body. Avenarius has accordingly proposed to abolish the terms ' physical physical and psychical and in future only to speak of and psychological dependencies ("Observations. from the standpoint of naive realism. comparable with the constituents . the constituents that belong to the 'self. it Within the limits of is view of the world possible for a relative delimitation of the complex 'self and the complex 'en- vironment the ' to be carried out without necessarily involving 'dualism' of 'body' and 'soul. In Mach's work the same the untenability of the old -^view occurs. Both to the conclusion that the difference between the physical and the psychical consists solely in the difference of the relations of dependence. is not demonstrated. which on the one hand are dealt with the objects dealt with by Physics (in the widest sense of the word). and consequently of the proper task of psychology. except that (?) conception of the psychical. I am studying physics .t ' THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS "The come the psychical ' $1 conception of the relation of 'the physical' to is identical in Avenarius and Mach. I am studying psychology. dependence of one con- stituent (A) of an environment on another constituent (B) of an environment. are through and through of the environment.' since. if I inquire to what extent A is changed by a change in the sense-organs or the central nervous system. formal logic which underlies Avenarius starts from the fact that naive at realism.

really occasioned. exists for my fellow-men between in the same way it exists for me. * say that the tree exists as a copy. crudest and they supposed that copies were detached from and that these copies penetrated within the body.* am in no wise overstepping the analogy which formal logic allows me and my if I ' ' fellow-men. . in the course of the history of philosophy.52 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the preliminary Even when Sensations^ p. this (Mach. and never as being in my consciousness assuming something for cover in or the like. by the interpretation of the utterances of our fellow-men. it is Now way in so far as recognized that the constituents of the environment are not present inside the as they are present outside it. is originally conceived by naive realism as a unity. The to up of the world. This most clearly seen in the different forms which. every attempt with the facts of experience must to bring into harmony become an is inexhaustible source of pseudo-problems. if I ifitroduce or introjed the tree since I my fellowam then my fellow-men which I cannot dismy own experience. survey has advanced to the formation of concepts of substance 5). But I am overstepping this analogy. it The in its oldest and crudest theories of perception exhibited simplest form objects. which always shews me the constituents of my environment as standing in a ^definite relation to my body. Inasmuch as introjection is a way of passing it beyond experience. as their utterances permit as me to assume.' ' a sensation or a' presentation . also. ' in men. body in the same to that extent they are . introjection has assumed. according Avenarius. As long it as I say. Analysis of " does not mean that a complete and is essential difference final splitting between body and soul given. 'the tree does not exist for me I alone .

represents introjection as the presupposition of the dualist's interpretation of dream-experiences. the constituents of environment exist for it in the same sense : as they do for human * beings. in the attempt to \ bring it into harmony with the complex of the environment. . The root of dualism I lies in the extension of introjection. Avenarius' account of the in all cases. As long as deeper-lying physiological reasons do not make it impossible. my soul. and secondly ' . In other words Anyone who held the one of the strongest motives According to Tylor.' in is. for example.in my consciousness.^ Avenarius. fact that is might well be urged that the one and the same constituent of the environment at one time given in sensations as a 'thing.' Another point to be considered whether dream- experiencies cannot equally constitute. but without adducing conclusive reasons. at a primitive stage of culture. the natural view of the world ' ' can also provide a foundation for the hypothesis that. this constituent as ' can be sufficient motive for conceiving being present twice over.THE^ bound. first ' materially ' in the environment. they are in fact (Mach). indeed. in its the case of the tree. by all 'animism' we understand merely the hypothesis that the hfeless constituents of our environment are beings like ourselves. an independent motive for dualism. .' and at another given as a memory. the I ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS they are inside it. 53 moment to become something / essentially different from the environment. namely. " It may be doubted whether is is motives for introjection holds that introjection planation of the it ' satisfactory He But always connected with the ex' perceptions of one's fellow-men. . But it is not justifiable to if regard prehistoric animism as the root of dualism.

On the one hand it is illuminating on the side of theory of knowledge. of which the above-mentioned products of seen to be merely illusory. he were entirely ignorant of physiology.54 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS common to view of the psychical might. it is impossible for the nervous special system except causality All psychical . jection are supposed to be the 'copies. if Avenarius and Mach.' It is only then that the world is duplicated by division into a spiritual part and a material part. touching and seeing on the part of the he assumes that the constituents of the environment. are and so Instances of such pseudo-problems are the problems as to projection which we meet " in theories of space. **The discovery of the illegitimacy of introjection throws light in two directions.' 'signs. are nothing more than constituents of my environment which I have introduced into my fellow- men and ultimately also into me to look for anything in physiological processes. the elimination of introjection implies is that all psychology which not physiological ' is illegitimate.' 'presenta- and ' contents of consciousness ' to the material intro- things. On the other hand. in order to explain tree or stone.' forth. In that case he would still not be a dualist. suppose that a tree or a stone touches and sees its environment. this He only becomes a dualist when.' contents of conscious- ness. are present over again in the tree as ' its sensations ' or its * consciousness. etc. tions ' All problems con- nected with the relation of our 'sensations. When I have recognized that the processes.' the 'psychic which accompany changes in the nervous system. myself. the exteriorization of the space-sensations. which the tree and stone taste and see.

the references to a similar discussion in Hofler's Psychologic. it was not my intention to give a complete exposition of the development of my point of view out of the preceding phljases of philosophical reflection about the world. only an abbreviated expression for particular it processes of the central nervous system.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS disappears. he usually misses the point of the principle of the conservation of energy. the first In place. all 55 those problems disappear which are conquestion nected with the whether the intervention of psychical forces in the physiological processes of the brain is compatible with the principle of the conservation of " energy. ^ In the second place. Wdrmelehre legitimate as p. it. Apart from the above considerations. note. Cp. 58 sqq. 1 When such a phrase is used as their ' the continued existence of presentations without being in is. the principle of conservation of energy is satisfied in all physiological up work nor performs be a partly determinant factor. the soul may still in relation to a case so far removed from the scope of his ideas. assumption that energy is constant." The remaining difference between the way I in which Avenarius puts his views and the way in which put mine can be reduced to elements which are easily grasped. this strictly speaking. tion of a special psychical agent appears to me to be a presupposition which is . Avenarius starts from a I cannot refrain from here expressing my surprise that the principle of the conservation of energy has so often been dragged in in connexion On the with the question whether there is a special psychical agent. When the philosopher asks a question which has reference to this case. the assumppp. the course of physical processes is That limited^ but not necessarily determined with perfect uniqueness. 1897. . merely all tells us that the soul neither uses For that. and in any case savours strongly of dualistic conceptions.. 441). consciousness' (Mach. unfortunate and can only do it is harm by making investigation difficult moreover unnecessary and improbable (Mach). and the stock reply of the physicist has no intelligible meaning cases.

I. When the I see the paths pursued by different philosophical thinkers converging. until after the it is means of introjection in the new standpoint has been reached might reach the new standpoint. appears to me to contain scarcely any- not self-evident — self-evident at least for every J man who has shaken himself free from the pressure of " the it.56 realistic TEE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS phase . In that way I might easily " talked. In the third place. 6. as Wlassak observes. But this standpoint once reached. about the elimination of " extrajection (pp. the question whether we start from a phase of realism or of idealism is of no greater importance for us than a change is in the fundamental variables of his equations for the mathematician or physicist. I think that am justified in detecting here a hopeful presage of the mutual accommodation of the sciences to one another. also not necessary to exclude this introjection A solitary thinker and even he. 43j above). it is not necessary to attribute so important a rdle to the interpretation of our fellow-men by bad sense. and then again. on the other hand. started from an ideaUst I actually phase (p. . legacy of wild philosophy. 29-35. for instance. above. and especially when general I contemplate close coincidence of between philosophical views and the views I scientific specialists. and the varying character of the dependence of the elements once recognized as the essential point. What Avenarius thing that is puts forward. 12-22. 30. . footnote)." as Tylor calls Science has a safe always required such self-evident propositions as foundation upon which to build. such as went have through in my early youth. might have to rise superior to dualistic tendencies. and consequently what I also put forward.

which has is root in an effort for economy. tries to retain this habit as far as posslightly altered. A and B . a broad view order to IN from the get standpoint of the special problems that will engage our attention. we have reached. for deflected glass. we have become accustomed to seeing light when it impinges on the boundary between air and different But these deflections vary noticeably in cases. may be termed the. its The prin- thus expressed. of connecting two things. that sufficiently modified in- disturbance being felt. until we are able to associate with every particular angle of in- cidence {A) a particular angle of refraction (^). through adaptation. sible. B is added in thought. When once the inquiring the habit it intellect has formed. in thought. principle of continuity. and the habit formed by observing some cases cannot be transferred undisturbed to new cases. our bearings. even where the circumstances are Wherever ciple A appears. we will now try to obtain. Every actually observed variation in the connexion of A and felt B which is sufficiently large to be noticed makes itself as a disturbance of the above-mentioned habit. and is continues to do so until the habit to prevent the stance. Suppose. THE CHIEF POINTS OF VIEW FOR THE INVESTIGATION OF THE SENSES.IV. which 57 we . and particularly noticeable in the work of the great investigators.

The joint action of the two principles may be very well cited. It may happen a. and that to every particular com- component of B corresponds.58 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS do by discovering the so-called law of refraction. this process leads to satisfaction. but with every particular color a particular index of refraction must be associated. for example. Only through com- plete familiarity with this relation can the principle of sufficient determination be satisfied. now. a particular index of refraction must be associated . independently of the others. in which case ponent of A particular occurs. that we are considering a color-sensation Bf not in its dependence on A. . This when ^ is a spectrum. Suppose. illustrated by a further analysis of the example In order to deal with the phenomena exhibited in the change of color of light. the two things A and B being conceived as so con- nected that to every change of the one that can be observed at any moment there corresponds an appropriate change of the other. the idea of the law of refraction must be retained. Thus another and modifying . temporary contentment and In the end. and so on. to every component part of the spectrum one of the comis ponents of the matter volatilized before the spectroscope correlated. the heated matter tested. that both A and B are conceived as complexes of components. familiar with the rules contained are able to and by making ourselves in that law. and A the corresponding sample of a compound to be tested. We soon perceive that with every particular temperature also. principle con- fronts that of continuity we will call it the principle of sufficient determination^ or sufficient differentiation.

of course. JV. of all sensations. attain this last-named We it shall endeavor to end wherever it is appears practicable. followed up — mode of procedure which will carry us farthest. h . pitch B which cannot appear in isolaintensity in tones. since in this is method observation directed to and one investi- gation serves to support the other. finally. properties or aspects have to be noticed in tion. but only the direction of our point of vie w. or the physical (physiological) processes it Johannes correlated with may be (the investigated according to the methods of physics course usually preferred by the modern school of physiologists). that is. And this holds good.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS but in JV. into a UB If. and the principles to be followed remain the same. Now. its 59 dependence on the elements of the retinal process. in iVj satisfied of equivalent components corresponding to these. and we shall have to expect the same state of things in for all psychically observable details of In a word. as. This being our object. for instance. not the kind. B we have to seek the correlated physical details of JV. the connexion of psychologically observable data with the corresponding physical (physiological) processes may be all sides. immediately. psychologically (which was the course adopted by Miiller). on the other hand. then we only on the discovery. By doing this we change. is psychologically analysable shall rest number of independent components. or. None of the preceding observations lose their force. sensation may be analysed in itself. of continuity fied only evident that the principle and that of sufficient determination can be satis- on the condition that with the same B (this or that B a. then. sensation) process) we always associate the same JV (the same nervechange oi cor- and discover for every observable responding change of N.

According to our fundamental conception.^ a The principle of which I am here making use goes further than the widespread general belief that a physical entity cor- responds to every psychical entity and ' vice versa . as the final link in the chain. cannot think of this immediate condition as being varied without conceiving of the sensation as being link and vice versa. is the essential and immediate condition of the sensation. This may be termed the of the psychical and principle of the cofnplete parallelism ^ physical. unless the chain extended to the nerve. but we may also enunciate it. We may thus establish a guiding principle for the investigation of the sensations. des Lichtreizes aufdie Netzhaut {Sitzungsberichte der . which recognizes no gulf between the two is provinces (the psychical and the physical). Ueber die Wirkung der rdumlichen Vertheilung Wiener A kadamie. as without the help of this fundamental conception. as I did years ago. Now we varied. also appear in the form of a But since the sensation may hallucination. namely when no physically conditioned circumstances are present outside the body. For the circumstances would a chain and would not issue hang together like the links of in a sensation. For the connexion between this final and the sensation we will regard the principle which laid we have down as valid.6o I THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS do not of course maintain also that a (psychologically) 1 simple sensation cannot be conditioned by very complicated circumstances. it is much Compare my paper. we see that a certain nervous process. heuristic principle of research. this principle almost a matter of course .

. refuse to distinguish two different aspects of an we unknown tertium quid . Kiilpe. When I see a green leaf (an 1865. and Grundlinieti der Lehre von den Bewegtingsempfindungen (Leipzig. and may be held to be probably correct in all . "Zur Parallelismusfrage. 1893. and are of only one nature. Stumpf's address to the Psychological Congress at Munich (Munich. 634. are always the same. at one moment I as physical and at another as psychical elements. The principle is also implicitly contained in an article of mine in Fichte's Zeitschrift fiir Philosophie (Vol. physical are if the psychical and not regarded as essentially different. .. but corresponds only of experiences. Ueber die Beziedie materiellen hung zwischen korperlichen und Hypnotismus. 5). Chicago. 1875.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS more specialized. VII. see C. LII. Zeitschrift t/ber von Kries. 1865. p. At the same time the view here advocated tion of the physical is different from Fechner's concepas two different aspects first and psychical reality. Vol. seelischen Vorgdngen. the elements given in experience. 63). Die Metaphysik in der Psychologies Dresden. O. of one and the same In the place. our view has no metaphysical background. G. fUr Grund- lagen der Bewusstseinserscheinungeny Freiburg im Breisgau. Engelmann. The question arises from a misunderstanding of the analysis which I have given above. XLVI. . Heymans. according to the nature of the connexion. ' Psychologie der Sinnesorgane^ Vol. which is'printed also in my Popular Scientific Lectures^ Open Court Publishing Co. it constitutes moreover the neces- sary presupposition of all exact research. For the various aspects of the problem of parallelism. 1865) im\):iQX Reichert' s und Dubois' Archiv. 1898. to the generalized expression Again. though they appear. J.^ have been asked is whether the parallelism between psychical and physical not meaningless and a mere tautology." Zeitschrift fUr 1897).. 6i The cases general belief in question has been proved to be correct in many cases. p. Hauptmann. p. XVII.. C. whose con- nexion we are investigating. Vol.

brain-process itself something psychical. in connexion with the different color-sensations. I If I see figures cases..^ which I discover in etc. whether through in the sensation of sight or through that of touch. size which are the same in I and shape but differently colored. form and color from the investigating forms. it. are of like nature in themselves. side by side with .. 44). The leaf which is I see. also. then. If two figures are similar (that if they yield partly identical space-sensations) then the corresponding nerve-processes If ^Iso contain partly identical components. which may be extremely complicated I have perhaps stated the principle in rather too abstract a form. something And principle of parallelism holds good dependence of the former latter group. while in represents.62 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is event which leaf is conditioned by certain brain-processes) the its of course different in colors. etc.. two different melodies have the same rhythm. nerve - processes. for the the connexion the of elements. seek. A few concrete examples I may now help to explain Wherever have a sensation of space. brain. a although all forms. For all must suppose like nerve-processes. certain identical space-sensations and corresponding identical is. immediately given group of elements on the which is only ascertained by means of a physical (cp. colors. considered as dependent this z'/s on the brain-process. being in themselves neither psychical nor physical. or I any other way. am obliged to assume the presence of all a nerve-process of the same kind in time-sensations. physical. investigation p.

J. This principle has.. London. If two melodies of different pitch are identical. 1885. moreover.^ tion that ^ is not complete. It is only the applicaBrewster. yellow and blue at the end of greater refrangibility. Vieweg. its for every tone- appurtenant nerve- when he - resolves clangs. followed. when Helmholtz ^ assumes sensation a special nerve-fibre (with process). as will be later shown. to compound sounds. Longmans. to the eye. Brewster regarded the red. less more or less consistently. and the violet). English translation by Alex. though distributed there with varying intensity. Helmholtz. 2nd edition. 1863. identical constituents.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 63 the different tone-sensations there exists in both cases an identical time-sensation with identical corresponding nerve- processes. and blue light as extending over the whole solar spectrum. red appears at both ends (the red in the middle. For example. have. to six elements (fundalike simplification mental sensations). 2 Brewster. JDie Lekre von den Tonempjindungen^ Brunswick. we have in this method of procedure a practical illustration of our principle. London. so that. then the tone-sensations as well as their physiological conditions. 1831. Ellis. Green. & Co. by psycho- analysis (self-observation). If the is seemingly limitless multiplicity of color-sensations logical susceptible of being reduced. yellow. a for the may be expected system of nerve-processes. always been more or consciously. If our system of space- sensations appears in the character of a threefold manifold. in spite of the different pitch. or" into tone sensations. . A Treatise on Optics. the system of the correlated nerve-processes will likewise present itself as such. when he reduces the affinity of presence of like tone-sensations compound tones the (and nerve-processes).

red. ception. as fundamental sensations. there existed that. as Helmholtz (Physiological Optics) has shown. full But even Young did not apply the principle with consciousness or fact that strict consistency. led to the view that. he would have confined his conclusions to the nerve-process in the province of left and untouched Newton's assumptions which are as well founded as corrected this error. at physics. has admirably Brewster believed that he was able to alter by absorption the nuances of the spectrum colors regarded by Newton as simple — a result which. . assumption of an unlimited number of kinds of with a continuous series of refractive indices. if correct. Thomas Young least principle. wholly apart from the in his psycho- he allowed himself to be misled. guided by a psychological but defective analysis of colorsensations. red. 1 Alfred Mayer. would really destroy the Newtonian con- He experimented. logical analysis. yellow. —that a discrete number of colornumber of color-sensations did answer to the continuum of deflexions in the prism (to the continuum of the space-sensations). by physical prejudices. yellow. He perceived that an unlimited light with number of kinds of physical a continuous series of refractive indices (and wavea small lengths) was compatible with sensations and nerve-processes. of Hoboken.64 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and by imperfect physical experiments/ was and blue. Even he and first assumed. only three kinds of light. substituted red. however. and blue. likewise physically therefore. for which he as later violet misled. But had he reflected that colorsensations may occur entirely without physical light. corresponding to the three sensations. green. Brewster might easily as a fall into the error of regarding green compound sensation. was erroneous. his in own. with an impure spectrum. and Newton's light.

in recent works. although. and that the components of sensation seldom their appearance separately. February 1876. The circumstance the physical conditions of sensation almost always give rise to make composite sensations. the colors first green. therefore.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS shown/ by a physical in 65 error of Wollaston's. The question- able results which psychological calculated to destroy belief in may thus yield. renders psychological analysis very ii difficult. unless one or the other color is actually contained in it. and believed that he saw his narrow spectrum divided by the strongest of these lines into a red. Certainly no one sees yellow and blue in white. . physical observation must not be overestimated. however. and substituted for his fundamental red. that is Here. We ^ frequently meet with the assertion. is I jl an indispensable requisite of psychological analysis. Young regarded green and analysis a composite sensation. On the other hand. too. and a violet part. will as a rule excite also a concomitant yellow or blue sensation. and thus favor the erroneous idea (based upon the results of pigment-mixing) that the sensation of green is |i compounded of yellow and also blue. The direction winch the theory of color-sensation. later named after Fraunhofer. a given pigment or spectrum-green. 6. cannot by itself determine us to see yellow and blue in green. and as violet. has modified. both green violet as simple. yellow. spectrum-yellow and spectrum-blue mixed give white. iii. Careful physical study. green is a simple sensation . Thus. Wollaston was the first to notice (1802) the dark lines of the spectrum. this Young took up Thus. He regarded these lines as the dividing lines of the physical colors. The mere observation that a yellow and blue pigment mixed. Here I will merely state shortly what I have to say concerning the treatment of the theory of color-sensation. that Philosophical Magazine. which has reached a still high degree of perfection through Hering. p. its usefulness in general. in his conception. conception. as a fact. to be was pointed out by me many years ago in another place. sensations red. are well not forget that there excluded. a green. in his second. yield a green pigment. But we must no principle in the application of which error is practice must determine. and blue.

yellow. Braumiiller. also we two among the other colors and say that white in this classification is the first among the simple colors. green the third. Vol. in view of the conceptions prevalent at this time. ** zur 1882. of yellow and blue. the green the water. no matter or "255. white. the other of absence. light For blue is composed of is and darkness. And the white we will let represent the without which one can see no color. which made color. 254 and 255 in the translation of Heinrich Ludwig." show that Leonardo da Vinci is concerned partly with observations . up of the most perfect black and " Green is perfectly pure white. solid substance upon which the sunbeams can exert their force. the yellow the fire. by Mach and to From the very first it seemed me highly probable." Blue and green are not simple colors by themselves. and Aubert. earth. as. Let us hear what he himself says in his Book of Painting (Nos. But. Quellenschriften Kunstgeschichte. which Hering adopted. red. although philosophers admit neither white nor is black into the number of colors. The first is white. THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS fundamental color-sensations. blue the air. red the black the sixth.66 the six green. the blue of the air. Of simple colors there are six. that the assertion was founded upon an error. black. blue. and which as a result they might illumine. XVIIL). the second. yellow fifth. since the one its the cause of color. as far as Leonardo da Vinci was concerned. inasmuch as the shall include these painter cannot do without them. Vienna. light. red and black because in the darkness which that place there is is above the element of fire." composed of a simple and a composite This will suffice to namely. blue the fourth. of these 254. were later first proposed by Leonardo da Vinci.

they observed themselves and others in the interest of pure pleasure. et seq. I was of course familiar with the relation of the complementary colors. As a physicist. ception. da Vinci's book lead to the conviction that the and among them especially he himself. as was just the relation of black difficulty. (chemical) processes (not nerve-fibres) in p.) gladly acknowledge the great advantages of Bering's theory. ^ for me presented the greatest as also red and green. clear. can appreciate it the better the facilita- tion involved in this. I assumed the fundamental sensations green.) (Compare Reicherfs und Dubois^ Archiv^ 1865. me cit. Leipzig. red. ah Ingenieur und 1874). but not with the subject of fundamental colorsensations. yellow and blue. 633. ascribes him. These men were obliged to understand nature in it order to reproduce agreeably. They consist for in the following. . yellow. partly with conceptions of natural philosophy. for example (Zeotiardo da Philosophy Berlin.^ My own scattered remarks concerning the theory of color-sensations were perfectly white. con- two complementary processes white together p. excited I a new —the —process. blue. are Marie Herzfeld. were the true forerunners of the great scientists who came soon afterwards. The many remarkable and all sorts subtle scientific observations of which are contained in Leonardo artists. the black process I is regarded as a reaction against the all white process. was that the My {^Loc. First. however.^ 634. Yet Leonardo was far from being the author of all the discoveries and Vinci to inventions which Groth. and six different corrresponding the retina.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 67 concerning pigments. black. Leonardo da Vinciy Auswahl aus den 1904 veroffent- fichten Handschriften. and white that Further.

1895. . This objection has been partly removed by a further development of Hering's theory. Pauli.. 2 W. 1902. while others do not stand in this relation black). pp. which W. also my paper. 122. but mutually annihilate each other. be reversed by opposite processes along a or " heterodromously." as in ^. p. (e. 1878. Dej. 1865. October. and on the annihilation of a color by the complecolor. 30.g.^ I myself shewed long ago that certain sensations are related to one another as positive and negative magnitudes {e. Brunswick. sqq. ^n certain in processes sub- colloidal and living b stances can be reversed by opposite processes along the same path. pp. red and green). previously cited. Pauli has that provided. Cp.. 3 Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegtmgsempfindungen. Vol. to this is regarded as antagonistic processes which do not produce a Ac- cording conception white already present is not subsequently still produced but survives beforehand. Vieweg. while other processes can only different path. 57. such is not the case with blue-yellow.. or "homodromously.g.^ The full explanation of in this relation lies undoubtedly the proof.Kolliodale Ziisland und die Vorqdnge in der lebendigen Substanz.68 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS new process." as in A. mentary in The is only point that that it still dissatisfies me why Hering's theory is difficult to perceive the two opposed processes of black and white may be while simultaneously produced and simultaneously red-green and felt. 3 white and Now all difficulties are reconciled if we suppose ^ Zur Lehre vom Lichtsinne^ Vienna. 22. LTI. in the Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akadetnie.

to make quite clear to the reader that this view by no means meets with it universal agreement. 189S. me that. Von Ueber die maUriellen seinserscheititmgen. are homodromous. identical constituents we had I wish.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which correspond to the first pair. We constantly find maintained in without philosophical books that similarity there may be observed being any question at all ^ of such identical con- stituents. other In formulating the principle. Thus a physiologist : can speak as follows of the application of this prinask. however. Freiburg Grundlagen der Bewussiim Breisgau. of all axioms A recent exposition of Hering's views will be found in Graefe- Saemisch's Vol. years ago. .^ 7- The examples adduced the will suffice to explain the signifi- cance of the above-enunciated principle of inquiry. than that truth to had no to of making I quite clear my felt. where sensations were similar. own mind a It which had long instinctively seemed me a simple and natural. 69 with Pauli that the opposed processes as assumed by Hering. and that consequently. and at same time object to show that this principle is not entirely I new. III. nay. and that the processes underlying the second pair are hetero- dromous. that similarity must be founded on a partial likeness or identity. Handbtich Kries. to look for their and for the corresponding common common it physiological processes. an almost self-evident supposition. principle under discussion ciple to the is " The above problems leads him (Mach) to what the physiological factor that corresponds to the qualities thus postulated? ' Now der it seems to ges. 1905. Augenheilktinde^ Leipzig. '^J.

he will turn back and satisfy himself difficulties merely with considering the him. then it cannot be considered either new or it ^particularly that to is fruitful. to every form. no longer appear I will in such a formidable is. it is intended of mean a definite element or constituent to everything a physiological event must correspond which we can unity. All add at present that in these more] complicated cases of similarity the similarity arises not from the presence of one common element. and none is more doubtful. as I shall explain at length connexion with conceptual thinking (Cf. but from a common in system of elements. discover. distinguish as having to some sort of psychological — every relation. I If he chooses that the former alternative. XIV. And I am (with taken the in as re- holding servation last in question made on to 59) must be understood I this it "dubious and misleading" sense. he will. and does not deserve the importance attached to that it. or whether. in a word to everything that tion.). clearly defined by bowing to the authority which confront my opponents. the must leave he entirely reader to choose whether will accompany me any means of our of further and enter with me on is that preliminary stage of inquiry which principle. we can denote by a general concep- —then this formulation can only be characterized as dubious that and the misleading. of. If. is none is exposed to If it greater misunderstandings than this principle. Chap.70 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS principles. is nothing more than a periphrasis for the so-called principle of parallelism. on the other hand. . when simpler in cases of have been disposed the difficulties cases deeper-lying abstract similarity light as before." principle p. hope.

rendered quite obvious in the light of the theory of evolution. simply by assuming with that we are concerned with a living organism habits particular memories. particular. The sense-organs themselves are a fragment of soul . Much that appears to us parallel is difficult of comprehension when we draw a between a sense-organ and a physical apparatus. One of the finest and most instructive discussions. It immense impetus through Darwin's the book TAe Expression of *' Emotions. received an prior to Darwin. general biological well as special observations may be employed.I THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 8. The idea of applying the theory of evolution to physio- logy in general. which owe their origin to a long and eventful race-history. I. expressed myself in favor of the application of the idea of evolution to the theory of the sense-organs {Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie^ October 1866). and hand over the completed result to consciousness. yt As we recognize no the psychical. too. Schuster (1879) discussed the question whether there were inherited ideas " in the Darwinian sense. . they themselves do part of the psychical work. and to the physiology of the senses in was advanced. P. R. Later. by Spencer (1855). in the way of a psycho- logico-physiological application of the theory of evolution. it real gulf between the physical and is a matter of course that. in the study physical as of the sense-organs. I will here briefly put together what I have to say on this subject. particular and manners.

^ Recently Weismann (Ueber die Dauer des Lebens. 1882) has conceived death as a phenomenon of heredity. we want to avoid criticizing Hering's theory unfairly. and the more evanescent impressions which the individual life leaves behind it in consciousness. XI. Company. many that The problem is. 1904. This admirable book. dity As a Open Court Publishing fact. Chapters V. even itself still though fundamental feature remains unexplained. or that their state-institutions resemble the English in respects. emigrate and become the for basis of new individuals.. of a process which has once been set up. Semon. in He recognizes that the spontaneous reappearance. it essentially the same this event. but If still exists (cp. Heredity thought is rendered almost as example. is intelligible to us by this as. etc.). we must observe that he uses the conception of memory rather broad sense. a property which lacking to inorganic matter. response to a slight is stimulus. has a very stimulating Leipzig. The R. effect. 1870 (English translation. . in a He perceived the affinity between the lasting traces imprinted on organisms by their racial history. The perception of phenomena is an this common feature in a long series of essential step ih advance. apparently of course.72 is THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS to be found in the Academic Anniversary Address of Hering. not affected by these considerations. 19 13). involved in the is fact organisms possess memory. ^ also. which were part of the parent-body. On Memory as a General Function of Organized Matter. the fact that Americans speak English. Chicago. memory and hereif almost coincide in one concept we reflect that organisms. whether can be observed within the narrow framework of consciousness or not. Die Mneme.

the Southern is Hemisphere bloom spring in their native place. even when coneliminated. shock which communication caused me. who was experimenting with pigeons whose brains had been removed. and which. it Now since a bird must its ordinarily wet feet when is seeks to quench thirst. even though is be admitted that the chief point involved the periodicity of the reflex movements as manner phenomena of life. I think— with Rollett. we may say cell-society that greater length of life on the part of the and lessened propagation are two phenomena of adaptation which mutually condition each other. was a witness of a very remarkable phenomenon of this kind in 1865. — These birds drink whenever whether the their feet are is placed in a cold liquid. takes place with the precision of sciousness clockwork on the application of the stimulus appropriate . The so-called may be explained in a natural phenomena of memory outside the organ of of animals I consciousness. this I recall clearly the mental true. at the cost of the increase of the germ-cells. or sulphuric its acid. as Weismann shows. It lies probably only in the manner of statement. the view arises quite naturally that we have here a habit adapted to an end. liquid water. I heard it stated that plants from in our latitudes.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS difficulty istic 73 which might be found in the fact that a characterits should be inherited which can make appearance in is the parent-organism only after the process of inheritance ended. which life conditioned by the mode of and fixed is by inheritance. mercury. If it is we may actually say that plants have a sort of it memory. —While when it a Gymnasium student. disappears cells to when we consider that the power of the Accordingly. somatic multiply can increase.

its bill. accidentally fallen from the stick to the table from that time on i it ate. Something similar in another form) I exerted must exist likewise the case of the bird. all little. and eagerly devoured the proffered right stimulus for setting food. a sparrow a few days old. which are brought into activity quite automatically and mechanically by the (in appropriate stimulus. A small upon a sharp and swung rapidly about the head of the bird. the new-born child specially would certainly perish if it had not the formed organs and inherited impulse to suck. without ceremony. the characteristic . Immediately the bird opened beat I its wings. vencentren des Frosches. it The began creature grew perceptibly stronger to snatch at the food. greedier. had thus discovered the automatic the impulse and the movement and seized free. and would certainly soon have succumbed in to the indignities it would have been unavoidable then fell feeding by force.74 to its THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS excitation. a smaller portion of 1 the stimulus was required. and once an insect that had . Goltz. into the following train of thought: is "Whether or not the Darwinian theory correct. li^^^^ In the autumn vacation of 1873. 1869. In proportion as its intellect and memory developed. of itself. the creature took on. which had fallen from to bring ' and wanted easy. in his wonderful book Die Nerwritings. little On by reaching independence." myself to discover the insect w^as stuck appropriate stick stimulus. it up. But the matter was not so The that I little creature could not be induced to swallow.— I will take this opportunity of mentioning some further observations which I recall with a great deal of pleasure. and in later has described many phenomena of the sort. "^Y boy brought its me nest.

and showed purpose every appearance of terror and is real physical fear of ghosts. it demeanour its changed totally. another carefully avoided. true mother of religions. that my children's terror of ghosts tales. will in- and in a measure (fear of something worse. It always sought out the highest places in the room. Nor in this fear without its reasons and its a creature which. when this stood with the lid The fear of ghosts is the Neither scientific analysis nor the careful historical criticism of a David Strauss. When hiss. may at any moment be devoured by some This last monster. are refuted even before they are invented. approached. observation strengthened me in an opinion did already formed. began On to the coming of darkness. it learnt by By and day. it 75 certainly intellect had not awake. grew timid. will all at once do away with and banish these things. not have its source in nursery which were carefully excluded from them. for the strong intellect. In the evening. which itself. hope of something long continue to exist in mysterious and uncontrollable stinctive trains of thought.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ways of sparrows. which. a coalstove. which stood shadow scuttle . Just as the birds on uninhabited . in the evening. as applied to myths. ruffled feathers. One of my children in the would regard with anxiety an arm-chair. but was innate. habit adapted its when it was prevented by the ceiling Here again we have an inherited to an end. under normal circumstances. looking like gaping jaws. to actual economic needs better). with its was very trustful friendly. especially by the open. other phenomena It were regularly exhibited. and would become quiet only from going higher. answers. A still motive which has so long answered.

for etc. in the very next generation. to give the creatures bundles of straw. father Now one day occurred to my not to prepare the usual bundles of straw for a colony of silk-worms. When it is the the time for passing into the chrysalitic state arrives. many generations. Whether. that useless habit Every presentation we are still in secret sympathy with the conceptions of the of the gradually becomes age of witchcraft. I will here relate one other curious observation.76 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS unlearn. the experiences of one generation are utilized. upon which it they spin their cocoons. is a question wliich probably requires to be experiments left to further investigation. raised the yama-mai in the open oak-woods. The ordinary mulberry silkworm has. so we shall generations. in noticeable degree. the worms perished. of Faust may teach us the extent to which islands (according to Darwin) learn the fear of man only after the lapse of generations. been raised indoors. tant thing of all for And to be in time the most impor- him is on his guard against his fellow-men who want to oppress him violently or abuse him treacherously by misleading his understanding and emotions. The made by C Lloyd Morgan {Comparatk\ . only after many known as the creeping of flesh. for the I knowledge of which enthusiastic Darwinian am indebted to my father (an and in the latter part of his life a landed proprietor in Carniola). the geniuses and only a small (those with the greatest power of adaptation) spun their cocoons. as my sister believes she has observed. and has consequently become exceedingly custom helpless and dependent. self My father occupied him- much with silk-culture. The result was that the majority of portion. conditions of this The exact knowledge of nature and life more useful to man than fear of the unknown.

for instance. —A psychology the Spencer-Darwinian sense. The newly- hatched chick at once begins to peck with great assurance it at everything that sees . 1889). etc. but supported by detailed positive investigation. derive From all these remarkable no mysticism of the Unconscious. founded upon the theory of evolution. although his fundamental conceptions in the realms of natural science with regard to the relation of sensation and physical process. would yield richer done. the smaller the part played by individual memory. 1894) with young chickens. made its appearance. results than all previous speculation has — These observations and reflections had long been made and written down when Schneider's Der thierische Wille^ Leipzig. The simpler organism. 1880. Ueber die Vererbung. Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems^ Oxford. any rate in the case of the higher animals. (in phenomena we need A memory the reaching beyond the individual defined above) renders broader sense in them intelligible. and although I hold. 1 883 (English translation. at London. but it has to learn what is suit- able to pick up by the its individual experience. which that are similar. the distinction between sensation-impulses and perception-impulses to be quite superfluous. The Clarendon Press.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Psycholog)'^ etc. Weismann regards the inheritance . 77 shew that. Jena. ducks... I details of Schneider's discussions (in valuable work. the signifi- cance of the survival of species. contains many agree with the so far as they have not been made problematical by Lloyd Morgan's experi- ments) almost throughout. are essentially different from mine. is scarcely anything innate but the reflexes. — An y important revolution in our views on heredity may perhaps be produced by Weismann's work.

Accordingly. some admits). by inheritance. and are themselves. In entertaining the notion that the germ-elements vary acci• But perhaps the powerful mandibles of the sexless ants are the in the individuals to original acquisition of the species. the dis to the elucidation to of these questions. which must apparently be referred to use and adaptation. attitude Whatever cussion we adopt towards Weismann's initiated by him must contribute theories. influence must certainly be it exerted on the germ-plasm by the body which envelops (as Weismann himself life Thus an influence of the individual upon its descendents can certainly not be entirely excluded. and ^which moreover deviate so remarkably from the forms of ants that are capable of propagation. it cannot be denied that arguments have much He makes. under other circum- capable of transformation. should be produced by inheritance of characteristics acquired by use. even although a direct transmission to the descendents of the results of use in the individual can (according to Weismann) no longer be expected. it the extremely suggestive remark that is impossible that the peculiar and unusual forms of sexless ants. of new which maintain themselves as such.78 of traits THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS acquired by use as highly improbable.^ That the in- germ-elements themselves fluences may be altered by external appears to be clearly shewn by the formation races. . transtraits mit their racial again. stances. No one will refuse recognize the almost mathematical acuteness and depth of the way in which he his states the problem. and merely appear in an atrophied form whom propagation of the race is confined. for instance. and finds in chance variation of the germ-elements and in the selection of the germ-elements the most important factors. and force.

it is impossible to see that itself any law But the law reveals with the lapse of a long enough time. 168. every memory. principle of action. and permits us to calculate on certain average values or probabilities of effects. capable of being modified and of being in so far as it made more I precise. Popular Scientific Lectures. Heilkunde > pp. 79 we must bear in mind that chance is not a principle of action. have been a witness of the powerful impetus which Darwin's work gave in not merely to biology. 1863. and not likely that I should underestimate the value of the theory of evolution. Open Court Publishing Co. as a working scientific hypothesis. Vienna. in whatever form. 169.^ Without is some such meaningless. the circumstances overlap in such a way that in is any particular case involved. chance or probability principle of action can And what more be con- ceived as exercising influence on the variation of the ? germ-elements than the body of the parent cannot understand Personally I how it is possible that the species should succumb to the influence of varying circumstances. Moreover. When periodic circumstances of different kinds and different periodicities coincide in accordance with definite causal laws. every experience all these factors undoubtedly change my whole physical behaviour. and yet that these circumstances should not affect the individual. thought. but to is my time it all scientific enquiry. 148. . * But I would not quarrel with anyone Vorlesungen iiber Psychopkysik. Zeitschrift fur prakt. I am certain that I myself vary with every . I should like to add explicitly that I regard the theory of evolution. which is valuable facilitates the provisional understanding of what is given in experience.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS dentally. Chicago.^ Although it is scarcely necessary.

that a visible object under varying same only when the sensation excited depends on the ratio of the illumination-intensities of and surroundings. the question as to the value that a given function has for the existence of an organism. as aids to investigation. III. As long ago as 1883 dwelt on the necessity of advancing by means more precise conceptions obtained by the study of sakes. in the interest of its survival. 1901.) In this way we understand also.3 Of course we must not suppose. how the organism. But whether Driesch's my attitude towards the theory of evolution is justified. 2 Driesch. sqq. sqq. sqq. Die organisatorischen Regulationent pp. Popular Scientific Lectures^ 1886.^ biological facts for their own Thus I am by no criticism means committed of I to a refusal to understand investigations such as those of Driesch. . 13. 12. our comprehension of the facts of reality not enhanced by referring them to an itself unknown equally World-Purpose.^ leave to anyone to decide who. on this account. problematical.8o THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS rate its who should and 1886 of I value very low. or as to what are its actual contributions to the preservation of the organism. or to the problematical purpose of a living being. Hering in Graefe-Saemisch's Handbuch der Augenheilkunde^ Vol. even after this criticism. makes intelligible a whole train of organic (Cp. The remark. 10. Teleological conceptions. Ch. for intensity of illumination can be recognized as the example. . was obliged object properties of the eye.. 34.. Nevertheless. cares to be at the pains of reading still my works. is It is true. ^ Such teleological conceptions have often been useful and instructive to me. are not to be shunned. and Analyse der Empfindungen. pp. pp. may be of great assistance in the comprehension of this function itself. ^ Cp. 165.

How could I have maintained the proportionality between stimulus and sensation at the same time with the logarithmic dependall cannot say. point of departure but it by no means the The last and the highest. when we discover that it is necessary of the species. and brought forward another conception of the fundamental formula. Vol. to Species to adjust itself to the requirement mentioned and so-called law of adapt itself to feel the ratios of light -intensity. though for inquiry.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS as 8i explained many Darwinians have done. Sitzimgsberichte der Wiener Akademie. an actual and very valuable. to and contest Fechner's law in detail. for many obvious Strictly speaking I consider the expression "proreasons. thus appears not as something fundamental. from the proportionality between stimulus and sensation. that we have " mechanically " a function. 1868). as I then expressed myself. as Hering has done. herewith have given the arguments on this point in various papers. Vol. I abandoned the metrical formula of Fechner (the logarithmic law). {Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akade}?iie. LVIL. developed. still By what physical means a function a physical problem . between the psychical and the physical. Cp. Thus one I everywhere take the psychophysical law as my foundation. remains while the how and why is of an organism's voluntary adaptation continues to be a psychological pro- blem. proceeding from the postulate of the parallelism belief in the universal validity of this I relinquished. The is preservation of the species only one. This is apparent beyond doubt from the way in which that paper is worked out. for the survival less Darwin himself is doubt- quite free from this short-sighted is conception. LII. if by this is understood the metrical formnla. portionality " also to be inappropriate. or the funda- mental psycho-physical formula of Fechner. Weber. or. that was sufficient for me to render my meaning clear. no need. The law is. 1865. what I have said about the characterization of states of heat {Prinzipien der Wdrmelehre. 1868. In the last-named paper. p. k . I had. Vierteljahrsschrijt fiir Fsychiatrie. the validity of which for light-sensation I never disputed. since there can be no question of an actual measurement of the sensations all that can be done is to characterize them exactly and make an inventory of them by numerical means. 56). Neuwied and Leipzig. naturally. ence? It — criticize .. but as the explicable result of organic adjustments.

is directed perforce beyond the preservation of the species. . The same absurdity state as is committed by the statesman who regards the an end ' in itself. and new ones have as certainly arisen. and destroys it when survival no longer advantageous. would move aimlessly about in a vicious circle. This would be the biological counterpart of the notorious "perpetual motion" of physics. Schopenhauer's conception of the relation between Will and Force can quite well be adopted without seeing anything metaphysical in either.82 have THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS certainly been destroyed. deceiving both itself and all individuals. The It pleasure-seeking and pain-avoiding wilV therefore. preserves the species when its it is advanis tageous to do so. Were it it directed merely to the preservation of the species.

leaves But on both of them the temporary contact Apart from the positive is abiding traces behind. the period of of this is over-estimation explain which is supposed to everything. On occasion. Cp. where an allied. they may come into closer is when it is noticed that unexpected light thrown other. 1900. contact. 83 . but more narrowly limited. W. putting own special questions and applying own peculiar methods. when the two in question are its once more separated. question ' is dealt with. again. Vienna. quickly followed fields by a period of disillusionment. Pauli. CAUSALITY AND TELEOLOGY. 1 But the period of buoyant hope. the temporary relation between them brings about a transformation of our conceptions. PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY. clarifying them and permitting of their application over a wider field than that for which they were originally formed.V. and each pursues its own its aims. which not to be despised. addition to knowledge. Physikalische-chemische Meihoden in der Medizin. without either of them exercising an influence on the other. often IT fields happens that the development of two of science different for goes on side by side long periods. on the doctrines of the one by the doctrines of the In that case a natural tendency to allow the first may even be manifested field to be completely absorbed in the relation second.

84 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS We gives are living at present in such a period of complicated cross-relations. methods. logical and mathematical of this tendency. Philosophers. are here concerned in particular with the relations fields in the between the physical and biological broadest The or distinction between effective causes It and has final causes. psychologists. all make the most widely extended applications of the principle of energy and of other physical conceptions. a more accurate delimitation of the sphere to which they apply. success The and be a of movement may be any case the partly positive it partly negative. physicists. but in result of will more and a precise determination of our conceptions. While many by physicists are concerned to purify physical conceptions psychological. We sense. and chemists. other mistrustful and more philo- sophical than the philosophers themselves. clearer idea of the difference and the affinity between the methods of the departments in question. rise and the consequent fermentation of ideas to very remarkable phenomena. are coming forward as advocates of the old metaphysical conceptions which the philosophers have already largely abandoned. with a freedom which the physicist would hardly venture to use in his own field. ends. biologists. We may this almost say that the customary roles of the special departments have been interchanged. dates from Aristotle. been generally assumed that physical phenomena are throughout .

to refuse to make use of the clues which a consideration of purpose puts into our hands. such as the presence of other gravitating magnetic or electrical bodies. of the development and instinctive action of animals . described but and studied by Reimarus and Autenrieth. for example. and biological phenomena final causes. I understand them in the light of the purpose of preserving the animal's of life existence in the particular conditions involved. or the instinctive actions of an animal. they life become fused which we form of the . or the development of a plant in determinate forms. present Up its to the we are not able to deduce the development of a peculiar growing animal. of the organism as ineffaceable constituents and it is only through them that that picture can be rounded out into a . but such facts as these can be at any rate partially understood when we take into of self-preservation under the life. These phenomena consequently merit in the picture attention. The solely acceleration of a body. *' I am far from being able to understand causally " the numerous remarkable phenomena. —by the circumstances of the movement. I do not know what it is that compels the cater- pillar of the hawk-moth to spin a I cocoon with a bristly flap opening outwards. in a field it would certainly where the " causality " theory still affords such imperfect explanations. from effective causes alone . consideration the purpose particular circumstances of the organism's theoretical reservations Whatever we may make as to the application to biology of the conception of purpose. determined by the effective causes. but see that such a cocoon exactly corresponds to the purpose of preserving the caterpillar's existence.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS by is 85 determined by effective causes. be perverse.

but it was not until 150 years later that the processes which effect the accommoattempt to dation were really discovered. is only quite recently. con- ceptions which we think correspond to the facts universally. Even when a department of facts has been completely " explained teleologically. instinct etc. namely clear vision at different distances. Now supposing that we have done sufficient work in this department to have enabled us to acquire. heliotropism. not justified. is virtue of which one be understood only in a causal sense and is the other only in a teleological sense. stereo- — that the relations between growth and such a way that we have been really explained in can begin to conceive these relations also as "causal. A complex of physical rate in in its facts is something simple. in animal physiology.86 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS But it united and connected whole. eye. . Loeb on geotropism. the need to understand it " causally still persists.. be experimentally represented such a simple form that the immediate relations between parts visible. in view of the purpose of the eye. at will. Harvey discovered the purpose of the circulation of the blood in the course of an make clear to himself the problematical position of the valves of the heart and veins. or at any many cases become can. It conception of purpose in Kepler's Consider investigation of the was impossible for him. —and particularly through the investigations of Sachs in the physiology of plants and. The to belief in the completely different nature in af the two departments we are considering." History testifies in a manner only that cannot be gainsaid to biological the utility of the research. as regards the nature of these relations. to doubt the existence of accommodation. through the work of tropism.

434. ^ The scientists of antiquity. by an imper- our thought. . — if either by trying to discover these intermediate links. on the other hand. or by grasping at the hypothesis of a quite new kind is of connecting relations. this But this implies no necessity that " causal " understanding consists. A biological in such factual complex. we regard our knowledge as imperfect and provisional. The eye sees clearly at different distances. nature conducts light by the shortest paths and inquirers thus set in the shortest times. and reflect that in the department of physics absolutely analogous cases arise.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS fact 87 then we are logically bound to expect that any particular which may present itself will correspond to these conin nature.^ It is in ceptions. Aristotle. ' The latter alter- native unnecessary. familiarity But the intellect which has been trained to with the simpler causal relation finds. pp. con. 1900. ceives heavy bodies as seeking out their position Hero These thinks that. Accordingly we are satisfied we are able to represent as being connected with one another prominent parts of the complex which are not immediately connected. the apparatus of dioptrical vision ' Prinzipien der Wdrmelehre. we can formulate every teleological question in such a way as completely to exclude the conception of purpose. 457. up no such definite boundary between the physical and the biological. 2nd edition. Leipzig. from motives of economy. indeed. in the links. for example. ceptible modification in Moreover. did not draw this precise distinction between the two departments. is compounded its a way that the immediate relations between parts cannot if be taken in at a glance. difficulties absence of the intermediate to which it tries remove as best it can.

possibility. It is some time past been in an advanced recent work. . of the under certain conditions. {i. and veins open in the same direction this being so. 1900. The former is simply method.. which has only quite which they arise.e. get the better of the others thus would appear that there is as yet no necessity to assume a fundaa provisional mental difference between teleological and causal methods of investigation. 1891 V. must therefore be capable of change change consist? in what does this all The valves of the heart . the fact ? The modern theory of evolution has its made sober method of thought own. but combinations which cannot be to It and have greater power of resistance and survive. The investigation. L. van Schaik.88 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS . C. means of a At present the conceptions used by chemists are biologist. Vol. resolution of elements resolved. . 4th Series. on the other hand.. however. even closer to those of the conceptions all According to these possible combinations are formed by the . for example. Annalen der Physik. To ^ confirm this conclusion in greater detail. W. 719. Rotterdam. Hensen. III. the circulation Is this this of the blood can only take place in one direction. ^ We explain the made clear the manner in movement of light along selection of the effective the shortest paths by paths. we come across considerations having a great affinity with those of the biological sciences. of stationary vibrations vibrations which can maintain themselves) has for state. let us return Cp. new attacks. Ueder die Tonerregung in Labialpfeifen. Even in the very ad- vanced parts of physics. p.

Open Court Publishing Co. 1893. VII. If as a simple example. if A towards B This is the old formula. A sort is primitive. that in any given case can point to one cause and one effect. —that is to say. Perhaps.^ Consider.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS to the various conceptions of causality. The connections we long ago of nature are seldom so simple. a movement But. 89^ The old traditional : conception of causality is of something perfectly rigid a of dose of effect follows on a dose of cause. E B. a mass of ^ B comes into opposition to a follows. Calve. Stuttgart. ^ Such objections have been raised by Kiilpe in his Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen kbrperlichen und seelischen Vorgdngen {Zeitschrift fiir Hypnotismus. History and Root of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy^ by P. as in the doctrine of the four elements. and that the which he has in view. The very word " cause " makes this clear. pharmaceutical conception of the universe I ex- pressed in this view. Vol." Cp. Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes der Erhaltung der Arbeit^ (English translation. 97). p. 1899. Chicago. the relation of gravitating masses. mass A. accord- required by the facts under investigation. I therefore proposed to replace the conception of cause by the mathematical conception of function.. Jourdain. great importance need not be attached to the objections that have been raised against it. 1911.) Prague.. the dependence of the characteristics of phenomena on one ing to what is another. also C. Ilauptmann Die Metaphysik in der Physio logie^ Dresden. ^ capable of any extension or limitation that may be desired. 1872. notion of function I is sufficient also for those cases . 22. I do not think that my view differs so greatly from Cossman's that an understanding is impossible. also by Cossman in \\\s Empirische Teleologie. phenomena on one This conception is more accurately. he would have seen that I substituted ' the notion of function for the old notion of causality. by the conanother. therefore. p. If he had considered the matter further. ception of the dependence of or. have no further objection to make to his ** Empirical teleology.

even in this simplest case. . since this is a question which can only be settled by special- ized inquiry.^ as to the form of which nothing of course can be said beforehand. Cp. and can thus prophesy both back- wards and forwards. [is Thus. to infer the velocities The accelerations allow us which will be attained at some future moment. the old formula incapable of embracing the multiplicity of the relations Similarly in other cases everything is (that exist in nature. Consequently. . its con- determined as a function of time. We know after the configuration for any time we like before and time of commencement. determined Hence is also the positions oi A B C D. are for every moment. p. is With a relation of mutual dependence change the related elements only possible when some group of can be regarded as an independent variable. we we see that the masses A B C D. are given as soon as the masses are posited. when. that (1905). Erkenntnis und Irrttim i . This can only happen in both cases is when no disturbance ' intervenes from outside. therefore. based in turn upon a measurement of earth. 274. . with its positions is and velocities.go THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS consider the matter more accurately. its But the physical measure- ment of time space. resolved into relations of mutual dependence. determine mutual accelerations in one another. by central figuration its forces). accelerations which. say. namely the rotation of the left We are thus ulti- mately with a mutual dependence of positions on one another. Given a well-defined mechanical system (defined. though it may be possible to complete in detail the picture of the world in a scientifically determined sufficient part of the manner when a tell world is given. yet science cannot us what the total result of the world process will be. .

even when it is not conceived as a mechanical system also. even though it The be not an immediate dependence of all processes on the position of one body. presupposes dependence on a para- meter which is determined by the path traversed by some body. cannot be regarded in the sun's if ^S" as the cause of the change temperature. b. inas- much as the determination of time. Let us consider. the cause of a rise in temperature in the body The rise follows regularly on the illumination of X. The two changes to would then be simultaneous. as would actually be the case immediate relation to and X stood not so is alone in an one another. by way of contrast. clearly recognized relations All accurately and may be re- garded as mutual relations of simultaneity. any medium whatever. the system can 91 be regarded as in a certain sense a closed system. such as a planet. the popular conception of cause and effect. Let S in Fig. We cannot. which illumines a body X placed J^.I THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS to say. represent the sun. and consequently also that of the velocities. Fig. the body or the change in its temperature. guarantees to us the interconnection of the whole world. and would mutually determine one another. JCy On the other hand. in i. actual dependence. Analogous considerations hold for any physical system. regard any system as being completely isolated from the rest of the world. is Then the sun. lying outside the system. indeed. I b. or the heat of the sun. The reason that this is be sought .

K^ but also and in their turn are determined by these latter. think. which determine changes not only in other elements. the greater the distance. and that it is free from the incompleteness. If he were methods results. make fore. Thus K stands it in relations of mutual deter- mination with innumerable elements. the elements. a very important step in advance that modern physics. a primitive and provisional way out of a I difficulty. latter. for instance. . feel this. although the restore either the retina N or the memory does not whole body K. The notion of cause in fact. S. indefiniteness and one-sidedness of the is. But. Mill's discussion of the methods of experito try to apply these mental inquiry. requires that due con- sideration should be paid to spatial and temporal continuity. may be one of which very far apart : starting from the present we may prophesy into the distant future or past. he glances at J. when. The principal advantage for me of the notion of function over that of cause lies in the fact that the former forces us to greater accuracy of expression. and we may fortunate guesses.92 in THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the intermediate links. N^ and sets up a visual sensation from which a memory remains behind. Every modern man of science must. the It is there- less secure must the basis of our reasoning be. and only a vanishing portion of the light sun. It is reflects finds its way back that to the in analogous circumstances look for the reason the retina why a body K we must throws an image upon jS. without prejudice to the greatness of Newton's concep- tion of action at a distance. he would never get beyond the most rudimentary The range the limits try to lie of spatial and temporal functional relations within which our conjectures operate. A in B^ of the medium. wherever it can.

biology. but against these . facts. Both contain the same fundamental facts. The magnetic and chemical in the case of difficulty phenomena. so that physics. so much so by means of galvanic that have reached the point of discovering the chemical nature of frictional electricity electricity. but sides of these facts come to light only in one of them. all both that in physics and biology. have been discovered there at electricity . and notion would prove equal to requirements. can afford help to and throw versa.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS I 93 It might seem from what has been said that. look so different that at sight might seem impossible to expect that the two should be capable of reduction to the same fundamental frictional electricity. are extremely prominent in galvanic it is whereas. which are scarcely observable and could only with all. only in the case of the former that ponderomotive phenomena and phenomena of tension present themselves easily and unsought it is for. contrariwise. We need not be alarmed by the great diflerence in point of view displayed by the two sciences. the notion of function was that this we all wanted. while many other sides are only noticeable in the other. standing side by side with biology. light upon and vt'ce No one can deny that the application of physics to biology has accomplished much. Now we well known that each of these two studies supplements light and throws great on the other . as for example frictional electricity first and galvanic it electricity. Quite closely related groups of physical phenomena. An many analogous relation also holds between physics and biology.

— on such suppositions he would in easily arrive at the assumption that quite peculiar factors were here at work. ticular stage of life we see that the conception of a par- as being in the future and operating at . if new physical facts etc. since many life. organisms prepare themselves for a later stage of their but are destroyed before attaining regard something which is it. when we reflect that the processes in the life of generations return periodically. or that it adapts its environment in order to avoid possible fact future enemies. One excellent reason at why this mysteri- ous operation of the future a distance cannot be com- pared with any physical relation. is that the operation does not take place exactly and without exception. or that it can perform instinctive actions which it cannot have learnt and which can only inure to the advantage of future coloration to members its of the race. as being the determining factor in a present process which is going on before our eyes. and thereupon were it to suppose that an animal grows special organs which finds ready to be applied to some useful purpose at a later stage of its life. namely the uncertain past or But the uncertain future. or is only partially determined. Pfeffer's cells. It is impossible to not determined for ourselves.94 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS set other cases in achievements we have to which it was reserved for biology to bring to light (galvanism.). Physics will accomplish much more in additions made biology. to her by the If anyone familiar with the physical sciences alone were to turn to the study of biology. only she will submit to have latter.

Engelmann. Farbenphotographie und Farbenanpassung in der ' ' Natur. Wiener. remember the remarkable physico-chemical methods. Wiener's demonstration of the probable connexion between color-photography and color-adaptation By means of stationary light-waves stratification may be formed in a medium that is sensitive to light. p. and then the incident light may be reflected back as an interin nature. Vol. there are some which can take on almost any hue. When such materials are exposed to a colored illumination. they retain the color of the illumination. Leipzig. ^ O.^ ference-color . In this way the element of the unfamiliar greatly decreased. as something given which has traces behind. ^ progress we have only to made by experimental its embryology and the mechanism of development with We have another very remark- able fact in O. LV. W. Vortrdge und Aufsatze iiber Eniwickebingsmechanik der Organismen. 1905. Of materials that are sensitive to light. but there is yet another way in which a coloration corresponding to the illumination may arise. and which certainly kas produced an effect.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS a distance is 95 an arbitrary and hazardous conception. and consequently the light is incapable of producing any further change in ^ Cp.. W. mi'g/if and incomprehensible have is is What we then effect." Wiedemann's Annalen. Roux. 225. not a possible future which produce an but a past which certainly has recurred countless times. is As an example of our contention ently specifically that Physics capable of co-operating fruitfully in the solution of what are apparbiological problems. because they do not absorb the rays of the same color as themselves. 1895. . and life that the stage of in question can also be regarded as a left its process in the past.

But as soon as he perceives unexpected movements in nature. that THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS According to Poulton's observations ^ it is probable many of the adaptive colors of chrysalises arise in this manner. as quite clearly seen from the scientific attitude of antiquity. The " conceptions of " effective cause " and of " purpose is both have their origin in animistic views. like an animal. It seemed to me alive. does not puzzle his head by reflecting own movements. But when I let go the machine and it went on rotating by itself. afield Thus in such cases we do not need Avoiding is to look far from the means that produce the is effect. 1890. ) I remember that when I Kosmoswas about three years old I was frightened when the elastic seed-capsule of a plant of gardenbalsam opened on being pressed. . natural and and self-evident. he started back in terror and apparently thought it was alive "It goes by itself!" he exclaimed. Perhaps it is the same with dogs when they run barking after every moving cart. he instinctively interprets these movements on the analogy of his own. p. 38. The on savage. In this way striking the distinction between his own and someone and ^ else's volition begins to dawn upon him. once set a Holtz electrical machine going for the benefit of one of my boys when he was about three years old. which does not : agree with this view. and pinched my finger. Sinddie Tiere unvernilnftig ? verlag. see Zell. which seem to him quite spontaneous. He was delighted by the dancing sparks. his no doubt. we may say that the equilibrium it is determined by the circumstances under which attained.96 them. 8. (For another plausible explanation. in startled and anxious tones. of statement.^ Gradually the similarities and biological processes stand diiferences between physical ^ 2 1 Poulton. in all order to rashness find the " purpose " that attained. T/ie Colors of Animals London.

When any process which of the is completely determined by the circumstances moment. body. for instance. which offer less resistance to the animistic view. are lacking or are not Nature. r* Animism. cause and purpose coincide. we should limited to itself without further consequences. has created a pro- fusion of analogies between lower. and doubtless also between higher. the notion of an activity that end. is still conscious of maintained . Where still volitional action is conscious. or even scarcely speak of a in purpose. — as. But when the hungry frog snaps which it sees. is not an epistomological [Ifallacy if it were. and where conscious purposive itself. and swallows and digests it. Through a series of rigid forms the conception of cause merges by degrees into the conceptions of dependence and function. occurs in an inorganic. stages of evolution. we naturally .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ground of the fundamental scheme of 97 out alternately with ever greater clearness against the backvolitional action. and which remains an organic. As regards physical processes. in producing man. every analogy would be such a fallacy. or the like) is assumed as watching over the organism and guiding its activities. or anthropomorphism. their great simplicity and their susceptibility to calculation cause the animistic conception to fade gradually away. . that the conception its of purpose. It is only for the phenomena of organic is life. action cannot be ascribed to the organism some higher entity that strives towards a goal (Nature. is when a sensation of light or a muscular contraction excited by at the fly a stimulus. ^he fallacy lies merely in the application of it this view to cases in which the premises for sufficient.

comes when the organic functions resolved into one another. In the sphere of the organic a world-process is much larger section of the manifested . we are aware of the influence of a wider spatial and temporal environment. as proceeding by way of detours. But whenever we do this we are always brought face to face with the peculiar characteristics of the organic. the same since true of historical investigation also. and it establish the consideration of in a "causal" point of try to view as alone valid. resolving the and only when. And all can only be provisional.98 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Purposiveness only are in adopt the notion of purposive action. historical ^research needs to be supplemented by causal explanation. and K^ Menger's writings on economics. though perhaps they are opposed to my own if teleois tendencies.). the peculiar characteristics of the organic must be regarded only as provisional clues. to conceive of its parts is subject to the Hence the legitimate attempt gradually to an organism as something physical. as not limited to the immediate. the organic is That is why suc- more difficult to understand. so far as they . —a point which is very properly emphasized in Loeb's in biological works. only confirms logical investigation me in this view. for which no analogy can be found in the physical phenomena of "lifeless" nature. we have complex into its ceeded in immediately •Connected parts. Real under- standing is attained when. Every organism together with laws of physics. when they are seen as interconnected. Accordingly. The etc. Reinke. perusal of recent biological writings (Driesch.

and thus to replace the loss of energy by an equal or a greater amount. Lotos. which con- automatically transfers itself to the environment.^ A steam-engine which should fetch itself. animal cir- itself is "* nothing but combustion in complicated cumstances 10. a its able to maintain its — chemical composition. Prague. 1899. its The it organism possesses these properties even in . Naturphilosophie. Theorie der Nerventdtigkeit. brings neighbouring bodies up to that temperature and thereby drags them into the process. Vorgdnge in der lebendigen Substanz. **€£. assimilates itself. p. temperature and so — in the face of external influences. xi. flagration keeps itself going. that is grows and propagates that it is Physics therefore still has much before is new to learn from a study of the organic in a position to control the organic.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS have been investigated system that is 99 is at present. 1888. or some similar process. ^ Hering. and which manifests a stability. and the work of Roux cited on above. and grows. Leipzig. expands and propagates life Nay. .^ state of dynamic equilibrium of considerable expenditure of energy the organism is By an more able to draw energy to itself from its environment. is its coal itself and heat minuter to say. forth.. Zur Munich. only a feeble and artificial image of an organism. pp. 1898. x. parts it regenerates itself from these parts itself. Ostwald. . Let us compare our volitional action with some * reflex Hering.conflagration. '^Hirth. A produces its own combustion- temperature. Energetische Epigenesis. ^ The best physical image of a living process is still afforded by a «. its Every organism peculiar properties. 95.

and which causes us surprise when it occurs. in Hering's wider. by the momentary call circumstances is of the Now what we volition nothing more than the totality of those conditions of a movement which enter partly into consciousness and are connected with a prevision of the result. far as If we analyse these conditions. Hering. similar thoughts under similar conditions evoking similar thoughts. even though. and remain associated. The presence genesis is of food. we are no longer able to speak of consciousness or of any arrangement in a system of memories. we find nothing more inter- than memory-traces of former experiences and their connection (association). then adaptation would become Favourable combinations occur more often than in the ratio of compound probability. so they enter into consciousness. sense. to be fundamental properties of elementary intelligible. Ueder das Geddchtnis sierten Materie. ^ We do not indeed ah allegemeine Funktion derorgani- . The fact that phylo- repeated in ontogenesis in an abbreviated form. In the two latter cases we can detect an inclination to regard the whole process as physically determined organism.100 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS movement which we have observed in ourselves. 1870.^ organisms. in the case of such organisms. or with the reflex movement of an animal. Vienna. and swallowing movements remain interconnected. If we may take memory and association. It seems that the preservation is of such traces and their associations a fundamental function of elementary organisms. the feeling of satiety. would constitute a parallel to the well-known phenomenon by which thoughts return by preference along the paths which they have once taken.

to light. p. that.^ come and way new facts may be brought both the The result of this investigation will not be a dualism. . shall interpret the facts that are common to the two departments. in suggested this notion.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS know what association. psychological observation on the one side and physical observation on the progress that they will ultimately that in this other. 1863. however. is possible. 234. are very much It In this respect it seems as there in- were almost no analogy between the organic and the organic. but rather organic and the a science which. loi are the physical counterparts to memory and if All the explanations that have been attempted forced. may make such into contact. embracing inorganic. though still in terms of the Kompendium der Physikfiir Mediziner. in the physiology of the senses. ^ I first tentatively Fechner's theories.

Two they may be alike in color but unlike in form . grey trunk. but not tangible. But we may see a round. away or close our fruit. appears to us at a single. the we regard fire. eyes. yellow together with a yellow. a single thing. but is green or red. its its many soft. first smooth. fruit. shining leaves. its hard. yellow its warm. THE SPACE SENSATIONS OF THE EYE. When we turn our glance we can touch the tree. which are not only attached to one another but also to other conditions. indivisible In like manner. one word draws forth from the depths of oblivion all the associated memories at once. or the fire in a mirror visible. One name if the whole. the sweet. The is visible is separable from the tangible. etc. Thus the apparently indivisible thing separates into parts. round. Thus sensations of I02 . they were strung upon a The is reflexion of the tree. rough.VI. the fruit. may be different in color but like in form. from be a that which may be tasted. feel the fire. bright as with manifold moving designates tongues. tree with THE whole. first What merely visible also appears at sight to fruit single thing. star-shaped blossom. taste the but we cannot see them. branches swayed by the wind. just as A second fruit may be things round as the first. as single thread.

F. but in technical works. we must not take an enumeration of vase-pigments for an enumeration of all colors. hazy. Prof. is essentially a sensation of favorable or unlife. even to-day. As each of us left the pubHcation of the results of our discussion to the other.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS sight are separable into color-sensations tions. furthermore. is The peasants of the Marchfeld say. Trubner & Co. I think. When we consider the polychromy of the ancient Egyptians and Pompeiians.. and in detail by A. Krause. these were never made public. Color-sensation. when we take into account the fact that these decorations can scarcely have been produced by the sensations in general. poets. on this subject. I shall take the liberty of adding only a few brief remarks. 103 and space-sensa- which are different from one another even though they cannot be represented in isolation from another. be 1879. however. and both of us soon came to the conclusion Magnus could not hold their own before the critical examination either of natural science or of philology. as . as does Magnus. Immediately after the appearance of the Magnus. for example. Terms. The terminology of colors must not be looked for in the poets. London. Meantime. Magnus to show a considerable development of the color-sense within historical times. The attempt of H. the matter has been disposed of by E. color-sensation has probably been developed and modified. that salt is "sour. favorable chemical conditions of In the process of adaptation to these conditions." because the expression "salty" is not familiar to them. into the details of which we shall not enter here. Marty. where there is no necessity for sharp discrimination. are always indistinct. and his terminology of no more developed than that of the Greek I have often proved by personal experience. cannot. And. defective. From defects of terminology we cannot infer the absence of corresponding qualities of sensation. The that the views of color-terminology of the countryman of to-day. regarded as writings of felicitous. Tke Color-Sense. Polle of Dresden. as my colleague Benndorf has remarked. I corresponded with a philologist. and few in number. ^ ' Light introduces organic Compare Grant Allen.

which certainly is chiefly called into play from this point on. Schultz (Das Farbenempfindungssystem der Hellenen. as successive union and separation. Applications of the Darwinian theory are also to be made with caution in another direction. and is probably variable. The color-sense exists. The two substances present themselves tint. but as chemical vibrations. to conceive visual processes role The which color plays in analytical chemistry. and observations in photography and photo-chemistry. is well known. to us in the most varied modifications of The dis- covery of the visual purple. But whether it is being enriched or impoverished who can tell? Is it not possible that. which substantially supported by recent investigations in anomalous dispersion. or in which little color-sense exists. allow us also as chemical processes. with the awakening of intelligence and the use of artificial contrivance. in spectrum-analysis. 1904). It suggests a new conception for the so- called vibrations of light. and that the development of the lower organs of man will be relegated to second place ? — — . by W. as preceding For the beginner another in which the color-sense is highly developed. The question has lately been taken up again. with recourse to fuller authorities. in crystallography. the untenability of the whole conception is sufficiently apparent. it is natural to proceed from the simple to the complex. THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The green chlorophyll and the (complementary) red haemoglobin play a prominent part in the chemical processes of the plant-body and in the chemical reactions of the animal body. in is photo-chemical phenomena. when we note that Pompeii was buried in ashes only is seventy years after Vergil's death. This conception. as an oscillatory process of the same sort that takes place. not as mechanical. the whole development will be shifted to the intellect. according to which they should be regarded.104 life. whilst Vergil on this theory sup- posed to have been nearly color-blind. But this is it not necessarily the path of Nature. Leipzig. accords with the electro-magnetic color-blind. We like to picture to ourselves a condition in which the color-sense is lacking. though only in one direction.

two letters of the same size and shape. yields the 105 In the case of electrolysis. — which are same in the ivfiJi i. 2. At least this is so in the case of man. EB Fig. we recognize their sameness of form at the first glance. that in a future theory of colors. 3- Adaptation to the chemical conditions of life which manifest themselves in color.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS theory of light. The sight-perceptions..sensations. many biologico- psychological and chemico-physical threads will be united. within our (a The close association of space-sensation mechanical factor) with color-sensation (a chemical factor) is thus rendered intelligible. which is here in question. and as to is which alone a direct and certain judgment power. the These are the space-sensations two cases. in spite of the difference of color-sensation. must contain some identical sensationcomponents. renders locomotion necessary to a far greater extent than adaptation to those fest which mani- themselves through taste and smell. therefore. in intelligible fact. We shall now proceed to the analysis of optical space. In examining two figures which are alike but differently colored (for example. chemistry most conception of the electric current electrolyte as passIt is likely. therefore. but of different colors). by regarding the two components of the ing through each other in opposite directions.O\: .

3.4- Place the same spot ^ exactly the twice or several times in same position in a row (Fig. investigate the character of the space- sensations that physiologically condition the recognition of figure. which could never be recognized as the same without mechanical and intellectual A ^ few simple experi- Jt ^^L ments here will render us familiar with the relations involved. agreeable impression. Two figures may be geometriis cally congruent. the result is a peculiar. 1861. the contrary. p. 5) . ^^^ Fig.^ (Fig. ^Q Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie^ Vol.io6 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS We a will now First. it is clear that this recognition is not the result of geometrical considerations —which On are a matter. but physiologically quite different. 3). . shewn by the two adjoined squares operations. 215. not of sensation. and we recog- nize at once ' and without difficulty the identity of all the in Compare my brief paper. 4. the space-sensations in question serve as the starting-point and foundation of all geometry. Ueherdas Sehen von Lagenund Winkeln. Look at the spot in Fig. but of intellect. XLIIL. as Fig.

Turning one of the spots . observer (Fig. however. 7) the relationship of form is strikingly apparent. 6). if we place two of the spots in positions symmetrical to median plane of the ^Fig. in the In this case we have I Fig. On the other hand. 9). 8. the so-called centric symmetry. On the the other hand. But if the plane of symmetry diverges considerably from observer. the affinity of form again apparent on contrasting with such a spot the same spot rotated through an angle of 180° same plane (Fig. we turn one spot not recognizable without intellectual far enough round with respect to the other form is (Fig. It is only when the two geometrically similar spots are placed beside I 7 ^'K. figures. each other in the same relative positions (Fig. proportionately. as in is the median plane of the Fig. will also 10). 8. we obtain a geometrically similar is as the geometrically congruent not necessarily physiologically (optically) congruent. nor the geometrically symmetrical necessarily optically symmetrical.^. analogously the geometrically similar is not necessarily optically similar.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 107 mill Fig5. When. spot. their identity of assistance. If we reduce But all the dimensions of the spot . that they appear optically similar. l\ is the affinity of form recogniz- able only by turning the figure around or by an intellectual act.9.

io8

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
(Fig. ii).

round destroys the resemblance
for

If

we

substitute

one of the spots a spot symmetrical

to the other in

respect of the

median plane
12),
will

III
Fig. 10.

of the observer (Fig.

a

symmetrical similarity
II.

be

Fig.

produced which has also an
optical

A Ir
Fig. 12
Fig. 13.

value.

The

turning

of one of the figures through
180° in
its

own
.

plane,

pro-

centrically ducing thereby ^ -1 v u has symmetrical similarity,

also a physiologico-optical value (Fig. 13).

6.

In what, now, does the essential nature of optical similarity,
as contrasted with geometrical similarity, consist
metrically
similar
figures,
is

?

In geo-

all

homologous distances are
affair

proportional.
sensation.
fl,

But that

an

of the intellect, not of

If

we place beside a

triangle with the sides
2<^,

b^

c^

a triangle with the sides 2a,

2^,

we do not
is

recognize this simple relation between the two immediately,

but intellectually, by measurement.

If the similarity

to

become
added.
intellect

optically perceptible, the proper position

must be
of

That a simple
does not

relation

of two objects for the

necessarily

condition

a similarity

sensation,

may be

perceived by comparing two triangles
a, b^
c,

having respectively the sides,

and a-\-m,b-\-m,c + m.
all alike.

The two triangles do not look at

Similarly all
all

conic sections do not look alike, although

stand in a

simple geometric relation to each other

;

still

less

do curves

of the third order exhibit optical similarity, etCo

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
7.

109

The
by

geometrical similarity of two figures

is

determined
all

all their

homologous

lines

being proportional or by

their homologous angles being equal. But to appear

optically

similar the figures

must also

be similarly
all their

situated^ that is

homologous

direc-

tions

must be

parallel or, as
Fig. 14

we prefer to say, must be the same (Fig. 14). The importance of direction for sensation
consideration of Fig.
3.

will

be evident upon a careful

It is

by identity of

direction,

accordingly, that are determined the identical space-sensations

which are characteristic of the physiologico-optical

similarity of the figures.^

We may

obtain an idea of the physiological significance

of the direction of a given straight line or curve-element,

by the following
of a plane curve.

reflexion.

Let y-=f{x) be the equation
at a glance the course of

We

can read

the values of dy\dx
^

on the

curve, for they are determined

Some

forty years ago, in a society of physicists

and

physiologists, I

proposed for discussion the question, why geometrically similar figures were also optically similar. I remember quite well the attitude taken with regard to this question, which was accounted not only superfluous, but even ludicrous. Nevertheless, I am now as strongly convinced as
I was then that this question involves the whole problem of form- vision. That a problem cannot be solved which is not recognized as such is

clear.

In this non-recognition, however,

is

manifested, in

my

opinion,

which alone accounts for the opposition, from so many sides and extending over so many years, instead of cheerful acceptance, with which the writings of Hering have been received.
that one-sided mathematico-physical direction of thought,

no
by
its

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
steepness
;

and the eye

gives us, likewise, qualitative

information concerning the values of dyjdx^j for they are
characterized by the curvature.
presents
itself,

The

question naturally
as

why can we not
easy.

arrive at

immediate

conclusions concerning the values d^yjdx^^

d^yjdx^^ etc.

The answer

is

What we

see

is

of course not the
affair,

differential coefficients,

which are an intellectual

but

only the direction of the curve-elements, and the deviation
of the direction of one curve-element from that of another.

In

fine,

since

we

are

immediately cognisant

of

the
also

similarity of figures lying in similar positions,

and are

able to distinguish at once the special case of congruity,
therefore

our space-sensations yield us information con-

cerning identity or difference of directions and equality or
inequality of dimensions.
8.

It is

a priori extremely probable that sensations of space

are connected in

some way with the motor apparatus of
particulars,

the eye.
first,

Without entering into

we may

observe,

that the whole apparatus of the eye,
is

and

especially the

motor apparatus,

symmetrical with respect to the median

plane of the head.

Hence, symmetrical movements of

looking will be connected with like or approximately like
space-sensations.

Children constantly confound the

letters

p and q. Adults, too, do not change from left to right, unless some
b

and

d^

readily notice a
special points of
it

apprehension

for

sense or intellect

make

noticeable.
is

The symmetry The perfect.
would, by

of the motor apparatus of the eye
like

very

excitation of

its

symmetrical organs
the distinction of

itself,

scarcely account for

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
right

iii

and
is

left.

But the whole human body, especially the

brain,

affected with a slight asymmetry,

—which

leads,
right)

for example, to the preference of

one (generally the
this leads,

hand, in motor functions.
further

And

again, to a

and

better

development of the motor functions of
to

the

right

side,

and

a

modification of the attendant

sensations.

After the space-sensations of the

eye have

become

associated, through writing, with the

motor sensavertically

tions of the right hand, a confusion of those

symmetrical figures with which the art and habit of writing
are concerned

no longer ensues.

This association

may

even become so strong that the memories follow only the

accustomed

tracks,

and we

read, for example, the reflexion

of written words in a mirror only with the greatest difficulty.

The

confusion of right and

left still

occurs, however, with

regard to figures which have no motor, but only a purely
optical (for example,

ornamental)

interest.

A
felt,

noticeable

difference

between
in

right

and

left

must be

moreover,

by animals, as

many predicaments
their way.

they have no other

means of finding
easily

How

similar,

moreover, are

the sensations connected with symmetrical motor functions
is

remarked

by the attentive observer.
right

If,

for

example, because
I
I

my

hand happens

to

be engaged,
left

grasp a micrometer-screw or a key with

my

hand,
it

am

certain (unless I reflect beforehand) to turn
direction,
is

in

the wrong

— that

is,

I

always perform the move-

ment which

symmetrical to the usual movement, con-

fusing the two because of the similarity of the sensation.

The

observations of Heidenhain

regarding the reflected
also

writing of persons hypnotized
cited in this connexion.

on one side should

be

112

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS

The
resort

idea that the distinction

between right and
in

left

depends upon an asymmetry, and possibly

the

last

upon a chemical

difference, is
earliest years.

one which has been
I

present to
to
it

me

from

my

gave expression
Since
again.

in the first lectures I ever delivered, in 1861.
itself

then this idea has forced
I

upon me again and

learned by chance from a retired army-officer that on dark

nights or in snow-storms,
absent, troops will

when external landmarks are move approximately in a circle of large

radius so that they almost return to their point of departure,

though

all

the time they are under the impression that

they are marching straight forward.

An

analogous pheno-

menon
to

is

narrated in Tolstoi's story. Master

and

Servant.
is

Probably the only way to understand these phenomena

assume a

slight

motor asymmetry.

They

are analogous

to the

way

in

which a

ball with a slight deviation

from

the true cylindrical shape rolls in a circle of large radius.

This

is

actually the

way

in

which the matter

is

regarded

by

F. O. Guldberg,^

who has
that

carried out detailed researches
in this
lost

on the phenomena presented
beings and animals

connexion by human
their way.

have

Human

beings and animals that have lost their direction move,

almost without exception, nearly, in
radii

circles,

of which the
lies

vary according to the species, while the centre

sometimes on the
along
'

the

hand of the individual circumference, and sometimes on
left

travelling
his
right,

F. O. Guldberg,

" Die
1897.

7:vi\L\x\2s\it^&^rig,'' Zeitschrift fur Biologic,

Vol.

XXV.,

p.

419,

Dr W.

Pauli drew

my

attention to this

article in conversation.

^r
THE ANALYSIS OF SENhAffo}7S
according to the individual and the species.
to

113

According

Guldberg we have here a teleological device to help

parents to find their hungry young again

when they have

been

lost.

Experiments on the lower animals, with

whom
For

this factor is absent,

would therefore be
expect,

interesting.

the

rest,

we should

on grounds of general probain the lower animals also,

bility, to

find imperfect

symmetry

Again,
the

Loeb's researches "
^

On

the Spatial Feeling of
things, that

Hand,"
hand,

have taught

us,

amongst other

when
right
in

the eyes are bandaged, a given
if

movement

of the

imitated by the

left,

is

always reproduced
;

an exaggerated or a diminished form

the degree of

exaggeration or

diminution varying with the individual.

Loeb thinks
to
infer

that the

phenomena

of regeneration allow us
right
I

that
1

the

distinction

between

and

left

is

specific.

am
it

certain,

however, that

personally have

never regarded

as a merely geometrical

and

quantitative

motor

difference.
10.

With looking upwards and looking downwards, fundamentally
different

space

-

sensations

are

associated,

as

ordinary experience shows.
hensible, since the

This

is,

moreover, compreis

motor apparatus of the eye

asym-

metrical with respect to a horizontal plane.

The

direction

of gravity also

is

so very decisive and important for the
rest of the

motor apparatus of the
assuredly also found
eye,
^

body
well

that this fact has

its

expression in the apparatus of the
rest.
It
is

which serves the

known

that the

Loeb, " Ueber den Fiihlraum der Hand," XLI. and XLVI.

Pflliger's

Archiv^ Vols.

H

114

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
its

symmetry of a landscape and of
not
felt.

reflexion in water

is

The

portrait of a familiar personage,
is

when turned

upside down,

strange and puzzling to a person
it

who

does not recognize

intellectually.

If

behind the head of a person lying
unreflectingly give ourselves

we place ourselves upon a couch, and
our impression

up

to the impression which

the face makes upon us,
is

we

shall find that

altogether strange, especially
letters ^

when
^,

the person speaks.

The

and /, and d and

are not confused even

by children.

Our previous remarks concerning symmetry,
and the
rest,

similarity,

naturally apply not only to plane figures, but

also to those in space.

Hence, we have yet a remark to

add concerning the sensation of space-depth.
the sight of something near at hand.

The

sight

of something at a distance causes different sensations from

These sensations
animals and

must not be confused, because of the supreme importance
of the diff'erence between near and
far,

both

for

human

beings.

They camiot be
is

confused,

because the

motor apparatus

asymmetrical with respect to a plane
It
is

perpendicular to the direction from front to rear.

a

common
we know
in

experience that a portrait-bust of a person
quite
well
is

whom
quite

cannot be replaced by the mould
cast,

which the bust

and

this

experience

is

analogous to the observations consequent upon the inversion of objects.
II.

If

we suppose

that identical dimensions

and

identical
direc-

directions excite identical space-sensations,
tions symmetrical with respect to the

and that

median plane of the

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
head excite similar space-sensations,
understand the above-mentioned
has, in all
excites
its
it

115
to

becomes easy

facts.

The

straight line

elements, the same direction, and everywhere

the

same space-sensations.

Herein consists
lie in

its

aesthetic value.

Moreover, straight lines which
to
it

the

median plane or are perpendicular
special
relief

are brought into

by the

circumstance

that,

thanks to this

position of symmetry, they stand in the

same

relation to

both of the two halves of the visual apparatus.
position of the straight line
is

Every other

felt

as

an

obliquity, as a

deviation from the position of symmetry.

The

repetition of the

same

space-figure in the

same

posi-

tion conditions a repetition of the

same space-sensation.
excite the

All lines connecting

prominent (noticeable) homologous

points have the
tion.

same direction and
by side
in the

same sensa-

Likewise when merely geometrically similar figures

are placed side
holds.

same

positions, this relation
is

The sameness

of the dimensions alone

absent.

But when the positions are disturbed,
with
it,

this relation,

and

the impression of unity

—the

aesthetic impression

are also disturbed.

In a figure symmetrical with respect to the median plane,
similar space-sensations corresponding to the symmetrical
directions take the place of the identical space-sensations.

The

right half of the figure stands in the

same

relation to

the right half of the visual apparatus as the

left

half of

the figure does to the
If

left

half of the visual apparatus.

we

alter the

sameness of the dimensions, the sensasimilarity
is
still

tion

of symmetrical of

felt.

An
the

oblique

position
relation.

the plane of symmetry

upsets

whole

VV. but ministers only to pleasure in is and color. sameness of the dimensions is eliminated. in the case of centric symmetry. I. ing homologous points will pass. X. centric symmetry produced. five which are horizon- tally symmetrical (B. M. aims no ulterior end. the best source of material for our present is studies. Writing governed by other considerations than that of beauty. as their point of bisection. V. there still remains. O. In almost new and different kinds of symmetry mony at in favor of the conceptions above advanced. K). C. only in its The value of regularity is probably lies mam/o/d symmetry. centrically symmetrical similarity. we find among the twenty- four large Latin letters ten which are vertically symmetrical (A. which sz'ng/e perceptible in more than one position. D. 1865. like pure instrumental music. E. all lines of connexion between direction. Nevertheless. contrasting is it with itself in its original position. which. if figure through i8o°. Y). 12. If the homowhich logous points have the same — a fact produces an agreeable sensation. in distinction from symmetry. (9. Regularity appears to have no special physiological value. The form art of decoration. all lines connect- Moreover. H. T.Ii6 If THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS we turn a is. That two pairs of homologous points be connected. The correctness of these observations will be apparent on glancing over the work of Owen Jones Ornament^ finds A Grammar of every plate one as fresh testi- London. three which are centri- . for sensation. the connecting lines will cut each other at a point through which.

secondly. Haddon. ^ 131 have clearly explained briefly in previous writings the aesthetic significance of the above-mentioned facts. which last he ' regards as a special case of repetition. and only six which unsymmetrical (F. I cannot. L. by the natural objects that offer themselves to the imitation of the artist . He ^ of symmetry. Sur conditions physiques de la perception du beau. of similarity and of continuity. G. Geneva. to treat of which in detail was not part of ever. He does not go into the physiological side of the question. slight deviations According to him from symmetry can more than compensate ' Alfred C. the late J. of repetition. L. refrain my plan. L. Z). Q. meeting of the Swiss Soret's views are connected with those of Helmholtz. R).2 for which the way was prepared at the by a lecture delivered by him Scientific Association in 1866. P. how- from mentioning that this has been done by a physicist. 1892. . art is character of primitive determined. The The study of the evolution of primitive art is extremely instructive in connexion with the problems under discussion. Soret. by the degree of mechanical skill finally attained and by the effort to make use of repetition in its various forms. les J. 1895.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS cally 117 are symmetrical (N. as illustrated by the Life- histories of Designs^ 2 London. Evolution in Art. but his exposition is on the aesthetic side very copious and illustrated by appropriate discusses the aesthetic eff"ect examples. and he does not seem to be acquainted with my theories. . in an admirable book published in 1892. Soret of Geneva. firstly. S.

so that organs of touch.. it say nothing of a modern thinker like Descartes. Soret's chapter in metre. to the organs of are in fact arranged in an analogous we need not be this surprised at the agreement. the beauties of Nature. we have phenomena similar to those . Striking disturbances in form are unpleasant to them. He notices rhythm. even produced a number of unfortunate notions which are partly operative even to-day. movements. but extends them to all departments. as also has been done by me. music. etc. who had been accustomed relief. on literature seems less successful. And he does not merely apply these reflexions to optical cases. Blind people take pleasure in the periodic repetition of the same forms in tangible objects. its Even in antiquity agreement was not without to influence upon inquirers. which the Asylum for the Blind at Lausanne gave him the opportunity of carrying out. True.ii8 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS by the multiplicity which for the loss in sensual satisfaction they introduce and by the intellectual aesthetic pleasure bound up with the that multiplicity. Particularly interesting are his observations on blind people. dancing. to study a large-scale map of Europe in recognized that continent by means of geometrical similarity when he found it as part of a larger raised map on way a smaller scale. the two arms and hands. is intellectual pleasure also produced by the virtual or potential figure symmetry which we perceive when the human or some other symmetrical form is placed in an asymmetrical position. A blind man. and sometimes even seem to them ludicrous. and even literature. rhyme. The symmetrical sight. and have a decided sense symmetry of of formal symmetry. This is illustrated from This sculptured ornaments of Gothic cathedrals.

1894). and that consequently merely intellectual. 14.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS noticed in the previously treated departments. repetition. has no but that the effect depends on the rule. accord- ing to which production in accordance with a fixed rule has an aesthetic effect {Popular Scientific Lectures^ Chicago.i and the repetition of an ornamental motive. I should like to to draw the attention of the reader in T/ie an article by Arnold Emch Monist for October. He is following out the line of thought on which I touched in my lecture of 1871. determined by the of one and the same sensational motive. Finally. Open Court laid stress Publishing Co. point. probably few will agree with him. But in that place I upon the and should an affair like to do so again. example." gives attractive examples of the Emch an way in which a number of forms arranged in a series co-operate to produce aesthetic impression by observing one and the same geometrical principle. of the intellect. he draws a parallel between the effect of the sixfold repetition of the phrase "Que diable allait il faire dans cette galere. It is certain that the effect of this repetition is not produced by the repetition as such.. for 119 But when. but by the successive heightening of a it is comic contrast. that the rule. . 1900." in Moliere's well-known play. considered as aesthetic effect in itself. on "Mathematical Principles of Esthetic Forms. Here we must once more point out and the physiological properties of a ' that the geometrical figure in space are to be Les Fourberies de Scapin.

Hankel has admirably shewn in his History of Mathematics (Leipzig. whereas in Indian geometry of sense has the the factor upper hand. The Hindus make for use of the principles of symmetry and similarity (see. which causes noticed. as will be to be shown by later on. The division of the plane and of space right angles has not only the advantage of producing equal parts. new mode of presentation well worthy Furthermore. 1874) that in Greek geometry the factor of pure understanding is decidedly dominant. But H. collineation. With- out the co-operation of sense-perception and understanding. but are not determined by these properties very solely. On the other hand. p. no doubt. such as affinity. a special it physiologico-optical (aesthetic) value. to an investigation of these less kinds of geometrical relationship than of those that are noticeable. perspicuity is which totally foreign to the Greeks. but also an additional circumstance that and special symmetry-value. is 206 of Hankel's book) with a generality Hankel's proposal the. its The plane likewise possesses. The physiological properties are determined by the geometrical properties coincidently with these.120 sharply THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS distinguished. in so doing. a scientific geometry is inconceivable. The congruent and similar geometrical figures can be brought into positions felt. to unite the rigor of the Greek method with of the Indian in a of encouragement. but because of physiological simplicity. in addition to geometrical properties. The straight line doubtless first attracted attention not because of its being the shortest line its between two points. where their relationship earlier is physiologically led. physiological the first probably gave impulse to geometrical investigations. we should . and others. example.

With regard to the use of the principle of symmetry in mechanics. Chicago. and in The fur Philosophies Forms of Liquids. Chicago. Ueberdas Sehen von Lagen (i86i). 1893. and Symmetry Scientific Lectures. now J. even in mechanics.. Open Court Pub. . 1894.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS only be following in the footsteps of 121 Newton and John Bernoulli.. translated by Thomas J. translated (1872) also published in my Popular by Thomas McCormack. p. applied the principle of similarity in a still more general manner. who. Co. 1865.^ I this have given less complete discussions of the leading thoughts of chapter in the paper already mentioned. further jin und Winkeln Vol. 5. symmetry affords in The advantages the last-named that the principle of department. Open Court Publishing Co. compare my work J^he Science of Mechanics (1883). Fichte's Zeitschrift XLVL. ' I have shown at length elsewhere. McCormack.

^ created doctrine of specific and also put forward with great lucidity the rest. moreover. for the can be clearly traced back as ^ far as Ptolemy. are. and in The considerations of the present chapter. without laying the least claim to that which has been accomplished by others in this direction. Johannes energies. for not yet been discussed. I The '^ point of Hering's theory which I regard as the most important Muller. Govi. by various philosophers and physicists especially since Descartes. Turin. Vet-gleichende will especially notice. Physiologie des Gcsicktsinnes. imperfectly The extensive literature of known to me for me to give this subject is. particularly by the theory here the methods by which of Hering. FURTHER INVESTIGATION OF SPACE-SENSATIONS. J. II. 3 VOttica di Claudio Tolomeo. theory of identical retinal positions. except in three small works of my own. have been finally disposed and thereby which is that freedom first from preconceptions attained the requisite for making the positive discoveries. too all exact references on points.' OUR involved.. which.^ On Miiller's So far as I know. Handbtich der Physiologic^ Vol. 1885. I indicate I have myself reached clear ideas as to the sensation of space. moreover. me. knowledge of spatial vision made important not advances in the course of the nineteenth century. founded upon those of the preceding chapter. the matter treated in the preceding chapter has Soret's book. 1S26. of.VII. Miiller. . 1840. published by G. merely because a gain in positive understanding was but also because the prejudices in this accumulated department..

images they fell upon identical parts of the retina. disappear. ^ opposed these theories with arguments of great and by admirably contrived experiments. positions of parts of the field The direc- tion of vision depends exclusively on the arrangement All theories as to of the sensitive parts of the retina. 123 its own for him. when the when ^' ! fell upon other provided the difference between the parts was not too great. and with different degrees of depth according to the stereoscopic difference. Hence arose theory of successive fixation in spatial vision. "Contributions to the Theory of Vision.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS theory that the retina has sensations of itself in activity." Philosophical Transactions 1838. and to stimulate the formulation of psychological explanations of to how we come Briicke's its see things as having depth. not only . something immediately given. he came to the ^ Wheatstone. The result of this was to throw doubt on the doctrine of identity. " visual space" is. ^ Panum. Wheatstone's to I ^ discovery of the spectroscope led at once certain ^ the conviction that in circumstances images could be seen as simple. All questions of direction can only refer to the relative of vision. for Miiller. which in turn was proved to be untenable by Dove's experiments in ii instantaneous illumination with the stereoscope. and problems as to why we see things upright. Panum force. projection. But estimation of the distance of an object through and through an affair seen is. My own body also appears in my field of vision. Untersuchtmgen uber das Sehen mit zwei Augen^ 1858. but also parts. 1852. vMrs ^ q^-Kjib'>\ . still of the intellect. Taking his stand on the phenomenon of binocular rivalry and the prominent part played therein by contours.

or of retinal ." in . 1861-1865 undPhysiologie. — between lines. one each eye but there only one direction of vision. There are two is lines of vision. — the for line of vision. It is to what is given by means of lines Hering ^ that we owe the most thorough His starting-point is clearing away of old prejudices. of which the depth difference. is that the sensation of depth similar the two an innate specific energy. projection. the view that dis- our immediately given visual space must be completely tinguished from the conceptual space which we obtain by proves by means of experiences of a object is special kind. HI. looking in a horizontal direction and with symmetrical Archivjur Anatomie " Der Raumsinn und die Bev. and especially the contours. 1879. Vol. the more do they coalesce is into a single binocular image. The more easily monocular images. and position. object and the image. 5 . color. two eyes together see the The we may put it thus same relative horizontal and would see Suppose perpendicular arrangements that a single eye if it were situated half-way between the two eyes. Beitrdge zur Physiologie.124 T^^^ ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS conclusion that our seeing things as having depth depends / upon a and reciprocal action. all reference to geometrical space." of the two retinae. 1865 Auges. are in form.egungen des Hermann's Handbuch der Physiologie. or "Synergy. 1864. determined still by the stereoscopic But Panum to maintains that this depth of corresponds projection. He decisive experiments that the direction in which different we see an from the the line. ^ Hering. i.. bisecting the angle formed by these two We have to think of this direction of vision as proceeding line from the point of bisection of the In order to exclude : connecting the two eyes. that.

retina have identical height cal points and breadth-values symmetriidentical on the retina. the binocular image con- tains the mean value of the depth-values of the single single images. or "corresponding. we fix 125 our gaze upon a point on the window- pane the . have last increase depth-values. since and in particular as regards the sufficient These indications must be we cannot now discuss in detail the varied . but also the collective conception of all the points (the " nucleus-surface ") represented in identical. the distances which we see do not agree meaning. shape and position causes them to coalesce into' a singular binocular image. horizontal lines of vision. the cylinder thereby produced appears to us like a plane. principle. facts on the theory of to projection.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS convergence. directions of vision. and these from the outer edges of the retina inwards. as a plane lying It is before us at a definite distance. In the stereoptical experi- ment we still see objects in front of us." points on the . but at it same time we see behind way to in the same plane objects lying a long one side. When. although the directions of projection at no longer lead to these objects. even when there is only a slight divergence of the axes of the eyes. Such mean values of the images play a decisive part in general. When similarity of the monocular images in color. on the other hand." positions. for us here. with the results of the theory of projection. then we see this point in the median plane. or any rate have no longer any physical or physiological Again. We see not only the image of the fixed or " nucleus " point. with we stretch vertical threads through Miiller's circular horopter. impossible to explain these and many other analogous Hering reduces Identical. spatial vision a simple or " corresponding.

For the new. Panum is has out this point. sqq. the facts Perhaps clues towards solution of this problem develop- may be found ment at in the of phylogenetic retinal 3) and the variation of correspondence place (investigated by Johannes Miiller which takes species is the transition between one animal and pre- another. Spatial intuition therefore present at birth. brought but otherwise the conditions must be essentially the same. "^ ^\. the nativistic view can a fortiori be maintained. those of F. Another promising Held for research ' Among the works of younger investigators connected with Hering's researches.bom human being we can at most suppose only a lower degree of maturity. its The chick has scarcely broken from shell than it is seen to be at that excites its home in space and pecking at everything attention. Hillebrand are of particular interest for psychology. Whether we shall ever be in a position to explain in the sort of way attempted by Helmholtz. the associated movements of which rest on an innate anatomical foundation. it. the two eyes are to be conceived as a single united organ. according to him. Vergleichende Physiologie des GesichtssinneSy pp.126 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is contents of the works in which Hering has laid the secure foundations on which this chapter further based. .yxxx\}^i ' Dei' psychologische Ursprung der Raumvorstellungtn^ 1873. ^ the conclusion as regards the intuition of space. is a separate question. by means of the history of evolution or the history of the race. and psychological that. that. —a point that had already been brought out research combine to con- by Johannes Biological firm Miiller.^ The only remark I will make is. 106.

fall two congruent images of different colors in succession on the same parts of the retina. Sehrichtungsgemeinschaft bei Schielenden. Tschermak. regard connected with different parts of the retina. whereby the objects observed do not change their position or form. an object A. although their images are displaced If I look straight before on the eyes retina. we perceive on moving our eyes freely and voluntarily. fixing them upon It A retains its former height. XLVII. now Bj * raise my eyes. . at a certain distance below the point of most distinct vision. appears to me to If be I situated at a certain height. therefore. But that these space-sensations are not unalterably connected with particular parts of the retina. Ueber physiologische und pathologische Anpassting des Augesj Leipzig. fixing is my upon an object O. 2." Graefe's Arckiv. 3. " Ueber anomale Sehrichtungsgemeinschaft der Netzhaute bei Schielenden. as to If only how this connexion is to be understood. which flected re- on the retina in a. Schlodtmann.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS sented squint 127 by the pathological anomalies of to people who and the phenomena of adaptation be observed in these cases/ That space-sensation is connected with motor processes Opinions differ has long since ceased to be disputed. p. 508 . 1900. " Studien iiber anomale 1900 . they are at once recognized as identical figures." Archiv^ Graefe's LI-.. me. would necessarily appear Tschermak. different space-sensations as We may.

proportionately to shortening of the arc oa. ' Thus the mere will to look to the right imparts Shortly after finishing my Grufidlinien der Lehre von den Bcwe^- ungsempfindungen (1875). left an experiment. process by any other unconscious or involuntary example. we attempt we shall succeed only very owing to the imperfectly spherical form of the will suffer and the objects a strong displacement to the right. brief. alone determined the space-sensation. in order to fix their glance |. my the the eyeball upward by a slight pressure of the object A actually appears to sink. A and farther without any change in this Thus. If. it." Some years ago. .sensation "right. upon an object itself that to the right. Since they need to exert a stronger impulse of the will than persons of sound eyes.128 lower THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS down if the position of the image on the retina. can raise my glance as far as relation. According to an experience now patients with paralysis familiar to oculists for some decades of the rectus externus reach too far to the right in attempt- ing to grasp objects at the right. imperfectly. in is homogeneous with it. the physiological process which conditions the voluntary raising of the eye. The same thing happens when. the thought naturally suggests the will to look jjto the right determines the optical space.i I put this observation into the form of try for himself. or the I arc oa. or. which every one can Let the eyes be turned as far as possible towards the and two large lumps of moderately hard putty firmly pressed against the right side of each eye-ball. through a cramp of the muscles of the eye eyeball is — — the for turned upward. now. algebraically summable with If I turn finger. eyes. to glance quickly to the right. can entirely or partly take the place of the height-sensation.

This If follows naturally from the preceding consideration. and always found it confirmed. and that by the forced. They are certainly closely . by which our attention is sufficiently secured. that by voluntarily turning the eyes to the objects are displaced right. itself the space-sensation. II. but of course that decides nothing as to correct interpretation. By virtue of organic arrangements exact itself to and long exercise we hit immediately upon the ^ W. objects are not displaced. The Principles of Psychology. The experiment at first. I I have often re- peated fact is it. that both facts — viz.^ we have a sensation of itching or pricking in a certain spot of our skin. think that the its certain. as soon as this exerts a sufficient stimulus to draw our attention. we immediately grasp at the spot with the correct amount of movement. inleft. 509.. or the is innervation to the act. James could not get the experiment just mentioned to succeed. which as wish to. surprising. It will soon be perceived. however. or vice versa. My eye." as we may term is. ^ I retain the expression which leave first immediately suggested me (1875). and cannot. lesson. the correct In the same manner we turn our eyes with amount of exertion towards an object reflected on the retina.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ward value. James. I an open question whether innervation a con- sequence of space-sensation. turn to the right. with no intention of forestalling future inquiry. voluntary turning of the eyes to the to the right I —together teach the same force. 3- The will to perform movements of the eyes. 129 to the images at certain points of the retina a larger " rightit for brevity. may be regarded ^ voluntarily turned to the right and compulsorily turned back by an external Professor W. p. I it Here and is in what follows connected..

or shortly before completion. light B^ of course. but —and this is the remarkable point later. the a rapid sweep (quickly A appears to make A A' ended) . If the eyes are already turned towards the right. with positional values that correspond. Similar phenomena are often noticed in experiments with . B. and we begin algebraically to give our attention to left. of the glance-movement. light Fig »6- At this. Years ago. while occupied with the questions discussion. involuntary innerva- moving forces are added to the innerva- tions determined by the will. A disturbance of the process arises only tions or externally when alien. not to the but to the earlier innervations and position of the eye. so far as I been described. an object further to of the the right or the a new innervation same sort is added to that already present. an after-image. very dark room we our eyes upon a light A. and then suddenly look at a light lower down. The sweep of course. this not indicated in the diagram. which has not yet. I now under know.130 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS fix degree of innervation sufficient to enable us to our eyes upon an object reflected on a certain point of the retina. The is. does the same is but to avoid complications. In a fix noticed a peculiar phenomenon. which enters conscious- ness only on completion. up- wards.

we move the head about without intentionally fixing the eyes upon any remain motionless. with in a uniform opposite Psychologie motion. as Breuer has observed. If it yields a lasting the image appears. like more noticeable if is the pheno. part in Still that the eyes. about a vertical axis. of course. 60. 17. Zeitschrift fur und Physiologic der Sinnesorgane. But at the same time another observer may notice frictionless. .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Holtz's electrical machine. motion. actively or passively. inert masses. the objects seen at rest. but it is probably of some value in pre- venting confusion of position in movements of the eyes. If. below the The preceding phenomena answer to the so- called personal equation of astronomers. electrodes. the For a different explanation see Lipps. and have considered the head and the body generally as object. In this case. By what organic left arrangements this relation is determined must be an open question. take no the turning movements. after-image. in the direction of the hands of a clock. p. say. in the opposite of that as the clock-hands.^ For the sake of simplicity we have hitherto regarded only the eyes as in motion. Vol.. about ten times to a direction to full revolution of the body. as viewed from above. now. 131 If the experimenter is surprised by a spark during a glance downwards. menon we turn with continuous Fig. * and frequently back again I. the open or closed eyes turn. the spark often appears high above the electrodes. except that they are confined to the province of sight.

" . schrift fxir PsychologieundPhysiologie der Sinnesofgune. The compensational wheel-like movement of the eyes. is when the body answered by one with a uniform stream of its innervation. " Ueber Kompensatorische Raddrehungen der Augen. This is movement disappears longer felt. LXX. Tne curve to OA corresponds to the rotation OBB the relative. as soon as the passive rotation no How it is brought about remains. the times off as angles described in the direction of the clock-hands are laid off as ordinates upwards. and the angles described in the opposite direction as ordinates downwards. on repeating the experiment. naturally. p. can avoid the conclusion that we are concerned < here with an automatic (unconscious) eyes. " Ueber scheinbare Drehung des Gesichtsfeldes wahrend der Einwirkung einer Zentiifugalkraft. and that the stimulus which reaches them both uniformly rotates. Nagel ^ has proved that it amounts to from one-tenth to one-sixth of the angle of inclination of the head. which takes place when the head is inclined to one side. ^ And recently Breuer and Kreidl ^ have made similar Zeit- Nagel. p. abscissae. 494- . On O T. to it is full. 2 Breuer and Kreidl. refiexively excited ^ movement of the by the rotation of the body. For us it suffices. Vol. unconscious compensational movement of the eye is actually present. while the other delivers impulse of innerva- tion only after the lapse of a certain time. the 17. know that this automatic. Vol. like a rain-gauge suddenly tipping up when provisionally. of the body.132 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS by jerks. to it be investigated. 33'8. direction The process is represented in are laid the diagram of Fig. rotation of the eyes. A simple way of looking at would be that there are two antagonistic organs of innervation. No one." Pfliiger's Archiv.. and OCC to the absolute. is well-known. XII.

. now. the appearance of vertical lines as oblique. depend therefore on an actual but unconscious rotation of the eyes. fixing them upon one object innervation. 'we must overcompenby the voluntary / if sate the automatic. In Society of the Royal Edinburgh.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ing results " 133 experiments in the rotatory apparatus also. with the follow- We have a sensation. is seem to retain their position If. The slower unconscious compensating movement it of the optical eye (the jerking impression) objects is movement leaves behind no is thus the reason why. 1895: "The Relation between the Movements of the Eye and the Movements of the Head. Crum Browne ^ on compensating movements of the 6. involuntary innervation We need the same innervation as / the whole angle turned through were described by the eye alone." I must also mention here two papers by eyes. which takes place under such conditions. we also voluntarily turn the eyes in the same direction. When this direction is changed by the interference of a horizontal acceleration affecting the body on one set side. lasts. of the direction of the acceleration of masses. " Note on Normal Nystagmus/' Froc of Lecture^ 13th May 1895. a wheel-like movement of the eyes It is up and to 0*5 persists as long as the interference the angle of deviation. amounts oro'6 of and The rotation of visual space. in turning our head. 4th Feb. after another." Robert Boyle • Crum Brown. when the head fact turned. —a which verW important for orientation. as Purkynie and Mach have maintained.

make their appearance in connexion If I move my I head or my whole body sidewise. The parallactic displacements to which we are accustomed are perceived. and nearer objects a parallactic displacement in the opposite direction. in our numerous turnings and ramblings in the streets and in buildings. we see. and in our passive turnings in a wagon or in the cabin of a ship. when we and why. / Thus we arrive at the practically valuable conception of our body as in motion in a fixed space. But in the monocular inversion of a Plateau wire net. the whole optical space appears to us a continuum and not an aggreat the gation of fields of vision . probably due to dreams of movement immediately preceding our awaking. optically in motion. We understand why it is that. That which we see of our own body.134 this THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS way is explained why. same time. even in the dark. though it is true that the primary co-ordinates from which we started gradually sink unnoticed into unconsciousness. while the more distant objects undergo a dis- placement in the same direction as that of the body. do not latter lose sight of an object on which my eyes rest. for obvious reasons. the parallactic displacements. we do not lose our sense of direction. Similar phenomena to those which manifest themselves on the rotation of the body with the movements of the body generally. and we soon begin to reckon from new objects around us. The seems to continue motionless. in turning. That peculiar state of con- fusion as to locality in which on suddenly awaking lessly for the at we sometimes find ourselves night. but do not cause us any disturbance and are cor- rectly interpreted. turn about. which in the present . where we look about helpis window or the table. the optical objects remain stationary.

This is due to the fact that conditions exist in the province of touch which are entirely analogous to those in the province of sight. 1877. Diderot also {Lettres stir les Sitzungsberichte der ^ Wiener A kademte. and apparently present to us a revolving object. Loewy (Common Sensibles. which may subserve its application intelare wanting. after being operated upon. Even persons who see recognize figures down only after much practice. the same space-sense as a common element. Compare on this point the acute remarks of Dr. A further point is that. 32). Th. are turned upside that at with the lectually. as has been shewn by Schnabel's beautiful observations (** Beitrage zur Lehre von der SchlechtsichtigNichtgebrauch der Augen. when optical central visual stimuli have been absent for a long period in early youth. the cubes to and spheres with which he nothing at all my mind against is familiar from touch.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS case are unusual as regards 135 amount and direction. in accordance with the experiment proposed by Molyneux." Berichte des naturwissenschaftlich-medikalischen Vereins in Innsbruck^ Vol. however.^ When I turn I my head. so to speak. 1868. Die Gemeinideen different des Gesichts- und Tastsinnes nach Locke I und Berkeley^ Leipzig.. The view that the sense of sight avetigles) is of opinion that the space-sense of the blind is altogether from that of a person who sees. I not only see that part of it turn- ing which am able to see (as will be immediately underI also feel it stood from the foregoing) but turning. No. 35). XL. immediately attract the eye. the develop- ment of the degeneration keit durch spheres may be arrested. The fact the first moment of sight all the associations connected optical process. Even in the case of people who are not actually blind. the visual sphere may be so little developed that a special education is required to enable them to turn their sight-sensa- . The circumstance that cannot agree. a man blind from birth does not. p. proves Locke and nothing in favor of that is Berkeley and Diderot.*' Vol. or perhaps may even take place. and by Munk's experiments on new-born puppies {Berliner klinische Wochenschrip. and the sense of touch involve. LVIII. 1884).^ 'Compare my " Beobachtungen uber monoculare Stereoscopic. was advanced by Locke and contested by Berkeley. visually distinguish with whose results.

for instance. Thus in the Parva Naturalia we find mentioned the experiment by^ which a little ball is felt as double when ^touched by the index-fingel and the middle finger placed across it. — may be. which brought about this pheno- menon through my being unable to fix and accommodate my sight. the ( Director of the Vienna Institute for the Blind schrift^ Wiener klinische Wochen- 25th April 1901). With me this experiment produces an even more striking effect when I cross my fingers and move them up and down a little stick and when I take two parallel sticks. are the movements which they If Locke was wrong. from this the false conclusion was drawn that the perception of the dimension of depth depends on accident put me in the way of underOnce when I was walking on a dark with which I was unfamiliar. such as Eva Lark and Kobelkoff (G. Chesselden. case of the boy described by S. All systems of space-sensation. of those born blind. . gave an account of an operation performed on a man blind from birth. The analog}' with seeing the single as double and seeing the double as single is here complete. a sensation If I look towards of touch combined with an innervation. The tions to account. Heller. after operations. common associative link. however different they connected by a serve to guide.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS When I reach out is my hand to grasp an object. above). since . But the differences also are so great that the man of normal sight finds it difficult to picture to himself a blind man's space. Hirth. 1898. An standing this phenomenon. how could the blind Saunderson have written a geometry intelligible to those who are not blind ? Without doubt there are analogies between the sense of space given I have already mentioned through sight and that given through touch. It is only with great caution. night in a district afraid of running up against a large Black This turned out to be a hill several kilometres distant. at first believed that every- thing he saw was in contact with his eyes extra-optical experiences. If any one is not convinced by his own stereoscopy that the dimension of depth also is optically given.presentation. is probably such a case of partial optical idiotism. and many of these phenomena were known to the Aristotelian school. something of this sort in discussing Sqret's work (p. therefore. Energische Epigcnesis. he is not likely to be convinced by the experiences of truncated people without arms and legs. in much the same way as people who have been newly operated must be unable to do. and arranging my fingers in this way. I feel the two sticks as single. who . 165). I was all the time object. p. run them between them. that conclusions should be drawn from the behaviour. 118.

I encountered. difficulties in the explanation of certain partly phenomena. a luminous sensation sation of touch. Even so acute a. is 137 substituted for the sen- Even where objects are not touched. 1895). which quite accords with that acquired by optical means. my skin-sensations compounded with the same innervations as would be in turning to the right. mind as Diderot's can fall . Cf. above). also yield the conception of our body as in motion. combined with changing innervations. 8. Loeb's work on tactual space (p. and visual presentations by way of interon occasion into the strange error of denying that the blind can imagine space. combined with the touching of objects I feel myself turning to the right. If I am passively turned toward the endeavour arises to compensate the turning. in active movements. feel myself at for this I rest. consequently. observed own partly by Breuer and by myself.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the object. or I repress the motion toward the to exert the But as need same voluntary innervation for an active turning to the right. the reflex I right. for In turning round to the are example. which are now easy of explanation. right. At the time when ment was written. and these. as we ments of the body. either actually remain stationary and left. Thus. tions may In passive move- reflex. I my work on had not the Sensations of Move- yet attained to a thoroughly comprehensive view of the simple relation here described. 113. the briefly express skin-sensations it. skin- sensations may always be perceived when the attention is turned to them. See Chapter IX. are f delocalized. and ileller's Sttidien zur Blindenpsychologie (Leipzig. he is always introducing his pretation. unconscious compensatory innerva- and movements of compensation make their appearance. which has also the same sensation as its result.

we do not compound the notion of forward movement from the notions of the various individual movements of the of legs. If. Leipzig. true. 83. for instance. although every ground of inference the images for relative rotation is wanting. ^ may occur also in recalling a distant place. with the result that right. it will appear to the observer as optically in rotation.^ In voluntary forward motion or rotation. but also the much more simple sensation movement forward or of turning round. p. or even of the thought of a journey. It is plain. of a railway journey. perform involuntary com- pensatory movements to the will on the retina be displaced. 1875. therefore. If an observer be shut up in a closed receptacle. he eyes upon the receptacle. Engelmann. or at least ? we do not need to do so. . and etc. and the receptacle be set in rotation toward the right. The only possible explanation of this can be that the Grundlinien der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen. in which the sensation of forward undoubtedly present while that of legs is movement is the movements of the This is equally undoubtedly lacking. he must voluntarily compensate the involuntary movements. indeed. and also that this movement cannot be made to disappear by the voluntary fixation of the eyes. and thus again he of is conscious movement towards the right. The remaining cases of optical vertigo noticed in my work may be disposed of in like manner. he has the sensation fixes his of movement toward the however. There are cases. that Breuer's vertigo explanation of the apparent motion of optical is correct.138 which THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS I will briefly notice. we have not only a sensation of every single successive position of the parts of our body. As a fact. If his eyes left.

which Hering has so felicitously interpreted. and to which we shall presently return. and they probably form an important part of the foundation on which the understanding of tactual space reposes. And in fact every physicist who studies this subject is ^ BewegMngsempfindungen. although this second space visibility. These motor-sensations may also correspond to the feelings of direction which Riehl has postulated and investigated. ^ Der philosophische Kritizismus^ Vol. 124. .^ equally with the The blind man has them man of normal sight. be further modified by particular paratively simple nature. those con- nected with the movements of the eyes." char- by complete absence of built The space which is up from motor-sensations seems. which held to be is immovably acterized stationary. which furnishes to the extremities their motor impulses. II. p. 26. —impulses which may of a cominnervations. — is The conditions existing here are pro- bably similar to. although more complicated than. '^Rieh^. We shall scarcely go far wrong if we suppose ^ that the comparatively simple motor-sensations stimulated from the labyrinth of the brain stand in the closest connexion with the will to move. I summed up a series of observations on optical sensations and motor-sensations in these words : " It looks as is if visual space would turn into a second space. to be the original space. in fact. p. 143.. Bewegungsempfindungen. p.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS will to 139 move forward or to turn about. and was consequently inclined to believe that sensations of progressive acceleration behaved in a manner liable completely analogous to sensations of angular acceleration. At that time I was preoccupied with physical methods of thought.

WoL XLVI.p. Breuer. had in my power to carry out experiments. The three components of gravity corresponding to the three planes of sliding characterize the position of the head. if it can be maintained. I move- believed further. " Ueber die Funktion des Otolithen-Apparates. the otolithic apparatus. Consequently. Further. of all + B. The difference in the behaviour of the sensations of angular and progressive accelerations ^ now seems 195. O alone. But progressive accelerations alter these components without making any demands on the semicircular canals. would be an important If I still simplification. the three combinations. has made it probable that the sensations of progressive acceleration vanish very much more beings. Acceleration of Pfltiger's Breuer. in accordance with the principle of specific energy.140 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the three equations for its to think at once of the three equations for the rotatory movement of a body and ment of translation. I in themselves to a re- would submit the motor-sensations newed and thorough investigation. to me significant. except for the semicircular canals. and that perhaps the organ of the former. with its planes of sliding corresponding to the planes of the is semicircular canals. we ought to assume special sensations of the position of the head.' and in- stantaneously sets the apparatus of the semicircular canals going.." Arc/tzv. this would suffice for the decision cases. and B alone. Thus it theory. . O. at any rate in human atrophied. Every alteration of the position alters these components. Breuer finds that. according to Breuer. B.^ in a later piece of research. the only organ adapted to the signaliz- ing of progressive accelerations and position simultaneously. that. is quickly than those of angular acceleration.

the Bewegtingsempfindunge^i^ Experiment ^ Bewegiingsempfindungen^ pp. those rate sensations at any which correspond to angular velocities persist with gradually decreasing force.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS rotation 141 the gives rise to a sensation which. set ' up in a short time. 116 sqq. by uniform We soon cease to have any sensation of uniform But a constant centrifugal acceleration also does its not evoke the illusion of flying away in rather calls direction. not of uniform motion. 96. sensations corresponding to prothat a sensation p. and consequently the velocity attained v. gressive acceleration exhausts Does itself as this mean that pro- a stimulus. is correlated with a movement. To and angular velocity there correspond elements of the motor-sensations. after acceleration has become persists ^ with a decreasing Progressive force which can be quantitatively measured. of these. but up the sensation of changed position. Now 2. gressive velocities to the total so corresponding to change in velocity.^ p. usually of velocity nil upwards. and moreover are algebraically summable just like the . long nil. the elements of the change in progressive We have sensations. acceleration is felt in its pure form only in the case of vertically accelerated falling or rising. and. When the accelera- tion vanishes the sensation also disappears quickly. but only of acceleration. rotation. . or that when the stimulus becomes constant the sensation changes shall in character ? In that case we is have to suppose that the sensation composed of two elements. which sensation again vanishes immediately with the disappearance of the centrifugal acceleration. The simplest means of producing a constant acceleration in a is constant direction with respect to the body rotation.

We need not us to be p surprised experience teaches conceptually as a velocity and pf as a path. p in itself although of course has nothing to do with conIn this cepts of spatial measurement. If we take our stand upon a bridge. almost invariably in the sensation suddenly the bridge. motion of the objects is in Bewegungsempfindungen^ * 3 Bewegtingsenipfindungen^ p. As we all know.142 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS we passed in p aggregate of sight and-touch-impressions that review increases with therefore interpret and with the time that /.' The following experiments and reflexions. we have the sensation of being ourselves at whilst the water will is seem in motion. Prolonged gazing. This paradox still troubled me in 1875. and look generally fixedly at the water flowing beneath. while making a steamin motion and some at rest. boat excursion on the Elbe.^ will perhaps assist us in obtaining a correct view of these phenomena. with the observer and his whole environment. which form a sequel to an earlier publication of mine. while the water assumes the appearance of being at ^ rest. 85. was standing still and that the whole it landscape was moving towards —an experience that will be readily understood from what follows. however. that the ship was astonished at getting the impression. I just before landing. begins to move in the direction opposite to that of the water. shall rest.^ The relative p. as results well that known. . way it seems to me that we get rid of the last remaining paradox in the theory of the motor sensations. and I see that it has also troubled others. 122. the most varied forms of the same impression are obtained in the midst of a number of railway trains some of which are A short time ago.

but usually requires only a few seconds. An oil-cloth of simple pattern is rollers. and there must therefore be some adequate physiological reason why at one time one. vestigators. to the arrow. I In order to the matter at my is leisure. the two impressions we may be made Every follow- some rapidity and at will. Across the oil-cloth and about thirty centimetres is above ff. which serves as a eye of fixation-point for the the observer stationed at A. in if the oil-cloth be set motion in the direction of the arrow. or non-attention to the oil-cloth. once get the knack of to alternate with it. by which motion. Now. he will see it in motion. part of them investigate is felt to move. he and the whole room This or will presently appear in motion in the contrary direction still.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 143 both cases the same. drawn horizontally over two two metres long and fixed three metres apart in bearis ings. and at another another. every fixation of X. for sets the observer in I Two whom have the deepest respect. other himself and his surroundings at at rest. ing of the oil-cloth brings the observer to rest. 18. do not . and the observer follow the pattern with his eyes. while the oil-cloth will stand change in the less aspect of to the motion takes more of If time according the mental condition the observer. and kept in uniform motion by means of a crank. On the hand. it. stretched a string with a knot X. its pattern in- becomes blurred. if he gazes the knot. had the simple apparatus constructed which represented in Fig.

. ^ the other Crum Brown. drawn along in front of the object. the entire it environment. must not be confounded with the familiar Plateau-Oppel phenomenon. —are quite In my book on Bewegungsempfindungen (p. very similar processes are 2 W. I pass over for the moment the different possible theoretical explanations of the experiment. 63) I made it clear that the Plateau-Oppel phenomenon was the result of a peculiar process. I over again with the same am at present not in a position to carry out experiments. and that in the case of move- ments * in opposite directions. — for example. and knot underneath the transparent immaterial in this connexion.144 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS me as to the result of this experiment in the agree with circumstances indicated. One is William James. Crum Brown. James. which had nothing to do with the other sensations of movement. veil is is in motion. : " We is must therefore suppose absent during during the movement is of an image on the retina.. sqq. but the method of after- images described by Brown seems to have much to recom- mend it. of course. and must consequently renounce any idea of a new test .^ I have performed the experiment over and result. is a In the preceding experiment. which /oca/ retinal effect. This phenomenon. 512. I wrote there as follows that. a pecu/iar process excited which rest. 133 above). so far as is distinctly visible. which is The attendant stereoscopic phenomena. " On Normal Nystagmus " (see p. whilst in the latter a moving at rest. pp. lO. Principles of Psychology^ II. the appearance of the thread oil-cloth.

a mirror S. We observe the reflexion T^ T' in 5 S. the experiI ments with the paper drum. ^ Finally. the other begins. with surroundings. after Fig." This statement of mine seems to have been overlooked by S. which intercepts . on a calm winter's day. processes which are. towards the We S now place above the oil-cloth at T T. it will be well to introduce a few variations. O. she suddenly cried out that she anc^ the whole house were rising upward. all his under the same conditions. As daughter was once standing near a window. my little K . Before we proceed to the explanation of the experiment (Fig. during a heavy snowfall. inclined an angle of 45^ to the horizon. be speeding. so that with the one. while we are looking at K\ the reflexion of K^ we shall presently fancy ourselves sinking downward with the whole room.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS excited in similar organs. if if the motion be to ascend as Fig. we shall seem in a balloon. the other commencement must cease. who subsequently expressed similar views on the same subject. observer stationed at to B seems. 145 however.^. Exner and Vierordt. 1 9. 18). which ^ have elsewhere de- Such phenomena often make their appearance quite unsought. of the mutually exclusive. having placed on our nose a shade n the direct view of li n. TT moves in the direction of the ^^' I /y^ t^K arrow. TT imm the eye. whereas reversed. and with the exhaustion of the one. An left. 19.

If the eye really follows them. 85. It obviously unnecessary that this stream of innervation should always be consciously and deliberately called into action. exactly as if the motionless point on which the eyes rest were moving uni- formly in the opposite direction. must our thoughts take on. What form. . the constant latter motor stimulus proceeding from the must be com- pensated by an equally constant stream of innervation flowing to the motor apparatus of the eye. a atten- motor stimulus upon the after and draw our and our gaze them. all None of these phenomena are purely are accompanied by unmistakable motor sensations of the whole body. that the objects appear to move. is well known. 81. all motionin on which the eyes are fastened must appear is motion. now. should be cited here. von S/. in order to acquire the simplest explanatory setting for the preceding phenomena ? peculiar tion Objects in motion exert. optical. 12.^ THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and but to which the following explanation also applies. " Bewegungsnachbild und Bewegungskontrast. as eye. But if the eye is kept for some time at rest in spite of the moving objects.ily. and we were following with our eyes. less objects it But when this process begins. we must assume. Vol. For more recent experiments se A. All that is requisite is that it should proceed from the same centre and by the same paths as voluntary fixation. No ^ special apparatus is necessary for observing the fore Bewegungsempfindungen^ p.146 scribed.1 Zeitschrift fur Fsyckologie und Physiologic der Sinnesorgane. from what has gone before. 1905 p. XXXVIIL.

The him- adult has the same sensation he will passively yield self to the natural impressions. all walk forward by a simple act of the My legs swing to and fro without my having to attend to them particularly. rotates. That am ready and willing to modify facts. my eyes. as the adverse hypothesis^ to well known. The same process. brought about by a single act of the will itself is and this act of the the sensation of forward movement. the whole space to my left. but following the in the opposite direction. They are to be met with on will. or at least a part of must also be set up. If I am riding forwards. it. but invariably the arguments have been aimed solely which I I attached comparatively little import- ance. does the sensation of forward motion 13- My views regarding the sensations of is movement have at been repeatedly attacked.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS going phenomena. The eyes of a child in a railway train will be observed to follow almost uninterruptedly objects outside. I 147 hands. my views in accordance with newly discovered the present work . will. in the direction of the hands of a watch. for obvious reasons. Hence the motor sensations ex- perienced in the above experiments. if the eyes are to resist for any length of time the stimulus of a mass of moving objects. and with a jerking motion the it which appear to if to be running. about a very distant vertical axis and the space to my right does the same. My eyes are fixed steadfastly upon my goal without suffer- ing themselves to retinal* be drawn aside by the motion of the All this is images consequent upon progression. Only when I resist objects with arise.

I should like to mention that observations have been that strongly favor the theory made propounded by myself. in which case there always resulted alarm plete uncertainty as to up and down. Breuer. is deaf-mutes the sense of equilibrium proper considerably degenerated." American Journal IV. which admitted of explanation. and that . and in many cases an astonish- ing loss of the sense of direction on being plunged under and comspeak water. often great uncertainty in their walk when their eyes were closed. Vol. 1882). that reflex turnings head were induced when the air was blown into the cavity of to state tympanum. Dr. which naturally follows from my conception. in diseases of the Guye observed. and Brown. I will how far I am in the right cheerfully leave to the future. first. (Z^?/ the facts collected by : Guye of Amsterdam Vertige de Meniere Rapport dans la section d" otologic du congrh piriodique international de sciences midicales a Amsterdam^ 1879). of the middle ear. lu To these belong. by the increased intensity and lengthened duration of the sensation incident upon every turning of the body. has described an observed in him- interesting case of pathological vertigo self. On the other hand." Proceedings of the Society Royal of Edinburgh^ 1881-1882). as a whole.148 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The decision as to will testify. that in These facts very strongly in favor of the view. Crum Brown On a Case of Dyspeptic Vertigo. exactly the direction and number of the turnings which he had {" felt — Prof.. of Otology. all — But in most remarkable of (" are the observations of William James deaf- The Sense of Dizziness in Deaf-Mutes. and found a patient who was able during the injection of liquids. James discovered mutes a striking and relatively general insensibility to the dizziness of whirling.

in the same direction. and Wasps. the sense of sight (the latter of which loses all its when the weight of the body is neutra- by immersion in water). Bees. however. is The optical neutralization of the rotatory motion attained simply by causing a totally reflecting prism to revolve. it is whom this organ I entirely wanting. so/ely by means extremely is probable that lower animals. so that the active movements of the animal alone shall be left and rendered observable. to Lubbock has described in his work. with the aid of gearing. also have sensations of movement. . 30th December 1876). As will experiments of this sort may be interesting to others. It is impossible to maintain the view that we arrive at knowledge of equilibrium and of movement of the semi-circular canals. it not be amiss perhaps to consider an apparatus which briefly I have described before (Anzeiger der Wiener Akademie. They have been called "cyclostats. the passive rotation must be optically nullified and eliminated. become much more comprehensible me on the assumption of sensations of movement. about exactly the same axis. and with half the angular velocity of the disk. have not yet been able to undertake experiments in the experiments which this direction. in On the contrary. the view of the animal be effaced by the rotatory motion. Other apparatuses of the same kind have since been constructed by Govi and Ewald. will necessarily of animals Since. above the disk of the whirling machine. are rendered proportionately more necessary." The apparatus serves for the observation of the conduct while in rapid rotation.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and the muscular sense points of reference lized 149 the two other senses that give direction. But An^s.

rigidly connected with gg. revolve about the axis AA. Then r is the radius of dlf. while a pair of cog-wheels. provided with levelling-screws. g. and Fig. 20 gives On the disk of the whirling machine a glass receiver.150 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS a view of the apparatus. revolve about BB. a mirror S. in which the animals of gearing the eye- to be observed are enclosed. 20. the receiver gg. and in 'the The following figure gives the gearing in a separate diagram. wherewith is the desired relation of velocity between 00 and gg obtained. the Let the radius of the cog-wheel aa. By means piece o is made same to revolve with half the angular velocity direction as g. is laid upon the bottom of the receiver . of cc. The eyepiece 00. In order to centre the apparatus. and 2^/3 is radius but the radius of dd is = 4^/3. he = r. is Fig. rigidly connected together.

the images seen through the hole. But one-half of lost by method. then the two axes are not only parallel but coincident. Let ABC a plane section of such a prismatic eye- piece cut perpendicularly to the planes of the hypothenuse . Then S' stands perpendicular to the axis of the eyepiece. many reflexions of F on S and the reflexion of L in S' (or really the F and Z) fall on the same spot. 21. with its reflecting surface downward. is (Fig. remain motionless. on looking Fig. With the aid of a brush we may now mark upon is the mirror (a Sa point Z^. through the hole in the point S'. It is 151 that. S\ hole Z. The simplest eyepiece that can be employed is a mirror whose plane coincides with the axis. stationary on way : * In this points on both axes of are rotation found. A prism of total reflexion. 22) represent much more advantageous. on rotation. the reflexions in it remain then perpendicular to the axis of rotation. and I adopted this device in the initial form of the field of vision is my this apparatus. result which is accom- plished after a few and so place the hole the mirror S' that it in | also remains rotation. — we so piece. whose position easily not altered on rotation trials). is which is a small so adjusted to the open tube of the eyepiece. on rotation. that. If now — by means of screws adjust the eyethat. in the silvering of A second small mirror. therefore. in the mirrored reflexion of y in 6".THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and so adjusted at rest.

and the apparatus question must accordingly fall is centred. the middle point of AB^ and. This done. AB by —a relation which can best be obtained by so trial. after refraction. after refraction and reflexion in the prism. Fig. and the is apparatus turned so rapidly that the image on the retina entirely obliterated. also. must be distant about 0*115 from the axis. Therefore. the axis is ONFQ^ which parallel to AB. The apparatus has hitherto proved quite sufficient for If a printed my experiments. The inversion of the image by reflexion could .152 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS sides. is reflected at AB in the direction Fig. The ray in at J/. on other hand. The ray which passes along the axis QP must. in the direction of T. moving the prism that in the eye- piece oscillations of the objects in gg during rotation are eliminated. and the two of rotation Let this section include. The OR. one can easily read the print through the eyepiece. is reflected at B and emerges. 22. page is placed in gg. will meet at AB OP about 16° 40'. since it falls on crown glass at an angle of incidence of 45°. AC and ray passes out the towards S. hence. the points of the axis can suffer no displacement from rotation. 22 also shows the field of vision for the eye at O. proceed again along the axis NO and will meet the eye O in the prolongation of the axis. The ray OA^ which falls vertically upon AC.

and have found the data given in my work on Motor it Sensations fully confirmed. {Helio- tropismus der others. to on the PoUak and all Kreidl's experi- ments on deaf-mutes. Ueber das Endorgan des Nervus octavus (Wiesbaden. 1892). the a full account of the "theory of sensations of position. 1890." W. plication appeared to 153 be removed by placing a second. 1897. Such experiments have subsequently been carried with out. by resistance.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS above the revolving prism of the eyepiece. schaftliche Wochenschrift. for movement. Wiirzburg. and PopuldrwissenschaftVorlesungen^ 3rd edition. most instructive results. p. I With the exception of a few physical experiments. and above to Ewald's work of fundamental importance. " 1891). I have asked Professor Josef Pollak to give an account here of so much of the . by Schafer {Naturwissen25. especially with marine animals. (Schriften licher liche Tiere. stationary reflecting prism But this comhave me unnecessary. I 1903) will be found the remainder of what have to say on the sense of direction. But I should like to refer particularly to Breuer's researches otolithic apparatus. by Loeb 117). and not j:hat Since some years past I have been in a position to follow the experimental work has been done in this department with any closeness. would probably be of advantage make similar experiments with insects and other lower animals. hitherto undertaken rotation-experiments only with various small vertebrates (birds. In the third volume of the des Ha?idbuch der Physiologie Nagel. to However. and by In des my lecture On Sensations of Direction Vereins zur Verbreitung naturwissenschaft- Kenntnisse in Wien. fishes). there is Menschen (1905). No.

CXIL. Further.. the result was that disturbances of equilibrium were produced. though the sense of hearing remained unaffected. mediately. **Studien iiber den Vestibularapparat.Yo\. " Ueber intrakranielle Durchtrennung des Nervus und deren Folgen." Ibid. the and the otolithic apparatus) have been almost without exception favorable to the Mach-Breuer hypothesis. succeeded in severing the vestibular branch of the acoustic nerve without injuring the ramus cochlearis . and that the vestibular apparatus has no acoustic functions. of Science. of the ear (the cochlea. It is may now be taken as proved that the organ of hearing constituted by the cochlea alone.154 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is most recent work as book. which regards the semicircular canals as sense-organs that serve the perception of turnings of the head (and. of the body). his pen. Pollak has very kindly complied with my and the following paragraphs 14-19 are from 14. 1900. 2 J. 1903. that part of the theory of the static is function of the labyrinth firmly founded and scarcely open to attack. especially since this hypothesis has received at the hands of Breuer important modifications based on his anatomical studies of the epithelial hairs of the ampullae." Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy Breuer. likely to interest readers of this Dr. request. by intracranial operations on sheep. The results in the course of the last ten years of morphological research and of research in comparative and experimental physiology rinth in connexion with the labysemicircular canals. . A complete proof of this has been furnished by Biehl.^ who.^ ' vestibularis Karl Biehl.

which persists until the contrary impulse of negative acceleration. These cause a momentary displacement of the endolymphring and of the cupula terminalis (which epithelial as a consistent mass holds the figure hairs together in a constant of fixed shape). and are felt. but only by positive and negative angular accelerations. As long as these excitations last. however. or the gradual effect of the elasticity of the stretched complexes. The ampullary apparatus is not affected by angular velocities that persist." of semicircular canals. they give rise to a sensa- tion of rotation. Nagel). Prominent among reactive organs are the muscles of the eyes. set up a tension of the cell-hairs and an excitement of the terminal apparatus of the nerves on one side of the crista involved. and. when the rotation stops. concomitantly. 15- Previously. retardation.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS This hypothesis now runs as follows " Persistent rapid they are acceleration . The system like all other sense-organs. restores the normal state of things again. possesses. the opinion had been conjecturally put forward by Mach . Delage. . the property of giving rise not only to sensations but also to reflexes (Breuer. which communicate rotations to the eyes when the body rotates. however but the beginning and end of the rotation. moreover. : 155 uniform rotations are not felt. that progressively accelerated motion could exercise no influence on the lymph enclosed in the semicircular canals he had also suggested that special organs exist in the labyrinth for the perception of accelerations and for the sensation of the position of the head.

Breuer shewed an unambiguous pro- nouncement possible as to the position of the head is only made by the co-operation of the two sacks. this relative acceleration repre- senting the adequate sensational stimulus.156 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it Breuer then succeeded in making at least very probable that this function belongs to the otolithic apparatus. and consequently that of the senseof epithelia By determining that the position the directions in which the otoliths slide for different positions of the head. has pointed the way to the and experimental testing of the functions of the From select result the mass of facts concerning the lower animals. I will which have been discovered of recent a few pregnant instances. it in the case of higher animals also isolation otoliths. this part of the hypothesis is now on and a very firm footing. as we suppose. . Heuristically. by means of their weight. In the case of acceleration in a straight causes motion will otolithic masses. is " For every position of the head there tion of only one definite combina- magnitudes of gravitation of the otoliths in the four maculae. the gravitation of the is then every position of the head charac- terized by a definite combination of these sensations. every shock that inertia evoke." line. He them. supposes that the otoliths exert. When. also. years. a definite pressure on the hair-cells underneath Every inclination of the head must change the position of the sacculus. It has become the basis of research on the lower animals in which otoliths alone occur. otoliths is felt. owing to the of the a relative acceleration of these masses in the opposite direction. only that The phenomena on the removal of the otoliths have been studied.

Development and Functions. and. Its very slow at setting itself right. its Structure. is uncertain manner of swimming covered with reminiscent of that of other Crustacea after their stato- cysts have been destroyed.^ are pensatory movements." sense of direction in swimming of is The experiments ^ of Prentiss recall those K. it If it is compelled to swim. " The Otocyst of Decapod Crustacea. but attaches gi*asses. particularly interesting. But he was also so fortunate as to obtain observations on free-swimming larvae of lobsters. the loss of equilibrium more The same is writer also describes as follows the behaviour of a crustacean (Virbius zoskricula). is still turned over on to their backs than normal and. they roll from one easily swim with belly upwards. does so in a very uncertain It is easily is manner. I9cx)-i. which had been deprived of the power of growing otoliths after they had sloughed their skin. The experiments He first repeated Kreidl's famous experiments in compelling sloughing Crustacea to absorb " iron " otoliths . all If the eyes are lamp-black. lost. once in this position. in which the statocyst " It is normally absent. He was able to convince himself that they present the same phenomena as full-grown shrimps. when they striking. but generally back upwards. in the positions that are independent of gravity. he confirmed the is fact that the behaviour of these towards magnets in accordance with the theory. are blinded. L. are more larvae.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS also the behaviour of animals 157 under rotation and the comof Prentiss. (Quoted by Kreidl.) . from : which the otoliths have been removed side to another. itself to not a free-swimming form." Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Harvard. over on to its turned back.

1900. and the regular intervals or movements of the eyes which are repeated at when 'the head is continuously rotated when a galvanic current is passed through it. in the case of a frog de- prived of its and subjected to rapid movement. have long been analysed. Ach's 2 researches on frogs are important. Vol.. and rotatory dis- covered that the appearance of vertigo coincides in time with the completion of the formation of the semicircular canals. as has been shown by Ewald in the case of doves. _m On the other hand. L. LXXXVI.i THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Schafer rotated the larvse first of frogs. " Ueber die Otolithenfunktion und Labyrinthtonus. He discovered that the otoliths are connected with the lid-reflex of the crossed side . and by Breuer * K." Pfluger's Arohiv. the wheel-like movements of the 1 eyes that take place when the position of the head under- goes a series of changes. '^ . jerking known and have been sufficiently The typical movements of the head. from the otoliths fact that. is Nystagmus of eyes and head completely absent in animals without a labyrinth. Zeitschrift fur Psychologic ttnd Physiologic der Sittnesorgaiu 1894. "Funktion unci Funktionsentwicklung der Bogen gange. and which felt can also be easily through the closed eyelids. Ach. he concluded that the function of the otoliths is displacements of the body in a straight line in space. Schafer. to subserve the lid-reflex vanishes both horizontally and vertically. i6. and the nystagmic movements caused by rotation and by passing a galvanic current through the head. are sure objective signs of vertigo.158 Schafer.

Again. 2 " Beitrage zur Physiologie des Ohrlabyrinths aut Grund von Versuchen bei Taubstummen.4 out of 118 deaf-mutes subjected to an pathological anatomical examination. LI V. did not succumb to the illusion as is to position with respect to the vertical. . ^ " Ueber den galvanischen Schwindelbei Taubstummen. consisting in an inclination of the head towards the anode. 50 to 58 per cent." Idzd. the consequence of diffused stimulation is the so-called galvanotropic reaction. So much having been premised. we owe to Breuer the proof that isolated. A. Kreidl.. of the deaf-mutes experimented on by Kreidl felt no rotatory vertigo . whereas. " Ueber die pathologisch-anatomischen Veranderungen der Gehororgane Taubstummer. whose nervous octavus had been Breuer and Kreidl have proved severed on both sides. XXV. ^ Kreidl ^ and Pollak ^ as resulting with deafvertigo. they produce a movement of the head in the plane of the canal involved. Pollak. experienced by anyone who rides in a whirling chair or sits in a railway train passing quickly enough over a sharp curve. etc. according to Breuer. which inevitable ^ William James. mutes when affected with rotatory or galvanic easily can be explained on the Mach-Breuer theory.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS in 159 the case of cats. Accord- ing to Mygind. the phenomena observed by James.j Vol. Mygind. that the optical distortion of the vertical. of those on whom Kreidl reproduced the conditions of Mach's experiment with the whirling chair. 21 per cent. ^ H. LI. changes . American Journal of Otology ^ 1887. of the vestibulary apparatus were present in 56 per cent. . even that when is can be galvanically stimulated when done. depends upon a real wheel-like movement of the eyes. Vol. /did. individual ampullae." Pfliiger's Archivy Vol.." J.

and progress but in a sprawl- hobbling fashion .. 29% of the subjects with acquired deafness reacted normally to the galvanic current.e. These mice are completely ing. reflex when no movements is of the that. their anatomical structure. .. further. Congenital deaf-mutes. PoUak found that 3o°/o of the deaf-mutes he investigated experienced no galvanic vertigo. they also without exception displayed. Kreidl. i. when the deaf-mutes were divided into congenital deaf-mutes and those with acquired deafness.. to a superficial observer their . Alexander and Hammerschlag confirmed these three latter discovered.. are also devoid of the characteristic symptoms the of galvanic vertigo. the Alexander and Kreidl. eyes. LXXXII. in Hammerschlag's while only 95°/o) displayed normal galvanic reaction. tion. The more explanation of the lower percentage according to are Mygind's statistics." ArcAw. and that most of the deaf- mutes who display no eye-movements and no the vertical illusion as to when placed on the rotating platform or the whirling chair. lies. those with hereditary degenera- behave in mice. power of equilibrium seems unimpaired if one tries experi- mentally to get them to ^ move along a narrow path.i6o in THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS : normal persons rotated. that. Further researches by Strehl. Tanzmaus. this connexion in the same way as Japanese explanation of whose physiological in dancing behaviour the as Kreidl and Alexander^ have shewn. II. LXXXVIII.. the semicircular canals frequently found to be diseased than the vestibule. " Zur Pfluger's Physiologic des Labyrinthes der I. facts . an extremely high percentage of the former (in Kreidl and Alexander's experiments 84%. III. deaf. Vols.

** — one normal. L . and medium diminution of both vestibular ganglia. If four of ' them. Among recent experiments in the field of comparative physiology those of Dreyfuss^ seem to me very remarkable. The animal that has been deprived of both labyrinths remains motionless in one place under rotation it displays no displacement of the longitudinal axis of the vertebral column. 17. when placed on a rotating platform. but They are free from rotatory when a galvanic current like is passed through their heads they behave normal animals.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS high degree in which their power of balance is i6i defective becomes immediately obvious. his special object being to study the compensatory movements of the eyeball and the head. medium emaciation of the branches and roots of the ramus superior and medius of the eighth nerve. tischen Funktion des Ohrlabyrinthes. striking difference in the behaviour He records a under rotation of the operated animal as contrasted with the behaviour of the intact animal. vertigo. advanced atrophy of the the spiral ganglion. It unconscious of the rotation. Destruction of the advanced emaciation of the ramus inferior of the eighth nerve. destruction of macula sacculi. is and no nystagmus of head or eyes." Pfluger's Archiv^ Vol. LXXXI. results. He observed the behaviour of normal guinea-pigs. Dreyfuss devised the following experiment in feeding the guinea-pigs. Anatomical examination gives the following papilla basilaris cochleae. one with the left. To prove this. and of guinea-pigs deprived of their labyrinths (operated on one side only and on both sides). one with Experimentale Beitrage zu der Lehre von der nichtakusDreyfuss.

und Physiolcgie der Sinnes- XXXVIII. Alexander." Zeitschrift fur Psychologic organe. the guinea-pig without the is on eating while the rotation it to the and stops when labyrinth goes is to the left. Alexander's work on the organs of equilibrium and hearing in animals with congenitally defective visual apparatus. sensations necessary for the maintenance of equilibrium ' G. in comparison with the lower 5 animals. the vestibular apparatus in the higher animals and in man is defectively developed.! It is well-known that. " Zur Frage der phylogenetischen Ausbildung der Sinnesorgane. the mole {Talpa europced) and the blind mouse (Spalax is typhlus)^ interesting. and the one with neither labyrinth goes on eating whichever the direction of rotation. . In the case of all animals that are able to move in air or water. —are placed on the rotating platform. left on eating when the it rotation to the and stops when is to the right . normal guinea-pig stops eating during rotation right labyrinth goes right. Vol. . and from the teleological standpoint. Breuer and Kreidl obtained analogous results from comparative experiments with normal and acoustically defective cats. the one without is the left. Mach and Breuer fact " t-hat they are far have repeatedly emphasized the from meaning to imply that the labyrinth alone furnishes the . 1 8. we find three nerve- ends carrying only two. Morphologically. statoliths in the higher As regards the mammals there are higher animals.i62 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the right. the . and one with both labyrinths destroyed. and the experimenter waits until they have all begun to feed.

James and Kreidl have shewn that deaf-mutes rotatory vertigo are very unskilful in who all are not subject to the more delicate problems of balance. the major functions of the maintenance of equilibrium. so Ewald pre-eminently has shewn. or when there is congenital defect in it. We see this. This anatomically expressed by the unusual size of the terminal cells. can be adequately performed even when some mutes the labyrinth-function has been lost. in respect its of the structure of static terminal nerve-cells. Echidna ft . is is and Alexander has shewn its that this fully compensated by exquisite power of balance. It is other lower mammal. apart from birds and reptiles. and indeed quite certain. but also in that of those deaf in whom we have reason to assume some lesion of (Breuer). The ments surface mole. that absence or loss of the labyrinth-sensations can to a large extent be replaced by the other that. as well as with the sense of sight. not only in the. of a macula neglecta which is wanting in other mammals. case of operated animals. the sinus utricularis inferior. nerve by the relatively large number in of the sense-cells.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS rather it 163 co-operates to this end with the sense of pressure sense." is and the muscular It has never been denied. on the other hand. the on which moves is moreover dispenses almost completely with any sense of orientation by means of the organ of sight. the semicircular canals However. take is an animal whose movethough it place it principally underground. solid . Echidna Alexander's merit to have proved that. such as walking and standing. and especially by the presence. as sense-perceptions just mentioned. has only been found in one aculeata. and which.

in the case of the ampuUary and provides a clearer explanation of the specific disposition to the adequate stimulus than we have for any other sense organ. and macula lagense) it exhibits a macula neglecta Retzii. which are carried out also by the blind their eyes shut . macular nerve-terminations (macula macula sacculi. in accord- dance with it. ^^ The The results of these researches. may be summed up as compensation in the visual field of every movement of the head by means of movements of the eyes. whereas it number of the other terminal points of nerves . As against other hypotheses. rotatory vertigo and law the absence of this vertigo in finally. corresponds with that of in the mammals. it that. such as those of Ewald and Cyon. under continued rotation eyes the wheel-like movement when the is . the two sense-organs in the labyrinth are . this theory has at any rate the advantage otolithic apparatus. the identical character of galvanic vertigo in many deaf-mutes man cannot be denied and in animals. — all these facts serve strongly to confirm the theory of that Mach and still Breuer. the nystagmus of the eyes that takes place . and also that. mammals Echid?ia possesses a cortical organ which. selection has been mentioned. of which only a small follows. and by normal persons with the absence of these movements in many of the deaf-mutes . direction of the acceleration of masses in the body its altered by a centrifugal force . although it many questions remain unsolved.i64 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS unknown transition from represents the hitherto to birds. in histo- logical structure. agrees with the labyrinth of birds in addition to the three utriculi.

Professor Pollak's communication here comes to an endr Without doing violence to the facts described in my book on Tke Sensations of Movement^ the preceding observations suggest the possibility of facts. which proceed from also this apparatus this as from a sense-organ. It we shall point out in what remains extremely probable that an organ exists in the head — it may be upon called the terminal organ {TO) — which we reacts accelerations. To me personI ally the existence of sensations of movement. In any case the sensation of motion proved to be a special and peculiar department of sensation. Innervations and unconscious. and by means of which are made aware of movements. Let us consider the accompanying diagram. of the same nature as other sensations. we might assume that organ simply disengages innervations after the manner of reflexes. [these UI. But instead of imagining that the terminal organ excites special motor-sensations. and can scarcely understand how anyone. does not seem doubtful.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS readily 165 senseis brought under the principle of specific energies (Nagel). that is We induce by the by a stimulus from WI^ an active . who has really re/ peated on himself the experiments in question. as modifying the theoretical view there taken of the follows. to the locomotor apparatus {LM). can deny the existence of these sensations. 20. may be voluntary and conscious or involuntary The two different organs from which proceed may be designated by the letters WI and Both sorts of innervation may pass to the oculo-motor 'apparatus {OM) and now will.

If IVI takes no part in the process. indicated by the feathered arrows. by intervention from WIj then innervation the is same and necessary for achieving this result as for active movement. is whether felt. differing from the innervation. which passes arrows. 23. JVI and I/I that upon a given motor stimulus contrary innervations are set further. if But the compensatory is movement tionally inten- suppressed. and the compensation is effected. is. vations proceeding from IVI would eventually be neutralized by TO and I/I. If the is motion in the direction of the unfeathered surprise). same whether the movement induced In active movements. it precedes or follows the movement. too. up in the last two. the inner- passive or active. it consequently produces the same motor sensation. unnecessary. the motor excitaI/I. as experience shews.i66 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS in the direction of the unfeathered movement. a specific sensation of moveis ment. The appropriate innervation. which produce com- pensatory movements. to OM and ZM. that Fig. arrows a passive one (taking us by then. reflexes pass from TO to 6V. did not an inhibitory innervation proceed . both the motion and the necessity for motor sensa- tion are absent. directly In this case. therefore. terminal organ The TO is accordingly so adjusted to in the first. But we have to notice the following difference in the relation of TO to JVIsiud tion is is naturally the For TO.

the hands and eyes remind one very Of course. much in favor of such a conception of the higher animals.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS simultaneously with the willed innervation from JVI to or UI. On the contrary. or a distant spot only thought of. UI. such that the executed only movements of attack. such impressions do not it is afford solutions of scientific questions. the bird will behave towards my hand In human being would towards a giant cuttle-fish. the second only flight. we should TO. But the attempt to reduce to one and the same quality of sensation. we should have a conception approximately corresponding to the relation represented. all of in while the third filled the post of whom were united into a single new organism which WI held the There is dominant position. watching a company of little children whose movements are largely exactly as a unreflecting strongly of polypoid creatures. and between first whom there was a division of labor. is The assumption spatial that this quality of sensation is the will. does not fore- * If I grasp bird in my hand. picture to ourselves three animals. arise shadowy form. and which. will be found to be not without justification. and unpractised. but often very suggestive to abandon oneself to their influence. those of defence or sentinel. or a little is innervation. so far as the will occupied with position that it in space and movement. T am in fully aware of the defects in my treatment. even when locomotion remembered. as 167 TO The influence of its TO upon WT must WI^ be conceived If much weaker than influence upon UI. all sensations of space and movement only in a which arise in the province of sight and touch during is change of place. I do not ofl'er the preceding view as a complete and perfectly apposite picture of the facts. accordance with the cardinal principle evolved in our investigation (p. 62). .

I . With we explain at once a long chain of peculiar physiologico-optical phenomena. Miinsterberg and Hering..^ 21. From the discussions of the previous chapter relative to similarity. p. at is from the physical point of view. which have I as yet received scarcely any attention. lines symmetrical with respect to the median plane very similar sensations of innervation correspond. Optical space (Hering's sight-space") bears a somewhat complicated geometrical relationship to the former. IH. Vol.. very different sensations of innervation are associated. Hermann's Handhuch der do not wish to conceal the method by which I was led to my theory. as explained in Chapter VIII. although now the view repre- sented by James. or with looking jects afar off at ob- and at objects near at hand. Part 547. symmetry and the we may immediately draw and to the conclusion that to like directions of lines which are seen. — as we should this single naturally be led to expect from the symmetrical arrange- ment of the motor apparatus of the observation eye. seems to me preferable. but that with looking upwards and looking downwards. The matter may be best expressed in familiar terms by saying that optical space represents geometrical space (Euclid's space) in a ^ Compare Hering's opinion given I. in I Physiologie. that has grown up on the basis of manual and *' intellectual operations. least now come is to the point which. The a mental construction of three-dimensional multiplicity.. space of the geometrician the most important.i68 stall THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS future investigation and only represents the facts as they are known at the present time. same kind of innervation-sensations.

the amount of deviation from the mean of the 22. / raises or lowers them. optical space also three-dimensional multiplicity.. therefore. I felt this for and also recognized the direction in which. the solution All the better.. of height. Engelmann. when we tures. In any event. trician The space and is of the geome- exhibits at every point in all directions the same properties —a quality which space. example. distinguish between convex and concave curva- The geometrician should really know only ordinates. which turns the eyes to the right or to the left. 1861-1865.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS sort 169 teleois 9. 1868) simply a threefold innervation. the explanation was to be sought tive . . on the defec- principle of the parallelism of the physical and the psychical. corresponds (Hering. To the three optical space co-ordinates. As long as we conceive the (12) muscles of the eye to be separately innervated. according to the shewing of investigator Beitrage zur Physiologic^ Leipzig. multiplicity. we are not in a position to understand is the fundamental fact that optical space presented as a difficulty three-dimensional years. who discovered viz. but owing to itself my I experience in this province. am appreciate the service rendered by Hering. of relievo-perspective —a fact which can be logically explained. to the sensations breadth and this depth. by no means characthe influence teristic of physiological But of physiological space may nevertheless is be abundantly for observed in geometry. it. remained able to hidden from me. and causes them to converge. Such the case. I Die Lehre vom binokularen Sehen.

the symmetrical apparatus of innervation remains. easy nor necessary to — a question neither — nevertheless Bering's cited account throws a flood of light on the psychical obscurity of the visual process. 138). dwell any further on this. point which I regard as the most important the and essential. or whether itself as the space- we conceive decide. 1872). note I. and cannot. By thousands of years of practice it must also have been implanted in other parts of the human organism.^ Whether we regard the innervation sensation. I still felt ''This conception also removes a difficulty iniSyi. Yet the sense for symmetry. I think. to ' is unnecessary. the space-sensation as before or behind the innervation. and to which Calve. even when one eye is lost. moreover. (Prague. accord excellently with this conception.170 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS This is according to the respective needs of the case. could not have been confined exclusively to the visual organs. be immediately eliminated on the loss of an eye. although originally acquired by the eyes." As a fact. 122. — in the following words "The possession of a sense for symmetry by persons who are one-eyed from birth is certainly an enigma. —now I gave utterance in my lecture on Symmetry" translated into English in my : Popular Scientifc Lectures. 1894. Chicago. therefore. The phenomena But it by myself with regard to symmetry and similarity.^ This is the point to which reference was made above which *' (p. p. t .

the first new-born animals. I do I assume a am convinced. nor specific psychical causality. and. phrase "the often been IN what precedes. the sinew-reflexes. by the will any special psychical or metaphysical agent. that the phenomena must of volition — to put it briefly. special would not any emphasis on the fact that this is a matter of course. but in a way lay that everyone can understand —be explained by means of the I physical forces of the organism alone.VIII. were it not that the remarks of many critics have shewn the emphasis to be necessary. The movements movements of free all of lower animals. reflex Nor are such movements absent in the later stages of the lives of arises for higher animals. any unexpected event in our environment. — we are as much surprised by them as by The behaviour 74) depends (p. on The chick pecks quite mechanically at 171 . and has always merely generally recognized psychic phenomenon. — for instance. in physiologists company with the overwhelming majority of and modern psychologists. THE WILL. they stimulus quite mechanically. are immediately follow the set by some stimulus. and when the occasion us to observe them for the first time in ourselves. of the reflex young sparrow described above movements. they are reflex movements. I do not mean Rather. the been intendedwill " has to denote a used. equally.

For the reflecting subject. It in this way that voluntary movement arises. in the subject's cognition that the determining factor in voluntary action . to assist. itself at has once burnt a bright flame refrains in future from is grasping at the flame. in the All memory-traces that remain behind nervous system co-operate with the sensations to set free. as reflex may fall movement modified by memories. very prettily followed the of our sparrow the 74 above). since we can conceive voluntary movement. under the influence partly of inhibitory and partly of encouraging memories of taste. as re- from movement. but soon. The chick begins by pecking at every- thing. to inhibit is and to modify the reflexes. withdraws For there are fixed limbs from every unpleasant contact without any coorganic of operation of the intellect. on the other hand.172 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it everything that that strikes its its sees. because the grasp-reflex inhibited by the antagonistic avoidance-reflex which the memory of the pain sets free. however far we The child that short of understanding it in detail. just as the child grasps at everything notice. according to living snbstance strives towards the equilibrium of the antagonistic processes taking place in it. it exercises a to choice. arrangements which determine the organism. The gradual transition from reflex movement in voluntary action case can be (p. tendency towards self-preservation Sensational stimuli can be partly or wholly replaced by memory-images. If preservation the sub- we adopt Hering's views on which living stance. we shall be forced to ascribe to the elements of the this organism themselves or actual stability. and. distinct characteristic reflex mark of voluntary lies action. at any rate in principle.

and foremost.^ It seems a simple and natural view to suppose that the actual move- ment way is associated with the imagined movement in the same But as one presentation is associated with another. op. The psychic processes that accompany voluntary action and voluntary movement have been admirably analysed by William James ^ and by Hugo Miinsterberg. when their are able to give no account of the movement of their limbs. 100 above). 1888. Vol. James. II. pp. II. Principles of Psychology^ Vol. which movement. James. op. p. cit. Miinsterberg. Die Willenshandhmg.. Against the hypothesis of kinaesthetic sensations central first origin of the we have to set. as regards the sensations of the kind and amount of the involved.^ who. II. W. is which flows to the muscles Miinsterberg take a difterent view. although they are able to sight. the kinaesthetic sensations that peripherally excited James and They hold that all accompany a movement are itself felt.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is 173 action his own presentations.y Vol. which anticipate this (p. by sensible elements the in the skin. the observations on anaesthetic subjects. Wundt and Helmholtz. 502. 489. James. which the innervation opposite views are taken.. ^H. the muscles and the joints.. .'^ W. Freiburg im Breisgau. and of the amount of are effort connected with the execution of the movement. cit.. p. 3 ^ W. 486 sqq. two According to one view. is held by Bain. sensations are cut passive off. move their limbs under the guidance of the sense of of a faradised muscle just as is We ' feel the exertion much as in the case of a muscle that voluntarily innervated.

The law that of association connects not merely processes emerge into consciousness (presentations). 404 . The man who blushes when he is embarrassed. generally observes these processes taking place in him- self the momerit he is reminded of them. Vol. but during a period of several months. An out apoplectic stroke which I experienced in 1898.. made now under I. . this dazzling after-image by gazing image disappeared. is consequently to be avoided. 1855. whose hands sweat readily. within the least affecting its my consciousness. it always returned with full sensational intensity it. Brewster. For purposes of study at the Newton^ acquired a sun.. has me ^ personally familiar with part of the facts King's Life of Locke ^ 1830. Boyle narrates a similar observation When brought *into connexion in his book on colors. with these facts. p. on the principle of economy. Vol..174 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS hypothesis of specific sensations of innervation is -not The required for the explanation of the phenomena. the moment he reminded attention himself of It was only by diverting his by a long-continued and violent psychic effort that he was able to get rid of this trouble- some phenomenon. Finally. and. A special difficulty is constituted by certain optical pheno- mena. sensations of innervation are not directly observed. 236. but also the most diverse organic processes. although he remained for several days in the dark. Memoirs oj Newton. T. the association of motor processes with presentations ceases to appear strange. readily etc. to which we shall return. p.

I could only with the greatest It seems to me plausible to suppose that this was caused by the energetic innervation of other muscle-groups in addition to the muscles of the paralysed extremities. my arm and lift leg seemed to me enormous burdens which effort. an affection of the right facial muscle. After some hours it became continuous and permanent. Optical and tactual motor-images persisted in my memory. I found that the reflex excitability of the paralysed limbs was enormously heightened. and there also set in which prevented me from speaking except in a low tone I and with some difficulty- can only describe my condition when effort. Vol. and thus was enabled be aware of their position and of their passive movements. I except for one place on the thigh. I 175 was in a railway train. larly in violent jerks this expressed itself particu- on the slightest alarm.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS consideration. oJ>. Very often during the day I formed the intention to do something with my right hand. II. my On the other to bring hand. during the period of complete paralysis by saying that I formed the intention of moving it my limbs for I felt no but that was absolutely impossible me will to the point of executing the movement..^ The to paralysed Hmbs retained their sensibility completely. with no consciousness of anything else being wrong. during the phases of imperfect paralysis. p. it. W. when I suddenly observed. «V. that my right arm and leg were completely paralysed. .. so that from time to time I was able to move again in an apparently quite normal way. the paralysis was intermittent. and had to think of the impossibility of doing To the I same source are to be referred the vivid writing. 503. and during the period of convalescence. dreams which ' had of playing the piano and James.

Over the flexors of this hand I have ac- quired a very slight control. even on the new theory. The innervation is net but the consequences of the innervation set up new peripheral sensible stimuli.176 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS at accompanied by astonishment the ease with which I wrote and played. I so that the hand is sometimes extended and sometimes clenched. and we ought therefore consider felt. Water impregnated with sulphate of magnesia. but But I had only slightest to look to convince myself that there was not the movement. for example. and followed by bitter disappointment on awaking. Since the sensibility of the hand is preserved. it as correct in essentials. but over the extensors none at all. while the do not know how to explain the illusion of movement properly. be hampered as by a loose. I often my paralysed hand total stiff opening and shutting. Strong tastes of different qualities seem to act as stimuli to different extents on different muscles of my paralysed hand. is power of voluntary movement lacking. however. without any straining. excites involuntary movements of tension in the thumb and the two fingers next to it. The muscles that are withdrawn from the influence of the will react now to the most diverse stimuli. some me from believing that this view . The theory of James and Miinsterberg fits these facts. difficulties which prevent There are. which are connected with the execution of the movement. to as I think. thought that Motor hallucinations I felt also occurred. to and at the same time the if movement seemed glove.

the strength of the process. i. the eye- muscles. Sinnesorgane^ Vol. The work done by small. the absence of antagonistic processes. pp. while the work as such matter of indifference. Vol.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which was originally facts. z. connected with the alteration in position of the eyes latter is this alone is of optical importance. In particular.. may be partial deter- minants. 177 my own. III. on the other hand. Cf. 5- Hering sensations ^ has shewn how^ small is the importance of the proceeding from the muscles of the eye.97. but still it is scarcely possible to deny that further explanation in is required. and of practical importance for us to know these amounts approximately.i completely explains the One would tions the think that the central process which condidiifer in mere presentation of a movement must some respect from the process which also releases an actual movement. VII. * Before the phenomena connected with paralysis of the eye-muscles were known to me. To be sure.e. also tlillebrand. This may be the reason why the kinaesthetic sensations play such a much greater part in the case of the muscles of the extremities. '^ Hering in Hermann's Handbuch der *' Phystologte. 547. and the extent to which the innervation-centres are charged. the difference behaviour of the muscles of the eye and the other will muscles that can be excited at tion. needs closer investiga- Most muscles have it is variable amounts of work to perform. is and is always exactly .'* Akkommodation und Konvergenz Zeitschrift fur Psychologic tind Physiologic der sqcj. M . Verhiiltnisder zur Tiefenlokalisation.^ before 1863..

534. attend at all to the movements remains and the position of objects If in space uninfluenced by these movements. covered with movable and remaining fixed in space while the retinae revolve. op. 533. pp. —namely is to regard the position of attention as at determined by a definite psycho-physical process. p. a superficial consideration might even induce us to believe that the space-values of the objects seen would only be deter- mined by the two positions of spheres. 547. and deny the importance of the peripherally excited kinjesthetic sensations of the eyemuscles." might still hold in essentials to my expression on 130 above. 548. Hering. I am now unable to decide whether the view that the alteration of the space-values is into completed immediately with the change harmony with the fact mentioned on 2 Hering. I different from " the will to see. for which of the series of processes excited from and pro- ' Cf. o/>. and "attention" remains scarcely In this way p. and the other on the coordinates altera- of the point of vision. spherical surfaces.^ is still But this process a central process. .^ Now. cit. reflexion on the fixed But the facts mentioned on p. can be brought 130 above. which the same time the physical factor that releases the corre- sponding innervation of the eye-muscles. the only remaining alternative is that adopted by Hering.^ pp. one of which reflexion depends on the co-ordinates of the point of on the retina. cit. one imagines two retinae. compel us to separate these space-values into two components. in attention p. which components undergo mutually compensating alterations corresponding to voluntary tions of the point of vision. if we refuse to admit a sensation of innervation.178 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS scarcely Usually we of our eyes.. 127 above. 114 above .

the two antagonistic innervations by two antagonistic processes of attention. II. op. cit. in k^ e explanation attempted on p. is The limbs function of the muscles of the eyes . are executed. one excited by the sensible stimulus. In conformity with what precedes. and the I other a central process. to drift towards the doubtful waters of " unconscious inferences. When we its see the newlyaccurately.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ceeding from the sensation. 166 above. . and act as an apparatus of spatial orientation.. Probably the jerking movements of the head which take place in birds when they walk forward. since this explanation seems. Vol.. merely to ensure our orientation in space is that of the muscles of the principally the performance of mechanical work. we might replace. p. like nystagmic movements of the head under rotation. between which there lie many middle terms. formally at any rate. 506. it is hatched chick pecking and hitting mark its easy to believe that the muscles of neck and head to its some extent perform a similar office to that of eye- muscles. in the * W. cannot give ^ my assent to the explanation proposed by James of the phenomena con- nected with paralysis of the muscles of the eye. James. We will thus have here two extreme cases. is 179 into centre is the one that enters a many-sided problem which can for the present remain unsolved." case under discussion In the we are concerned with sensations and not with the results of reflexions.

also cannot be entirely without analogy to the eye-muscles. . 135 above. ^ ' Cf. and p 138.i8o THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The muscles of the extremities interests of orientation. p. the blind man's tactual Otherwise how could we understand For it is presentation of space? not easy to combine a nativistic theory of visual space with an empirical theory of tactual space. note 2.

of which the first appeared in April 1901. Erkenntnis und Irrtunii 1905. here meant Euclidean) space. but also as regards the blind man's tactual space in comparison with geometrical space. infinite.. what is more. " Ueber die statischen Funktionen des Ohrlabyrinthes " I. Vierteljahrsschrift p. Bodies shrink when they are removed are brought near they are enlarged : when they in these features visual space resembles many constructions * articles in This subject cannot be treated in detail here. 331-414. I assume. pp. II. it is is of the same unlimited and is Riemann's sense) and. not one. Visual space its bounded and different in finite.BIOLOGICO-TELEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS AS TO SPACE. WE tions have already repeatedly had occasion to notice how very different the system of our space-sensaif — —our physiological space. but two. 28). also the passages cited above from Hering. the The physiological second in July 1902. sqq.. reactions to Cf. fur wissensckaftliche Philosophies Vol. IX. nature everywhere and in (in Geometrical space all directions. except that the stimuli in question. 426-440. Psychology ^ Vol. us. extension is different directions. 134. This is we may use the expression is is from geometrical (by which true. and W. considerations outlined here are partly related to Wlassak's views as stated in his paper. James. 181 also my . and the third in October 1903. Cf. pp. XVII. not only as regards visual space. I may refer to my The Monist. as a glance at the flattened "vault of heaven " teaches to a distance .

" and also. upon the . We have only to remember the difficulties which the doctrine of the antipodes had to overcome. but uses also such direction. plicity Three-dimensional multito geometrical and continuity are common and to physiological space. physiological space approximates to Euclidean. difference " of the metageometricians rather than The between "above" and "below. This is true for men and is animals. strictly " before "right space. etc. corresponds a continuous movement of a point A^ in physiological space." between behind. In order to keep the physiological factors completely apart. .. . sense. to one . physiological conceptions as left. though without completely attaining to the simplicity of the properties of Euclidean space. to see how geometrical spaceEven our presentations can be disturbed by physiological. is physiological space related to geometrical very much as a "triclinal" is to a "tesseral" medium.." is common to tactual space and visual In geometrical space there are no such differences...i82 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Euclidean space. To the continuous movement of a point A in geometrical space. When mobility added. and animals of similar structure to man. most abstract geometry does not employ purely metrical notions. and speaking. for For man. right. so long as they are not endowed with freedom of movement and of orientation. —by the relations of the AB C's . between and left. but that geometrical conceptions are formed by means of the spatial comparison of bodies another. and geometrical of the we have to reflect that our space- sensations are determined by the dependence elements which we have called elements of our body KL M ABC.

and or offensive. they rate teleologically. but at the same time we distinguish fore between the spots stimulated. which depends on the specific nature of the elementary organ stimulated. is We must there- suppose that there attached to the qualitatively identical sensation an element of difference. by memory. but any their biological connexion.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 2. biological function. whatever be the spot burnt. lated. must remain behind ourselves teaches us. in Now. is become easier to understand. memory. or. such reactions can is also arise spontaneously slight impulse. use Hering's expression. As soon as an organ or a system of organs stimulated. 183 If we consider the in spatial sensations not as isolated in their at phenomena. make their entrance into the organism by different paths are reproduced externally also by different paths on the animal's environment. that. As our observation of we not only recognize identity of quality in the stimulus of burning. To each excitation the frog will specific defensive movement according to the spot stimuretinae sets free The stimulation of places on the the equally specific reflex of snapping. alterations that That is to say. on . on a and that they can be modified by memories in the then traces. reactions. For example. let us suppose complicated conditions of life. these movements take place as reflex movements are generally purposive. corresponding to the nature of the stimulus and to the stimulated organs. different places on the skin reply may be successively stimulated by dropping acid by a on them. to on the spot stimulated. may be of a frog defensive according to the nature of the stimulus. that to say.

namely sensations. these depend. when some disturbance of . a fixed register. and what organs are active in connexion with them. and which varies with the variation in the degree of affinity.^ tions." the perception of space that the intimate mutual biological adaptation of a multiplicity of connected elementary organs is displayed with peculiar clearness. sensation. will from this we distinguish the sensations which depend on Organic the quality of the stimulus as specific sensations. sensations and comitantly. We have to imagine a system of elementary organs of embryological origin as being naturally so arranged common affinity. and the organ. Let us assume only one kind of element of consciousness. is What the nature of these sensations.i84 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS It is precisely in the "place of attention. Similarly the internal organs are only sensed and localized their equilibrium takes place. In so far as we have spatial perceptions. according to our theory. that neighbouring elements display the greatest ontological and that this affinity decreases as the segregation of the elements from one another increases. on sensations. the specific sensations can only appear con- But. The organic which alone depends upon the individuality of correspond to the sensation of space. in We are here only making as to the elementary organs similar pre- we should find natural in the case of separated individuals of the same descent but of different suppositions such as \ ' degrees of ^ affinity. we must leave an open question. over against the varying specific sensa\ unchanging organic sensations presently constitute which the former are arranged.

sensations the which should be orientated with reference to also body would be valueless. used economically. is the sequently less important.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 4- 185 The perception of space has arisen from biological to necessities. while as regards more remote. ] that. should be more sharply graded. and conthe limited supply of relation. but would Space- be physically and physiologically impossible. clearness The greater and the finer distinctions that exist at a given spot on the retina of the eye of a vertebrate are an economic arrangement. when is it is required to perceive an object that does not when the eye moved by some cause emerge into consciousness. is biologically remains at necessary. The following considerations enable us to understand the motor organization of the visual apparatus. and can best be understood by reference these necessities. which rest. just as the influence of a voluntary movement of the at rest is eyes re- on the space-sensation caused by objects cognized as disadvantageous. indices is objects. in visual space. This only one physically possible. such as an external mechanical . again. the sensation-indices for which are biologically the most important. An endless system of space-sensations would not only be purposeless also for the organism. It is also advantageous nearer objects. follows a By this means a movement of the eyes is that change of attention recognized as advantageous. less the if it is misleading. in order to enable at rest : us to perceive moving objects with our eyes it the is only case in which the very rare one at rest is unnecessary for the organism. Nevertheitself displacement of images on the retina.

objects at rest appear to move to fluctuate. Analogous paradoxical phenomena connected with rotatory vertigo appear here also. 1 movement should be compensated by the voluntary movement in respect of spacevalue. The finger-tips correspond to the macula lutea. are ultimately the reason why under when our eyes are at and the space-values relative to our body. is. The \ relations of tactual space are. These organic arrangements peculiar circumstance. that when the eye is kept still.i86 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The only solution that is that. the displacement of images on the . 128 above) the existence of the second also of the two mutually compensatory comis directly proved. They were known to Purkinje. under ordinary circumstances (those of spon- taneous locomotion) of the highest biological importance. force or a twitching of the muscles. retina corresponding to this means of a ponents suitable experiment (p. The sense \ of touch tival is not a long-range sense . rest. provides for all the foregoing requirements when the eye is moved voluntarily. which nevertheless do not change their position and neither move farther away nor come nearer. similar to those of visual space. What seems paradoxical under these peculiar circumstances. — why we see bodies in motion. there is no perspecBut ' shrinkage and enlargement of tactual objects. . We can tell the difference perfectly well object finger- between passing our finger-tips over a motionless and the movement of an object over our motionless tips. apart from certain peculiarities. otherwise the to those of phenomena which we find here are akin vision. the mere intention to move the eye must cause objects By at rest to undergo some displacement in visual space. But from this it follows.

In addition to optical stimuli there —acoustic stimuli. will even remain tries to so. and of the by means of which both the looking movement of the eye-muscles and the pecking movement of the muscles of the head and neck of one deter- are released perfectly automatically. be regarded as the foundation of the sensation of space. organ that come into play must be . The excitement is and the same nerve-tract. a blind man gaze who keep off a wasp that is buzzing round him. or stimulates me to seize it. same places of stimulus and the same sensations will correspond to the same movements. the of space also. on the one hand. object. must. on the other hand. A newly-hatched chick notices a small object and at once both looks and pecks at tract of the sense-organ it.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 5- 187 Biological considerations of a general nature force us to conceive optical and tactual space as homogeneous. and are less clearly and definitely The system of his space-sensations will con- sequently be rather poorer and more blurred than that of a normal person. for example. which. in the absence of a special education. In general. and. the stimuli that excite a blind person are only con- fined to a narrower sphere localized. mined by the geometrical position of the physical stimulus. then looks at it A child that notices a glittering at it. and grasps behaves in the same way are others as the chick. The stimulus excites a certain central organ. the tracts of the central partially different. Consider. Accordingly as an object stimulates me to turn my upon it. stimuli of heat and smell which can also release movements of grasping or of defence and these of course are operative with blind people Again.

into one another. Probably there are always certain parts of the brain in a relatively when stimulated simple manner. A chick may look at an may peck at it it may also be determined by . we cannot resist the thought that a uniform . movements which are sometimes extremely thermal.i88 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS If the is although adjacent. directed to the preservation — would merge into one another by way . this is and would mutually support one another conclusion does not exhaust the and in fact the case. of association. would be linked together by means of the movements which they induce. acoustic. —-moveof the ments which are organism. are closely akin to one another. deter- mine space-sensations on the one hand. and these can be produced even in animals that are blind. which. Optical. this But with which object or phenomena we are concerned. though not identical. chemical and effects galvanic stimuli can excite a great deal of locomotion and change of orientation. and on the other hand release automatic complicated. the tract two stimuli take place larger. which. Exactly similar the behaviour of a child that crawls towards some goal. When we on its observe a millipede (/u/us) crawling regularly way. and then one day stands up and runs a few steps towards the goal. at once. either originally or by degeneration. All these cases pass gradually over to think of and we have them all as homo- geneous. the stimulus to turn is towards it and to run up to it. involved of course On biological grounds we should expect that the space-sensations connected with different senses.

there remain sensations of acceleration. then we may regard this simple stimulation. which. objects of and touch do appear with varying and fluctuating space-values. Even if we exclude as all sensations of sight and touch as completely still possible. as in the case of the millipede. lie Between the first and last members of the process the sensations of movement in the extremities. however. instance to the well-known nystagmic movements of the eyes. the images of the various space-values with which they have often been con- nected. as the wt// to the locomotion in question. in fact. At the same time. we recognize that it is a necessity the organism to feel the effect of the locomotion in a correspondingly simple manner. Now. sight And. or as the aUe7ition to the locomotion. the complicated movements of a it is of locomotion are induced. which evoke. 189 insect's some one of the and that the motor organs of the successive this current with segments of the body reply to automatic rhythmic movements. which automatically draws the locomotion after for it. by the simple stimulation of definite kind which. which are released under active and passive rotation. The insect's longitudinal wave. need only refer to the phenomena connected with for stimula- tions of the labyrinth. which seems to pass along the like rows of feet with machine- regularity. are usually only fully present to consciousness . instead of their values being stable. segments behind as compared with those in We should expect to find analogous processes in the more highly organized animals. I and in fact such processes occur. by way of association.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS current of stimulus proceeds from organs. if there are organs. in the case where present to consciousness. arises from the difference in phase of the front.

the latter set uniformity on account of the obstacles disorientation in the way of of the permanent vertical. an indirect comparison Geometry arises from the of bodies with one anpther. But as these conditions become more functional call complicated they force on the development of the relations intellect. including the space-sensations. Then the mutual of those complexes acquire spatial of elements (sensations) interest. but the which arise on occasion of locomotion and change of orientation possess the character of regularity and inexhaustibility. first of all. and free respect For the animal organism. locally individualized.190 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS of the when some obstacle arises and makes a modification movement necessary. and orientated with reference sensations I to his own body. the of its relations between the parts own body are. fact that Apart from the the first set of experiences only gives us agree- ments and differences. of the highest importance. are sufficient to secure adaptation to primitive conditions of life. but no magnitudes and no metrical does not attain absolute in determinations. which we bodies. An alien object only acquires value by standing in relation to parts of the animal's own body. The man who is motionless as a whole is only aware of space-sensations which are limited. All these experiences are required as a basis for the construction of a conception of space approximately similar to Euclidean space. In the lowest organisms the sensations. Our understanding of the development of geometry may .

and this relation remains always and everywhere the same. . view has been privately held by innumerable comes out clearly in the whole arrangement of Euclid's geometry. but with the whole permanent complex of material properties which is important for the satisfaction of our needs. ocular measurement. particularly in his "geometrical characteristic. which. or on parts of it. positions. and memory) proves to be too much under for us to build the influence of physiological circumstances that are not easily controlled. It When bodies are compared with geometricians. always produce the same space-sensations Such bodies display spatially constant soon as they are brought into a definite relation with our body and are seen and handled. distances.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is 191 be assisted by the observation that our immediate interest connected. Mere perception by itself (estimation. securely upon it." But Helmholtz was the first to discuss It is certain that this it openly. Everyday experience brings home to us the permanence of bodies. We then say B ^ is measured by A. and is still clearer in Leibniz. spatial substantiality ^ they remain and identical. We are therefore trust- compelled to look to the bodies themselves for worthy indications. spite of their mobility in space. such as color. We become acquainted with as rigid bodies. One ri^id body A may be immediately or mediately superimposed spatially on another rigid body B. and extensions of bodies are the quantity of the satisfaction decisive for the mode and of needs. when the question is one to of judging accurately the spatial relations of bodies one another. . and in size. Under ordinary circumstances this permanence extends also to particular qualities. not with spatial properties alone. But the forms. shape.

and it is in this fact that the advantage and the rational justification of the process of measurement consist. and this judgment is formed with great accuracy and are. Instead of the individual hands and which everyone carries about with him without noticing any appreciable spatial change in them. 8. an object of dispute. negligible comparison with the element of error involved in immediate spatial judgments as to juxtaposed or successive bodies. which we instinctively represent to ourselves when we look at or grasp some body with which we are familiar. its the aggregate of the positions occupied by matter. a universally accesis sible standard of measure soon chosen. by fulfilling in a high degree the condition of immutability. is Indeed. probably the oldest measures. ushers in an era of greater precision. rather.192 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS in this way. the question is one another as to the no longer one kind of space-sensation involved. The a object of all geometrical problems is to establish it numerical correspondence between spaces that is required to ascertain and known homogeneous exactly similar bodies. Variations in the results of measurement in in fact. and constitutes. which. feet. certainty. as such. The volume of a body. comes to be considered as a quantum of material properties that satisfy our needs. Empty pact vessels for the measurement of fluids. we have a judgment as to their identity under similar circumstances. originally the measurement of a surface undertaken solely with the object of ascertaining the closely amount of the homogeneous juxtaposed bodii . or of comare aggregates of almost bodies.

which has led to the knowledge of certain if geometrical propositions. interpolated one and only way between two or two very small bodies. Scientific geometry set itself economical task of ascertaining the dependence of dimensions on one another. familiar. own simple logical constructions. or. by shewing that. Thus we become line. first Again is experience. owing to the fact that metrical experiences. such as the straight it the and the circle. certain an object has it dimensions. facts and of discovering the simplest geometrical from which the remaining facts would follow as logical consequences. to say. but only over our ultimate idealized. For this purpose. our geometrical experiences had to be conceptually Henceforth there was no obstacle in the way of . we arrive at the idealized representations of geometry. as history testifies. dimensions if of the bodies used as again. 9- Our intuition of space is enriched by experimenting with material objects. since we have no mental control over nature. — that enumeration by means of similar pieces of string or chain. but as small as we like to choose them. acquainted with the metrical properties of forms with which we have long been plane. certain other dimensions of were the thereby determined. we abstract from one or two measures. which spatial intuition would not be able to acquire by itself. —determines in minimum volume If in this process that can be points. we suppose these bodies to be everywhere constant. 193 is Measurement of the length. are connected with these objects. of avoiding superfluous measurements.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS covering the surface.

causes our make the two halves of a spatially symmetrical . results in so far as they are sufficient for Intuition. Physical bodies would not be altered harmonize with the the presuppositions. The analogous to that of all the natural But the ultimate experiences of geometry are is reduced to so small a minimum that overlook them altogether. construction appear to us as equivalent but this is by no means are true from a physico-geometrical point of view." —by is advancing along the road of mental visualization. or a rotation direction. The wide divergence in the views of different investigators as to the nature of geometry is due to over —or under —^estimation of up of one or the other a correct view factor. is The in only possible foundation for the precise separation of the part played by each of these factors the building geometry. if we cling mentally they were taken. physical experiences. since they cannot be brought into congruence. and conceptual co-operating idealiza- are. a rotation in the opposite Kant's paradoxes on this subject depend on an inadequate separation of the various factors involved. procedure throughout sciences. only too easy to We imagine bodies as moving over the shadows or ghosts of bodies. which has been acquired intuition to for purposes of rapid locomotion. For instance. . Physically they is no more equivalent than a movement to to an opposite movement. therefore. our anatomically symmetrical motor organization. the three factors in scientific geometry. tion.194 the THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS discovery of geometrical propositions by a kind of "thought-experiment. in the process. and to the notion that their measurements. and thinking of these representations as connected with the idealized geometrical experiences.

it j food at risks to when found. wishes. normal psychical IN their appearance alone. ments of adaptation demanded by their conditions of If these conditions are simple.^ But even the total perceptions themselves are almost invariably accompanied by thoughts. By sensations are excited. the movelife. must seize it at the right spot. A more highly itself. Higher development is unnecessary. altering but little and slowly. many and needed plexes. We do not see optical images in an optical their is space. but we perceive the bodies round about us with varied sensible qualities. do not make accompanied by other sensations. sight-sensations but are life.X. or capture by ^ 195 .^^ immediate sensory excitation lectual different is sufficient. life But the case where the conditions of are intricate and / variable. THE I RELATIONS OF THE SIGHT-SENSATIONS TO ONE ANOTHER AND TO OTHER PSYCHICAL ELEMENTS. Lower species devour everything developed animal must seek its that comes in their way and that excites the proper stimulus. intelis^. Deliberate analysis to single out the sight-sensations from these com. and impulses. less would it lead to the accomplishment of the required ends. Here so simple a mechanism of adaptation cannot still develop. in animals.

196 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS its cunning. At the present moment (1906) the psychology of the lower animals has again become the field of versy. DUrfen wir den Ameisen und Bienen psychische ? Qualitaten zuschreiben " Pfluger's Anhiv. movements are frequently of a very complicated The sucking this. LXX. of young mammals. which was still widespread at that time. therefore. In this In the young of higher animals under complex conditions of life. the complexes of sensations necessary to excite adaptive nature. a sum of associated remembrances (or experi- ences) coincidently determining the adaptive movements. 17. must accompany and confront the consists the intellect. Bethe ^ advocates an extreme *' reflex-theory. to over-estimate the intelligence of the lower animals. as may be daily observed in children and adolescent animals. p. 74. Subsequently the important works solid experimental Loeb appeared. tions and to excite the Here. beetles. In a note to the edition of 1886 against the I uttered a warning tendency. the flight of moths towards the of J.. sensations. its Long trains of is varied memories must pass before sufficiently strong to mind before one outweigh the antagonistic consideraappropriate movement. My view was based solely on occasional observations on the machine-like movement of light. 75 are good examples of With the development of intelli- gence. and the sensations are more and more supplemented and replaced by the intellect. and the be- haviour of the young sparrow described on pp. A. Bcthe. ** Noch . 1 much contro- While A. Vol. and provided a basis for this view. the parts of these complexes necessary to produce the excitation constantly diminish. and cautiously test character. etc.

which To anyone. of the higher animals also ^ has lately become the object of general interest. Vergleichende Studien ilber das Seelenleben der Ameisen und der hoheren Tiere^ 2nd edition. H. . Die psychischen Fdhigkeiten der Ameisen^ Stuttgart 1899 (Zoologica. and under estima- ting the animals of which they Anyone who has studied physiology. Hering." No. knows the very life important part played by reflexes in preserving the all is animal organisms.. Buttel-Reepen. 1902 A.." /did. even of the the most highly developed of human organism. again. according to 197 based on ingenious and interesting experiments on ants and which these insects are to be regarded careful critical as Cartesian machines. p. Forel. Wasmann. Freiburg im Centralblatt far Physiologic. 1 900-1. ist year.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS bees. E. who has observed the striking way in which the influence exercised upon the biological reactions by a memory that einmal ilber die psychischen Qualilaten der Ameisen. Sind die Bienen ReJIexmaschinen?^ Leipzig. Vol. E. who of can appreciate the work of F. '* Vorschlage zu einer objektivierenden ** Nomenklatur ist in der Physiologie des Nervensystems. 1900. V. Forel 3 ascribe to the same insects a high degree of psychic development. No. 39 . Beer. ^ H. such as E. all. No. moglich die Physiologie von der Psychologic sprachlich zu trennen?" Deutsche Arbeit. Vol. XIII. 26) .^ H. The psychology Zell. writings of The and Theodor which are intended principally for the general public. other observers. von Buttel-Reepen. Be the and Uexklill. 12. 1899. Wasmann. LXXIX.^ and A. and seem to hit with great caution the proper mean between over-estimating treat.. Inwiefern es ' Breisgau. les sensations et remarques critiques sur des insectes. 3 the Fifth International Zoological Congress ^ Jena. are full of excellent observation felicitous insight. " Psychische Fahigkeiten der Ameisen/' Transactions of '* Experiences . 1900. 6. or even anyone Goltz." Rivista di Scienze Biolo^ichcy Como.

^ organisms can be explained solely by reference to It is not. although a still more valuable. cannot permanently supplant '* sensation. stand But in order to under- why man animal. where the latter are imperfect. pp. shall still I hope that we learn a great deal for our own psychology. to try whether will naturally occur and to what extent the behaviour of simpler reflexes. but also from " our younger brothers" the animals. Ueber den zufalliger Leipzig. and to carry to their issue the processes initially determined by sensations alone. the fourth edition of this work.^ and the acquisitions of the critical analysis of I should consider such an attempt as well worth the result would be making. 2. therefore. representation ' But in normal life. Populiir-wissenchaftliche Vorlesungen^ Umstande. p.igS THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it registers the experiences of the individual. probable that there exist any animal organisms entirely devoid of memory and endowed modification. 1903. Einfluss Mach. . Representation by images and ideas. See the chapter on " Sprache und Begriffe. . 294-2955 Prinzipien der ^ VVdnnelehre^ Leipzig. draw a sharp between the acquisiindividual. has to ^l supply the place of sensations.*' etc. 1900. decreases with the simplification of the organism. not only from our children. since line with it reflexes absolutely incapable of is scarcely possible to tions of the species Still. indeed. is it psychically so will much more than to reflect the cleverest be sufficient on the acquisitions which the individual and the species have of a social culture extending over made in the atmosphere many thousand years. 153." Cf.3rd edition.

in normal psychical two species of before to a marked difference between the psychical elements. We will are confact. that In the transition to mental imagery. 199 except with the greatest danger there is. what me to be supplemented by a qualita- \ and opposite sensational stimulus. On the contrary. upon the blackboard and the one represented situated in the It same place differ as by a fourth co-ordinate. and directed the spot seen to myself as elsewhere. But. see I always distinguish what and what I represent to I myself. as if the lines faded . I lines.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS where this is at all present. the interaction of the organs of the nervous system causes the repetition of organic processes partially identical with those which were determined by the physical stimulus t on occasion of the corresponding sensations. life. facts to say would not be a complete description of the that the image is superimposed on the object as the images superimposed is reflected in a transparent plate of glass are on the bodies seen through represented seems to tively different it. Images less . which / stimulus it in its turn sometimes supplants. I can. see a blackboard me. represent this myself on blackboard. to the organism. it is When I draw a geometrical figure in imagination. white or a colored figure. for the time being. pathological cases apart. when mental images occur. with a psychological the physiological explanation of which sometime undoubtedly be discovered. In consequence of this attention. attention is am aware my turned from my eyes. It is natural to suppose that. by being !/ and above all by their instability. with the greatest vividness. either a hexagon drawn in clear. fronted here. are normally distinguished from sensations intense. As a I fact.

200 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS my attention to : immediately after they are drawn. of intelligence has reached a high Where the development point. although ness it wont call absent- might with more If appropriate- be called present-mindedness. and must be reproduced over again. for mind a small number instance an arc of a circle with the angles at the centre and circumference and a pair of coincident or intersecting sides . extent than I was able to do this to a much greater can now. is the person in question disturbed in such a state. so events are in the neighbor- hood the reflecting person not noticed. at once becomes more difficult to deduce in imagination the renewing and of replacing the figure relative sizes of the angles. with ease and rapidity. and state questions addressed to him it are are not heard to —a which persons unused to mindedness. he has a very distinct sensation of the labor involved in the transference of his attention. practice. . enormously increased by When I I was studying the geometry of Steiner and Von Staudt. as soon as is directed to ether lines when one comes back them they have vanished. to hold firmly before the It is easy enough of lines. but if in this case we proceed to add the diameter drawn it through the apex of the angle at the circumference. This is the principal reason of the advantage in point of convenience which an actual material geometrical drawing possesses over a merely imagined one. . without continually completing the figure. such as is presented now in the complex conditions of human of life. The power is. however. mental images may frequently absorb the that whole of attention.

life with which we are . in addition to the organ of a number of other analogous organs of mediation. now of another. doubtless its first made this But the beginnings of expression of in which nothing but the relations of the is various parts of the organism to one another manifested. in a diminished capable of all the specific energies of the sense specific and motor organs. The well-known theory of " unconscious inferences its would never have reached if present extended development more heed had been paid to this circumstance. go back with no the animal scale. and whose processes consequently do not appear in consciousness. stand to in a relation one another analogous to that in which the parts of the . as it an excellent safeguard against " carelessness in psychological explanations of sense-pheno- mena. sense-organ can play upon according to the nature and direction of is its attention for the time being. The degree. can provisionally be conceived as is one which. Such an organ relations eminently qualified to effect physiological different energies.. That wealth of representative appearance with man. life.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 201 It is well to note this sharp division is between images and sensations. there are probably. of which the states determine images. in virtue of their reciprocal tension. now of one. between the As is shewn by re- experiments with animals whose cerebrum has been moved. organ. less certainty to quite primitive stages in But the parts of single organs must also. so that the energy it. representation. which are less intimately connected with the cerebrum. personally acquainted from self-observation.

are veritable Miiller connected with the sense-organs. one might almost say its own own intelligence. The element of desultoriness in the a train of representations common connexion of by way of association. essentially They are independent phenomena. collected in his admir*' The Phantasms of Sight " ( Ueber die pha?iias- Gesichtserscheinungen^ Coblenz. and that it cannot be brought under the so-called laws of association. retinae. be conceived as recollec- tions of slow perspectival changes in visual images. Miiller 1826). It seems to me that the continuous alteration of the phantasms. afford a very clear and familiar example of such a relation.^ in when sometimes and sometimes another.202 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The two with their motor mechanism of accommodation organism as a whole stand to one another. t-^ C/f . considers that the free individual existence of hallucinations is a part of the life of the organism. its memory. and characvisual objectivity. These processes can. dependent on light-sensations. Physiological experiment and simple self-observation teach us that such an organ has peculiar its own purposive habits. comes c^-^.and memory-phenomena of sense. The sight- phantasms observed by state are entirely and others in the waking withdrawn from the influence of either the will or the reason. contrary. The most able work on tischen instructive observations in this connexion are probably those of Johannes Miiller. terized by complete They imagination. and of luminous adjustment. as described by him. only one. is no evidence against the laws of on the association. in which he indicates that he does not believe.

I witnessed rarely. a bright a so-called enchanted net) shone out upon the book in which I was reading. of successive days. in the evening or in the came up before my Later also. of hallucinations freely allied in character to objects when the phantasms arise more and independently. Years ago. The mingling of phantasms with objects indistinctly seen. miscellaneous work physics. and which condition the may also. with the full semblance of reality and in objectivity. years ago. vivid In my own case. while engrossed with the study of pulse-tracings and sphygmography. analogous phenomena of "sense-memory.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS department Chapter of 203 (see sensation begins to be involved XL) to Miiller) are normally in Those processes which (according induced retina. on a number red capillary net (similar to my eyes in the daytime. during dim light of day. or on my writing paper. speak of sense-memory when the phantasms are closely seen before. these phenomena particularly after a tiring night's journey in the train. is probably the most are common case." things More images of which I have never seen before. under exceptional conditions. have appeared before Thus. and thus We become the source of phantasms or hallucinations. But no sharp distinction between the two cases can be maintained. the "visual substance" by excitations of the act of seeing. the fine white curves on the dark background often eyes. the latter being partly supplanted. be spontaneously produced in the visual substance without excitation of the retina. although . Rocks and trees then assume the most fantastic shapes. I am acquainted with all manner of sight-phantasms from my own experience.

however. but the bed-spread the and my hands persistent quite differently from manner in which they appeared to me. I When acoustic. or light. to be an accident.204 I THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS of this sort. still on make its appearance if I fix my attenOne of my children. in has often happened colors dark room. they have. figures. on awaking a latest dreams remained light. was young I used frequently to have very vivid and particularly musical. even those that are widely separated. But perhaps . likewise. alter before falling asleep. which has me. awake and I my eyes closed. various see the evening. and upon motionless and If I unchanging. eyes. become extremely rare and faint since my interest in music has decreased. however. cessfully to this It change a human face into a instance solitary may. appear with equal distinctness in a way which for obvious reasons is impossible in the case of anything objectively seen. hallucinations on waking up . the images of present peculiar in me my that. This is a remarkably fixed and I phantasm with me. either my hands lie in all their details. Before me it. it is open my it is quite dark. in to tell me that he I Less often. vivid and in for abundant A lie phenomenon. see the bed- spread with all its little folds. I think that parts. human will. which single without the action I of my On a occasion attempted sucfleshless skull. is some I years frequently occurred with motionless with the following. such as have not observed I under other conditions. notice that all its As regards this image. often used " saw flowers " before falling asleep. the pheno- menon tion will it. had never been occupied with forms The sight of bright-colored changing carpet patterns before falling asleep was very familiar to me in my youth .

spontaneous phantasms. for the time being and at some points. I have thought that I could distinctly see a jet of water that I was expecting to come out of an india- bber tube. blurred wall. or a grey The figures which we then seem to see. they make at appearance when the outer excitations are merely weak and indistinct. When we withdraw the retina from the influence of field of outward excitations. in a half-light. spots. seem as a rule to yield readily to the influence of the N intellect. and turn the attention to the vision alone. or when we look a surface covered with dim. whereas the intellect is effect on strong phantasms with vivid phantasms. These weak powered fl are sometimes overin by sensations. the latter to sensations. In these cases expectation seems to be favorable to the occurrence of the phantasms. which are The former are more akin to representations. Over and over again. when the progress of the experiment has convinced me that I was certainly deluded.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the interest in music is 205 rather itself a secondary effect. such as a cloud. their Indeed. provided they are not produced by a distinctly direct act of attention in selecting and combining seen spots. take forcible precedence over the retinal excitation. at least in part. Such weak phantasms unable to produce any colors. sometimes equilibrium . and have had to touch with convince myself of my finger to my mistake. than a cause. which. are certainly not products of representation. in a half-light. traces of phantasms are almost always present. but constitute. When I have been looking I for interfer- ence-bands detect the I have very often thought that could clearly first dull traces of them in the field of vision.

which the however. p. but which to is. them.^ all In this way the transitional stages between sensation and representa- tion can be obtained. very useful in discoveries. various consists that thou all shouldst regard various walls which are covered with manner of there things ' spots. which we must undoubtedly regard as a physical object also. London. The way in is. which really non-existent.2o6 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and sometimes replace with them. . idea. If thou hast any capacity for discovery. or stone of different composition. indeed. At no point do we come upon a is psychical element that absolutely incapable of being compared with the presentations are sensation. 484. Leonardo da Vinci discusses the mingling of phantasms with objects seen (see ** p. New Psychology. It awakening the mind in this. nevertheless. which may. He takes an observer is who thinks that he sees a colored cross. 1897. suggest the possibility of comparing the strength of phantasms with Scripture has carried out this ( the strength of sensations. make a small and almost ludicrous appearance. and then causes in a direction is to appear in his field of vision a real line of intensity increasing from zero upwards and drawn which is not known beforehand. 66 above) in the following words I shall not omit to give a place among these directions to a newly-discovered sort of observation. until the line noticed and given the same value as the phantasm. connected by association quite different from the way in which the sensations are connected. thou mayest behold which resemble various landscapes decked TAe Scripture.

. as also the parts of a wjjndscape. or mud. For the mind of the painter stimulated by them to many new discoveries. and numberless perfect form. unfamiliar expressions of costumes. of animals and human beings. or the clouds. or in various compositions of landscapes. first. by reason of accounted will their biological purposelessness. battles. that thou understandest how to shape well all the members of the I things that thou wishest to represent.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS with mountains. large plains. Do not despise this opinion of mine when let it counsel thee sometimes not to appear burdensome to thee to pause and look at the spots on walls. which are calculated to bring thee honor. be it in the composition of battles. for instance. life-like positions of strange. In fike manner. and the like. Thou face. thou in wilt make very wonderful discoveries them. hills and all of many a sort. I be pathological. valleys cliffs. For through confused and undefined things the mind is awakened to new discoveries. if thou is observest them rightly. namely the stones. things. canst also behold manner of figures. the limbs of living beings. But take heed. 207 trees. in the strokes of willst find which thou " anew every name and every word I that thou mayest imagine to thyself. trees." marked and independent appearance of phantasms I^JaU without excitation of the retina dreams and the half- — waking state excepted — must. or other such places. we are constrained to regard every abnormal dependence of phantasms upon the as pathological. as devils and of monstrous and the like. or the ashes in the fire. things which thou mayest put into good and The is experience with regard to walls and stone of this sort similar to that of the ringing of bells. rivers.

not light and shadow. as a result of special circumstances. The shading and help to of bodies scarcely noticed. but objects is space. After these introductory remarks we may now turn to the consideration of a few physiologico-optical phenomena. as God. not the elements of the complex. the appearance of the complex is incomplete. but the whole physio- logico-optical complex that fill is of importance. is This occurs oftenest in monocular vision. because the associations that reveal the contradiction do not take place. But the delusions of the megalo-maniac can equally be produced by the mere absence of inhibitory associations for instance. life. are the states that occur in insane who regard themselves as very powerful. the full explanation of which. This complex the eye seeks to out and supplement. whenever. but also possible in the binocular observation of very distant objects where the stereoscopic differences con- sequent upon the distance of the eyes from each other vanish. Differences in brightness produce differences in the sensation of depth. very persons etc. We in generally perceive. We is and agreeably to definite It needs of not colors and forms. according to the its habits acquired (or inherited) in environment.2o8 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS likely. it is true. but bodies in space. produce the modelling of bodies are insufl[icient for this when the stereoscopic differences . Such. but which are best understood as the expressions of an independent life on the part of the sense-organs. usually see with both eyes. one can believe in a dream that one has solved the most tremendous problems. is still distant.

from this point of view. in shading of a drawing appeared to disfigurement. I remember and me. the half l^cef much darker a fact which is. satisfactory to my childhood. in seeing the But as soon as we succeed I bent edge depressed instead of raised. The addeis then much lighter. Very instructive. \ I I * I V THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS purpose. Still Hereupon..i illustrates very clearly the relation in question between the sensation of light and the sensation of depth. ^ is to- wards half Let the light fall from the left. Vol. which I made many years ago. we see the bent card spatially and nothing noticeable in the illumination. so that us. despite a well-developed artistic technique. the light as if painted thereon. quite well that. which *' Ueber die physikalische Wirkung raumlich verteilter Lichtreize. is the image on are often the dull plate of the photographic camera." Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie. We astounded at the brightness of the lights and the depth of the shadows. all me an unjustifiable much more that whole that an outline-drawing was It is likewise well known peoples. or shade only in a defective manner. LIV. October 1866. We now — close one eye. bent edge We us place a visiting-card. which were not noticed in the bodies themselves as long as one was not compelled to see everything in a single plane. 209 in —a condition which is very noticeable the observation of distant mountains. for instance the Chinese. and the shade stand out for the ' pass over moment the perspectival reversal of the card. however. The following experiment. I .1 . part of the space-sensations dis- appear. bent crosswise before its <^ on the desk. . scarcely perceived in unprejudiced observation. do not shade at all.

^ One observation in 1 Fechner. (7 represents the eye. adca. a If will appear lighter Plainly. by virtue of another habit. when from the light from the left (i) contrariwise. as in the in retina into conflict with the first above experi- ment. ad will appear lighter than dc. Since the wrappings of the bulb in which the retina is embedded the are translucent. If is not determined by a monocular image. section of a bent light. ''Ueber den seitlichen Fenster. Certain experiments of Fechner's have shewn how im- portant the effect of the light that penetrates through the wrappings of the bulb can become. and the arrow the direction of the Also in 2. The fall and the depth diminish. a fixed is habit of the eye tion developed.und Kerzenversuch. the eye in must acquire the habit of varying fall the sensation of depth concomitantly with the it change in brightness of the surface-elements that sees. with diminishing illumination. from the Accordingly. 25. when it falls the right. and depth are connected it If now. because depth in Fig.210 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Such an " inversion " is can easily be explained. than the /f c. ." Berichte der Leipziger GeseUschaft der Wissenschaflen^ r86o. it is not a matter of indifference distribution retinae for of light upon the whether the right or the light falls left. I possible. card. is possible to bring a part of the habit. things are so arranged that. by means of which illuminain a definite way. towards the falls right. without any aid of the judgment. the effect is made manifest remarkable sensations.

that is. ter An analogous observation may be be made on in another connexion. would be interesting to study the variation of intensity in the and color of the illumination of the bulb these images case of and in experiments in inversion. and themselves become weaker in the process. can see as arises. eye. appears in general quite different according as we . of giving light- attention to a large sensations. j Differences of brightness are partly transformed into differ- ences of depth. is while the image on the right side It quite dull in color. on \\ the other of brightness will augmented. Beneath my I writing-table a grey-green rug. I Now. a small piece of which write. the image belonging to the or more strongly illuminated.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS this is 211 connexion is as follows. with respect to interchangeable qualities of sensation. i The habit of observing bodies as such. differences of depth. / At the expense of differences hand. a principle similar to that of the conservation of energy seems to hold. when the is sunlight or daylight left. We will further remark that. is The purpose^ of the preceding remarks merely to point out the character of the sideration phenomenon under conwhich a physio- and to indicate the direction in logical explanation (exclusive of psychological speculation) is to be sought. comes from the left. is and spatially cohering mass of the cause of peculiar and often surprising phenomena. for instance. when a double image of this bit accidentally or intentionally. a vivid green by contrast. A two-colored painting or drawing.

despite the many bodies conceiv- . an apparition its appearance between trunks as soon as the dark trees are taken as the back- ground. as may - be seen p. is thing. 20 and 22 of Plate Fig. as being 1 an object.212 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The makes tree- take the one or the other color as the background. for example. In exceptional instances only do background the and object possess same form —a emFig. monocular observation of a perspective drawing. One an I and the same image unlimited number of a drawing. 13 of Plate and in 43 of that work. the monocular observation of passed over. perspective may represent different objects. taken from 15 of the above Pig. and the bright sky as the object. mentioned Grammar 45. and consequently \ the space-sensation can be only in part determined by such therefore. are generally very lightly But in I am of the opinion that there 1 yet much to be investigated in these phenomena. a6. are well known. what amounts to the same self-evident in nature. of Ornamenf^ also in Figs. puzzle pictures. i I The phenomena of space-vision which accompany the or. configuration frequently ployed in ornamental designs. If. in 26. in which.

If the visual sense acts in conformity with the habits it has acquired under the conditions of life first of the place.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS with the full 213 able as belonging to the figure. may correspond to an unlimited number of different plane . The above. Furthermore. in For example. the visual sense never is itself with any greater effort than demanded by the stimulus. although the straight line. and the it individual. but must depend on certain organic which species life habits of the visual sense. those particular sensations of depth which the past have been most frequently associated with a given perspective figure. will be readily reproduced again that figure when of makes its appearance. there must exist for the fact. It some good physiological reason cannot arise from the adducing of auxiliary considerations in thought. only a few are really seen character of objectivity. will afterwards tend to make their appearance together when only one is excited. we always as a straight line in space. proceeds according to the principle of probthose functions which that is. although not necessarily co-determined thereby. nor from the awakening of conscious remembrances in any form. we may. ^ud perspective drawing. following may serve as a detailed illustration of the When we look at a straight line in a perspective see it drawing. have been most frequently excited together before. as we shall presently see. The two principles coincide in their effects. in the assume that ability . perspective drawings that is to say. a principle economy appears of itself burdens to manifest itself in the observation of .

will line for be reproduced as a straight both eyes. however. is to be noted that every point of a straight line in space marks the depth-sensations of the neighboring points. advantage. far between two It is are not physiologically of importance. readily All vertical straight lines to coincide with the may be and quickly made median plane. will it be reproduced on the retina in question as a straight line (or as a great circle). must be physiologiIts by some further mark. plane is are physiologically A vertical lying in the its median perfect also physiologically distinguished by its uniformity of depth-sensation. a The straight line has various geometrical properties. the plane of a curve passes through the centre of one eye. mean of Thus the the straight line in space gives a minimum of departure from . it In addition to this. ^ud objects. and by coincidence with the direction of gravity. The most therefore. for example the familiar characteristic of being the shortest distance points. and only in the yet more special case where the plane of the curve passes through it the centres of both eyes. is both retinae as a straight line. It is thus extremely improbable that a line. But these geometrical properties. plane curve should ever appear a straight other while on the hand a straight line in space is always reproduced on probable object. straight line in space. answering to a straight line in perspective. and consequently partake of But the cally distinguished this physiological spatial straight line generally. sameness of direction in all its elements has already been pointed out.214 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS But only in the special case where curves. that straight lines of the more consequence lying in median plane or perpendicular thereto symmetrical to themselves.

in the Proceedings of the lines I Vienna Academy. a matter of inheritance. and. at the same time. The wrote I efficiency of the eye in the interpretation of straight lines ought not. we may. human animals. and the assumption forthwith is presents itself that the straight line effort. in every possible way. As early as 1866. To-day am more than ever convinced is that the efficiency referred to not the result of individual practice. that civilized human beings. which supI ported in the same paper) half-heartedly. just as every point on the straight line gives the mean of the similar space-values of adjacent points. Every new turn of a curve. every straight line which can possibly be produced upon the retina has been seen numberless times. and exacts a on the part of the sense-organ. involves a deviation of some space-sensation from the is mean of the surrounding field on which the attention .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the 215 mean the of the depth-sensations. I wrote. every projection or depression of a surface. seen with the least The visual sense acts therefore in conformity with the principle of economy. practice at but that it is also characteristic of and is. The deviation of a sensation is from the mean of the adjacent sensations special effort always noticeable. at least in part. nor indeed of all. 10. in conit formity with the principle of probability. Vol. to astonish us. therefore. spatially as a straight line." this Even then I passage (opposing the Darwinian view. think.54: "Since straight every- where surround assume. when exhibits a preference for straight lines.

or for each point in particular = o. Continuation of the same inquiry: Sitzber. mean intensity of the immediately adjacent 1 on the other hand. while. Neuwied. axis of this is be then wrapped about a cylinder the parallel to AB^ to there' will be produced. Vol. the Ueber die Wirkung der raumlichen Vertheilung des Lichtreizes auf Wiener Akadeviie (1865). a a.216 directed. The aesthetic impressions produced by the circle and the sphere seem to have their source mainly in the fact is that the above- mentioned deviation from the mean ^^ the same for all points. on the rapid rotation of the cylinder.^ If a many years row of black and white be painted on a sectors. the separate images of which have not yet been combined into a binocular image. LII. Vierteljahrsschrift fur Psychiatrie. Vol. such as are shown and which in Fig. Sitzber. however. but light-intensity exceeds the parts. Vol. . *' die Netzhaut. (1868). 27. a grey field with increasing illumination from line B A^ line in which. That the deviation from the mean of the environment : plays a r61e in light-sensation I pointed out ago. II. . LVII. In looking through a stereoscope at a spotted surface. strip of paper AABB. and a darker make their appearance.Leipzig. (1866)." Sitztingsberichie der . LIV. a brighter /3/5. 1868 (" Ueber die Abhangigkeit der Netzhautstellen von einander"). The their points which correspond to the indentations a are not physically brighter than the neighboring parts. we experience a whole is peculiarly agreeable impression when the suddenly flattened out into a plane. THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The plane is distinguished physiologically by the fact that this deviation from the mean is a minimum.

XVII. The retina schematizes and caricatures. is burden upon the organ of change in On the other hand a continuous brightness scarcely noticed. . Vol. and January 1868). 27 is one of the simplest. led deviation from the me to the ^^fcnclusion that the illumination of a position on the retina felt in proportion to its mean of the il \ remark concerning the analogies between light-sensation and will be found in my note " Ueber Herrn Gu6bhards Darstellung der Aequipotentialkurven." Wiedefnann' Annaletiy 1882. slurred over by the retina. p. and A A Fig. as long as the brightness of each particular point corresponds to the mean to the of the adjacent points. 864. differences stand out with disproportionate clearness. the potential function A . 27. 2nd edition. which that repre- ^& j^H 1 A series of very various experiments. At an even earlier period the important part which outlines play in vision had been noticed by Panum.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS light-intensity at /3 falls 217 short of the mean intensity of the is adjacent parts J distinctly felt. Long ago I drew attention important teleological bearing of this fact on the saliency Wiener Small larger and the delimitation of objects Akademie differences {Sitzungsberichte der October are 1865. 1900. p. and see my Prinzipien der Wdrmelehre. of ^Hented in Fig. This deviation from the mean special thus and accordingly imposes a sight. 118.

a fact which of course can only be explained as depending on an organic reciprocal action of the retinal elements on one another. as we should expect from For the retina infinite the principle of deviation from -the mean. y) has edges and indentations. the position is on the retina experiences a darker or it a brighter sensation respectively than does under equal with the intensity illumination of the adjacent positions corresponding to itself. y) are taken as large in proportion to the still distance at . then the mining the intensity for a given position mean value determay be symbolically represented as approximately ^'^2\lx^ where surface 7n is df) radii of all curves of the constant. are not defined by a hard fast line. and the \ dx^ dy^ J formula useless. but of an of sensitive elements of finite extension. y) be the intensity of illumination of the retina with reference to a system of co-ordinates (XY).2i8 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The is illuminations of the adjacent positions. number As regards the . and the / (x. consists. is ( ——5 + -—^ ] becomes infinite. If the surface / (x. The and increase or decrease. a marked increase of darkness or brightness corresponds to the indentation.which the retinal positions are perceptibly positive or -^+—2) negative. In this case. again. Let /=/ (^. not of sensitive points. though of course not an infinite increase or decrease. however. but fade gradually away. retinal positions in value of the determining this mean to be conceived as rapidly decreasing with their distance from the position under consideration.

contrast laid down in the text. in the direction x. But. "Zur emonstration einer von E. 1899. We come across the same phenomenon in the investigation of shadows. Wind. A. LXVIIL. 866. H. — for instance. Mach entdeckten optischen Tauschung. and consequently a knowledge of the above-mentioned law of contrast is important even for purely physical researches. . H. p. we not ' 219 still do know it accurately enough to enable us to determine precisely the phenomena of this special case. K'^ H.^ /. Vol." Wiedeann's Annalen. Thus Grimaldi was deceived by a phenomenon of this kind." Eder's Jahrbuch der Photographies 1900) published a number of new facts which can be explained on the law of . We scarcely notice a regular and continuous rise in the intensity of illumination of a surface. in addition to i. seem dx dy to influence the sensation of brightness. first. —and special is devices are necessary to convince one that there a rise.." iecke and Simon's Physikalische Zeitschrift^ I. of my four papers. von Obermayer (" Ueber die Saume um die Bilder dunkler Gegenstande auf hellem Hintergrunde. and in countless other cases. and the relevant thirty years later. and of spectral absorption. on the quality. Wind. and consequently states the law in its earlier . 10.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS law of the reciprocal action of these elements. this subject Peculiar circumstances prevented my papers on from becoming generally known. " Beugung der Rontgenstrahlen. he is only acquainted with the defective form. the second . these first differential quotients exercise plastic an influence on the modelling." Abhandlungen der Munchener Akademie^ 1896 Haga and C. " Die scheinbare Vergrosserung des Erdschattens bei londfinsternissen. On the other hand. — — . differential quotients of but not the first. No. C. distri- It is easy to go wrong in judging of the objective bution of light according to the subjective impression. facts It were discovered for the second time may seem surprising that. Seeliger..

210. or as a tetrahedron.220 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Call the horizontal direction x. Where object this is compulsion is lacking. the following experiments are is instructive. majority as a plane. With Fig. 12. we regard it monocularly. representation of a cylindrical means surface that we have the vertical with generatrix and the plane horizontal differential differential directrix r = jF (x). The . The tracing of the curve determined by the accessory circum- stances indicated on p. according to laws of probability and economy. of the surface seen. organ of The same drawing may be also viewed monocularly as a tetrahedron. the edge ^ ^ of which lies in front of a c. force the eye to the vision of depth. 28 regard to the depth-sensations excited by a monocular image. This expression. —^ ox (curvatures) are parallel to the rises is — the in intensity of illumination. which are not plane. dx^ which of course only to be understood symbolically. the plane the most probable and at the same for the time the most convenient sight. objects In the great of cases. a plane quadrilateral with its two diagonals. of which second first quotients quotients. and the distance as regards depth of a point on the illuminated surface r: then — and — dx is ^ are parallel. it If If. the is most easi seen. the edge b d oi which lies behind a c.

p.. represent to ourselves ^ ^ as nearer or farther away than a The organ of sight it is practised in the representation of these two cases. Vol. produce either of will. 3 1 nearer to the eyes gives rise to short-distance accommodation. \i b e lines"." Pfluger's Archiv. p. if figure may. " Ueber optische Inversion. VII. a straight line bent. ^$87. however. This is d and are two perfectly straight because it conflicts with the habit of the organ of sight to see. fKf"^ I i Hillebrand (" Verhaltnls von zur Tiefenlokalisation. Looking we can. since often happens that one body is partly covered by another.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS influence of the imagination 221 visual and the it is will upon the process is extremely limited.^ although I readily admit that changes in the distance of the changes in our view of it. 247. each one. . I have not been able to obtain any such definite result myself. the ^effort is successful only because the point e has a con- ^^K ' Loeb.. Loeb ^ thinks that the act of bringing Fig. the two optically possible tetrahedrons at according as we c." Zeitschrift fur Psychologic Akkommodation und Konvergenz und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane. without constraint. Vol. takes its number of cases when chosen. abed. finally. and thereby also to our seeing the fixed edge b e 2. XL. 97) has proved the slight importance which accommodation has for the seeing of depth. be seen as a four-sided situated point of we imagine the conspicuously behind the plane a e c intersection e before or difficult to do. place with mechanical certainty at the point ^.?> raised. and precision. restricted to the directing of the attention and to the selection of the appropriate disposition of the organ of sight for one of a given by habit. as a fact. of which. nor can I find any sufficient theoretical ground for it. figure easily lead to The same pyramid.

in question. Reflexion. and the abef seems to have an upward slope. but there is no necessity for such an impression. . on a level with the eye. the elements of per- spective effect find simple and clear expression. The ends If g/ief is Sire transferred to Hke distances. Fig. represent to us a glance may down a passage-way. has already been pointed Where straight lines appear to converge to a point converging in the plane of the drawing. The effect of a linear perspective drawing is felt as unerringly by one who is ignorant of perspective as by one who he is is tlioroughly conversant with the theory. ing. drav>'ings. presented and analogous changes may be observed by moving the drawing towards the right or the In these facts. Why the straight lines of a drawing are seen as spatial straight lines. the ends rise. the opposite Upon lowering the draw. If it we hold the drawing. objects. have. floor great. 29. the attempt involves no difficulty. This gives us the effect of vanishing points. the lines ae. Plane lines. to like or to nearly like depth. according and even the remembrance of seen to my belief. there is a slight indentation at e. provided they consist entirely of straight everywhere intersecting each other at right angles. phenomenon left. df. cg^dh appear efg h is we raise the drawing. little or nothing to do with the out. — a coneffect dition readily fulfilled in monocular observation. It is possible to see such lines as parallel. provided able to disregard the plane of the drawing. accord- ing to the principles of probability and economy. the or approaching ends are transferred. If the distance horizontal.222 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS But if spicuous position.

31. outlines were made of wire. for example. definite form. . Here again. 30 difficulty. I Kf The peculiar reciprocal action of lines mtersectmg obliquely in the plane of the drawing (or on the retina). the inversion ^ may be performed potential function. assumes. the lines easily pass out of the plane .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS almost always appear plane. is presented with a minimum of deviation from the mean of the depth-sensation. by Fig. the it latter. be conceived as a curved sheet of paper. producing a Plateau's liquid film. 30. that to say. have assumed seen as the P«K. appears as flat as possible. whereby such lines are mutually forced out of the plane of the drawing (or out of the plane perpendicular to the line of sight) was first observed by (p. the depth-sensation resembles the a space at the boundaries of which the spatial it in . wuth the result that d is appears further away than When one once acquainted with this phenomenon. table. such represented spatial in Fig. like that of a book lying open upon my e. a recumbent position. and ihen dipped in soap-suds. This flat-as- possible surface does not coincide with the surface of |i which would be obtained if minimal area. is determined. whose edge ^ e when turned outwards towards I me is in a vertical position. to describe is briefly. when succeed in seeing ^ j e depressed. boundary of a surface. The card in Fig. If oblique intersections 223 and curved lines occur. me on the occasion of the above-mentioned 209) experiment with the monocular inversion of a card. without shown.30. as are When and are outlines. as is which may.^ 13.

With sufficient attention." quoted 221 above. seem to stand obliquely on upon the table In order that the drawing might afford a better survey of the phenomenon. On monocular inversion. we place the page containing Fig. the dotted lines. 32). in fact. the two images have been represented behind. be a section of a glass cube lying on a table and abed let O and edge be the eye a is (Fig. not within one another. The effect is especially astonishing in the case of transparent objects. as in Fig. we Loeb. and observe if /^ it monocularly. this makes the Fig change of direction intelligible.224 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS with almost every object. this remarkable simultaneous change of position. remain in the plane And. I.oeb^ notices that e when this happens the points a of the drawing. Let / /. so far as I and imagine the it lies ** outside the dotted triangle. Ueber optische Inversion. the same phenomena may be If observed with any linear drawing. If we draw figure. 31 vertically before us. If a drinking-glass partly filled with a colored liquid be it substiwill tuted for the cube. p. its d to d\ c' The cube will /' /'. but ^ ^ be depressed b will ^\P^ retreat and e will project and come nearer to the observer. together with the surface of the liquid. in a similar oblique position. be seen. and one can always observe along with the change of form or tilting over. we shall see b project if ^ be raised. obliterated. 3 2 a. the angle c projected to a\ b to the nearer point b\ to /. .

Now although these. just described closely related to ZoUner's pseudoscopy and the numerous phenomena connected with Here again everything turns on the apparent enlargement of acute and ^he apparent reduction of obtuse angles. In magnified and obtuse angles diminished. all such deformations to the following principle : may be reduced the legs of an acute angle are thrust out on opposite sides of the plane of the drawing.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS are left 225 with the image of a hollow or raised three-sided lies pyramid. that every seen monocularly aims at the minimum is deviation attainable from the mean of the sensation of depth.. which under the conditions of the experiment.' Naturally such superficial explanations as.surface. phenomena described above appear. or of the plane perpendicular to the line of sight. in monocular space the pseudoscopic and the . point would seem. and that the whole object seen aims at the minimum attainable amount of a plane removal from Hering's nucleus. But when they are seen effects vanish. with its base in the plane of the draw- In version no longer produces any sort of mysterious It cha nge of posi tion. and the legs of an obtuse angle are thrust out on the this process acute angles are same side. no completely satisfactory explanation of them has as yet been offered. for instance. All angles tend to become right angles. which ing. 14. This principle is suggests that the phenomenon it.. When we rectilinear consider the deformations which figure undergoes when traced in monocular qualitatively space. therefore. phenomena have been much studied. except that the drawings are seen in the plane. the .

the investigation off. has afforded ZoUner's pseudoscopy is me no enlightenment as far as concerned. prefers the oblique liquid surface to an obliqueangled body. 509. ^ 3 Physiologic der Sinnes- 4 Hoefler. the surface of a liquid at rest as and yet oblique. i. 1895. describing thereon Loeb. there is a decidedly increased tendency to adopt some purely physiological explanation."* The principle of economy. PflUger's ArcAw. . Ibid. project these lines ' in space. The believe. but never.^ Heymans. again. Ibid. Witasek. i. on curve-contrasts. The planes passing through the centre of the eye and the lines containing the upon the retina. Yet. Heyman's Zeitschrift fiir Psychologic und organc^ Vol. loi. quite lately at any rate.. But more recent researches by Loeb.. A somewhat greater prospect of success seems to be offered by the principle of probability. it we did in the experiment given above. XIX. I once tried to explain the phenomena to the in question by a contrast of directions analogous colors. contrast of but without arriving at a satisfactory result.. Vol. p. XII. the eye.^ and and observations by Hoefler 3 others. habits whose origin doubtless antedates the civilized life^of man. XIV.226 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS if assumption that we are chiefly accustomed to see right angles. are inadmissible. its I root in far simpler habits of the organ of sight. Let us conceive fixed the retina as a perfect sphere and imagine the eye upon the vertex of an angle a angle.. p. Vol. is not utterly to see obliqueartificial miscarry or to be prematurely broken We angled objects often enough. p. p. Moreover. without preparation.. are very much in favor of a theory of contrast. would seem. elemental power displayed in these processes has.

quently. likely counterparts I observed obtuse in a position to was not. determine whether those cases. With the general considerations by which he wao guided I am in full sympathy and agreement. corresponding smaller angles observed and of the most angles. which we are inclined to regard as geometrically equally ' probable. On the other 1 hand. which represents the Now an infinite number of varying from 0° to 180°. I I^P I I l! -a I cannot refram from mentioning here the attempt which has been made by A. tion to larger The actual result is. the possible values of the objective angle a that can be obtained by causing each of the /^ and Ci of the triangle to vary between 0° and 180°. values for a. that angles are to the most probable objects acute angles. Moreover. the whole conception has a i^» much too artificial cast for me. supposing the calcula- be performed in a definite manner. to a seen angle A. as will be seen the lines including the objective angle if we reflect that may assume every possible position in the planes of their projection. however. 227 a spherical segment having the angle A. equally ought also to be regarded as physiologically probable —a question which is both essential and important. Stohr to reach an explanation of the phenomena described above from an entirely new point of view. is have not yet been able to convince myself that there a demonstrable foundation of fact corresponding to his . Conseall we may have corresponding sides.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS angle of the monocular image. may correspond to a constant value of A.

. As a matter of fact. that the perception of relief may be con- nected with some function of the retina. 188.228 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Moreover. are so complicated that not easy to decide this question. 1900. later works * he goes further. p. Vienna. again. accommodation is determined for change of accommodation cannot be determined merely by the magnitude of the circle of dispersion . thus both the determining factor for Depth in the retina is the sensation of depth in visual space. and the regulating factor in accommodation. The great thickness of the retina in the eyes of insects ^ suggests. 189 1. is In that one of his less recent made to the dioptric image of the eye catoptric front of the in retina. 1892. In two a basis. 1898 Bino. I have always asked myself what the means could be direction of change of by which the . Erklcirnng der Zollnerschen Pseudoskopie^ \^ienna. and moreover a single eye by itself is accommodated. The Ztir nativistischen Behandlnng des Tiefensehens. on the other hand. also there is only a loose connection between accommodation and convergence. ^Exner. Die physiclogie der facettierten Augen^ ' Zur Vienna. the having relief in proportion to the depth of the former. must be set the numerous observations which have been made as to the worthlessness of accommodation for the sensation of depth. the relations which he presupposes it is hypotheses. kulare Figiirmischung und Pseudoskopic^ Vienna. taking this theory as In the second of these books we find a view not unlike Scheffler's. the without thoroughly covering oneself. will I ground experimentally Stohr's views therefore to a do not know whether works the assumption in amount complete explanation on ^ all points. there corresponds a latter image the retina. Against this view. but in a '^ more physiological form.

two stimuli may be brought into com- bination in the central organ over a quite unfamiliar pair of lines of conduction?" It is assumed that the retinae of both eyes naturally endeavour to minimalize the stimulus. the same retinal image appears enlarged. according to Stohr. is And ot muscle supposed to )roduce various effects. we can understand why (up to circles with Panum's proportional systems of radii in the proportion of circles 4 to 5) are seen. this way. in this process the retinal elements carry their position-values In with them. doing but this not only in a quite regular and uniform manner. in unten- "Where is the pointsman who arranges the change such a way that. according to which the images of positions from the corresponding positions is are fused into one unified impression. ciliary Regular contraction of the muscle produces a greater If bulging of the lens and slight contraction of the retina. light- and thus tend towards the equalization of unequal images. according to requirements. in virtue of the eyes. — (i) an irregular deformation the lens with very various displacements of the apices of le diacaustic of different pencils of rays. but also as of set purpose. also. Stohr thinks able. as simple and as having a size which of their sizes. so that in the united )inocular image the red points' appear between the greeni is Jtohr proves that the fusion of the systems of circles not lused by the suppression of one of the regular contraction of the ciliary images. The nervous elements excite the ciliary muscle. not only in extraordinary cases. with identical parts of is mutual adaptation of the two the retina. the mean By depicting one system in red and the )ther in green points alternately. whereby change .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which deviate more or less 229 dominant view. with great irregularity.

to In any case his theory has led results.. experiments with surprising stereoscopic indentation of straight lines. LVIII. J . Nos.^ 1901. XIII. Grund- ^ The following book has subsequently appeared Opiik.^ from the traditions of physiological In itself this optics is very great. in fragen der psycho-physiologischen Leipzig and Vienna. It is would scarcely have supposed possible a possible that Stohr's views vision. Beer." Wiener klinische " Ueber primitive Sehorgane. Wochenschrift. Exner's and Theodor Beer's ^ researches in comparative physiology. XLII." Pfluger's *' Akkommodation des Auges in der Archiv Vol. 1898." Ibid. Th. Stohr thinks that he can demonstrate the possibility of his theory by detailed calculations.230 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and catoptric images is in the relief of the dioptric pro- duced . 1904. its But although his whole conception of the eye and living parts as organisms is extremely congenial to me. especially since S. . the — and. Tierreihe.. in beautiful which have been so rich and remarkable results. and (2) various minimal deformations of the retina. A. I have not yet been able to convince myself that the assumptions in order to explain fulfil which he makes more complicated cases of spatial vision everywhere Stohr's departure their purpose. Stohr. have made us familiar with eyes characterized by a complexity and variety of organic adaptation such as a physicist priori. " Die Akkommodation des Fischauges. can be no reason for refusing to test his theory closely. and that he can prove the actuality of his presuppositions by investigating subjects is with eyes in which the crystalline lens absent or out of its proper position (aphakia)... The problems 2 question are here discussed further. XII. although may apply to other organs of perhaps not to the human : eye. XI. . only on for if deserves to be considered with respect. p. that account. it — instance. 523 No.

of the print. relief an enormous increase stages. should prefer to suppose that the exertion involved. Wave-like curvatures and swellings have been observed in systems of fine. The ease of the transition from the process of seeing plane figures pseudoscopically will to that of seeing them monocularly in space probably help us to throw light is upon the former. and these have been explained in a rather peculiar manner as referable to the incapacity of the mosaic-like texture of the retina to re- produce straight lines of such fineness. October 1866. Stereoscopic display. Thus the mosaic of I the retina can have nothing to do with the matter. 10. 7. smooth. perhaps by means of small displacements in Stohr's sense.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS There are many phenomena that make eye which it 231 probable that the act of sight involves other processes of change in the still require to be investigated. pp. monocularly ob- served. This conjecture confirmed by the A plane linear drawing. intro- duces a certain disorder into the space-values. following facts." off- Wiener. usually appears plane.^ 16. however. parallel lines. Sitzungsberichte^ 2nd part. always noticed this phenomenon when have gazed for some time visible at systems of straight lines which are clearly and by no means micrometric. . But if the angles be made ' " Ueber die physiologische Wirkung raumlich verteilter Lichtreize. I I have. images with prominent stereoscopic differences when they in the are gazed at for a long time. growth of their by successive even though fusion has apparently been complete for some time.

1 Lissajous. can well remember of mind. Here. reference might be constantly dealing with solid bodies. main difficulty of drawing a perspective to seeing bodies Children. is. but apprehend its dimensions directly. as plants are pressed in a herbarium. The well-known which on lie vibrating acoustic figures difference varying their of phase.232 to vary sort will THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and motion be introduced. lies. the whole material world in which we to a certain extent. afford a beautiful example of the process in question. this We then generally see a solid body in rotation. unpractised. we a perceptible dislike the ^ still meet with here old for foreshortening. although is sense of perspective already manifest. every drawing of assume a solid form. and are I far better satisfied with simple this condition outlines or silhouettes. such as I have described on a former of occasion. and without attain to the con- the help of solid bodies we could never ception of geometrical space. too. as were. do not understand perspective foreshortenings. dimensions. We do not generally notice Herein for the the position of the single points of a body in space. revolutions and turnings continually surround Indeed. a single solid move body. The "Beobachtungen uber monokulare Stereoskopie. Vol. again. In the Pompeian wall-paintings. thus pressing them. ." Sitzungsberichfe der Wiener A kademie (1868). which represent all parts of the body as far as possible in their it true dimensions. into the plane of the drawing. made In to our habit of fact. LVIII. and through this remembrance am able to com- prehend the drawings of the ancient Egyptians. solid bodies engaged in us. the picture. appear to on a revolving cylinder. who are accustomed in their real .

Accordingly. too. we should assume. —a habit which did not originally arise through the conscious experience of the individual. the change I be seen preferably as the this motion of a solid body. in virtue of continuous transitions into a unity. that here. This view is certainly much simpler and supplies an equally . that every diminution of the transverse dimension of an optical sensation-mass to which the attention was directed had the tendency to induce a corresponding augmentation of the dimension of depth. therefore. and vice versa. antecedently facilitated If our apprehension of the movements of solid bodies. their perfect 233 on the other hand. \ ' always the result. in the consciousness of mastery of the subject. I believe. however. rather. on the contrary. which. which is '.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Italian masters. There can be no question. that way of looking at the matter does not satisfy me. exhibits and its common merged will spatial alteration. that wherever a coherent its mass of sensations. than with the process of separating out their depth. for example. 17. we may expect coloring. but that we are much more familiar with the process of seeing solid bodies with the distances between their salient points unchanged. an elementary habit of the organ of sight is at the root of the matter. in the first place. must confess. often amuse themselves with excessive and sometimes even unbeautiful foreshortenings. of deliberate analysis. which occasionally demand considerable exertion of the eye. we should have a process quite analogous (p. to that which we have already considered above 199) and which was compared with the conservation of energy. but.

234 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS explanation. The phenomenon more noticeable the egg. it table. we we if see. made upon is the surface of ^ A rotating solid body then seen. on viewing binocularly. axis. and inherited. m The far explanations offered in this chapter are certainly I from complete. how such an elementary it it how could find expression in the could how the disposition towards be As a sort of counterpart to the rotation of solid bodies exhibited to us by the organ of sight. I will cite here an additional observation. are movements we may the egg. yet will beUeve that the considerations adduced have some effect in stimulating and preparing j the way for a more exact and thorough study of these phenomena. it enables us to habit comprehend more could be acquired. . be moderately rapid rotation about a vertical This effect is immediately destroyed when marks. with set in its longitudinal axis in a horizontal position. or ellipsoid with dull. but in does not turn about jolting it its axis of generashall fancy but performs movements. If an egg. organism. uniform surface be rolled over the top of a such manner that tion. or large is still oscillating drop. a liquid body. easily adequate Furthermore. whose follow.

SENSATION. the only possible result states. cally. and the experiences connected and is with a in the fruit. as well as psychically. a child that has been burnt. At this stage. I. —remains storing to unintelligible devoid of interest. a disconnected mosaic and series of psychic such as to suppose in the case of the lowest animals and the most degraded idiots. a sensation which does not have some such effect as to stimulate violently to movement —a sensation of pain. which not supplemented in a word. the sight of a is vividly-colored spherical body. or 235 I . AND THE psychical foregoing discussions have shewn beyond sensations all possible life doubt that out of mere no resembling ours even in the remotest degree . for instance — will scarcely receive attention. and another.could be constituted. Memory and Association. by a memory of smell and of the properties of a fruit taste. evoke one — in short. For instance. MEMORY ASSOCIATION. A psychical event leaves psychical Physi- behind also leaves physical traces.XI. What traces is memory? it. — by memory. manner that has been observed in " psychic blind- ness. —are but it the fundamental requirements of a developed psychical life." their The power up and connexion of memories. When a sensation is forgotten the is moment we have after it has vanished.

even in the physical sphere. oscillations of a The pendulum are equal. In the physics of the inorganic world everything seems to be determined by the circumstances of the moment. Hydrogen combines with chlorine it the same way. is Every spark of a discharge an individual. The apparent contradiction is solved when we remember how in physics we are accustomed to idealize and schematize in an extreme degree the cases under consideration. cases in which the influence of the earth reveals to us past is clearly its expressed. and the moon does the same. and the past seems to be entirely without any influence. which he very plausibly interprets as a prehistoric seismogram. during a considerable time. so to speak. A is wire notices. stung by a wasp.236 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS had this experience. The the history of geological past. behaves in quite a different way from a child that has not For the psychical and the physical are in to discover different only according to the way the which they are regarded. no matter whether tion with was previously in combina- bromine or with iodine. influenced by the discharges that insulating layer of the have preceded The all Leyden jar preserves a history of the previous charges. always presupposing the simplest possible circumIf we assume a mathematical pendulum. in Nevertheless it is extremely difficult the physical phenomena of inorganic world characteristics having any affinity to memory. whether it is perform- ing its first oscillation or whether looo others have already in taken place. and it. and no stances. My friend E. There are indeed. it every torsion that sustains. . Suess has shewn me a piece of rock marked with a system of very peculiar congruent parallel fissures. then no doubt the thousandth oscillation is as the first.

bond is of a friendship that has been broken. rate And every real process contains at any some irreversible components. But a real pendulum wears away knife- and is heated by internal and external accurately considered. and phonographs have to be played by external rigid material systems human beings and their memories play them- For organic beings are not they are essentially forms of the dynamic equilibrium of . In reality every psychical process leaves indelible traces behind. while selves. is As a matter of resemblance is. Old violins that have been well on. Moser's electrical images (that come out when breathed upon). so that no oscillation. felt. and with what justice. that traces of the past are from being the same thing as memory. and the phonograph. In both spheres there are irreversible processes or the entropy increases. 3- Now it will still be far said. we should have men who behave identically and do not betray any of the influence of individual experiences. fact. exactly like any other. required to increase the that processes which have taken place in the past should be set up afresh by some played slight impulse. just as every physical process : does. and then renewed. afford rather better examples. Still. violins forces.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS traces of the past are visible. The result of every second and third torsion of a it wire if is somewhat different from what would have been If there had been no previous torsions. is friction. a similar schematization were possible in psychology. edge. precisely because 237 we disregard its such traces.

very far removed from There can be no doubt study of organic that a considerable enlargement of the point of view of physical science by means of the physics is beings is required. and then the it chain. and then If maintained. intro- Such variations in the forms of little dynamic equilibrium have still been but studied by inorganic physics. upon the reciprocal interaction and . to as is well known. although memory on we are still physical lines is not unit. the velocity may become considerable. lever. and to cause the water to run out in drops with a persistent rhythm. If the chain very long and the difference of level very great. according to the way in which they have once been duced. a chance jolt is enough to disturb the unstable equilibrium of the trickle. may take changes in the flow of produced by some chance circumstance. has the property.238 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Now it currents of "matter" and "energy. The foregoing considerations are intended to shew that a comprehension of attainable. we screw up a tap so comes tightly that only a quiet trickle of water out. whenever this is made take a loop. lying coiled up in a tub. and continuing its All these plasticity examples are very inadequate analogies to the which organisms possess for the repetition of processes and series of processes. of keeping loop suspended in the flow in this shape. no doubt. As a very rough example we liquids. before capable of such a task. air for some time. allowed to run over a roller acting as a sort of to fall and is into another tub at a lower level." is the forms of the deviation of these currents from the state of dynamic equilibrium that always repeat themselves in the same way. thin. is Suppose that a chain. The great richness of memory is founded.

239 ascribe . the very least side At we should have to assume innate associations by side with the acquired. memory of an experience. can cir- easily be understood by means of the concomitant It cumstances. because they make their appearance at moment when the mental faculties and the power of observation are developed. pp. See his Vorksungen iiber sqq. I . in serious occupa- and in the free exercise of fancy or day-dreaming. simple this The differences of mental pro- cess. however. Erkenntnis tmd Jrrtum. be a complete mistake to reduce a// (p. are the first fully manifestations of the sexual impulse.2 try to would. 201) psychical processes to associations life acquired during the of the individual. we probably must itself that memory even to elementary organisms and the idea inevitably suggests every chemical process in the organ leaves traces behind which are favourable to the reappearance of the same process. pp. Mach. 902. 369 sqq. Naturphilosophie ^ ^ chemical theory of memory. to the laws of association. 29 ^ the The most striking of these. In none of its phases do we meet with the psyche as a tabula rasa.^ ' Ostwald has made a bold attempt 1 based on his theories about katalysis. in tion. 1905. Still. life A and B.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS connexion of the organs. will evoke the And in fact it is much easier to understand physical when we have recognized the constant recurrence of fundamental feature. one of them. have once appeared when it arises. other. in psychology. simultaneously. a rudimentary if so. These laws can if be reduced to a single law. which consists in saying that two contents of consciousness.^ It is well known that a very prominent position is given. at a The innate impulses.

not due to association. Ziegler.240 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is which. a disturbance of one component causes a disturbance of the too. and. of which not depend upon some have been strengthened by use. when they are of great have been told by a perfectly trustworthy man. are reduced by biology to innate organic connexions. speaking generally. rather primary facts that already exist in and whether it is not their repeated occurrence accompanied to the formation of the paths by one another that has led in question. a person with a strong love of truth. being quite innocent and inexperienced at the time. No. he saw a lady in a low-necked dress. Vol. H.. that when he was a lad of sixteen. See p. 239 above. and p. The whole complex of entirely new sensations and feelings which were then suddenly revealed to him was colored by a strong additional element otfear. worth while to inquire whether all associations. '* Theoretisches zur Tierphysiologie und vergleichenden Neurophysiologie. XX. which excite the neighbor- ing parls of the nervous system. note i. and consulted a colleague about it. in particular. not only memory. but association on chemical lines. I. 99. do innate connexions. It is therefore and. are not lower organisms. it will have to provide Again. including those acquired by the individual.^ A rational psychology cannot." Biologisches Zentralblatt Leipzig.i But in any case we must also ask whether the processes for the connexion of which in highly differentiated organisms special paths have been evolved. be . room must be found for the possibility of spontaneous psychical pro- cesses. in which. and was startled to find that he was suddenly aware of a striking bodily change in his person this change he took to be an illness. E. to nervous connexions. we shall then be justified in hoping to explain. . of course. . to a psychology that fined to itself. rest. content with temporary associations for fixed paths of connexion also. ^ If we think of organic life as a state of dynamic equilibrium of ' ^ various chemical component-phases. purely introspective and conto must necessarily appear be innate associa- tions. 1900.

Organized centres of great complication are not assumed. I cannot agree with Loeb research when he treats Darwin's phylogenetic on the instincts as a fallacious and one-sided proceeding. movements excitation and transference of stimulus. no doubt. The life of the nervous system the co-ordination of is reduced to segmental to reciprocal instincts reflexes. deserves to be noticed.i partly on the basis of his own work. so far as I can judge. which ought to be dropped and replaced by physico-chemical investigations. Leipzig. but the brain itself \s >f regarded as an arrangement of segments. the tropisms of animals are not essentially different from those of plants. a effort lappily conceived and important But to shake off the trammels of unnecessarily complicated assumptions impregnated with metaphysics. On the one hand hallucinations. to in other are examples from the sensational and motor which there are probably corresponding analogies spheres. According to it. Vergleichende Physiologie des Gehirns. ' Research of that kind was. even spread over the 241 whole nervous system. sets free the swallowing-reflex. spheres. for instance. all At the bottom these theories there lies. not Loeb. Theories of the reciprocal action of the parts of the central nervous system seem to be opposed to a view which This view has been expounded by Loeb. and the to chains of reflexes. partly on that of Goltz and Ewald.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS violence. The snapping-reflex of the frog. . 1899. the only advantage secured by the nerves in the case of animals being the more rapid transference of stimulus. on the other reflex movements.

^t/d and peculiar where which no are. it And in cases where it is not possible. If I can imagine that. while I am having sensations. everywhere insight into the trying to obtain.242 within THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Darwin's horizon. The whole history of technical and geological social culture. Vergleichcnde Physiologic des Gehii-nsy . physicist. but difficulties has explained our reached. as Loeb lines. some physical constitution of things. which can always be regarded as provisional. or causal. for But it was precisely that fact which secured his great him the freedom of discoveries. Loeb. connexions. in is account. would then question be possible to ascertain with what processes of the organism sensations of a particular kind are connected. each one of it these factors susceptible of a physical explanation. what ^ is the lower limit of sensation in the p. the last resort. physical considerations are not sufficient. The so often asked. only The steam-engine can. it is We indeed.^ long before that stage is 6. vision necessary to physicist. and the presuppositions involved. When a question of understanding the present fomis of the steamengine. must be taken into It is possible that. to give up other fruitful points of view. says. would at all events only be another and a very dangerous piece of one-sidedness. could have made. some acquaintance with But it is their immediate. be understood on physical But this is it only is true of a particular given steam-engine. 130. possible. far from being the case that this is already possible everywhere. I myself or someone else could observe my brain with it all the necessary physical and chemical appliances.

What is primarily//| when standing to ondi for a another in a certain known relation. . not what is primarily given. no decision of the question some- times even asked whether inorganic "matter" has sensa- & The question is natural enough.. case. * We ask whether ed. or whether plants have. p.Wissenschapliche Vorlesungen.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 243 organic world. no one will want to ask the question. could then be brought nearer to solution. 3rd 1903. when in a J I certain relation. always sensations ? Put in this form. which. What in every-day life we call matter is a definite kind of connexion between the elements. Cf. Popular. for us is. structed . are called sensations. these elements themselves also being. or else have been present in the foundation-stones from the beginning. in is As long It is as problem has not been solved even one single special possible. The question as to whether matter : has sensations would therefore run as follows does sensa- tion belong to a definite kind of connexion between the elements. if we start from the commonly current physical conception which represents CO tions. tio atter as the immediately and undoubtedly given reality is out of which everything. inorganic and organic. con- for sensation must either arise suddenly some- where or other in this structure. the elements. Mach. Every scientific problem that can have any meaning is human individual concerned with the ascertainment of the dependence of the elements on one another. 242. given rather. is From our Matter J point of view the question is merely a perversion. whether the lowest animals have sensations. at this its any rate so far as analogy goes.^ interest for us Everything that can have any must be reached in the course of following out the general task of science.

when the assumption of sensations helps us better to understand their behaviour as observed by means of our own senses. which would provide us with no further explanation of its behaviour.244 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS animals have sensations. is already completely determined for our senses and thus to a ask whether a crystal has sensations. is question without any practical or scientific meaning. . The behaviour of a crystal .

Nichols. Nor can I here discuss the plentiful material which has resulted from the works of Meumann. ^ . must confine the psychological side. LI. in the provinces of the other senses. Hermann. For a supplementary discussion. The New Psychology London. and are more thoroughly concealed itself chiefly to than the processes corresponding to the other sensations. Into the details of these earlier experiments. m |With this psychological onsisting of the fact that the physiological processes with is which the sensation of time connected are still less known. Many make their appearance with. It is scarcely necessary to lay special emphasis on the life important part played in our psychical 1 by the temporal which I here take differs only slightly from that of my ** Untersuchungen liber den Zeitsinn des Ohres. Vol. Wiener Akademie." Sitzber. Schumann. Cp. therefore. therefore. associated another. d. and . 1 865. in our to the variations difficulty is of time-sensation.XII. 245 The position . without approaching the question from its physical aspect. and others. 170. Munsterberg. We are referred. panies But time-sensation accom- every other sensation. Scripture. others without. in part at least. see my Erkenntnis und Irrtum^ IQOS* PP* 415 sqq. begun in i860. Our analysis. can be wholly* separated from none. I shall not enter again here. lie deeper. S( investigations here. 1897. a clear sensation of space. as is possible. p. THE SENSATION OF more difficult is TIME." MUCH sensations than the investigation of space-sensation that of time-sensation.

in AB C DE^ any member. If we conceive time as a sensation. 15 sqq. component we do not even recognize any longer the words that are the Definite memories are conparts of the speech. something other than itself. Psychologie tind Pathologic der Vorstellung^ Leipzig. reversed. or no meaning at all. to the C should it." pp.^ But a sequence of . and it is when the memories are evoked in a definite order corresponding to the word- sequence. Reversal of the temporal is even more destructive of a process than the reversal of an object in space by turning it upside down This is reverse the temporal order. in which they would generally have a quite different meaning. / becomes unrecognizable if it is temporally As regards even very elementary representa- tions and sensations. it seems less strange that. especially the chapter on ** The Whole and its l^arts.notes too. nected only with the definite sequence of sounds in which only a word occurs. why the words of a speech or a poem are reproduced only in the in the order in which they were experienced and not reverse order as well. The iCp. Wallaschek. even more important than the order is spatial. or by making a phonograph work backwards. their temporal sequence forms part of the memory image of them. a series passing in the order for instance. a simple melody in which habit and association in any case play a very small part. that they combine together to produce a definite meaning. R. 1905. If the whole acoustic sequence is reversed by saying something backwards. . call up memory only the members that follow and not those that precede. and an experience becomes something quite new.246 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The temporal order is ordering of the elements.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
memory-image of a building does not
turned downwards.
But, for the rest,
it

247

arise with the roof

does not seem to

be a matter of indiiference whether the organ
after

B

is

excited

an organ A, or

vice

versa.

There

is

probably a

physiological problem

concealed here, which would re-

quire to be solved before

we can

fully

understand the

fundamental psychological
series
in

fact of the lapse of
It
is

reproduced

one determined direction.^
is

possible that

this fact

connected with the
itself

fact

that

an excitation

propagates

along entirely different paths according
it

to the point at

which
this

first

enters into the organism, in
for physical cases

the

way

in

which

was explained

by

the considerations on p. 92
the
in

and by

Fig. ib.
if

Even when

medium
it,

is

perfectly

homogeneous,

two excitations

starting

from two distant points, spread uniformly,

they will more nearly coincide at that one of the two points

which was excited

later.

Thus, even in the simplest cases,

the order of stimulation cannot be a matter of indifference.

Let a note
lifferent

D follow a
it

note C.

The
if

impression
followed

is

quite

from what
is

would be

C

D.
and

The
their

Luse

of this

chiefly the notes themselves,

reciprocal action.
is

For

if

the pause between the two notes
it

made

sufficiently long,

is

possible that

we

shall

no

longer distinguish the

two cases.

Something analogous

can be observed with sequences of colors, and in general
Perhaps the nervous elements are not merely endowed with a permanent innate faculty of polar orientation, such as is made probable by the backward direction of the wave in the intestines and the musculature of snakes, and by galvanotropic phenomena, but perhaps they are also
1

capable

of a temporarily acquired

polarity,

as

manifested in the

inclusion of the time-series in

memory,

in practice, etc.

Cp. Loeb and

Maxwell, Zur LXIII. p. 121

'Iheorie des Galvanotropismus, Pfluger's Airhiv, Vol.
;

Loeb, Vergleichende Gehirnphysiologie^ pp. io8 sqq.

248

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
But
if

with sensations of any kind.

a note

A

is

followed

B has followed A, and our estimate of the pause between A and B practically not influenced at all by the quality of A and B.
by a color or a smell ^, we always know that
is

There must therefore be a
affected

further process, which

is

unis

by variation

in

the quality of sensation, which
the
quality of sensation,
It is possible,

y quite independent
'

of

and by
indeed,

means of which we estimate time. to make a sort of rhythm out of
sensations,

entirely heterogeneous

such

as

sounds,

colors

and impressions of

touch.

That a

definite, specific time-sensation exists,
all

appears to

me beyond

doubt.

The

rhythmical identity of the two

hj,

^
is

f]

1
1

f

^^m
is

adjoined measures, in which the sequence of the notes
quite different,
to

immediately recognized.

We

have not

do here with a matter of the understanding or of reflexion, but with one of sensation. In the same manner that
bodies of different colors
form, so here
are

may

possess

the same spatial

we have two
colored,

tonal entities which, acoustically,

differently

but possess

the

same temporal

form.

As

in the

one case we pick out by an immediate

act of feeling the identical
tion, so here

components of the space-sensadetect the identical components

we immediately

of the time-sensation, or the sameness of the rhythm.
It is of

course only for small times that

I

hold that there

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
is

249

an immediate sensation of time.

We judge

and estimate
into the

longer times by remembering the processes that took place
in them,

that

is

to say,

by

splitting

them up

smaller parts of which

we had an immediate

sensation.

On

hearing a

number

of strokes of a bell, which are
first,

exactly alike acoustically, I discriminate between the

second, third, and so on.
thoughts, or

Is

it

perhaps the accompanying

other accidental sensations, with which the

strokes of the bell

happen to be
marks?
this
I

associated, that produce

these

distinguishing

do not believe that any

one

will seriously
if
!

uphold

view

How
it

uncertain and

unreliable,

this

view were

true,

would our measurement
of
if

of time be

What would become
memory?
reflecting to

that accidental

background of thought
vanish from

and sensation should suddenly

While
but

I

am

upon something, the clock
After
it

strikes,
it

I give

no heed

it.

has finished striking,

may

be of importance to

as a fact, there arise
three, four strokes.
recollection,
1

me to count the strokes. And in my memory distinctly one, two, give here my whole attention to this
means the subject on which
I

and by

this

was

reflecting during the striking of the clock, for the

moment

completely vanishes from me.

against which I could note the strokes of the bell,

The supposed background is now
then,

wanting to me.

By what mark,
?

do
do

I

distinguish the

second stroke from the first

Why
for

I

not regard

all
?

the strokes, which in other respects are identical, as one

Because each

is

connected

me

with a special time-

250

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
it.

sensation which starts up into consciousness along with

In like

manner,

I

distinguish

a memory-image from a
is

creation of fancy by a specific time-sensation which
that of the present

not

moment.

Since, so

long as we are conscious, time-sensation
it is

is

always present,

probable that

it is

connected with the

organic consumption necessarily associated with consciousness,

that

we

feel the

work of attention as time.
time
is

During

any severe

effort of attention

long to us, during
in

easy employment short.

When we
is

are

a dull

state,

hardly noticing our surroundings, the

hours pass rapidly

away.
sleep.

When

our attention

completely exhausted, we
is

In dreamless sleep, the sensation of time

lacking.

When
feeling
I

profound sleep intervenes, yesterday

is

connected

with to-day only by an intellectual bond, apart from the

common

to both that remains the same.

have already on a former occasion referred to the
difference
sizes

apparent
different

of the

ways

in

which animals

of

measure time.^

But the measurement of

time seems to change with age as well.

How

short the days

seem

to
in

And

me now in comparison with the days of my youth my youth I used to watch an astronomical clock
;

that struck the seconds

when

I

think of that clock now,
I

the second-stroke seems to be appreciably accelerated.

<

cannot shake

off the

impression that

my

physiological time-

- unit

has become larger.
fatiguing of the organ of consciousness goes
^Zeitsinn des Ohresy p. 17.

The

on con-

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
tinually in
just

251

waking hours, and the labor of attention increases

as

continuously.

The

sensations

connected

with

greater expenditure of attention appear to us to
later.

happen

Normal
fixed

as well as

abnormal psychical events appear to
Since the attention cannot be

accord with this conception.

upon two

different sense-organs at once, the sensa-

tions of

two organs can never occur together and yet be
identical effort of attention.

accompanied by an absolutely
Hence, the one appears
later

than the other.

Something

analogous to the so-called personal equation of astronomers,

having

its

ground

in

analogous

facts,

is

also frequently

observed in the same sense-province.
fact that

It is

a well-known

an optical impression which

arises physically later

may

yet, It

under certain circumstances, appear to

occur

earlier.

sometimes happens,
blood

for

example, that a surgeon,
out and afterwards his
in a series of experidesire, years ago, that

in bleeding, first sees the

spirt

lancet enter. ^

Dvorak has shewn,^
at

ments which he carried out
this relation

my

may be produced
is

at will, the object

on which
is

the attention

centred appearing (even
later) earlier

when

it

really

from 1/8 to 1/6 of a second
seen.

than that indirectly

It is quite possible that

the familiar experience of

the surgeon

may

find

its

explanation in this fact.

The
at

time

which the attention requires to turn from one place
it is

which

occupied, to another,
Fechner,

is

shewn

in the following experiLeipzig,

1

Compare
433.

Psychophysik^

i860,

Vol,

II.,

p.

^Dvorak, " Ueber Analoga der personlichen Differenz zwischen beiden Augen und den Netzhautstellen desselben Auges," Sitzber. d.
konigl, bdkt?t. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften

(Math-nafurw,

Classe),

March

8, 1872.

y

252

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
instituted

ment

by me.^

Two

bright red squares measuring

two centimeters across and situated on a black background
eight centimeters apart, are illuminated in a perfectly dark

room by an

electric spark

concealed from the eye.

The

square directly seen appears red, but that indirectly seen

appears green,
green

—and
the
it

often quite

red

intensely attention
red red

so.

The
is

retarded
indirectly

finds

seen square

when

already

in the stage of Purkinje's positive

after-image.
indir.

A

Geissler's

tube

seen
Fig. 34-

dir..scen

with two bright red spots at a
short distance from one another,

exhibits,

on the passage of a

single

discharge, the

same

phenomenon.^

The reader must be referred for details to Dvorak's paper. Of particular interest are his experiments on the stereoscopic
(binocular) combination of non-simultaneous impressions.^

More

recently Sandford

and Miinsterberg ^ have

carried

out experiments of this kind.

I

have repeatedly observed an interesting phenomenon
I

which should be cited here.

have been

sitting in

my

1 Communicated by Dvorak, /oc. cit. -G. Heymans could not succeed at first in this latter experiment, but has subsequently convinced himself of the correctness of my

statement.
3

Op.

cit., p. 2.

'Sandford, American /ournal of Psychology, .1894, Vol. VI., 5 Miinsterberg, Psychological Review, 1894, Vol. I., p. 56.

p. 576.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
room, absorbed in work, while
in

253

an adjacent room experiIt regularly

ments

in explosions
I

were being carried on.
startled, de/ore I

occurred that

shrank back
is

heard the report.

Since the attention

especially inert in dreams, naturally

the most peculiar anachronisms occur in this state, as every

one has doubtless observed.

For instance, we dream of a
has produced the entire

man who
dream.
acoustic
tracks

rushes at us and shoots, awake suddenly, and perits
fall,

ceive the object which, by

Now
and
is

there

is

nothing absurd in assuming that the
simultaneously different nervein

stimulus

enters

met there by the attention

some inverted

order, just as, in the
first

case above mentioned, I perceived

the general excitation and afterwards the report of the

explosion.

But

in

many

cases

it is

undoubtedly a

sufficient

explanation to assume the interweaving of a sensation with
the framework of a

dream already

present.

If organic

consumption,

or, for that matter,

the accumula-

tion of fatigue-material were
logically expect a reversal of

immediately

felt,

we might

time in dreams.

The

diffi-

culty disappears
as

if

consumption and

restitution are regarded

heterodromous processes
eccentricities of

in Pauli's sense (see p.
all

68 above).
for

The

dreams may

be accounted

by

the fact that

many

sensations
all,

and representations do not

enter consciousness at
difficulty

while others enter with too
is

much

and too

late.

Inertia of association

a funda-

mental feature of dreams.
in part.

The

intellect often sleeps only

We

converse very sensibly, in dreams, with persons

long dead, but with

no

recollection

of their

death,

I

254

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
is

speak to a friend of a third person, and this friend
self the third

him-

person of

whom

I

was speaking.

We

reflect,

in the dream-state, concerning dreams,

and recognize them
at

as such

by

their eccentricities,
I

which then

once cease to
mill.

disturb us.

once dreamed very vividly of a

The

water flowed downwards, in a sloping channel, away from the
mill,

and close
I

by, in just such another channel,

upwards

to the mill.
tion.

was not

at all disturbed

by the contradicwith the subject
in the woods.

—At

a time when
I

much engrossed

of space-sensation,

dreamed of a walk
this recognized that I

Suddenly

I

noticed the defective perspective displacement

of the trees,

and by

was dreaming.
immediately

The

missing displacements,

however, were
I

supplied.

—Again, while
filled
*'

dreaming,

saw

in

my

laboratory

a beaker
burning.

with water, in which a candle was serenely
it

Where does

get

its

oxygen from

? " I

thought.

"It

is

absorbed

in the water,"
in the

do the gases produced
and
I

"Where combustion go to?" The
was the answer.
^

bubbles from the flame mounted upwards in the water,

was

satisfied.
it is

W. Robert

has

made

the excellent

observation that

principally perceptions

and thoughts,

which owing to some interruption we have been unable to
carry to a conclusion during the day, of which the thread
is

taken up in dreams.

And
Thus

as a matter of fact

we

fre-

quently draw the elements of our dreams from the events
of the preceding day.
I

used to be able to

refer,

with almost complete certainty, the dream about the light
in the water to a certain experiment in
electric carbon-light
1

my

lectures with an

under water, ^ and the dream about

W.

Robert, Ueber den Tranm, Hamburg, 1886.
IQCX), p. 444.

^

Prinzipien der Wdrmelehrey 2nd ed.,

London. ^ . de Manac6ine. and solemn. the sound of and music in my Every sense. the second being added to the of a process that is revolting because deliberate. p. the slightest disturb- ances of health and disposition which have to fall into the background during the bustle of the day. dreams. Since reflex excitability is greatly heightened in the dream-state. I should not like to let this opportunity slip of recommend- ing to the reader the excellent book of M. 1897. fiir - "Das musikalische Gcdachtnis. even the sense of taste. though some more rarely than others. 240) holds for the dream-state also. de Manaceine.. Sleeps its Physiology etc. 19) above. Anyone who allows such experiences to affect him. 123) 1 Du Prel poetically compares this process with the Wallaschek. and at the of waking stage may go through the acutest torments. and the conscience on the other hand to the inertia of association. can make themselves felt in dreams. can come into play in dreams.^ (see pp. p. cipal part in my dreams.^ have acoustic dreams less often.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS the mill to p. cruel. M. which consists in making good one misery first by a second. very much weakened owing is one capable of almost any crime in dreams. that the faintest traces of We have to add something which has long been forgotten for the waking consciousness. 204." Vierteljahrsschrift Musikwissenschaft^ 1882. though I clearly hear conversations. 201. must entertain grave doubts as to the rightness of our method of by means exercising justice. 255 my experiments with the apparatus described on Visual hallucinations play the prinI 143 (Fig. What was said above as to the inadequacy of temporary life associations as an explanation of psychical 239. In his Philosophie der Mystik (1885. bells.

direction. In the province of rhythm.256 way in THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which the visible faintly glimmering starry firmament beset. not diminish. in a small degree. of which each sense-organ is able only to display a few. Hence A . The man of science. comes when the sun has This book contains many passages of remarkable and profound insight. 7- If time-sensation is connected with the growth of organic consumption or with the equally continuous growth of the effort following upon attention. shew nothing of the the sensation of time. though still an im- " perfect conception. in particular. without allowing himself to be led astray by the author's inclination towards the fantastic. then we can understand why is ^88 1 physiological time versible. which present a symmetry to the eye and to the understanding. the miraculous and the extraordinary. 8. whose critical sense is directed towards the nearest practicable object of research. As long as we are in the waking state. there is no symmetry. of all the specific energies. consumption and the labor of attention can only increase. It is perhaps an obvious and natural. and of time in general. to regard the " organ of consciousness as capable. reads it with pleasure and profit. The two accompanying sort as regards bars of music. not re- any more than physibut moves only in one l 1 r r r r r r r cal time.

we should then have to conceive still another particular energy. Should new energy hoc^ appear physiologically superfluous and only invented ad we might function.^ to James it indicates that it would be desirable put into a more definite and detailed form. and determined by it.. R Psychology. 1896. Hence also the capacity organ of consciousness to serve as a bridge of all connexion between sensations and memories. but I have unfortunately not been able to do this. . Ueber die Beziehung von Atmung tmd h'reislauf zur geistigen Arbeity Briinn. the sensation of time. Cf. so that none of the former this could be excited without the latter. With every specific energy of the organ of consciousness. The given fact that only one cohering time. Such a theory is strongly suggested by Mosso's work on plethysmography and by his observations on the circulation of the blood in the brain. Kreislauf des Blutes ivi Gehirn. at once assign to if this it an important physiological What its energy kept up the flow of blood that nourishes the brain-parts in their work. Leipzig. 635. James. since would become to intelligible.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS compared with of the sensation. ^ assent to this William James gives a cautious conjecture. I. associated. the partial attention one is sense is always drawn from the total attention. p. too. current to and regulated it ? Our conthere is ception receive of attention and of time-sensation would then a very material basis. Vol. guided this destination. i88i. ^ W. 1 Mosso. through which it 257 the shadowy and evanescent character of representation as must be con- stantly nourished and refreshed. also Kornfeld.

the last ones from one another. 134. but the physiological is measure of this removal not proportional to the geometrical. its subject to perspectival less single elements becoming and less distinguishable. however. The phenomenon is perfectly analogous to that which we is observe in the province of the space-sense. . we can distinguish each from the others also in memory and count them in memory. that is. The rhythm Cp. for example. we must count them immediately upon their being sounded. if In this we would not make a mistake. to be In walking forwards. it goes without saying that the identity of two rhythms will be immediately fact re- cognized. is In the same manner.258 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS In listening to a number of similar strokes from a bell. but not the case. and explained on the same principle. If a special time-sensation exists. appears quite different accord' p. we have a distinct sensation that we are moving away from a starting-point. number is large. elapsed physiological time contraction.^ ID. just as the same space-figure by change of position may give logical rise to different physio- space-forms. provided they are few in If the number. represented by the following notes. But we must not leave the unnoticed that two rhythms which are the same physically may appear very different physiologically. we distinguish first. we must voluntarily connect each stroke with an ordinal symbol.

nnc. but only physiologically similar to similarly-marked bars are taken in the two —that is. physical time-constructions Two all ^^ may be termed in similar when the parts of the one stand the same relation to one / another as do the homologous parts of the other. or 3. The rhythm represented in the following diagram appears the preceding.irr<^ ^^^i 259 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ing as we regard the short thick. fact that the attention Evidently this is connected with the i. a similar rhythm arises. nriL. we recognize the identity of the time- ratios of two rhythms only»when the same are capable of being represented by very small whole numbers. that is. or the dotted lines. can only as similar when the prolongation or shortening does not exceed the limit imposed by the immediate sensation of time. or the long thin vertical lines. am able to judge. that the sensations il. nn or of time corresponding to the successive beats are compared with different initial sensations. however. Thus we . which. so far as above condition I is likewise fulfilled. (guided by the accent) sets in at 2. When be felt all the times of a rhythm are prolonged shortened. as marking the bars. physiological similarity But makes its appearance only when the Furthermore. when when \^\m^\m^\i\i\ the attention sets in at homologous points of time.

is Herewith we have an explanation of the is in marking time. ' . according to this theory. however. that. of course. Wallaschek mentions the deficiency of the sense of time in horses. But it is scarcely capable of being proved. that the made in is some based measurement of time pulse. Probably it must be referred rather to a superior psychical sensibility. ^ The tion conjecture thus forces is itself upon us. rhythm or beat. and.26o THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS we recognize the ratio exactly contained fact really notice immediately. much more immediately than the similarity of rhythms. Thus each horse keeps the other. in general on breathing or on the are by These questions. I can hear for a long time the coincidence and alternation of the hoof-beats of the two horses fading away into the distance in regular periods. of the two only by the fact that one part in the other. to its own time without troubling itself to about that of the other horse. the time always divided into absolutely equal parts. and also the difficulty of keeping up the appearance of it in circus performances. in virtue of which a trifling psychical circumstance determines the The similarity of space-figures woul3 be felt. only the identity or non-identity of two times. Many place rhythmically in the bodies of animals. take no means simple. in the latter case. and without adapting Two men harnessed together would find this almost intolerable. without it being possible for us to attribute to them any particular sense for time. though the attempt has been quarters. When a pair of horses is driven past my house. processes. that the sensa- of time closely connected with periodically or rhythmically repeated processes. It can scarcely be upon the is coarser bodily processes that the feeling for time immediately based.

pp. This book. finally the coarser bodily functions themselves also. contains many very valuable observations on the questions discussed in this and the following chapters. 1903). and In point of fact." ^ Wallaschek. R. Wlassak has I will communicated to me in conversation reproduce in his own words with a vivid "When ished . all attempts to frame a physiological theory of the emotions bring the emotions into relation with consumption. . Anfdnge der Tonkunst. Leipzig.^ Dr. with strongly and for those filled with unpleasant On the other hand. the sensations are connected emotional coloring. as is done. filled The rule holds both for stretches of time that are pleasurable sensations sensations. a profusely illustrated German edition of an English book by the same author {^Primitive Music^ London. in Meyneri's or in Avenarius' theory of the emotions.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS attention to notice an otherwise indifferent process. for instance. —and and such observation always involves a certain amount of coimitation. 1903. time-values are always markedly diminthis fact accords with the hypothesis that the sensa- tion of time depends on organic consumption. then become adapted a remark which to the time. facts indicate that the These nervous processes belonging to the to the emotions respectively offer sensations of time certain analogies. the sensations that oscillate round the indifference-values of emotional coloring are connected with relatively indistinct sensations of time. 270. —the psychical functions. 271. 261 But when processes operation and that keep time are carefully observed.

I I have held the position here taken up since 1865. etc. the expression of sound. utterances of pleasure and pain. Will. howthat appeal to me.represents the ' Apart from Stumpf. my fundamental axiom of research. is all we are restricted mainly As before. Vol. must here thank for the repeated consideration of my work. of expressions of the and of the communication of thoughts by speech. also. SENSATIONS OF TONE. ." Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie^ Vol.. 1883. I. footnote). emotion. Nor can there be any doubt that the voice and the organ of The simplest their and distinctest form in which sensations of tone reveal is remarkable characteristics music. hearing bear a close relation to each other. II. has many points of detail {Tonpsyc ho logic ^ Leipzig. *' Zur sents an approximation to my point of view. Analyse der Tonempfindungen. certainly have is a strong physiological connexion. AS regards tone-sensations. to psychological analysis. Among the sensations of tone possessing greatest im- portance for us are those excited by the human voice. Schopenhauer.. p. and the sensation of sound. that music . ever. There ^ a good deal of truth in the remark of Schopenhauer will. . Die Welt als Wille und Vontellmig.' I. whom and in fact generally in the details. Abth.seemed incompatible with the principle of parallelism. XCII. the beginning of an investigation we can offer. as will. repreCompare my note. Vol. I. 1282 (1895). 47.) The view expressed on page 1 19 of his work. though the remark which he directs against Lipps (Beiirdge zur Akttifik. 262 .XIII. p.

cannot be under- But we must not imagine that in having accomplished we have solved all the problems connected with the phenomenon. attempted to derive music from the amatory cries of monkeys. H. to put it shortly. biological The importance of phenomenon its tracing the connexion of a given with the preservation of the species. widely made satis- But as to the question wherein con- the agreeable quality of music. r . this phylogenetic origin. and use of in courtship.^ We should be blind not to recognize the service rendered of Darwin and Berg. Berlin. sists as a fact. Following the precedent of Darwin. And seeing that in musical theory he adopts Helmholtz's position of the avoidance of beats and assumes that the males who howled received the preference.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS designation of music as a language of emotion this is scarcely the . least disagreeably we may be justified in wondering why the most intelligent of these animals were not prompted to maintain silence altogether. and enlightenment conveyed by the work Even at the present day. Berg makes no factory answer. 2. and of indicating rated. We is should be more likely to acknowledge that the species preserved because the sexual sensation is pleasurable. Although music may actually remind our organism of the ' H. Die Lust an der Musik. Surely no one will think of explaining the element of pleasure in the specific sexual sensation by showing its connexion with the preservation of the species. power to touch sexual chords. 263 although whole truth. Berg has. Berg. music has is. 1879.

that the scent was not previously agreeable. the if it was ever used wooing. they also constitute the means by which we distinguish between large and small bodies when sounding. and children . it assuredly can contribute still less to the solution of special questions. on this account. as. by the scent of roses. they are not mere signs of the exertion or passion experienced by the person speaking or calling. The highest tones. for must. to be sure. Sensations of tone are not only a means of communicating pain. . notably. of expressing pleasure and between the voices of men. for instance. the association. has emphasized the significance of association for sesthetics. of discriminating ideas. Nor does the man who reminded. have contained at start some positive agreeable quality. in a given case. women. the very ones which the vocal organs of ^ man cannot pro- Fechner. may be reinforced at To take an analogous it case from individual life. a fourth is preferred to a fifth.^ It has only gained by question cannot And if the view in sufficiently explain the agreeable quality of music per se. between the tread of large and small animals. 3- A rather one-sided view of the sensations of tone would if be obtained we were to consider only the province of speech and music. Yet in the smell of the lamp none the less disgusting for this reason. of a pleasant experience. why. the smell of an oil-lamp as goes out almost always agreeably reminds me of the magic lantern itself which excited my wonder is is as a child. believe. which.264 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it courtship of distant progenitors. the present time by that memory.

Reflexion und Brechung p. such as the rustling and hissing of a gas flame. Smith. Die Lehre von den Tonempjindungen. " Bemerkungen also liber Function der Ohrmuschel p ']2). By inclining a piece of cardboard in front of it the ear.^ fact. 221 . A. were suddenly frightened. Vol. . of a steam fall. in the animal world. and always rushed into hiding.^ There is no one but will cheerfully acknowledge the decided advance effected by Helmholtz in the analysis of auditory sensations. kettle. by a long period. anyone can convince himself that is only those noises which contain very high tones. presumably are of extreme importance for the deter- In is more than likely that these latter functions of sensations of tone antedated. Ann. are also very sensitive to such noises. Sauveur. whenever anyone produced a high-pitched Children a few months old noise by rubbing straw or crackling paper. Ohm. (Troltsch's Archiv fur Ohrenheilkunde^ New Series.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS mination of the direction from which sounds proceed.. 1st ed. Vol. and that deep tones remain entirely uninfluenced. die ' Mach. i877' insensible once had occasion to observe that tame marmots that were quite to deep and loud noises. . Bruns- wick. it 265 duce.. those which merely perform a part in the social life of animals. — Compare ^ Mach and Fischer. III.^ following on the important works of his predecessors. or of a water- that are modified by reflexion according to the position of the cardboard. Pogg. Rameau. Steinhauser. 1863. Young. R. 3 Helmholtz. Hovens. effect This shews that that it is only in virtue of their on high tones the two ear-conchs can be used as indicators of direction. Theorie des binaurealen I "Die CXLIX. Vienna.. des Schalles.

certain relations of « and m are satisfied. and is second a diminution of beats it effected. return to this point. closely adjacent rates of vibration. each of which corresponds to simple pendular vibraIf tions. 4«. two such musical sounds. there if may result. pitch. is m~{plq\ «. ^ that The/th harmonic of « coincides with the ^th of m when pn — qm. along with the fundamental etc. In compound musical sounds. may not be considered We may also give our assent to Helmholtz's physiological theory of audition.^ and Following his principles. The facts observed on the simultaneous it sounding of simple notes make exists. ^n. a series corresponding to the series of vibration all of terminal nervous organs. although exhaustive. Helmholtz's physical theories as to the I shall function of the labyrinth have proved untenable. highly probable that there rates. to the fundamentals of which the rates of vibration n and m correspond. of which the number. or clangs. so that for the different rates of vibration there are different end-organs. whereby in the relationship of the two sounds in the is case the rendered perceptible.. we generally hear. .^ a partial coinfirst cidence of the harmonics. each of which responds to only a few. On the other hand. the over-tones or partial tones 2n. Zur Geschichte der Akustik " my Popidar-wissenschaftlii Vorlesungen. we recognize in noises combinations of musical tones. be melodically or harmonically combined. n. and intensity vary with the time. If ' we assume *' with Helmholtz that in all noises admit of ' Cp. where/ and q are whole numbers. All this cannot be disputed.266 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS others.

We may easily convince ourselves. seems me. large exploding bubbles mainly excite to symthe lower strings. pathetic vibration while ones principally affect the higher strings. which from being damped are perform noticed . contracts. On the other hand. and found that every degree of transition between the two may be demonstrated. exploding soap-bubbles filled with 2 11'+ O). though not a very definite one. full vibrations. while with from is still four to five vibrations. We air must imagine that weak aperiodic movements of the short durations excite all. with sufficient attention. A long time ago (in the winter of 1872-73) I took up the question of the relation of noises (especially that of sharp reports) to musical tones. when its duration is reduced to from two to three vibrations. demonstrates that the same organ may be the mediator of both tone and noise sensation. a pitch. to a short. the pitch perfectly distinct. lasting inert movements of the excite more powerful and more the larger and more less end-organs as well. seems superfluous to seek further for a special auditive organ for noises. and Helmholtz himself soon gave up so inconsequent a procedure. furthermore. having though preferably the small and whilst air more mobile end-organs.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it 267 being resolved into sensations of tone varying in duration. sharp concussion (or weak report) of very indistinct pitch. that in a piano from which the damper has small it been lifted. vibrations of greater amplitude and thus and furthermore that even in the case of com- . may be detected in a report even when the latter is produced by an aperiodic motion of the air (the wave of an electric spark. clear to This fact. A tone of one hundred and twenty-eight slit heard through a small radial in a slowly revolving disc.

secondly. forty it was originally overesti- physiologists and psychologists have had nearly years in which to test the three several if sides of the theory. Auerbach. 1873. only more intense and of single excitation shorter duration. in some member as that of the series of end-organs. now first consider the together the taking objections which have been urged from the physical and physiological gists. by an accumulation of effects. and as it almost seems to be as much underestimated now mated. Kohlrausch. detail. W. the beats connected with periodic intermittent excitations are eliminated. in before mentioned the experiments relative to the excitement of pianotones by explosions. which were a conon the after-images due to variations the August number of Lo/os. paratively the stimulus definite appears. Exner. Physicists. appearance but of late years it has been subjected to various critical attacks. I have never It will not be amiss. ^ is The sensation excited by a report of low or high pitch produced by striking at qualitatively the same once a large number of adjacent piano-keys either high or low in the scale. we principal critical objections to it. S. The work its first of Helmholtz excited general admiration on . and others. Pfaundler. and. if I do so here. and it would have been a marvel they had not found out its weak spots. those of the psycholo- I gave an account of part of tinuation of Dvorak's researches of stimulus (1870). perhaps. my experiments. subsequently treated the same questions and from various points of view. in the produced by a report. . will Without making any pretence to completeness. Briicke. 1 side.268 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS weak periodic movements of the air. Abraham in and Briihl. 6. Moreover.

Konig. 467. the individual sinuous bands of Konig's wave-siren do not produce any simple tones. "Zur Lehre von der Klangwahrnehmung. movement of a phonograph reversed. 1894. that the inner ear consists of a system of resonators. The casing of a with rings in which were cut wave-shaped slips fn similar pairs capable of that the intensity mutual displacement towards one another. 1 882. The phenomena connected with the combination Young supposed that of tones are not so easily explicable on Helmholtz' point of view. Quelques experiences d'acoustique. which was to compound a sound from partial tones of given intensity and phase. so and the phase of the partial tone under investigation could be varied at will. no change of sound-color results. which singles out the members of Fourier's series. As against this view.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Ilelmholtz 269 physical assumed. for psychological and reasons. Paris." \4rchiv. • 1 ^ Pfliiger's * As long ago was as 1867. Hermann.. L. Vol. I instituted experiments with a special kind of siren. and did not fulfil its purpose. tried to prove that mere displacement of the phases of the partial pendular vibrations causes a change in the sensational impression or "sound-color. the relation between the phases of the partial vibrations can exert no influence on sensation. and hears them as partial tones. very similar to one fitted cylinder of Konig's apparatus.i an eminent specialist in acoustics. As my apparatus was still pretty imperfect. p. Hermann.^ however. and Konig's conclusions must therefore difficulty be based on a mistaken presupposition. I have not published any account of these experiments. . Konig. But it appeared on experiment that the waveshaped slits did not yield any simple tones when air was blown against them through a slit parallel to the ordinate of the waves. According to Hermann.^ This may therefore be taken as removed." I. succeeded in shewing that when is the direction of . corre- sponding to the form of vibration presented. LVL. beats of sufficient rapidity R. On this view.

it impossible. to the tempo of would be which tuned. XVI. "Zur theorie der Differenztone und der Gehorsempfindungen Ueberhaupt. p. Since then Stumpf has actually demonstrated the co-operation of such overtones (Wiedemann's Annalen^ New Series. there are beats which can invariably be sequence is heard as particular tones when the sufficiently rapid. cit. and that subjective compound tones occur in circumstances which are not compatible with Helmholtz' theory (Hermann). also M. Hermann^ detected com- pound tones with co-operating tones of such feebleness. that I become compound it is tones. Cp. —or subjectively by means of asymmetrical or non-linear conditions of vibration of the resonating parts of the inner ear. 660).270 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS could themselves be heard as tones they — that it is is to say. op. " Zur Theorie der Kombinationstone." Zeitschrijt fur Psychologic. Thus the theory of Helmholtz is safe on this side. that the compound tones seem entirely inexplicable on Helmholtz' theory. He got his tones by a very powerful tuning-fork. p. ^ Hermann. in connexion with his observations of the beats. the objection remains that the objective compound tones do not exist (Konig.. Still. Hermann). on the resonance theory. Meyer. and I could not help conjecturing when his book appeared that. LVII. i89i." Pfluger's Archt: . but discovered on the other hand that. either objectively or subjectively.p. Hermann accordingly holds the view. even between tones widely removed from one another. Vol. XLIX. j Ij ij Vol. I. the overtones came into play in various ways. Vol. 499- . Now Konig^ failed to prove the existence of objective compound tones. associating himself * Konig. But since impossible to excite any resonator by means of beats. but only by means of tones.. to hear any compound Helmholtz therefore postulated at the outset that compound tones must either be explained objectively by means of powerful tones in virtue of the deviation of similar vibrations from linearity. tones.

common overtone (or phonic) 3 belonging On the negative side of his criticisms . Quoted by translator. We now turn to the principal objections brought against Helmholtz from psychological points of view. the mere absence of beats not being regarded as a sufficient and satisfactory characterization of harmony. not tenable. 30.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS on this point 271 with Konig. with a sensation deter- mined by the duration of the periodicity. 493. will I deal later with this view. to every kind of The physical resonance-theory seems. not only to wave-shaped vibrations. — . p. p. but Hermann^ thinks that can be replaced by a physiological resonance-theory. LVI. period. v. at any rate. Pflliger's Archiv. Harmoniesystem in dualer Entwickhmg {Tiox^dX^ 1866). but also. 30). p. Oettingen ^ feels the want of some an interval as expressed positive element characteristic of each interval (p. Harmoniesystem in dualer Entwicklung. ^ [The lowest of the harmonics common to all I term the coincident or phonic harmonic. 47). He believes that the in the positive element in question is to be found accompanying (or tonic). in its it original form. Thus A. or in the accompanying remembrance of the to the ' two (pp. Vol.'] ^ Hermann. that the ear re-acts. 32. 40. and refuses to regard the value of dependent upon the physical accident of the overtones contained in the sounds. The lack of a positive factor in the explanation of consonance has been very generally felt. as well as with Ewald's new physical theory of audition. remembrance of the common fundamental tone as the harmonics of which the composite notes or clangs of the interval have often occurred. Von Oettingen.

1894). His enunciation of the principle of principle however (or of the tonic and phonic relationship of composite notes). inadequate. von Oettingen's conception of the physiologically duality.^ 8. for consonance and dissonance are not matters of represenbut of sensation. Heathcote. is that A. as also his conception of dissonances as indeterminate composite musical sounds appear admitting of more than one interpretation to (p. under the caption (originally published in 1872). the in various writings criticized the doctrine of Helmholtz with great penetration. 1853. beats. in the two different definitions which Helmholtz gives of consonance. does not quite fill the need of the theory. Swan Sonnenschein & Co. therefore. '* Symmetry" is as . D'Alembert {Elemens de musique. and Hauptmann {Die Natur der Hannonik und Metrik. since sensations of tone do not constitute a symmetrical system. Stumpf has place. is to be found in my Popular Scientific Lectures (Chicago. E. 1898. 224).. of which Euler Tentamen novcE theorice musicce. Perfect symmetry. A 1 A popular statement of the principle of duality. Lyons. me to be valuable and positive services to science. such found in the province of sight. 1888). had all a faint inkling. cannot be imagined in music. Heft i.272 I THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS in am complete agreement with " Von Oettingen. — the definition by disappearance of partial tones. Leipzig. translation by W. Leipzig.^ first He questions. and the definition by coincidence of is pointing out that the former characteristic of inapplicable to and not melodic sequence. p. tative is My opinion. 2 I am here chiefly following Stumpf's Beitrdge zur Aktistik und Musikwissenschaft. But I " remembrance activity. London. 1766). and the latter inappli- cable to and not characteristic of harmonic combination. 103).

1905). not a dissonance. without necessarily causing the disappearance of the distinction between dissonance and consonance. also appear as consonant and dissonant. of course without the beats being heard. 1900 Ueber Tonrhythmik und Stimmfiihrung^ Leipzig. by A. Harino7iie und Tonalitdt. Tones. On the other hand. can be experi- enced as dissonances. 1885). scher Melodien^ Leipzig. examples can be given of the simultaneous sounding of tones far violent ceptible. since it is a property which under certain circumstances can just as well belong to dissonance. in a number of voluminous works. Polak ( Ueber Zeiteinheit in bezug au/ Konsonanz. finally. finds the characteristic Stumpf himself 1 mark of conson- been revived Such explanations were attempted by Leibniz and Euler. later by Lipps {^Psychologische Studien. removed from one another. without the representation of beats playing any essential part in the process. and finally.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS pure triple 273 compound note. If become imper- two notes of the tuning-fork are distributed the beats do indeed sink very one to each ear. intermitting according to the is nature of the beats. which produce a although the beats dissonance. much into the background. S . J. but without the distinction between con- sonance and dissonance becoming any heard tones.^ is Equally readily will be admitted that agreeableness not a sufficiently characteristic property of consonance. The coincidence of the partial tones ultimately disappears. Leipzig. when no overtones are present. such as ringing less. Die Har??ionisierung indischer^ turkischer imd japani. and have in more recent times by Oppel. means of unconscious —a view which it will probably find few supporters. too. Subjectively in the ears. 1902 . I will pass over Stumpf s polemic against the explanation of consonance by counting. that are merely represented.

the cerebral processes which take place are connected by specific synergy is a closer relation of than when the ratio of the rates of vibration more complicated. to impression of a single tone. ^ C. " Geschichte des Konsonanzbegriffes. he dis- but thinks that he has given the correct explanation of the fusion of notes." Abhandlutigen i.^ Helmholtz also cusses it.274 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS fact ance in. of which he gives an exhaustive history. sometimes more and sometimes less. der Mimchener Akademie^ 1897. as were. are heard simultaneously. two tones are sounded mistake them for unmusical persons a single tone with a frequency in proportion to the extent to which they are consonant. Bettrdge zur Akusiik. of similarity appears to But since such a second relation him purely hypothetical. is not unfamiliar with this theory first . when two tones. ^ Although polyphonous music C Stumpf. Stumpfs statistical experiments shew that a fusion of If tones takes place in consonance. If it is similarity that causes tones to fuse. p." harking back. of which the rates of vibration stand to one another in a comparatively simple ratio. then this miist be a different kind of similarity from that on which the since this sequence of tones in a series depends. Stumpf. to views pre- valent in antiquity. latter similarity decreases continuously with the distance of the tones from one another. simultaneously. ^ Tones that succeed is one another preceded his- can fuse. He defines consonance by it means of " fusion. Heft 50. he prefers to imagine a physiological explanation of a different kind. the of two tones when sounded together the approximating. Stumpf does not attempt to conceal the necessity for some further explanation of fusion. . He supposes that.

1866. we recognize the middle one immediately iMach. my " Bemerkungen zur Lehre vom raumlichen Sehen** {Fichte's Zeitschrift fdr Philosophiey 1865). ^ Einleitung in die Helmholtzsche Miisiktheorie. . I perfect theory of the subject in developed these remarks more in the first edition of this book (1886). and many specific energies many rates of vibration we we distinguish by the sense of hearing. Then there are as as as there are that end organs. ^Cp. as early as critical 1863. Of three tones of different as such. 1863). 46 and 48. 23 et seq. graduated end-organs the members of which. I myself. also order pitch. series of definitely Let us start from the idea that a exists. very definitely pointed out some would detail demands which a more have to satisfy. and let us ascribe to each end-organ its (specific) energy. yet Stumpf considers it probable that even in the case of homophonous music all the selection of the scale was guided by experience of the simultaneous hearing of tones. Graz. See the Preface and pp. we not only them distinguish between tones. in a small work^ which appeared shortly before I that of Von Oettingen.1 and also later.. as the rate of vibration increases. but in a series. In essential points it is impossible not to agree with StumpPs criticism.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS torically 275 by homophonous. and see my Popular Scientific Lectures.^ had made some remarks on the theory of Helmholtz. "Zur Theorie des Gehororgans" {Sitzun^sherichte der Wiener Akademie. and in 1866. Further. successively yield their maximum particular response.

For. virtually we arrive at the same . excitations. and reflect that these energies are similar to one another. 35. mon Fig. common But more distant tones also possess a certain similarity . in accordance with the principle of mvestigation by which we are guided. and even between the highest and lowest tones we can detect a resemblance. that is. But even supposing we assume must contain a special energy for every end-organ. many specific energies as t\iere are distinguishable facts with For the understanding of the it which we energies. Fig. we are obliged to assume in a// tone - sensations comparts. we represent the vibration-amplitudes of a certain tone symbolically by the ordinates of the curve adc. neighboring tones will always have faint. since necessarily several organs always yield simultaneous responses. not excluded by these but on the contrary later.35- component Consequently. different proportions by different rates o^ is Further complexity of the sensations of tone facts. lie is nearer readily together and which This if enough explained for adjacent tones. Consequently. are here concerned. common component parts. is rendered probable by phenomena to be discussed Careful psychological analysis of the tonal series leads immediately to this view. there cannot be as tones.276 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS feel We immediately which rates of vibration are further apart. and imagine this curve gradually moved in the direction of the arrow. then. suffices to assume only two which are excited in vibration.

notably by Hering. 277 Let us therefore assume. always the same two energies. now. . is The probably similar to that of a graduated series of mixed reds and yellows situated at different points of space. absolutely different in case not energies. And in fact. have a definite picture before in the transition from the lowest to the highest rates of vibration. The view here presented utilizes the facts disclosed. that. and by other facts adduced by Helmholtz. and are not fused into a single sensation . merely in order to us. lends a still more definite shape to the conception which we have to form. the tonal in sensation varies similarly to the color-sensation passing from pure red to pure yellow. are disengaged by the different organs. in the analysis of color-sensations. say by the gradual admixture of yellow. the idea that there is for every distinguishable rate of that vibration a special appropriate end-organ.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS standpoint. We can fully retain. and for the comprehension of the phenomena. or that two tones of different pitch do not blend to a mixed tone of intermediate pitch? fact that this The case does not happen. ^ 10. that so many tones simul- taneously sounded are distinguished. How does it happen. to be again relinquished. which are likewise distinguished and do not blend. only in different proportions. the sensation which ensues when the attention passes from one tone to another ^The view vibration is is similar to that which accompanies that different end-organs respond to different rates of too well supported by the production of beats is by neighbortoo valuable ing tones. on but but this view.

or It more resembles a one running from the front to the rear in the median plane. which is the reason we so easily separate space-sensations is from color-sensations. expressed in language. possible matter. points in But while colors are not conspace. The an analogue of space. Or both conditions might occur together. two energies whose ratio determines the exists. . a third similar to a sensation of innervation. not of right tones We and speak of high tones and deep tones. left and exhibiting no symmetry of a straight line running from right to in a direction perpendicular to the median plane. but directions a space of one dimension limited in both like that. offers is an analogy to unconsciously and to a space having no symmetry. or that. although our musical left instruments suggest the latter designation as a very natural one. for instance. the case sensations.278 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS tonal series occurs in something which is is the wandering of the fixation-point in the field of vision. but fined to certain may move about. timbre of high and deep tones. which is and which comes into play in the fixation of tones. We may now imagine in addition to the that different tone-sensations have their origin in different parts of the auditive substance. tones. different with tone- A particular tone-sensation can occur only at a particular point of the said one-dimensional space. vertical right line. on if which the attention must sensation in question is in each case be fixed the tone- to be distinctly perceived. At present nor necessary to may be come to a it regarded as neither conclusion in the That the province of tone-sensation space.

279 In one of my earliest publications 1 I supported the view that the fixation of tones was connected with a I varying tension of the tensor tympani. if it is But such a method would have to be of particularly to be applicable under the difficult conditions of the living ear. to Nevertheless. Singing connected with hearing in too extrinsic and accidental I a manner. October 1872). . part 3. it will scarcely be possible to decide this question definitely. By introducing a ear- tube. but unsuccessfully. the fall the ground for this reason only the appropriate physiological element remains to be discovered. we tried to detect a similar sponI taneous change of disposition in the living ear. far beyond the Ztir Theorie des Gehororgans. as long as the vibrations cannot be observed with certainty in a normal living ear. 1 can hear and imagine tones 1863." Sitzttngsberichte der Wiener Akademie. have. simple form. A method of light-interference might lead to the desired result. t)ut I did not find it tenable. Consequently. unless they were muted.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS II.. to am now unable maintain this view in the light of subsequent observa- tions and experiments which space-analogy does not . obtained a proof of the variable disposition and capacity for resonance of the anterior auditory apparatus in the . I LXVI. would of themselves be decisive of the question. Vol. subsequently been inclined to doubt whether the powerful vibrations which are observed in this way. since. By means of experiments carried out by me in co-operation with Kessel (" Ueber die Akkommo- dation des Ohres. case of different tones this was done by means of microscopic observa- tion of sound-vibrations conducted through a tube. and making our observations by means of a microscopic mirror constructed for the purpose. however. I have made. they could scarcely penetrate into the labyrinth without doing damage. The supposition that the processes in the larynx during singing have something to do with the formation of the tonal series was likewise noticed by in is me my work of 1863.

have been familiar. by the whistle of a locomotive. 1885). ringing of a housebell. Strieker. Moreover. a matter of subsidiary importance. sprang up immediately into my imagina- on hearing a performance on the piano or organ. . like the pictures of the keys touched which. that small children and even dogs understand words Nevertheless. badly off if is really motor. Vienna. which is. true that in It is think reverberate loudly in that thoughts my own case words of which my ear. agree with on this point. Z>u latigage et de la musique^ Paris.) I (Cp. I which they cannot repeat. I consider the sensations which. man can hear the music by watching the I movements of Strieker players. I have directly excited no doubt and may be by the etc. over. and I that we should be frequently see we were without can cite corroborations I of this view from my own experience. (Cp. when I was more tion in practice. are doubtless occasionally noticed in the larynx. I When imagine music. 1880. range of my own all In listening to an orchestral performance with the parts.. cannot therefore. it. into being merely through the Music can no more come motor sensations than a deaf accompanying musical performances. is convinced by Strieker that the ordinary and most though not the only possible way by which speech comprehended.28o TtiE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS voice. I always distinctly hear the notes. in listening to singing. Die Sprachvorstellungen. more- of such a performance. or in having an hallucination that it is impossible for me to think my understanding of this broad and complicated soundfabric has been effected by my one larynx. Strieker. no very practised singer. Different is my opinion with regard to Strieker's views on language.

! or Taylor the occupations designated To adduce an I analogous p. symmetrically teongruent to the latter. The and extent to which our thoughts move in accustomed routine channels is shewn by the surprise produced by would be more frequent ruts. thinks of using the names Smith. although of am having not able read directly. and consequently could not the them which point memory. with my : right I is hand. because my learned writing I by motor methods. example from a that I different field. relates. The is dream of intelligible deaf-mute. Baker. with retain exercise of precautionary measure.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS strangers slightly 281 remarks who are endeavoring lips. collateral To many never the obvious meanings for of words in suggest themselves. example. not read diffi- A the friend told me recently that he would Indian in drama Urvasi^ because he had out the in great culty spelling retain names. on is calm by no reflexion this seemingly paradoxical relation means so remarkable. if Good jokes our minds moved less in witticisms. iii) in immediately recognize its writing as I reflected a mirror and accompanying with it original. Who. . can also best illustrate by this example why music do not related agree with Strieker in regard to music to speech as ornament is to writing. In fact. to follow my tells moving of their If I a person to me his place residence and but omit after repeat I the street and number of the house forget him. I perfectly in memory. may state (cp. Strieker only from his of view. the it am certain to this the address.

for little rF^ The one sounded last it than the other (3. to be damped. I have repeatedly illustrated by experiments. the experiment is The impression made by quite similar to that I which we receive when. The to attention then passes over to it. their attention at will will Persons not able to transfer be helped by having one note ^ f sounded later ^J I ^ i T With a (as. absorbed in work. One and the same combination of two tones sounds different according as we fix our attention upon the one or the other. 4). 5) into its elements and to hear the constituent tones by themselves (as in 6). it. These and the following experiments are carried out better and more convincingly upon a physharmonica.282 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 12. on which the notes can be held. one of the notes nearest distinctness which comes out with the of a note that has just been struck. than on a piano. 2 in Combinations i and the annexed cut have a perceptibly different character according as we fix our attention on the higher or on the lower note. then draws the attention after is practice possible to decompose a chord instance. which I will cite again here. on which the attention fixed. we suddenly . Especially astonishing is the phenomenon produced when is we cause one note of a chord. the analogy between fixing the eyes on points in space and fixing the attention on tones.

the entire acoustic mass will seem sink in depth while in 1 2 it will appear to it rise if we regard closely the succession fine. approximately that of 8. in 10. 283 hear the regular striking of the clock emerge into distinct- In the latter case the entire tonal effect passes the threshold of consciousness. we obtain the impression represented fixed. for example. we fix the attention on the lowest note.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ness after having entirely vanished from consciousness. The same or 1 2. whilst in the former a part in 7. If we fix the attention upon the upper note. M ^ ^ rT ^ » letting go. But if. in chords act the part of clangs (or embracing both fundamentals and harmonics). is augmented. the effect obtained If. chordal sequence sounds quite different is If. in 9. in 11. the keys damping the is other notes. according to the part on which the attention in 1 1 I fix my attention on the upper note. This makes quite evident. that e-f. the fim^re i ^ fixed m m 22: mzz: r S- alone appears to be altered. compound notes The facts . bass. and proceed in the reverse order. the attention be to upon the . successively from above.

Cp. . capable of only a movement. all the overtones will of themselves successively emerge into full distinctness. such parallel as the Suppose that our two eyes were single follow. This fatigue. then the system of sight-sensations so constructed would quite palpably resemble the relations of the sensations of tone. where if the note lasts several minutes. of a horizontal straight line lying in the . ' Cp. We may also recall to mind here the involuntary wander- ing of the attention which takes place during the continuous and uniform sounding of a note on the harmonium. were pure yellow. which describing.^ The process appears to point to a sort of fatigue for the note on which the attention has long been moreover.^ The the sphere of tone-sensation. median plane . "^ my Einleitung in my Grundlinien die Helmholtzsche Musiktheorie^ ^. is fixed. 58. rendered quite probable by an experiment at length in which I have described relations in another place. we have here been illustrated might be perhaps more palpably by some following. corresponding the position parallelism. der Lehre von den Bewegungsempfindungen^ p. 29. in observing an ornamental design. while between them lay intermediate shades . and that they could only by changing motions of symmetrical the points convergence. and this line suppose that the nearest point on fixed by the eyes were pure to red. the attention is alternately fixed on different points.284 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS here advanced remind us strongly of the changing impression received when. and the of all point farthest away.

finger-board. or of string. though explanation absolutely necessary if the theory is to lay any claim to completeness. which its shall now is consider. at If two series of tones scale. just as readily trically and immediately as we recognize two geom^e- similar figures. and a strip of paper. remains unintelligible. they Like melodies. similarly situated. termed tonal constructs of like tonal form. differently situated on the scale. on one and then on the others. if same on each we can recognize the melody The experiment would not we deliberately divided be any more convincing. oneself that this recognition is easy to convince not connected exclusively with the employment of ordinary musical intervals or of any comparatively simple ratio of vibration-numbers in use. by a mere act of sensation. Now although the resultant sound may have no as the sense as music. Indeed in practice the result would be only approximate. common instru- If the open strings of a violin. any other ment with more than one be tuned to any discondivided up to the nected notes we please. string. the finger-board into irrational intervals. (or slide be fastened in we can play the notes indicated first any order string from one to the other). we but be in recognize both the same melody. be begun to main- two different points on the tain throughout the in same ratios of made vibration.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 13- 285 On we the view hitherto developed. . or It is may be may be termed similar tonal constructs. into any complicated series of ratios. the same form. still The musician could Untrained maintain that he heard intervals that were approximate or intermediate to the familiar musical intervals. an important fact.

. Kulke. begins with a fourth.. Kulke. According to Cornelius. Prague. naturally suppose that make note of an interval than of a melody. (No.. Ueber die Umbildung der Melodic. Ein Beitrag zur Entwicklungslehre. The ability to pick out and recognize intervals the first thing required of the student of music who is desirous of becoming thoroughly familiar with his subject. by E. are immediately recognized as is like intervals. mention this point. Cornelius —a notice which I will to it now supplement by the following communication made orally me is by Kulke himself. the sameness of the of vibration c-f.286 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS intervals song-birds use the musical cases. "One would would be easier to effective. If I hear a fourth I at once remark that the tone-sequence might be the beginning of the overture to Tannhduser^ and by this the interval. etc. a great help in the recognition of intervals to particular pieces of music. Thus all in the series d-g. bearing on an original method of instruction by P. at once recognized. in This excellent device. folk-songs. as fourths. a melody offers a greater hold to ' memory than does an interval. Such the fact. the notes : which have the same ratios of vibration (3 4). of made. just as an individual E. Nevertheless. etc. which lectures have put to the my apparently complicates it on acoustics and have found very matters. 1884. e-a. In a is little work. make note of which begin for with these intervals. in its simplest is form. the overture to Fidelio . may be used as the representative of the third I and test so on.^ well worth reading. Calve. i) means I recognize In like manner. only in exceptional Even ratios in a series of only is two tones. The overture to Tannhduser^ example.

i860. which rapidly A tuning-fork held before one ear If is very feebly heard by the other ear. In melodic as well as in harmonic combinations. malces note of faces and associates with them names but Leonardo da Vinci arranged noses in a system. interval always sound rougher before one is But the character of the is harmony preserved when one placed before each ear. name than is a certain facial angle or a nose. the beats will and the other before the weakened. Ueder einige Verhdltnisse des binocularen Sehens^ I have myself often tried such experiments. slightly be greatly Two forks of harmonic ear. beats. beating tuning- forks are held in front of the distinct. rates of vibrations bear to one another some simple are distinguished (i) by their agreeableness.^ The discord also remains quite perceptible in this experi- ment. 536. two slightly discordant. same ear. 14. Harmony and discord are. and for (2) by a sensation characteristic of ^ As the Cp. Leipzig. not determined by beats alone. notes whose ratio. by which it recognized independently of the pitch of the fundamental. so it is is made per- with the harmonic combinations of tones. p. the beats are very ear. Every its third. every major or minor triad has is characteristic color. every fourth. Fechner. however. Just as every interval in a sequence of tones ceptible in a characteristic manner. and independently of the number of increases with increasing pitch. . this ratio. But if one of the forks be placed before one other.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS countenance is 287 more easily remarked and associated with a Every one .

in the case of colors.288 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is agreeable quality. how- between tones farther apart. A smooth. if we cause a tone gradually to mount in pitch. 2 8 4 g i The fact that 5^E^ itself ^ among a sort of contrast really does exist tones almost forces upon our notice. a single uniform color enveloping our entire surround- A lively effect is produced only on the addition of In like a second tone. and notices that tones further stand to each other in a positive relation of contrast. and not merely between 2 those immediately following one another. all contrast is lost. is something very unpleasing and colorless. manner. as in experiments with the siren. and 3. and. except that. like colors. after i Passage sounds quite 3 sounds difl"erent from what it does alone. resulting always where the ratios of the numbers representing the vibrations of music is satisfy certain definite But the experienced and unprejudiced student not entirely satisfied with this explanation. there no denying that this is partly explained by the coincidence of the overtones. by the consequent efface- ment of the conditions. as the accompanying example will shew. ever. no such definite agreeable relations can be specified. un- changing tone like ings. is He disturbed by the preponderant role accorded to the accident of acoustic color. a second color. Contrast exists. even 5 different from 4 immediately following . different from 2. in the case of harmonic combination. beats.

is This. in the one case the harmonics marked V | and in the other those marked T V is \ ^ coincide the fifth . Be it noted. and ask this can be explained on our present theory. to the theory of Helmholtz. the fifth third harmonic of the first note (5/2) will coincide c 2» g 3» c 4W e 5» g 6« b-flat 7» c 8» e 2m b itn e g-sharp b \m ^m dm d ytn e Bftt t F n f c 3« 1 4« a 5» c 6» e-flat ^n f in 8» t A m a 2W e Sm a c -sharp e 5W* 4W 6m i 7W a 8w with the fourth of the second note (4^). comliine the notes C and E^ or i^and A^ representing their harmonics in the above table. as a fact. 289 Let us turn now to the second point. and in both cases the coincidence between harmonic of the lower and the fourth harmonic of the higher note. If a fundamental its n be melodically or harmonically combined with m. then.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 16. the characteristic if sensation corresponding to each interval. according feature char- the common If I acterizing all third combinations. that this common feature exists solely for the understandings being the result . however.

after all. . as Euler did. Petropoli. I Tcntamen nova theoria cannot understand how any one can still maintain the theory of the temporal coincidence of impulses. motion.290 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and has real of a purely physical and intellectual analysis. Cp. at the same time with my question is as to wherein physiological similarity . which are entirely different notes. to ask where the common component insist sensation hidden characterizes every third combination I must on this distinction of mine not being I re- garded as a piece of pedantic the question involving it hair-splitting. consisted the former and If not a whit more unnecessary than was the latter. is we that more than on any other of ? theory. At one time I replaced A. Seebeck's experiment by what I believe to be a better procedure (" Ueber einige der physiologischen Akustik angehorige Erscheinun* gen. On the assumption that there exists for every distinguish- able rate of vibration an appropriate specific energy. 1 Euler. we are to allow a physical or mathematical characteristic of the tierce-interval to stand as a mark of the tierce-sensation.^ with the coincidence of every fourth and tion fifth vibration —a concepit which was. At that time it was not known that beats are never observed between a subjective tone and an adjacent objective tone. p. propounded about twenty years ago. as long as its could be believed that sound continued also. of which the superfluity. too. as periodic course in the nerve-tracts." Berichie der Wiener Akademie. case is between the and in the second between the a's. Seebeck^ musicce. then we should content ourselves. or between subjective ones but the fact cannot now be doubted. in the issue. Stumpf's interesting . are obliged. was disproved. 26th June 1864). nothing to do with sensation. as distinguished from geometrical. not so bad. 36. coincidence in the first For sensation the e's. 1739. of form. a view which even A. but I never could detect any periodicity in the nerve-process connected with sensation.

its was suggested to me a long time ago. If (owing to the relatively excessive size of its organs. But Stumpf s observations on the consonance and dissonance of subjective tones without beats are very important. and convincing myself that when a c-sharp a shade deeper was lightly struck on the piano. Yet the hypothesis illustrate. this demonstration was superfluous. 291 LXVIII. following hypothesis. This feeling does not accomin the in all pany me in the same measure which. hold the opposite supposition to be physiologically inadmissible. may at least serve to clear up and from the a more I positive side also. Helmholtz's coincidence of 5« and 4m is in no respect less symbolical and does not offer greater enlightenment.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS (Fogg. and consequent lack of receptivity for such rapid changes) paper on " Beobachtungen liber subjective Tone und liber Doppelthoren " {Zeitschrift fur Psychologie und Physiologic der Sinnesorgane^ Vol. development of the essential features. for I strable.j Vol. 100-121). Ann. indeed.) regarded as possible. So far I have presented my it arguments with the convicnecessary to tion that I should not find make a single retrograde step of importance. The subjective tones that arise in my ear generally last too short a time for me to experiment with them. the requirement which is I believe complete theory of tone-sensations will first bound to meet. Still I clear did succeed not long ago (1906) in getting to the piano with a very and constant c-sharp. XXL. it expound my view in the form in which appeared in the first edition of this book. . pp. Let us suppose that it is an extremely important vital condition for an animal of simple organization to perceive slight periodic motions of the medium in which its it lives. 17. no beats were demonFor me. With regard to this particular point.

that it On the contrary. or their amplitude too small. Graber (" Die Chordotonalen Organe.. 506). organs of graduated capacity Corti and the basilar as such a system.292 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS is change of attention oscillations is too sluggish. but ordinarily to several. It At first the organ of membrane were regarded by Helmholtz can hardly be expected. and the period of the too short. or whether Vith them it is not rather touch which makes on us the impression of hearing." Arch. 4. Cp. See Popular-ivissen- — schaftliche Vorlesungen. Hensen.. to permit the single phases of the excitation to enter consciousness. for example. the admirable experiments and observations of V. p. as soon as the whole continuum limits of rates of vibration between certain becomes of importance for the animal.. but the need of a whole series of such arises. 123. it may nevertheless be possible under certain conditions for the animal to perceive the accumulated sensation-effects of the oscillatory stimulus. /i/^. ^2/4. This conjecture has subsequently been confirmed in many ways. 3rd ed. has observed. Inasmuch ^ It is questionable therefore whether animals which have so small a measure of time that their voluntary movements produce a musical note hear in the ordinary sense. Anat. 401. fur Microskop. however. by virtue of its physical qualities.?. etc. Now an end-organ capable of vibration (say an auditory cilium) responds. a small number of end organs no longer suffices.^ XX. ' As V. Cp. for example. p.* Therefore. as also^to the rates of vibration «/2.. The organ '^ of hear- ing will outstrip the organ of touch. etc. distance apart.. we should expect would respond with enfeebled but graduated intensity (perhaps from being divided by nodes) to the rates of vibration 2«. 3«. also my Bewegungsempfinduvgen. that a member of will such a system respond to only one rate of vibration. not to every rate of vibration. . p. at a considerable nor to one only.

extremely improbable that exactly is the same sensation i?^ excited whether n. responds powerfully to «. to 2n^ 3^. The sensation i D arising will now correspond to the number of the vibrations of the oscillatory stimulus. The resultant sensation in we will represent symbolically (somewhat as we do mixed colors) by pD^-qC. cii. of the series may be And con- sequently our earlier view will not be materially disturbed by the new hypothesis. vibration. D+f(n) C will be predominantly associated with R„ Well-attested cases of double hearing (cp. we might make /(«) = k. are excited. with the sensations belonging to these rates of It is.) point forcibly to the conclusion that the ratios in which D and C are disengaged are dependent rate of vibration upon the end-organ. in case of [i nJT. or. For. therefore the sensation still -/(«)] .. n. jR„ an aperiodic impulse.. say. Dull {£>) and Clear (C). to whatever of end-organs the stimulus member applied. however. . A and n\2i member also. to take a very simple example. 266 et seq. making/ + ^ = rate and regarding ^ as a function f{n) of the of vibration. .?. probable that every time the ' members of the series of organs respond log.. agreeably in the first what has been said above. or to «/2. Stumpf. that place.^ by [i -/(«)] +f{n) C. Thus. though more weakly. since the and only in a member R„ responds much more enfeebled vibrating with n even degree to 2n. 3^. only two sensation-energies. .. i?„. or whether responds to On the contrary. . most powerfully to n.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS as the assumption of a 293 special energy for each rate of vibration has proved untenable. and not upon the a conclusion which would also not affect our theory.^ loc. R„ responds it is to . accordingly. . n\2^ . p. to we may imagine.

. for the fundamental tone by Z^. or may themselves. . as given. constitute a province with the supplementary coloring Zj.. the supplementary sensa- tions Z4. . as excited by the fundamentals. Zi.. Z5) are strengthened when. is the lowest of the overtones 5« = 4m = 20/. . at present the decision on this last point It is true that is immaterial. . Z^. . Zi^ which are characteristic of the make their appearance even when the notes contain no overtones. . and for the undertones by Zj. . Zg. . the sensation receives a will weak supple- mentary coloring. which we represent symbolically. for the overtones by Zg. in the third combination. We third will take as example a melodic or harmonic major- combination. Then we obtain the on the following page. etc. . the excitation of the same Z's series by the first overtone yields a special province of sensation with the supplementary coloring Zg. Let us see what form the province of tone-sensations would take on if we regarded Zj.. Zg. the highest is are n — Afp common to the of the undertones common table the two /. and form But representable by [i -/(«)] U-\-f{n) V. On this supposition.. again. over- . have yet to be found. Z3. . . consist of two components. whose rates of vibration and two to m = ^p. and Zj. Thus third. while the former (Z4. C^and F. either in the open air or at least in the ear. yields.294 to a THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS partial tone. . The series may be either unchanging elements. Yet the very perception that they have to be sought seems to me of importance. the physiological elements Z^. sensations of tone would be somewhat [i richer in composition than would follow from the formula -/(«)] D +/(^) ^' The sensations which the series of end-organs.

just as the contrasts of faintly colored. December 1885). The above form exposition will be found in a rather conciser and slightly in {Sitzungsberichte der note *'Zur Analyse der Tonempfindungen" Wiener Akademie. where I have tried to analyse sensations of tone on the analogy of sensations of color. z. will accordingly become conspicuous in combina- tions of tones having certain ratios of rate of vibration. of which the analysis has been carried very much further. When 5p H'^i > they also respond 20/ -5 (4/) to the rates of vi- 20/5=4(5/) bration : with the supplesensa- mentary tions : ^5 - z. The members : of the series of end- Rp ^4/ RsP R7. or in running continuously through the scale. Every vibration-number disengages a few specific energies in a ratio which depends on the vibration-number in question. mentary tions : sensa- 2„Z. almost white lights become 1 vivid when such lights are brought together. to include 295 The diagram may be colorings.0P organs and contain respond to the rates of vibration ip tes 4A5/ 4p SP t no no with the the supple- do overtones.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS tones do occur. easily generalized any interval/ though scarcely notice- These supplementary able in single tones. z. The excitability of these energies is different at different points on the retina. And. Analogous It relations are assumed mutatis mutandis for sensations of tone. different my .

i. . the sensation of the quality of the sensation. but as immediately dependent on the psycho-physical process which is as simple as they are themselves. the intervals must disappear in the neighborhood of the seemed originally that in both cases there must be an infinite variety of sensations corresponding to the infinite variety of the physical But in both cases psychological analysis leads to the constimulus. a weak response only will take place. by melodic and harmonic combination with singly sounded. On the contrary. the to the pitch. depends on the organization. Zg . but no alteration of Further. same ratios of rate of vibration. no matter what the tones In this manner it is intelligible how may receive. on the attention. not as immediately dependent on the complicated physical stimulus. The [i -f{n)]D +/{n) C not infinite but limited. the ear does not directly cognize ratios of rate of vibration but only the supplementary colorings conditioned by these tonal series symbolically represented by is ratios. and on the According to this conception. others. . C. are the end-terms of the If the number of vibrations sinks considerably below or rises considerably above that of the fundamental of the extreme term of the series. and that. the most varied colorings. Since / {n) may vary between the values o and D and series. which are wanting to them when The elements to Zj.296 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS same contrast-colorings always correspond furthermore. we have to think of these sensations. . must not be conceived as unvarying and fixed in number. where they are the sensations corresponding to the lowest and highest tones. clusion that a smaller number of sensations is to be assumed. on the principle of parallelism. Z's it is be supposed that the number of perceptible training of the ear.

In place of the this theory. and. distinct. and which. and we get a glimpse of the direction in which. is the significance of acoustic diminished. the latter con- ception supplies Von Oettingen's principle of duality with itself a to foundation this which might himself as while duality at perhaps commend to his it investigator preferable "memory". several tones when sounded and by that of the By members the hypothesis of the multiple response of of the series of end-organs.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS two limits of hearing . numerous ever. while at the lower limit those which react on the overtones are lacking. supplementary accidental acoustic color colorings. likewise enable us to keep perceptually together. specific energies required by how- we substitute two only. notably on the ground of musical facts. the are to be further positive characteristics of intervals Finally. in general. differences at this point. . secondly. between sensations of tone cease because at the upper limit the members of the series capable of being excited by the undertones are lacking. we see that with few exceptions the conclusions reached by Helmholtz composite sounds may be all retained. Passing in review again the position at which we have arrived. because. 297 first. rate To every distinguishable of vibration there corre- sponds a particular nervous end-organ. investigated. Noises and may be decomposed into musical tones. by the r61e which we assign to the attention. becomes manifest why the assumption of the same time cannot be a perfect symmetry. which render the relationship of all tonal sensations intelligible.

the similarity of like intervals. i. But that I am there- fore not surprised to find that other writers do not agree is. as well as the theory of supplementary colorings. . I have expressly described the theory of the multiple response of the series of end-organs. ^C. fact. or Zj. The coincidence of the supplementary is colorings Z^. not merely a physical. the —and also what Stumpf looking —namely of an explanation of fusion. Zg. upon a misapprehension of my It will satisfy no one to be told that overtones of equal is strength coincide in the case of two tierces. since what in question is the qualitative similarity of the sensations. Stumpf. I7» 18. cannot admit." and I have put forward this hypothesis illustrating the merely with the object of resulting from meaning of the postulates psychological analysis. Z^^ one and the same nerve. Stumpfs further assertion notes with overtones. this hypothesis Stumpf saysji useless and quite unsuited in to its purpose. —would which is actually be represented I by the partial coincidence assume. Heft pp. rests criticism of Helmholtz. coloring of for. Beitrdge zur Akusttk tind Musikwissenschaft. there no difficulty in understanding. even without that. seems me that what I definite is am looking namely an explanation of the intervals. it is determined by a single element. in the case overtones. on Helmholtz's theory.298 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 18. unreservedly with as I my attempt. but also a psycho-physical It can scarcely be a matter of indifference that the sensation of a mixed coloring the contrary. and of perhaps stimulating others to a more successful attack on the problem. as a "hypothesis. to On for.

I will presently deal more larly with this last point. or whether the E. as regards their material.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS If the recognition of a 299 melodic tierce-interval were imme- diately intelligible. this view would involve a vicious circle. On my theory also. " Zur Theorie des Gehororgans. 19. But inasmuch as Stumpf himself holds that the melodic steps are characterized by the harmonic combination. and according to Stumpf is to be rejected particu- on that very account. which I H. My hypothesis inclines towards the theory of resonance." Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademiey Vol. very small (as is actually the case). in particular. the fact of melodic and harmonic selection of definite ratios of vibration-numbers leads to the same problem. LVIII. it would of course be unnecessary to look for any special explanation of why we recognize the harmonic combination of tierces. 1869. there can be no doubt that 1 practically the same phases of move- Mach. Also Helmholtz. There has been much discussion of the physical processes involved in audition. Die Mechanik der Gehorknochelchen.. sound-waves pass through them. former view. it In spite of would seem that an unprejudiced revision of the physical is theory of audition urgently needed. of the this. function of the parts of the middle ear.^ the dimensions of the ossicles in comparison with the length of the sound-waves in question are. while was probably the For if to establish it on a theoretical basis. Weber decides first in favor of the has been experimentally confirmed by Politzer. and. The question has been raised whether ihe auditory ossicles vibrate as a whole. . July 1863.

even without the co-operation of the ossicles and the the hearing labyrinth is membrana tympani. Nevertheless set let us consider the movement which can be stirrup- up in the labyrinth by the movements of the all plate. such as tuning-forks. Again. that are to be regarded as the decisive stimulus that excites sensation. at any one moment.300 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS ossicles. and the fluid velocity of is sound in the bones and the labyrinthine so great. sound- waves can be carried to the labyrinth by way of the cranial bones also. The result of all this that it is not the move- ments and the direction of movement. logical But patho- investigations teach us that. Otherwise. all dimensions of the sound-perceiving apparatus are so small in comparison with the audible sound-waves. The ossicles and tympanum seem when what is only to be important in question is the trans- ference to the labyrinth of very faint movements of the upon to the small air. but the variations of pressure which arise in the labyrinth almost synchronously. We may first imagine the soft parts to be taken . It ment occur throughout the whole extent of the and that consequently they must move as a whole. in that case the reduction of the pressure falling the whole surface of the stirrup-footplate membrana tympani seems to be necessary. provided that the in order. can be shewn that the direction of the sound-waves that penetrate into the labyrinth does not play any important part. may remain quite good. has occurred to some inquirers to transfer the movements of the ossicles to the fluid of the labyrinth. are it placed on different parts of the head. that the whole extent of the labyrinth only contains room for one perceptible wave-phase is. If sounding bodies.

The quantitative relations are here quite diff'erent from what they are in the case of strings or membranes in air. Ewald's opinion. instance. The fact that particular constructions can. to no clear divisions if it any longer. If the surfaces of the ceived as positive and negative electrodes. new theory of audition ^ is. when the coat it is comparatively thick. 1899. £me neue Hortheorie^ Bonn. . take on a special local state of vibration in spite of the fluid. would completely fluid. insist that We many must. ever. in my as no more tenable than the theory of Helmholtz and the If in Ewald's experiments a to the fibres of Corti basilar elective vibrations of the membrane. need scarcely be discussed. since the velocity of the disturbance vanishes in proportion to the velocity of the sound. mass of the predominant importance. Consequently. and that it would advantages. how- Ewald's theory is otherwise appropriate in offer many For respects. window and the form of which. The movement that can find room here the round is a periodical current passing from the oval to vice versa. the difference that of the It is the between fluid in the specific weight of the soft parts is and which they are immersed fluid that is of very small. Now if this state of things will not suffer any substantial change. and as conducting the fluid. will be almost entirely independent two windows are con- of the period. oil membrane fail if coated with shews. in the case of 1 harmonic intervals. even when Ewald. according to the pitch. 301 and the whole space bounded by the osseous wall to contain nothing but fluid. then the lines of the electric current will coincide with the lines of the periodic current. shew any were immersed in a much more the dimensions were proportionately reduced.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS out.

quite apart from further difficulties which it is also unable to solve. moving synchronously It is to and fro in short paths. 316. . and that ' Ewald. and succeeded in acoustically setting up in it continuous vibrations with clear nodal divisions corresponding to the pitch. years before. Berkhte der Wiener Akademie.^ Friesach's experiments with strings result of I immersed in water. Ewald published his experiments with the camera acustica. the membranes display coincidences of the node-lines. 1867. seems to fulfil a part it of the above mentioned postulates. LVL.^ He immersed in water a delicate membrane. Unfortunately is physically inadmissible. Vol. of about the dimensions of the basilar membrane.^ the which had been to shew that immersion in water acts as an enlargement of the string's mass. that in This shewed my conjecture was wrong. Pfluger's ArcMv. therefore quite conceivable that the labyrinthine fluid vibrates to and fro as a whole. Vol. * 3 Optisch-akustische Versuche^ Prague. but at the same time cannot from stating my objections to it. Shortly after the publication of the fourth edition of this book. 1903. which contained the foregoing passages expressing my doubts as to the vibration of membranes in fluids. XCIIL. since the fluid in the its immediate neighborhood of the string accompanies extremely vibrations. p. I then remembered also recalled the very small nodal divisions which. I what point and gave me cause to reflect had been mistaken. 1872. p. 485. I need scarcely say that I do not presume refrain to dismiss so admirable and laborious a I piece of work in a few words. I had myself observed in fluid membranes. 93.302 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Thus this theory overtones are absent. Friesach. 2nd part. p.

. my own. Mach and LXVI. *' Ueber Unterbrechungstone/' Deutsche Revue ^ July. seems to me. 1872. We may make.. pp. . to refer here to should two papers by Stohr which seem to me to contain the germs of ideas which would repay development. " Klangfarbe oder Tonfarbe. Pfluger's Archivy Vol. The felt difficulty of setting the theory of resonance on a it sound physical basis has probably. Munich and Leipzig. paper Stohr is aiming. the key to the problem of the analysis of sounds and to a clear lost. 1894. 494 sqq. If the existence of such vibrations of the membrane I is proved. me to speak very much to the point. when he says that we cannot do without some sort of theory of resonance. as by everyone who has studied its it.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which is 303 nevertheless the velocity of propagation in the membrane. July 1904. but tone-sensations would be that this also need not necessarily be a physical theory. if was given up. at a goal not far removed from ^ Hermann. appears in the labyrinthine fluid in the form of stable vibrations of the membrane.^ 20. LVL. and simple doctrine of Hence the frantic attempts L. with him. like. 1 904. Vol. been and not it least acutely by originators. Kessel some time ago pointed out the necessity of attacking the problems of acoustics from the point of view of asymmetry . but may se be a physiological theory. Ewald's theories gain greatly in value. further." In this SUddeuische Monatshefte. it But at the same time was recognized that. very much smaller. Hermann ^ seems to to save the theory of resonance. see '* Die Funktion der Trommelhohle/' Berichte der Wiener Akademie. Stohr. though by a different route. the plausible assumption that the nervous organs J>er 1 Stohr. 3rd part.

n. Indeed. the tone vibration- Fven physical resonator with number n^ . «' .n) of half of the time.304 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS are peculiarly sensitive to stimuli with a definite period. the deviations from standing to one another in to the negative sign. but we may think of a state of equilibrium which is of an electrical or chemical it nature. by means of which one can act as a stimulus upon another. that in the long run precisely as many and In the as strong positive and negative (. there positive And may be a connexion between these organs. when one I imagines or draws the course of the beats. we may consider more closely.n can never be excited by such beats. it easy to see. cannot here attempt to reproduce pletely Hermann's arguments comcontent and accurately. whether they are fast or slow. however. is never possible to movement a of the air as such a movement the as could contain the wave-vibration./ impulses must take place as there are vibrations the resonator.^ It cannot exactly be elastic forces that impel the organ its back to position of equilibrium. but must myself with referring the reader to his paper. n or (n^-n) times a second. the impulses are equal to and of the same direction as the * Perhaps this assumption would still remain valuable if ceeded in providing a basis for a satisfactory physical it also suc- theory of resonance. also. When two wave-shaped pendular vibrations with vibrationn. — is that is to say. numbers «' co-operate. In this way a reasonable prospect seems to be opened up I of making up for the loss of the physical theory. One point. . there then arise beats which as a rising may be regarded regard the and sinking of the But it tone. the relation of the further. «'. first .

jection of Young's explanation of combination tones by means of rapid and leads. on the other hand. Yet. It would only be possible the resonator could be made more its receptive of one kind of first impulse than of the other. when it was first promulgated. while preserving the theory of resonance. to be an admirably complete and classical it achievement. however. and more receptive in the half of the duration of vibration. But it is quite conceivable that a nervous organ should be unequally receptive of opposite impulses. The theory of Helmholtz as to tone-sensations seemed. way Young's mistake. were directed . has not been able to stand against criticism. as is suffi- ciently evident critics. to Helmholtz's theory of combination tones.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS impulses in the second therefore half. It would seem. and likewise should be receptive different stages of its excitation. criticism And this was in no sense captious. in different degrees at For an organ does not it. that the physical relations which Helmholtz had to assume do not exist in the circumstances under which combination tones are heard. simply follow the forces that act upon store of energy but contains a upon which those In this forces only act by liberat- ing the energy. of view. We can easily see re- how this way of considering the matter involves the beats. on a fundamental exami- nation. in spite from the of all fact that the attacks of the different individual peculiarities. 305 is An effectual summation if excluded. and the presumably unsuccessful attempt of Helmholtz to improve on Young's theory. will have led to an important new point 21.

But the though it achievement of Helmholtz. some positive work from which to take their In thinking that a psychologists task. The "Doctrine of Tone-Sensations" genius. if were ever legitimate to look matter from the point of view of a single person. founded the physical school of physiology in co-operation with him. and has provided the stimulus for a mass of new investigations new prospects have been opened up. have had to recognize that the fragment of inorganic physics which we have conquered. all its could be mastered. apart from the positive increase of knowledge which we owe to has brought life and movement into it has encouraged inquirers to make new experiments. about the middle of the last century. certain sides. the whole question . will as in a picture —along which further research careful not to have to advance. must not be underrated. Even those friends and contemporaries of his who. His work. . it The effect of this at the might be tragic. and possible ways of going wrong have been definitely New experiments and criticisms are closed for ever. We must therefore be . in main features. which points the way — though and it be only by the symbolism of a physical analogy. the expression of the speculation of a an artistic intuition.3o6 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS same points and took the same direction. against the The stood result of all this criticism seems to be that the main problem it has been put back almost to the point at which before Helmholtz wrote. from physical points of view. which provides ample work for and physiologists as well as for physicists. Helmholtz was doubtless under a delusion. is far from being the whole is world. made all the easier by the existence of start. open to attack may be on it.

Music.Sensations was remain unaltered after his death. its same question may be proposed no matter from what province with reference to every material is art. What can it this remarkable development of the power of hearing have to do with^ the preservation of the species? Does not far ? exceed the measure of the necessary or the merely useful What can possibly be the significance of a fine discrimina? tion of pitch Of what use of fact. the high develop- ment of modern music and the spontaneous and sudden appearance of great musical talent seem. But the question which satisfies most obvious with reference no practical need and is for the most part depicts nothing. like. such a person may I . In order to be able to see. ? or of the acoustic colorings of orchestral music As a matter of sense also. the to us is the sense of intervals.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS throw overboard much that deficiencies that have to is 307 valuable along with the be set aside. little For what reasons Helmholtz himself took so not know. a person must have the power of distinguishing the directions of lines. with regard to the intelligence of a Newton. or their which apparently is transcends the necessary measure. derived. I think that he acted rightly. a most singular and mysterious phenomenon. The far question is pertinent. an Euler. at first glance. 22. To a person accustomed to looking at things from the point of view of the theory of evolution. If he has a fine power of distinction. to music. according to which the text of the to Tone. however. notice of criticism. I do But in the last disposition which he made. closely allied to the decorative arts.

1889).3o8 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The case is acquire. is in connexion with what has been said above. But this impres- and we perceive that the very same utterances which. Jena. . it is talent supplemented by a capacity of adaptation extending beyond the youthful period. must bear in mind that what we call talent and however gigantic Talent their achievements may appear to us. Clarendon Press. but they manifest themselves spontaneously and suddenly. and by the retention of freedom to overstep routine barriers. We genius. if we will but reflect that descendants are not exact reproductions of their immediate ancestors. but exhibit the qualities both of their immediate and of their more 1 distant ancestors and C/e/>er die relatives with some variations. a feeling for agreeable combinations of lines. this. Vererbung. intelligible. as adults.^ do make their appearance slowly and by degrees in the . The naivety of the child delights us. constitute but a slight departure from normal endow- ment. as a sort of collateral product of his education. Taken too. of color-harmony following upon the and so. Weismann. 1883 (English translation. we are wont to ascribe to freedom. development of the power of distinguishing it colors. as not Weismann has aptly shown . have their source. and produces almost always the impression of genius. sion as a rule quickly disappears. 43. in the child. may be resolved into the possession of psychical power slightly above the average in a certain province. undoubtedly is with respect to music. in a lack of fixed character. course of generations nor can they be the result of ac- cumulated effort and practice on the part of ancestors . p. Oxford. And as for genius. Talent and genius. the same with the sense too.

and to his contemporaries.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 309 now slightly diminished. The factors of in post- development do not suddenly become inoperative embryonic life. Surely everyone knows from his own experience what rich psychical acquisitions he owes to his cultural environment. pp.^ ^ Cf. The comparison of several children of the same two parents is very instructive on this point. 291-298. by modern fanatics on the question of race. Wallaschek. to the influence of long vanished generations. now slightly augmented in amount. the sound and sober view of R. done. To deny as is the influence of pedigree on psychical dispositions would be as unreasonable as to reduce everything to it. whether from narrow-mindedness or dishonesty. Anfdnge der Tonkunsty Leipzig. . 1903.

written with refreshing vigor and impartiality. Open Court Publishing Co. no " sensation which an external " thing. in studying the behaviour of by disregarding variations of temperature we reach Mariotte's law. Gay before (see have partly discussed the questions considered in this chapter. Chicago. a very widespread is removed. according to the aspect in which. 317. B. my History and Root of the Principle of the Conservation of Energy.XIV.' gain does physics derive from the preceding in? WHAT prejudice is vestigations In the first it. Chicago. 310 . for the time being. will be perused by everyone with pleasure and profit. out of which this supposed inside and outside are formed —elements which are themselves inside or outside. place.. W. but ^ by expressly considering them. INFLUENCE OF THE PRECEDING INVESTIGATIONS ON OUR CONCEPTION OF PHYSICS. James directed in conversation my attention to points of agreement between my writings and his essay Sentiment of Rationality" {^Mind. they are viewed.. IV. and also the essay on "The Economical Nature of Physical Inquiry. translated by P. There is but one kind of elements." different from sensation. July This essay. domain As. of sense belongs both to the physical and the alike." first published in 1882. With regard to the idea of concepts as labor-saving I instruments. and see my Mechanik and Wdrmelehre). Vol. on "The 1879). Jourdain. 1894. E. no inside and outside. and now in my Popular Scientific Lectta'es. p. corresponds. and with " to a barrier. The world psychical gases. the late Prof. There no rift between the psychical and the physical. 191 1.

they remain economical ways of symbolizing as little experience.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Lussac's. for the higher purall poses of science. new paths of investigation cannot fail to be opened up. As before. will estimating the value of our symbols. and consider connexions as equivalent. like every other. therefore. even province of physics. We are on our guard now. is part of the world of sense. We is must regard it as an additional gain that the physicist now no longer overawed by the traditional intellectual If ordinary implements of physics. unconsciously constructed mental symbol for a relatively stable sensational elements. and certainly not more enlightenment and revelation than from experience in the itself. "matter" must be complex of be the case regarded merely as a highly natural. But we have right to expect from them. whereas we are studying the psychology or physiology of the senses when we direct our main attention to the body and above all to our nervous system. more than we have put into them. the monstrous idea of employing atoms to explain psychical processes ever get possession of us. our object of investigation we are studying physics in its when in searching into the connexions of the world of sense we leave our own body entirely out of account. much more must The this with the artificial hypothetical atoms and molecules of physics and chemistry. value of these implements for their special. as from the symbols of algebra. limited purposes is not one whit destroyed. broadest signification body. the is boundary-line between the physical and the psychical solely practical and conventional. Our remains the same so. 311 while throughout . against overStill less. If. we erase this dividing-line. too. seeing that atoms .

Epistemological criticism can indeed do no one any harm. by regarding matter as something absolutely stable and immutable that we actually destroy the connexion between physics and physiology. or changes of place. of which the only changes are movements. . Acuteness of observation and a felicitous instinct are very safe guides fcr him. in . and into their mutual dependence on one another we may then reasonably expect to build a unified monistic structure upon this conception. further. which are of the same nature in departments. Now if we resolve the whole material world into elements which at the same time are also elements of the psychical world and. to get rid of the distressing it is confusions of dualism.312 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which we meet with in the are but the symbols of those peculiar complexes of sensational elements narrow domains of physics and chemistry. for instance. we regard it as the sole task of science inquire into the connexion and combination of these all elements. and thus Indeed. But any one who has in mind the gather- ing up of the sciences into a single whole. —the physicist. still It may be that the physicist is satisfied with the notion of a rigid matter. — has no reason to allow himself to be troubled overmuch by such speculations. The fundamental views of mankind are formed by a natural process of adaptation to a narrower or wider sphere of experience and thought. are tions to . but the specialist. a thing as this the physiologist or psychologist can Of such make nothing at all. has to look for a conception to which he can hold in every department of science. commonly called sensa- if. as such. His conceptions.

4th. will be best and most But when it is a question of bringing into connexion two adjacent departments. Every physicist to not an epistemologist. it to analyse the sensations as long as the paths of the in the brain atoms were unknown. to make apology to me a silent Dubois-Reymond with I his Ignorabimus^ — dictum which up to that moment greatest mistake. conceptions have to be created be adequate for the wider domain. By means of more general which shall is considerations. ed. Ueber Grenzen des Naturerkennens. had regarded as the After all. . was impossible was lectured by a physicist on the misguided way in which I had conceived my task. 313 so far as they prove to be inadequate. each of which has been developed in its special and peculiar way. might have theory based on upon effect ground and have developed into a psychological " concealed movements. which. Special research demands a man's Not long I full energies but so does epistemology. and when they were known itself. after the first edition of this book was published. this recognition is removed a weight from many his work. 1872. the connexion cannot be effected by means of the limited conceptions of a narrow special department. . had I been a fallen young man of the period of Laplace.^ die He did Dubois-Reymond. In his opinion.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS quickly corrected by the facts. men's minds. Dubois-Reymond's recognition of the insolubility of his problem was an immense step in advance. everything else would follow of Of course I had not much fertile use for utterances such as these. as success which ' shewn by the success of a is otherwise scarcely intelligible. however. even were possible." The offer which they had was. nor ought every physicist if it be one.

. and laws which form. . stating the question. . through reproducing in like manner the relations of . . the reproducing of the a ^ 7 . . like countless others. sciences may be distinguished according to the matter of which they treat. . . either for practical ends. say. . the physiology or psychology of the senses.. Resuming the terminology of the "Introductory Remarks. themselves by other a (3 y . through reproducing the relations KL M while . that the portrayal of the sense-given facts of less importance than the atoms. to one another and to A B C of K L J/ . so But un- to speak.. arises when the combination of the other elements imitated by (in its the elements a /3 7. must depend on a mistaken way of too. to physiology.314 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS not. . take the further important step of seeing that the recognition of a problem as insoluble in principle." science. . . or for intellectual discomfort. indeed. For he took the instruments of a special science to be the actual world. For example. . physics broadest signification) arises by the representative reproin their relations to duction of the elements ABC one another . as also its manner of treat- But all science has for aim the representation of removing facts in thought. we may is say. forces. . the nucleus of the sense-given facts. 3. . ^' by their The ing it. Now one might be of the opinion. . biassed reflexion discloses that every practical and intellectual need is satisfied the moment our thoughts have acquired the power to represent the facts of the senses . ABC . with respect to is physics. leads to the psychological sciences proper.

as the help they afford. —then more insight than require. and more we do not we cannot combine the partial . shall stand out in full sensational reality before our eyes. we hear the subterranean thunders. forces. the jamming of the doors. the cracking of the walls. hear the in the towers. Our knowledge earthquake. appear having no power to occasion When. the movement of the furniture and the pictures. surprise. and laws are facilitating the representation. consequently. all given facts of the case that they may be regarded almost and the facts a substitute for the phenomenon to us as old familiar figures. begin to ring which are at present when unknown the subterranean processes. say of an as complete as possible when our thoughts the relevant senseas so marshal before the eye of the mind itself. the stopping of the clocks.THE ANALYSES completely. further. feel the oscillation of the earth. figure to ourselves the sensation produced by the rising and sinking of the ground. SENSATIONS is 315 the end Such representation. to us. so that we shall see the earthquake advancing as we see a waggon approaching in the distance till finally we hear If the earth shaking beneath this our feet. is of a natural phenomenon. the falling of the plaster. in imagination. breaking the branches of the trees . while atoms. OF. the wrenching of the door-posts. Their value and as far only. we cannot have. and aim of physics merely means extends as far. when we bells see the town enveloped in a cloud of dust. when we see in mind the oncoming undulation passing over a forest as lightly as a gust of wind over a field of grain. the rattling and smashing of windows. .

it yet remains true that these constructions merely enable our thoughts to grasp gradually and piecemeal what they are unable to grasp all at once. are but quantitative norms. in interposing a lens. But the limited supply of thoughts . we find our thoughts. regulating my sensory representation of the facts. When I see in thought a white beam of light which falls upon a prism issue forth in a fan. how these lines alter their position on the prism being its turned. this.3i6 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS without the aid of certain facts in their right proportions auxiliary mathematical conceptions or geometrical constructions.shaped I band of colors . or on the therit mometer all in contact with altering its register. having certain angles which 1 can specify beforehand when it see the real spectrum-image. All auxiliary conceptions. in large measure. by their help. But these auxiliary conceptions would be devoid of value. already adjusted to the Our thoughts marshal the elements before us in groups copying the order of the sense-given facts. with Fraunhofer's lines occurring in points determinable in advance . obtained upon a screen by at I see. In science only deliber- and consciously pursues what its in daily life goes on unnoticed and of own accord. as we become capable of self-observation. . the graphic representation of the sense-given facts. laws. is the research. accordingly. the former are the means. then I know and that I can require. The latter is the end. As soon facts. when my mind. formulae. on substance being changed. could we not reach. The aim of ately adaptation of thoughts to all scientific facts.

This example is astronomy begins in antiquity with similar naif assertions. Imt this has only been recognized at a late stage. If the judgment can be is the new presentation more than a combination of formerly established memoryimages. which also already Similarly. strays. consists in the enrichment. which can also be elicited in a person addressed by words. The process of judgment. 317 cannot keep pace with the constantly augmenting sweep of Ahnost every new its fact necessitates a new adaptation. in the present case.year-old child. This process its is easily followed in children. ^ and supplementation not fictitious.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS experience. the already existing sensational representation we " (himself and his companions) is filled out into a single image by means of the Representation existed. the image of is the "world" all the objects of the environment) supplemented by combination with the image of an envelop ing blue ball (the representation of which must also have been present. on for first visit from the town to the country. In this case what is actually attested is a physioScientific logical fact. which finds expression in the operation of judgment. extension. second judgment. for it would have A judgment is thus always a supplement- ing of a sensational presentation in order to represent more never completely a sensational expressed in words. therefore. their formation? "We process accompanying In the first '* instance. looks about.. into : meadow. a large instance. then fact. What is the are in a ball. I . in the {i. which it thinks are physical. and says a blue wonderingly ball. but was observed in the case of my E three.e." ^ The world is Here we have two judgments. of a ball. since otherwise the name been wanting). A child.

Of these works. presentation too hastily sixth the third. special points contained in his book. those concerned with the relation between logic and grammar seem to me the most ' interesting. Stohrin 1 heorie der Namen (1889). 1895). and judgment. . its and the image has assumed a familiar shape.. of sensational presentations by other sensational presentations under the guidance of sense-given facts.^ of such intuitive It is to knowledge. I nevertheless have been greatly stimulated and instructed by many of the investigations of ' I as such. On the other hand. influence. ^ w . : Con- for example. and Algebra der Grammatik (1898). . in particular the biological function of The physiological aspects. (4) weak sulphuric acid glass . fifth. (7) a cube has first The statement *' contains a spatial extension of the presentation tree " the second a correction of a generalized from habit . Though my own position is not that of the author's.3i8 5. . and contain temporal extensions of their respective presentations. the following statements . owe their growth. Z>?V Vieldentigkeit des C/r/e?7s (iSg^). ' • .. as Locke calls it. dis- (5) friction electrifies (6) an electric six current deflects a magnetic needle surfaces. twelve edges. If the pro- cess is over. force can scarcely be called felicitous. are set forth in a very His conception of the subject in judgment as a centre of lively way. ' . science and mathematics mainly sider. it will certainly be readily admitted that in the early stages of culture and of the formation of language anthropomorphic conceptions exerted much Other questions of a different kind are discussed by A. cannot here enter upon an examination of the process of judgment But among recent works on the subject I should like to draw special attention to W. then we have no longer to do with a judgment the formation that natural but merely with a simple memory. fourth. (i) the tree is has a root (2) the frog has no claws . making appearance in consciousness as a completed presentation.' -. THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS . Jerusalem's Die Urteilsfnnktion (Vienna. eight corners. (3) the caterpillar transformed into a butterfly solves zinc .

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS The seventh proposition is 319 an example of geometrical intuitive knowledge. Intuitive itself knowledge of the sort just described impresses its upon the memory. and by green hard fruits (which are seen with insect-hunting difficulty). and when he adds . must conform to the principle of sufficient differentiation. of their sour taste. by bright red and yellow fruits (seen without exertion on the tree). Here we have expressed. On the other hand. and so we reach a principle which holds a paramount place in memory — the principle of broadest if possible generalization or continuity. it and be of real practical use. but avoids the yellow and black distinctly the wasp. Even the animal is reminded. at everything that fly. 6. effort for enough. The buzzes monkey snatches and flies. But the component parts of the sensational presentation which are common different cases are emphasized. the selection and emphasis of those particular elements of the se^nsational presentations which are determinative of the direction which the thought must pursue to suit the experience. The to various facts are not exactly alike. And both ends are attained by the same means. The physicist proceeds in quite an analogous manner. memory is to do justice to the complexity of facts. and makes appearance in the form of recollections which spontaneously supplement every fact presented by the senses. when he says (generalizing) light : All transparent solids refract incident (differ- towards the perpendicular. the combined the greatest possible generalization and continuity and for practically sufficient differentiation of memory. of their sweet taste. soft.

or investigation. If this adaptation has become upon a comprehensive to embrace the vast majority of the occurring facts. When it has become a habit of thought to tiating element. For example. we have contrary to the all." that the Moment " or " work " is the differenproblem is solved. I . irresistibly attracts the Practical considerations. at some time or another. comparing various we have noted the influence of the weights. the rest doubly. and marvellous acts as a stimulus. or even bare intellectual discomfort. may engender the will to remove the contradic- tion or to adapt our thoughts to the new fact. then a likely to lead to a new differ- problem arises.320 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS : entiating) amorphous bodies and isomeric crystals simply. The new.. and by our own exertions have reached the abstract concepts of " "moment" or "work. facts. unusual. pay attention to "moment" or "work. quite common run of our experience. and of the arms of the lever. A facts great part of our mental adaptation takes place un- consciously and involuntarily." the problem no longer exists. observed a lever or pulley lifting a large weight by means of a small which cannot be given to similar one. immediately disclosed to us by the the senses. fact itself as It is only when. Thus arises purposive thought-adaptation. under the guidance of the presented to the sufficiently senses. and subsequently fact we come which runs violently counter to the customary course of our thought without our being able to discover at once the determinative factor entiation. which attention. We seek the differentiating factor.

in "crocodiles" from Ionia. In fact. at another in the external covering . A universal triangle. being designations which from necessity must be used to describe many particular presentations. Further. " **dog. Thus there is no question of a concept.) X . at may reside. which at once right- angled and equilateral. arx^ rising into consciousness at the name of the conis / accompanying the conceptual process./ ? What is a concept ? Is there a sensational presentationI image corresponding to the concept ? to myself a cannot represerit"^ man in general. I can at most represent to myself a particular man. for instance. Thus a child calls the feathers of a bird "hairs". a shaving-brush. the horns of a cow "feelers". in the another in the motion. and so on. or a pig or a sheep.. are far from corresponding completely to any concept. (Ilerodotos. 321 tion What do we do when we abstract ? What is an abstrac. or perhaps one combining such accidental peculiarities of different men as are not exclusive is of each other. at another in the form. generally. soon afterward calls swiftly-running black beetle. Any similarity whatever reminding him of the presentation to which the leads to the use of the same name. live in the walls. cannot be imagined. words. the image thus cept.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 8. II."^^ dog " . name was first given The point of naturally similarity It need not be at all the same in the successive cases. ' the Thus the Marcomanni called the lions sent across the Danube by Romans "dogs/' and the lonians called the xdfx\j/aL of the Nile their likeness to the lizards {KpoKbdeCkoC) which. A child it who has seen for the first time a black a large and dog and heard named. not the concept. at one time. color. 69.

only less noticeably so. ' All these examples are taken from actual experience. shew that even nations do not act differently." because of its rectangular boundaries.. one of which may But the result is contain the other.^ Most adults treat . " shaving-brush " words in the same manner. D. the numeral. father's beard. factors multiplied. the equality of the two every concept. as the result of which a is definite sensational element (the mark of the concept) obtained. The illiterate man calls a rectangle a " square " . . without disand so on. tinction. 1875.322 its THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS and the down of a dandelion. 6x6. The activity excited by the word may be number of operations. Whitney. there nothing in- volved in the word but a simple impulse to perform some familiar sensory operation. enumerate the angles of a its me or of I in my consciousness and when in so doing reach seven. or the sensational my may announce mark of the number. Li/e and Growth of Language. made up of a The same holds good of is patent. I under In speaking of a "square number. etc. namely." figure visibly before . the sensational characteristic of which. and a number historical examples. - See W. I For example. occasionally' he also calls a cube a "square. because they have a larger vocabulary at their disposal." given into seek to resolve the number components typified by the operation 5x5. falls then by this very act the given presentation the given concept. of authenticated The science of language. always a sensational element which was not present before. in finger which case the sound. when image I think of the concept "heptagon. is In using a word denoting a concept.^ A concept is never simply a completed presentation.

as is sufficient for the shewn by the history of the mental develop- ment of the has been blind. In the case I of conic sections see (the ellipse. with his colorless solution of elicits when by a definite from a yellow or brown precipidifferentiate the course of is which has the power to his thought. which in their turn may determine the subsequent course of our activity thought in harmony with and us. hyperbola) fall do not directly . Such cases. the (as it is. however. therefore. parabola. which enriches a fact with new_sensational elements. and constitute the main source of misunderstandings concerning the nature of concepts. A small measure of sensational endowment and a very formation of low degree of mobility are concepts. as the fact merely acts tional activity. are exceptional. deaf and dumb Laura Bridgman. Fre- This distinctly cognized only on counting. new sensational element may be so obvious for instance. the fact. which made generally accessible by Jerusalem's interest- . We it do what the chemist does salts. By this we enrich for extend the fact. the fact of having seven angles need not be present to fact is my mind. The concept of the physicist a definite reaction-activity. we apply abstract concepts to a fact. quently. upon us an impulse to a sensa- which introduces new sensational elements. for When. which before was too meagre operation he tate. and by constructing the equation conies. that I these curves all under the same concept but can discover the fact by cutting a cone. in the case of the triangle) that the operation of counting seems unnecessary.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS its 323 In looking at or in imagining a heptagon.

1905. indeed. 292. '* Marie Heurtin. p. to weigh and to multiply the numbers representing the lengths of of its its arms by the numbers representing the values If the weights. but which If now differentiates the course of Qur thought. Heleji Keller.324 ing THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS little book. By walking about and by moving her hands she discovers the tactual signs (the class-characteristics) of a door. W. naturally enough. we expect equilibrium. cit^ p. and so forth. 30)- To we its revert to an earlier example. 25). Laura Bridgman. 1891. was almost entirely lacking her only channel for the per- ception of disturbances and sound-vibrations was the soles of her feet and her finger-tips —her skin. pp. was a school {op. far. cit. yet she succeeded in forming simple concepts. Stern. The most abstract concepts to which she attain was able to seem to have been the numbers. attached to specific presentations. Jerusalem. are impelled to measure the length of weights. Vol. in we is will keep well ' mind the fact that conceptual thought a re- also L. when we see a lever. afforded by her taking the Evidence of this sums in a school-book to be specially intended for her (op. On is the whole her mental processes remained. Jerusalem. a knife. . go very The power of abstraction does not. in short. or the world beyond. 426 (1905). same sensational numerical symbol corresponds to both products.. a chair. W. Cp. Pichler. and her idea that heaven." Oesterreichische Rundschau. III. Vienna.^ In Laura Bridgman the sense of smell . Berlin. its arms. We have thus gained a new sensational element which was not antecedently given in the bare fact itself.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS action-activity 325 shall which must be thoroughly practised. In impossible in any province to grasp the higher abstractions without a practical working knowledge of Facts. selection. Thus here also. and emphasis of the determinative sensational elements. Hke everything else. and the most diverse groups of facts are found to resemble and not to resemble each other solely in virtue of this element. everything is reducible to the discovery. investigator his The thought are a fragment only of nature. the number representing the virtual moments of the lever). as in the case of intuitive knowledge. then. in abstracting. KLM'vn and all his extension of facts. For when the new determinative sensational element is found (say. and the mathematician precisely the same way . Investigation here is only reaches by a roundabout way what immediately presented to intuitive cognition. we understand the well-known fact that no one can familiarize himself with mathematics or physics or with any natural science by mere reading without practical exercise. There is no real chasm between him and he tother fragments. the attention is turned away . and enriched. The the mathematician are always conveniently at hand. are extended its details. the only difference being that the latter needs to go least outside the elements aids of a /3 7 . . Underfact. is On the preceding theory. scales. it is standing here depends entirely on action. and ultimately again simplified. All elements are equivalent. . the physicist with his mea- suring-rod. It is true that. then the attention is directed to this alone. and galvanometer. by conceptual handling. The chemist all treat facts in with his re-agents. the essence of abstraction it not exhausted by terming (with Kant) negative attention.

as Ribot also found his statistical experiments. but at the same time should like to refer the reader to the further explanations contained in a later work of mine. and applied. pp. than at vulgar The latter are so vague that they can scarcely all. and treat only of such vulgar con- words of the speech of everyday intercourse. be reckoned as proper concepts The words of ordinary speech are simply familiar signs which occasion equally familiar habits of thought. of such words. is turned towards other new is sensational elements. 2nd ed. since 1897 . but on the other hand. if . essential feature. and precisely this latter fact the Every abstraction is founded on the prominence given to certain sensational elements.. 10. 415. . on the contrary. 422. Both concepts from the scope of their inquiry. Prinzipien der Wdrmelehre. I have also mentioned the works of H. in so far as is it has any definite form at scarcely present to consciousness. The conceptual content all. Gomperz and Ribot. is the opinion that the nature of concepts common am of necessarily much which have in more clearly displayed in scientific concepts. In the foregoing exposition of I my views I have left I vhat wrote in 1886 unaltered.326 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it from many sensational elements. which have appeared investigations which in to these works contain many respects have a certain affinity Gomperz and Ribot exclude scientific cepts as have been fixed in the I. my own. 1896 I by 1 have no doubt that.^ In the second edition of the Prinzipien der Wdrmelehre (1900). 1900. been consciously formed concepts.

which we have intuition used as mental helps. 327 Ribot and Gomperz had framed their inquiry so as to my agreement with them it would be even more far-reaching than actually is. Even where immediate von Kries. Thus we think an of the planets as projectiles. as familiar new facts become is and as intuitive as the older ones.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS include scientific concepts also. . we figure to ourselves electric body as covered with a until finally the fluid that acts at a distance. Where we cannot at once follow a new and more definite shape. fact. which find their justification in the mental adaptation that develops them and ultimately gives them birth. we think of heat as a substance that passes from one body to another. all therefore.) II. drawing upon more or less large parts of the central nervous system. Complicated concepts will require a complicated system of reactions. this theory. ij. Die niateriellen Grundlagen der Bewusstseinserscheimmgen^ Freiburg im Breisgau. The facts given by the senses.^ (Cf. immediately are the most and the most intuitive. fact The thoughts which follow the sense-given familiar. 1898. Probably the difficulties pointed out by J. and helping to create a correspondingly complicated system of sensational elements characterizing the concept. 69. the strongest. pp. We have chosen statical moment as a simple example of a concept. the strongest and most familiar thoughts press forward it to mould is into a richer all This process the source of all the hypotheses and speculations of science. von Kries are not insuperable on 70 above. are alike the starting-point and the goal of the mental adaptations of the physicist.

^ Continuity. to what is constant it is only the mental reconstruction of constant elements that can yield advantage in point of economy. 13- The it unconditionally constant we term its it substance. 1893.S04« . Herein is contained the ultimate ground of our is. Open Court Publishing Co. the results of the adaptation are rendered intelligible. economy. at least by the shortest path. All calculations. become ordered to intuitive in an economically assorted system of conceptual reactions. which lead.328 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS observing the principle of continuity and of sufficient out of the question. that greatest possible constancy. and constancy mutually condition one another they are really only different aspects of one and the same property of all sound thinking.. too. the thoughts of the physicist. P. 12. by carefully differentiation. J. M*Cormack. eyes in direction. are merely intermediate means. pro- ceeding step by step. without touching I can touch without seeing Although the actual appearance of the component elements 1 Cp.. my The Science of Mechanics^ translated by T. for the preservation of the and in this way. Thoughts can adapt themselves only in the facts . Chicago. to the attainment of this kind of intuition in cases where it cannot be attained immediately. knowledge. effort for continuity in thought. can see it. Let us now consider the results of mental adaptation. etc. constructions. and always using sense-perception as a support. I I see a body upon turning my it.

I regard the body. and my expectations definite are associated with far if I more groups of facts. or the nucleus of this complex. or the complex of elements. I yet leave these aids out of account as soon as they have become them familiar to me. for the moment. In the same manner as with the complex of elements corresponding to a body. even when not we associating special substances with these names. and heat. gain the advantage of being able to predict.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS of the complex I yet is 329 determined in this way by certain conditions. light. leaving entirely out of account the familiar conditions under which they appear . and we hold the ideas which reproduce them always in readiness. have these conditions too absolutely in my power to appreciate or notice them markedly. Having always ready the thought of its this I complex. make of the complexes in in the present case question sensational and although external aids (for instance. My behaviour is the same with regard appear to to the chemical elements. and avoid the disadvantage of being surprised." my mind. plane of thought-adaptation. symbolically. and look upon the chemical elements as simply constant. bodies exterior to my own body) also are necessary. the thought of nucleus. Although here my mere willing it is not sufficient to facts. far more memories arise in When I say a body is "electric. thereby gaining an advantage similar to that explained above. yet ascribe constancy to these provinces of facts. it is the object of my senses or not. which also me unconditionally constant. whether. the attractions displayed . believes in atoms treats in The man who an analogous way. or. we may also proceed. on a higher facts. magnetism. with entire provinces of In speaking of electricity. as always present. for instance. than had emphasized.

In the place. ultimately. form in which we became acquainted with the If we have once accustomed ourselves to regard the body. for instance. pressures. may be no such important. in proceeding thus. for is. if we were to regard the its which is.330 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Yet this hypostasizing first in the single cases. to recognize that there thing as a specific electrical just as well fact. now thousands of years hence). but It it is method. as all a chemical one. of the physical facts are made same sensational elements and that (colors. as con is The entire passage of time. that every such fact can be regarded. or rather that up. present in vestiges (since. as constant. even might be hazarded . which parts of the world which we cannot perhaps never see tion. spaces. we always follow the same historical paths. example. we are merely reminded by the term " electric first " of that particular fact. also. we have seen but once and shall again. times). our solar system be seen where stant. or of case of the sun and moon. at pleasure. would be merely a consistent additional whole past. or as a thermal one. sensibility. in the touch. then in cases in easy for us to do the same which the conditions of sensational manifesta- tion lie entirely beyond our power — for example. were thousands of years ago). indeed. however. still ance for an undisturbed and economical conception of the world. in fact. which will present in germ it (since. to and from which we can. may have It is its disadvantages. is we see the stars where they and the whole future. or that we know only by descrip- Such a method of procedure may have high importcertainly not the only legitimate step. dependent special solely on conditions of our this step Were a purpose given. for example. turn our glance or it is our hand.

our concepts of physical measurement can be maintained. There only one sort of constancy. I . again. which embraces the cases that occur. consists. 331 Really unconditioned constancy does not exist. a fixed law of connexion which in themselves seem this I extremely unstable. will be alarmed by this proposal not to treat matter as something absolutely constant. is What we call matter a combination of the elements or sensations according to certain laws. constancy of connexion or of relation. but to take as constant. to some such radical change method of if we want to escape the alternative of perpetu- ally recurring helplessness in the face of these questions. Moreover. we deliberately disregard them. There can be no question of abolishing from ordinary everyday use the vulgar conception of matter which has been all instinctively developed for this purpose.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 14. not anything unconditionally constant. namely. is Substance. The sensations con- nected with the different sense-organs of a particular are man dependent on one another according to laws. as are It is in the sensations of different men. especially the physicists and chemists. this that matter The older generation. though myself at one time went through it. younger minds may find view is conception difficult but the inevitable. or as or as we regard them all as always given. to the We attain idea of absolute constancy only as we overlook is or underrate conditions. among elements Even . as will be evident from the preceding considerations. or matter. a great struggle in order to arrive at We shall have to make in the up our minds our thought. instead.

but to promote the at this efforts. which. The ately singular illusion. be put in the place of By here a condition intervenes. heat. we. immediately affected by a certain acceleration with respect to A. seeing that it is possible at any time to fulfil it. which the positive sciences are towards mutual accommodation." which is a unknown Something. electricity. out for mechanics. But science suffers no rigid. sterile. likewise merely a constancy of con- When I say that a body A exerts a force on a body is B. 15- The frog. or more exactly speaking. is invariably . is replaced by still a constant law. Rays of in light are rectilinear. Purely empirical concepts here take the place of metaphysical. is easily removed.'' When them these constancies are laws. of which the details are further explanation search. moment making. that the Substance A is the abso- lutely constant vehicle of a force which takes effect immediIf on ^'s being contraposed to A.332 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS I only receiving such critical elucidation as carry have tried to etc. constant. I mean that B. propositions of natural science express only such : constancies of connexion as " The its tadpole turns into a in the fall Chlorate of sodium makes appearance Bodies form of cubes. is we call Force (in the mechanical sense) nexion. with an acceleration of 9 'Si (m/sec^). on coming into contraposition with A. expressed concepts. our sense-organs. loss when a " matter. capable of re- by means of physico-physiological this In doing or our object is not to create a new philosophy metaphysics.

with- disregard as easily as we can ourselves. By virtue of this constancy our thoughts are spontaneously impelled to complete the half-observed facts. ' power which continually accompanies and which we stand in need. when his father whistled a tune. nor is it intentionally created . which we cannot. for the perception of which only his senses are necessary. The child asks where the shadow. A boy of less than a year old wanted. there is developed a corresponding constancy of thought. 333 and thus A appears to us absolutely constant." which are but abortive attempts to remove a incurred contradiction. 16. become superfluous when we re- cognize only constancies of connexion. assists yet as a us. He will not allow the electrical machine to be turned any great length of time for fear of exhausting the supply of sparks. magnetic which becomes operative only upon being iron. appears to us the constant vehicle of a force. to catch the notes from his lips. as a thing of in order to To the child everything appears substantial. a magnet.^ The phrases. which we see as often as we care to look in its direction. theory of heat very instructive in this connexion. " No matter without force. etc. where the extinguished light goes to. This impulse towards completion is not prompted by the individual facts as observed at the time . brought near to a particle of out noticing the fact. confronts us like a power from without. fact that are outside ourselves Only upon noting conditions of a is does the impression of substantiality disappear. we find the attempt to snatch at coloured after-images. The history of the . but we find it operative in ourselves entirely without our personal It intervention. Given a sufficient constancy of environment. Even with — older children etc. Similarly.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS disregarded. no force without self- matter.

The impulse Through it in a certain is measure enriches the to us. single fact. or to replace Thus Newton conceived the planets as projectiles. Similarly we seek to conceive electrical. it Although is it is developed by experi- contains more than contained in the single experience. no claim rests and there no necessity comin it pelling the facts to correspond to entirely Our confidence sufficiency upon the supposition. Whenever we have of lesser a special interest in the to support representation of facts. For the human being. constancy. until we have mentally added the pressure of the air as holding the chain of particles together. although the ascertained. This need of the support of weaker thoughts by stronger thoughts is also called the need of causality. himself merely a piece of nature. with is and is his impulses. Not all our ideas representmg facts have same cor- constancy. the fact more With this impulse we have always a larger portion of nature in our field of vision. and is the moving spring of all scientific explanations. we endeavour them by the and roborate ideas constancy by ideas of greater latter. which added to the single fact. We naturall\ . or the flowing movement had long been that we understand the of a siphon. This impulse.334 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS facts. supplement the ence. to infallibility. although Kepler's laws were already well known. which has been subtrials. which must be / the prepared to be contradicted at any moment. and the tides as attracted by the moon. than the inexperienced man has with the his thoughts single fact alone. can lay exists it. optical. —a supposition. facts of their We do not think suction of a pump. stantiated by numerous of the of our mental adaptation. however. and thermal processes as mechanical processes. however.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
prefer, as the

335

foundation of this process, the strongest and

most thoroughly tested thoughts, and these are given us by
our
test

much
anew

exercised mechanical functions, which
at

we may

any moment without many or cumbersome

appliances.

Hence the authority of mechanical explanations,
and impact.

especially those by pressure

A

corresponding

and

still

higher authority attaches to mathematical thoughts,

for in their

development we stand
but,

in

need of no extraneous most
if

means whatever,

on the

contrary, invariably carry

of the material for experimenting about with us.
are once apprised of this, the
tions
I

But

we

need of mechanical explana-

is appreciably weakened.^ have already often pointed out that a so-called " causal is

explanation, also,

nothing more than the statement or

description of an actual fact or of a connexion between facts,

and
in

I

might here simply refer to the detailed discussions
Theory of Heat and

my

my

Popular Lectures.

But, as

people

who have not made a

special study of physics always

believe that

they broaden the basis
if

and

increase

the

profundity of their thought

they assume a fundamental

difference between a scientific description (for instance, of

the development of an embryo) and a physical explanation,
'

Physical experiences other than mechanical

may approach

to the

value of mechanical experiences as they

opinion Strieker has advanced a correct

become more familiar. In my and important view in bringing

causality into connexion with the will (Sttidien iiber die Assoziation der

Vorsielhmgen, Vienna, 1883). When I was a young lecturer in 1861, myself advocated with great warmth and one-sidedness (in the exposition of Mill's method of difference) the view subsequently expressed by Strieker. And the idea has never quite left me (cp., for example, my Science of Mechanics, English trans., pp. 84, 304, 485.) However, I

am

at present of the opinion, as the
is

above discussion shews, that
432.)

this

question

not so simple, and must be looked at from several sides.
p.

(Cp. Wdrmelehre, 2nd ed., 1900,

336
I

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
to

may perhaps be allowed

add a few more words on the
of a plant,

subject.

When we

describe the growth
into play such

we

notice that there

comes

an immense variety
it

of cii;cum stances varying from one case to another, that
is

only in the broader features at most that our description

can hope to apply universally, while as regards the minuter
details
it

can only be accurate

for the

individual case.

This

is

exactly what happens in physics
all

when

the circum-

stances are at

complicated; the only difference being
are
it

that the circumstances

generally simpler
easier
for

and

better

known.

That

is

why

is

us in physics to
intelis

separate out the circumstances experimentally, and
lectually too,
easier.

by means of abstraction.

Schematization

For the astronomers of antiquity, to describe the
to

motion of the planets was a task analogous
description
botanist.

what the

of a

plant's

development

is

for

a

modern

The

discovery of Kepler's laws depends upon
fairly

a fortunate and
closely

crude schematization.

The more

we consider a planet, the more individual does its movement become, and the less exactly does it follow Speaking strictly, all the planets move Kepler's laws. differently, and the same planet moves differently at Now, when Newton gives a '* causal different times.
explanation " of the planetary motions by shewing that one
particle of

mass
<p

m

acquires through another particle m' the
that

acceleration

= ^^, and

the

accelerations

deter-

mined

in the first particle
is

by

different particles are

summed
facts,

geometrically, he

only pointing out or describing
yet

which, although by a roundabout path,

have been

reached by observation.

Let us consider what the process

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
is.

337

The
first

circumstances determining the planetary motions
of all isolated from one another, that
is

are

to say, the

individual particles of mass

and

their distances

from one

another.

The

relation

between two
that

particles of
all

mass

is

very simple, and
stances,
If

we think

we know

the circumthis relation.

mass and distance, that determine
description

we have a

which has been found to be
it

correct for a few cases,

we extend
it

beyond the

limits of

experience and assume

to

be universally
possibility of
;

correct, at the

same time disregarding the
be mistaken, as we should

any disturbance

from an unknown and alien cause

in this, indeed,

we may
were
to

be, for instance, if gravity

to turn out to be transferred through a

medium and

require time for
relation
is

its

transference.

The

modification of the

equally simple, as was pointed out,
is

particles a third

added, and to these
is

when a fourth, and

to two

so on.

Thus Newton's
Newton,

description
;

not, in fact, the description of

an individual case

it is

a description in terms of elements.

in describing the

way

in

which the elements of

mass are related to one another in the elements of time,
indicates to us

how we can
all

describe in terms of the elements

any individual case we
just the

like,

according to his pattern.

It is

same with

the other cases that theoretical physics

has mastered.
the description
with,
is

But
is

this

does not mean that the essence of

changed in any way.

a general description in terms of elements.
satisfied with a representation

remain

What we have to do If we may of the phenomena by

means of differential equations, a view which I long ago recommended (Meckam'k, 1883, 4th ed., 1901, p. 530), and which seems to be coming more and more into favor,
this actually

amounts to the recognition that explanation

338
is

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
spatial

nothing more than a description in terms of elements.

Every particular case can then be put together out of

and temporal elements, the
described by equations.

relations

between which are

17It

was said above that
Let

man
this

himself

is

a fragment of

nature.

me

illustrate

by an example.

For the
merely

chemist a substance

may be

sufficiently characterized

by

his sensations.

In this case the chemist himself supfact necessary

plies,

by inner means, the whole wealth of

to the determination of his

course of thought.

But, in

other cases, recourse to reaction by the help of external

means may be

necessary.

When

an
in

electric current flows
its

round a magnetic needle situated
pole of the needle
is

plane, the north
if

deflected to

my

left,

I

imagine

myself as Ampere's swimmer in the current.
fact (current

I

enrich the

and needle) which

is

insufficient in itself to

define the direction of
into the experiment
lay

my

thought, by introducing myself
reaction.
I

by an inner

may

likewise

my

watch in the plane of the

circuit, so that

the

hand

moves
pole
I

in the direction of the current.

Then

the south
dial.

falls

in front of, the north pole

behind the

Or
^),

may make [of
arranging
this

the circuit traversed by the current a sun-

dial (on the plan of

which the watch in
the

fact

was modelled
the

so

it

that

shadow
pole
will

follows

current.

In

case

the north

shadowed

side of the

plane of the current.
are
its
its

last-mentioned
1

reactions

move towards the The two outward reactions. The
its

By

the direction in which

hands move the watch proclaims

descent from the sun-dial and

discovery in the northern hemisphere.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
two species of reactions could not be made use of
criminately
world.
if

339
indis-

a
is

chasm

existed

between myself and the

Nature

a single whole.

The

fact that the

two

species of reaction are not

known

in all cases,

and that

frequently the observer appears to be entirely without influence, proves nothing against the view advanced.

Right and

left

appear to us to be similar, in contrast to

before and behind, and to above and below.
certain that they are only different sensations,

Yet

it

is

overwhelmed

by stronger similar sensations.

The
all

space of sensation thus

has three strongly marked and essentially different directions.

From

a metrical point of view

directions of geometrical

space are identical.

Our immediate
;

sensation represents

symmetrical shapes as equivalent
they are by no means equivalent.

but in physical respects
Physical space also has

three essentially different directions, which are most clearly

manifested in a

triclinal

medium,

in the behaviour of

an

electro-magnetic element.

The same
is

physical properties
the reason

appear also

in

our

own body, which

why our
If

bodies can be used as reagents in physical problems.

we had an exact physiological knowledge of an element of
our bodies,
the

we should thereby have
(Cp. p. loo.)
i8.

laid, in

all essentials,

foundation of

our understanding

of the

physical

universe.

I

have repeatedly emphasized the unity of the physical
psychical, but
it

and the

is
its

worth while to consider
special aspects.

this

unity once
life,

more

in

one of

Our

psychical
:i'j

in so far as

we mean by

that term our presentations,
;

seems to be perfectly independent of physical processes

340
it

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
in itself, with freer laws of its

seems to be a world

own,

laws that are of a different order.
this is

But

it

is

certain that

a mere illusion, caused by the fact that only a very

minute part of the traces of physical processes ever comes
to
life

in our presentations.

this
it is

fragment are
impossible to

The circumstances determining much too complicated to grasp, so that lay down any precise rule for its occur-

rence.

In order to determine what thoughts a physicist, connect with the observation of a particular
to

for instance, will

optical fact,

we should have

know

the previous events

of his
left

life,

the force of the impressions which they have
facts

behind them, and the

of the development of

general and technical culture by which he has been influ-

enced

;

and

finally

we should have

to

be

in a position to

take into account his mental disposition at the moment.

To do

all this, it

would be necessary
its

to enlist as

an auxiliary
at

the whole of physics, in

widest sense,

and

an un-

attainably high stage of development.*

^'
i;

Let us

now

consider the other side of the picture.

A
is

physical fact, which

we

experience for the
in

first

time,

strange to us.

If

it

happened

some
in

quite different
it

way

from that in which

it

actually happens,

would not thereby
it

be any more puzzling.
uniquely determined.

The way
What
it

which

occurs appears

to us not to be determined by anything, least of all to
is

be
in

that invests the

way

which a physical fact occurs with' the character of determinateness,
1

can only be understood from our psychical

Thus, although

my

ideal of psychology

is
it

that

it

should be purely

physiological, I should nevertheless think
so-called
is

a great mistake to reject
cases

"introspective" psychology entirely.

not only an important means, but in

many

For self-observation is the only means

of obtaining information as to fundamental facts.

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS
development.
is

341
life

The
it

presentational part of our mental

the agent which
brings

first

draws the fact forth from

its isola-

tion,
facts,

into

contact with an abundance of other
it

and then

invests

with determinateness, in virtue of

the necessity for agreement with those other facts and for

he exclusion of contradiction.
auxiliary to physics.

The science of psychology is The two mutually support one another,

and

it is

only

formed.
object, in

when they are united that a complete science is From our standpoint, the antithesis of subject and the ordinary sense, does not exist. The question
which preis,

as to the greater or less degree of precision with

sentations copy the facts,

like every other question, a

problem of natural science.
19.

Whenever

it

happens, in a complexus of elements, that
are replaced by others, then a con-

some of the elements
In such cases

stancy of connexion of one kind becomes a different kind.
it is

desirable to discover a constancy which
J.

survives this change.

R. Mayer was the
his

first

to feel this

need, and satisfied

it

by enunciating

concept of "force,"

which corresponds to the technical mechanical concept of

"work"

(Poncelet), or

more

exactly to the

concept of " energy " (Young).
(or energy) as

more general Mayer conceives this force
(as a store of

something absolutely constant

something, as a material), thus harking back to the most

stubborn intuitive notions.
struggle with

We

perceive,

from Mayer's

expressions,

and with general philosophical
first

phrases (noticeable in the
that he at
first

and second of and
his great

his treatises),

felt

instinctively

intuitively the urgent

need of such a concept.

But

achievement was

342

i

THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS

accomplished only by his adapting the existing physical
concepts to the requirements of the facts as well as to his
needs.^

20.

When

the adaptation

is

adequate, the facts are spon-

taneously reproduced by the thoughts, and
given facts are completed.
quantitative

incompletely

Physics

can act only as a
precise

norm
to

regulating

and giving a more
flowing

conformation
suitably to

the

spontaneously

thoughts,
I

practical or scientific needs.

When
mind.

see a

body thrown
jectile

horizontally, the intuitive picture of a prorise

in

motion may

before

my

But the

artilleryman or the physicist requires more.
for

He must know,

example, that

if

on applying the measuring-rod

M
.
.

to the

horizontal abscissae of the projectile's path, he can count to
I, 2, 3,

4

.

.

.

.,

he must, on applying the measure
also count to
i,

Af
.
.

to in

the vertical ordinates,

4, 9,

i6

order to reach a point of the path.
consists,

The

function of physics
a

therefore,, in

teaching that a fact which, on

definite reaction /? yields a sensory

mark E,

also yields,

on

the giving of a different reaction J^\ a second sensory
E'.

mark

By

this

means

it

is

possible to supply

more

exactly

the deficiencies of incompletely given facts.

The
of
all

introduction into physics of the universally compar'*

able, or so-called

absolute " measurements,

—the reduction

physical measurements to such units as the centimetre,

the gramme, and the second (length, mass and time),

— has
j

one peculiar result.
1

There

exists in

any case a tendency to
,

Cp. Prinzipien der WarmeUhre, 2nd ed.

1900.

if we look is closer. 21. a material the foundation of measure- But we do not measure mere space. I have elsewhere^ shewn that quantitative enunciations are only distinguished from qualitative by the fact that the former have reference to a continuum of homogeneous • See Prinzi^ien der Wdrmelehre. the system of units of measurement can be still further simplified. these measure- ments. For the numerical measurement of mass given by a ratio of accelerations. are merely the ordering principle which out of what tells us members of the series of sensational elements we have to construct our picture of the world. and "real. also. 438. with a logical." in contrast to the subjective sensations and the absolute measures appear and to supply It it some support if not to this opinion. anything that can be stated in such a way as to become common to give property. Thus. Indeed.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 343 regard anything that can be physically grasped and measured. and measurement of time can be reduced to measurement of angles or lengths of arcs. as "objective" . though the equations only contain spatial numerical measurements. and of manifold sensations is with this the whole again. . with a if what psychological. motive. looks as we call " sensations " in the familiar sense. and precisely in such presentations that the interpretation of these equations consists. pp. is Consequently all measurement of lengths ments. were something quite superfluous in physics. we require standard of measurement. system It is brought back only intuitional sense-presentations that can it is lead to the formulation of the equations of physics. 459.

K' L' M' its . . . Thus any optical experience can be described by representing. many K!' different observers . namely the In this KL M AB . AB ) C's are always also dependent on K L M. . each with peculiarities. and on one another. though they cannot be measured. .. There are always equations of the form f{A B C . etc. . . . we succeed in eliminating the accidental influence of the variation oi K L M. 22. by means of equations. however. There is. element that can be stated as pure dependence of the process the common . K L M^ KLM . can be characterized and catalogued by means of numbers on psycho-physical methods. are treated like physical instruments. C's on one another. .XQ in- volved. the broadest sense.. optical All possible sensations. meaning to the expression used on 45 above.. or of physics in in reality. The ascertainment of the dependence of the elements A B C on one another. Now . O. the advantageous employment of equations for purposes of description would only be possible within a very limited field. . And we Thus it is shall have to hold that a result the in same in principle can be obtained the fields of the other senses also. the values of these numerical characteristics as dependent on the spatial and temporal co-ordinates. its special . THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS On this view. of natural science. . . K' L' M since . .344 cases. and we thus obtain only the property. This would be done in the following way. KL J/being disregarded. = . L" M" . 2. possible to assign a perfectly precise p. its is the task But. . some pros- pect of enlarging this field by successive steps without any limit.

been acquired wholly by means of physical experiences. by the superposition of measures of length . have. kind of quality of the sensations equality that is now indifferent it is alone decisive. 181. Everything then the ascertainment of equality or identity of the A B Cs under like circumstances. sqq. the matter turns on is then still simpler. having the space-sensations as their point of departure. merely on the ascertainment of spatial The . 23. under like KL their M^s. —that is is to say. as finally in- dicated. as in the above dynamical example. have to be set free. whole field of scientific —a fact which inures to the advantage of psycho- physiology as well.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS constants. 168. relations of And now a single individual suffices to fix dependence which are this point valid for all individuals. which by no means possesses this simple property (pp. as a The fundamental of geometry fact. trician's In the very fact of the geome- regarding his space as being of the same nature at all points and in all directions. but consists rather of a body of conceptually idealized and formulated physical experiences.). he goes far beyond the space given to sight and touch. The space of the geometrician is by no means merely the system of space-sensations (the senses of sight and touch). — which comes to saying that everything turns identities. Without experience this in physics the geometrician would never have reached propositions conception. But if it is a question merely of the temporal connexion of one quantitative reaction with other quantitative reactions. Thus from for the onwards we have obtained a safe basis research. 345 and so forth. from which the results.

and can be put to the test again at any moment. to which is particularly convenient and handy. and are so made daily. and of another. 1877 p. details new and previously unseen may be discovered. we should. 455 zur Theorie der mathematischen Erkenninis. is far more limited than The con- viction of having in all essentials exhausted this limited pro- vince soon arises and produces the necessary self-confidence. Hume-Studien. . no geometry. fact that spatial Apart from the images would hot be pro- duced in us without physical experience. When we feel com- pelled to imagine an isosceles triangle as having equal angles at its base. Even the theory of numbers must be looked at in some such manner its fundamental propositions can hardly be viewed as enindependent of physical experience. but only to the fact that empirical material. escaped unnoticed just as in the after-image of a bright lamp. BeitrUge Zindler. Vienna. is due If to the remembrance of had its powerful past the proposition source in " pure intuition. Meinong. . That discoveries may be made by sheer power of geometrical imagination." there would be no necessity for learning it. our compulsion experiences. Vienna. has been put the test very often. merely proves that the the memory which of a given experience can reveal to in the original observation mind features . never be able to apply them to one another and to test their congruence. the province of space-experience that of the whole'of experience.346 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS angles. tirely Thecogencyof geometry (and of all mathematics) is due. not to the fact that its theories are arrived at by some peculiar kind its of knowledge. 1889. by the application of rigid bodies to one Without propositions of congruence. Moreover.* 1 Cp.Wdrmelekre. . even granting their existence.

in specula- pursue quite analogous modes of procedure. it is The mathematerial. the decorator. while the latter for the opposite reason is Ut a disadvantage as compared with the others. The distinction between physiological and geometrical space has proved to be unavoidable. space-figure will occur the elements of To the one no which are not well known them. when indulging and aims. in making such comparisons. has true. the former in the domain of sensations of tone. who have both gained.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 24. and the two others will meet with no new geometry be combinations of tone or of color that are unfamiliar to But the inexperienced beginner in will no less surprised and disappointed by the results of his activity than the young musician or decorator. the student of natural science. to him. tion. since it is impossible. the latter in that of sensations of color. trical insight is But while geomeout of considerato obtained by the spatial comparison of bodies left with one another. despite the differences of their materials matician. Space and time stand . the composer. and The mathematician. tiqie also cannot be tion. 25. disregard the translation of bodies. 347 A tive self-confidence similar to that of the geometrician is doubtless also possessed by the composer and the decorapainter. a broad and rich experience. owing to his more limited the advantage of the others as regards the certainty of his procedure .

in like physiological circum- we obtain relations of dependence of the physical is. thereby relatively is independent of the other physical elements. but. stand. to this fact that It is precisely owing pure geometry and mechanics are possible. closely considered. or infinitely small bodies. the process starting from is B when B nearer than is reached by A earlier is than the other position reached. they stand for functional dependencies upon one indices. when. and reach which it in a shorter time than first any other position with shares the property. is earlier in time. another of the elements characterized by the sensations. . is a homogeneously filled space the position another position to the position A.348 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS shewing themselves to be This in intimate connexion. and dependence of the elements of one process on those of another. Space and time. as regards physics. elements on one another. The C is situated at the in point of bisection of the space. homogeneous starting from it A and B reach that position in equal times. as regards physiology. —that dependence of the elements of one body on those of another. determinations in Whatever In coincides with the smaller part of a process which takes place continuously in one direction. expressed in the fact that when bodies move their other properties remain relatively constant. for special kinds of sensations . processes straight line AB. basis of this result On the spatial we can take the temporal and a purely physical sense. The straight line the class-concept of the positions uniquely determined by the physical relations between position two points. When the spatial and temporal physiological conditioned by the parts and processes of our body. are compared with one another stances.

as his standards of measurement. tion is The fact connected with the time-sensasubject of a reaction. in place of the time-sensation. such as vibrations of a pendulum. space-sensation (a rotation-angle of the earth. he applies.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 349 26. When the physicist wishes to determine a period of time. number. The time of the physicist does not coincide with the system of time-sensations. to determine more exactly the subsequent movement of the thought. serves. if we represent the excess of the temperature of a cooling body over that then t is this ^ its surroundings by ^ = 0~'^'^. In like manner. etc. of the hand on the dial of a clock) sensation of time. we regulate our thoughts concerning thermal processes not according to the sensation of warmth whicli bodies yield us. < <2 and y <^l^ have a geometrical (or . but according to the is much more definite sensation which obtained from thermometrical reactions Usually a by simply noting the height of the mercury. a number is put. identical processes or processes assumed to be identical. or the path is substituted for the again. and for this. the equation be used to represent an of a: then only the values real) significance. For example. and yield corresponding values of jj^. the number which obtained. is in this manner made the and the result of this reaction. which the quantities of an equation stand. ellipse. the rotations of the earth. The is relation in usually (analytically) a to more general one than that which is meant be represented by the equation. Thus in the equa- tion (xJaY cal + (yjby = I all possible values oix have an analytiBut if meaning.

depend upon But it seems to me to follow from such con- siderations that our postulates are merely provisional. would have to be expressly added. 146 sqq. the not an immediate one. for example.. the real process only for increasing values of If we imagine the natural course of different events. pp. But the meaning of such an equation would have to be more exactly defined by adding that only increasing distances of descent or decreasing temperatures are to be successively therein. the elements traversed by the falling body. . then time may be we may express. one will believe that the same temperature-values would if continue to correspond to the same angular values. *• wissenschaftliche Philosophic Vol. and appear simply as dependent on one another. Das Gesetz der Eindeutigkeit. to be under1 Petzoldt. inserted When we dependence thus think of excess of temperature as detertraversed mined by the space is by a falling body. the excess of temperature by means of the space Thus viewed. represented by equations involving time. eliminated from these equations.^ But the dependence no more For no immediate when we assume excess of temperature to be determined by the angle of rotation of the earth.350 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS it Similarly. if this were not obvious." Vierteljahresschrift jUjXIX. It I is only in this sense that I would wish the reference which once made to a certain absence of determination. and by partial ignorance of the decisive part played certain independent variables which are inaccessible to us. On this point I is agree with Petzoldt. . earth were to alter its velocity of rotation in the consequence of some shock. say the cooling of one body and the free descent of a second. that the equation ^ = ®7~*^ represents /.

is perfectly compatible with the postulation of unique determinations. but not for the equations which are the norms regulating presentation quantitatively. Towards indeterminism for instance. A house in flames down but never increasing in size. of in the —the assumption. This way of looking evitable. or later. holds for intuitional presentation. The irreversibility of time reduces itself to the fact that the alterations in the values of physical quantities always take place in definite directions. and does not grow larger. supervening change may increase the distinctions or Where The it may ' Mach. in- when we reflect that the distinction emphasized by Petzoldt between simultaneous and successive dependencies. moreover. A plant does not decrease in size and creep into the earth. A freedom of the will in the sense used by theologians. Chicago. at the and with abstraction from unusual and unexpected changes. The equations can only be of one kind. only smaller decreasing excesses of temperature are connected. warm body set in cool sur- roundings merely cools. . but grows out of it. and can only express simultaneous dependencies. builds itself up again. Jourdain. Open Court Publish- ing Co. many philosophers and — I have not the slightest inclination. time-sensations warm again. since such postulates are always laid down on the assumption of given circumstances. B. matter is. E. ordinary sense. as it seems to me. We do not in this fact a metaphysical problem. Time With burns is not reversible. Changes can only be determined by there are no distinctions there is no determination.. Of the two analytical need to see possibilities one only is actual.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS stood.^ 351 This view. History and Root of the Principle of the Consey'vation of Energy^ translated by P. differences. 191 1.

but it is the presence of these very properties in our en- vironment that determines our existence and our thought (see will Popular Scientific Lectures^ 3rd edition. I hope. to the stability and to the uniqueness. increase. with Petzoldt. The our only assumption compatible with a general representa- tion of the universe. (p. ideal. particularly as regards their secure against . to a diminution of differences. that set But if circumstances forcing their up differences did not make themselves felt by way into our environment.352 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS But if diminish them. so far as I may be. . For not only are we ourselves a fragment of nature 338 above). stability. all attack. a time would soon come when nothing more would happen at all. on the whole. of course. p. of very limited and moderate struction. we can conclude. we do not. But it not do to build too confidently on this foundation. from our own existence and from our bodily and spiritual stability. Again. as regards determination and direction. for organisms are peculiar fragments of nature. which. form nor do I by any means consider that Petzoldt's spirit objections are dictated by a of captiousness. of the processes of nature. regard the statements which I wrote I down as at the time of my greatest intellectual ferment (1871). or rather with the representation of own limited environment. is that of a tendency. which in point of fact are liable to de- and for the preservation of which a proportionately is moderate amount of stability in the environment sufficient. which are everywhere manifestly set to and to regard the effort towards unique determination as an actualize in our thought. the differences had a tendency to change would go on endlessly and aimlessly. 250). The most convenient course limits will therefore be to recognize the our knowledge.

426-440. here. Erkenntnis undlrrtwn (1905). See. in particular.i My recently published book. that when length.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS however. contains further discussions of the question. without at the same time giving up any essential part of my 1 view. I 353 deal with the subject again at greater it — — for I have only been able to touch upon briefly I shall be able to bring about a full understanding. pp. .

of neglecting To be sure. find It surely gives much food thought. German colleague was communicated to me by a curiously roundabout with the unpath let us say more or less by way of the Antipodes mistakable intention of giving me pain. HOW MY VIEWS HAVE BEEN RECEIVED. in so far as the reception was favorable.XV. I have never felt it consider unprofitable. was points of found acceptance. to others the right. when a professional philosopher 1 That private judgments had been equally moderate I should not have believed. it the great majority of cases. I. even if certain small indiscretions had not given me A more than contemptuous judgment of a evidence to the contrary. For it 354 . work that I necessary to would certainly be very unfair if I were to refuse which I exercise often enough myself. even when it has been hostile. and. in instructive to its outspokenness. insult people whose opinions differ from my own. has been extremely me/ There is no mistaking the favorable influence which the later publications of Richard Avenarius have exercised on the estimation of for my we book. was — — not attained. This object. while the fundamental views which had led to the details for the most part rejected. W' were HEN the first edition of this it book was published But in detail that opinions about were greatly divided. to be sure. All the public criticism that I have seen has preserved a tone of moderation.

. which. scientist. I shall treat the objections that have been urged as typical objections. am be merely allowed a hearing at I will and to be listened to without prepossessions. including those who reproduce my fundamental ideas quite correctly and have certainly understood them. there has been a disposition to explain as the aberration of a dilettante. 355 establishing in an elaborate systematic treatise a position when taken up by a away pupils. it is Now scarcely possible to attain to this instinctive pre-logical It is nucleus of acquisitions by logical means. sions I have received from my once more bring out and illustrate those points of which the reception has been most strenuously opposed. it and another to take up sympathetic spirit. is difficult enough even to youth.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS which. indeed. would therefore be too much count on satisfied immediate agreement here. following the imprescritics. much more in a question of a process of psychical transformation. now. It is thing to understand an idea logically. as I found in It my own case. To-day Avenarius' and many younger inquirers who position have drawn near to are standing at critics. and fore not I shall there- mention any names. all with few exceptions. cannot help feeling serious objections to them. I all. In doing this. the my side as allies. with nothing captious or personal about them. Nevertheless. The ordering and simplifying function of logic can. to On the contrary. great There is nothing surprising in this. for plasticity of I make one demands on the in a my readers. my by paths of their own. only begin life is when psychical in an advanced stage of development and can already boast a rich store of instinctive acquisitions.

^ We see such unities as we call " I " produced by generation and vanishing in death. Unless we indulge ourselves in the fiction. Chicago. still. and the sun and the at the fixed is This way of looking matter not also merely sufficient for ordinary practical purposes. is a mere trifle in comparison with the demand all. 1894. Although both are equally correct to their and equally well-adapted special purpose. 1894. but is the simplest and most advantageous. state. Cp. For thousands of years past Buddhism has been approaching this conception from the practical side. I . that these unities existed before birth in a latent exist after death. —a power which case was in alliance with the instinctive conceptions of ordinary people. Cp. also the wonderful story unfolded by the same writer in Karma^ A Story of Early Buddhism^ Chicago. the second view only succeeded severe in gaining acceptance after a combat with a power in this hostile to science. TAg Gospel of Btiddha. Psychology and psycho-pathology teach Cp. the standpoint of Hume and Lichtenberg. But the opposite view has established itself as the more convenient for certain intellectual purposes. we see the earth as standing stars in motion.356 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS 2. sides. that he should consider the it Ego to be nothing at and should resolve into a transitory connexion of changing elements. so fantastic nowadays. the It is true that on various way has long been prepared for this conception. and will similarly continue to we can only suppose that they are just temporary ' unities. But to ask that the observer should imagine himself as standing upon the sun instead of upon the earth. Unless we subject ourselves to a certain compulsion. Paul Carus.

or chemically combined with another body. — can change in important respects In spite of all this. the number of these constancies fast at increases and diminishes. fruits as well. the Ego is what is most important and most constant for It is conceptions. grounds than in the case of the Ego. together. able to restore again the this Inasmuch as we are often body which has disappeared or procedure rests upon somewhat better in atomism. it If in doing so we obtain a glimpse of the truth. in the course of its life. Now in practice presentation presentation logically we can as little do without the Egowhen we act. same way. impoverished and shrink. can become alien to itself. and take refuge changed. Let us change it by way of experiment. at some time or another been influenced idealistic standpoint. will in the long run bear practical Anyone who has by Kant. in order to hold any price to the notion that has become so dear to us. dissolved. the bond that holds all all my instinctive my experiences In just the and the source of again. —anyone who has adopted an and has been unable to get rid of the last traces of the . for body something very constant If it our crude instinctive conceptions. and can split up.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS us that 357 can be the Ego can grow and be in a word. we assume latent constancies. a rigid my is activity. is divided. But theoretically this we way of looking at the matter cannot be maintained. Physic egoists we remain and materialists. Then. just as always see the sun rise again. as we can do without the of a body when we grasp at a thing. enriched.

indeed. we cannot transcend and get away from say " Solipsism When. than to a serious. it. —a problem which is in principle insoluble. we ought to add that materialism also consistent for anyone is equally who believes that matter is the only thing that explained. The Ego it is some- thing given to us. which will appear more or Having been through condition of it in my early youth. is But when a man of science me that solipsism the only conI will sistent standpoint. If it is impossible for time being to in make any meanwhile impression on a problem." their utterance quite intelligible in view of their struggle to reach a closed.358 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS itself. the starting-point for everything else. complete system of the universe. tells is true of all systems. but there the is require to also no problem which he can regard as absolutely insoluble." retains notion of the "thing in a certain inclination less clearly. this mind well. towards solipsism. is immediately given. all-inclusive. is not emphasize the to fact this standpoint better suited a fakir who dreams is his away in contemplation. For him there not still is no problem of which the solution would be carried deeper. and can understand The philosophical thinker proceeds to make the single problem of the Ego. thoughtful and active man. he excites that my life astonishment. is not looking for a comall pleted vision of the universe his labor can only he knows beforehand that go to broaden and deepen his insight. The man of science . therefore. speculative philosophers is is the only logically consistent standpoint. To be sure. and that cannot be further This. But what I do believe is that the man of science who inclines this way making a confusion between philosophical and scientific methods. I easily know it. he solves the .

the philosopher me to be like the who is a man who gave up solipsist seems turning round because whatever he saw was always in front of him. On to the other hand. because on any particular day he did not happen have a perfectly clear understanding of the influence of temperature on expansion. of its No doubt the Ego it is not exhausted. it If he then returns to the original problem. of the Ego. to the instinctive. physiologists. splitting As up of the Ego into an object experienced and an active or observing subject. if quite provisionally. tormented everybody long to think out these questions may compare • 1 But what is in question here is not a transcendental. although.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS others that are 359 more accessible. relevant here will not be solved by speculation tion will be found psychiatrists. but untenable. enough. that consists in a peculiar connexion of the is elements. generally speaking. their solu- by the psychologists. A man of science who should be a solipsist would be like a physicist for whom to the thermometer was the fundamental problem of the universe. the body. terrifying appearance. they have risen superior to that notion by now. as long as the nature of this connexion investigated in detail. and already to whom we elucidations of such problems. has generally lost much we say.^ will afford owe many important The physical substratum many points of reference which introspective psychology can only handle in a very imperfect manner. unknowable Ego. not But the special problems that are . which Jiiany philosophers perhaps still think it impossible to eliminate as a last remnant of the thing-in-itself. —a problem which has —anyone who wishes pp. . 25-29 above.

will also not be able drawing a fundamental distinction between my sensations and your sensations. for the bodies that are not constant. so that . to ask that this new habit of How the thinkers of antiquity would have protested. but a process.36o THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS Whoever cannot to avoid get rid of the conception of the Ego as a reality which underlies everything. thinks of this body as the single vehicle of all its is properties. and to substitute. when the sodium to different divided into different parts and transferred chemical combinations. In the same way. constant %re the are composed. whoever believes in the absolute constancy of a body. " Earth. bodies are present than before then our habitual manner of thought can only be preserved by extremely I artificial devices. Here again. and dissolves in steam which looks absolutely different from the original is thing . or even fewer. if someone had said to them. the law which is constant and which survives the change of the properties and of their connexions. more. . water and air are not constant bodies at all." and so on. thought should be adopted. what are of which they modern chemical elements many of which elements cannot be seen. or body. It then becomes more advan- tageous to regard the particular properties as belonging sometimes to one and sometimes to another complex. Fire is not a body at all. We are scarcely able to estimate correctly nowadays the Yet in magnitude of the change which lies in this step. it is making no small demand. But when this silvery-white piece of sodium melted. diffi- while others can only be isolated or fixed with great culty.

erroneously indeed. I my sensations and the sensations of another person. many readers have found a stumbling-block in what they took. to begin with. also no perceptible reciprocal influence. From the standpoint which I here take up for purposes of general orientation. The most familiar facts provide a sufficient basis for this view. But these points of attachment are not anything constant. I no more draw an essential distinction between than body. my view is not affected one way or the other. perish. namely the Ego's. a dependence of the "elements" on one another is theoretically and Shall the . Perhaps even more than in my fundamental ideas. They there arise. and the same methods of abstraction is lead in due course to the standpoint which adopted here. in spite of repeated protests from myself and from other quarters. identifies that of Berkeley. invents the ** thing-in-itself " whereas. .^ This misconception once again state the difference in a word ? Berkeley regards "elements" as conditioned by an unknown cause external to them (God) accordingly Kant. But where is there is no connexion at a given moment. ii^ order to appear as a sober realist. they and are incessantly being modified. And. on the view which I advocate. I must say that anyone who. to be the general character of my conception of the universe. regard red or green as belonging to an individual The same elements are connected at different points of attachment. Whether it may or may not else's sensations to prove possible to transfer someone me by means of nervous connexions. is my view with undoubtedly very far removed from a proper appreciation of 1 my position. .THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS modern chemistry a is 361 further transformation in this direction being prepared.

Over against the particularsensation. which has on my language obliterated. THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS partly no doubt due to the fact that my view was deleft veloped from an earlier idealistic phase. but also professional philosophers. in the desperate struggle between a monistic conception of the uni- and to instinctive dualistic prejudices. of all the approaches to my is standpoint. or sensations. the plain man and the man of science both set the thing as a presentational complex of all the experiences. his very natural applicable to a possible experience. which are connected with the sensation in question and this procedure is extremely shrewd. he could posit a thing in itself. be a piece of particularly good fortune that Avenarius has developed the same conception of the relation between the physical and psychical on an entirely realistic. 6. while holding that only those concepts had meaning and value which were practically all that is required. of which no experience is conceivable. But for anyone who has assimilated Kant's way of thinking. so that I need do no more than refer to his discussions. has not been sufficiently taken into account. . or. it becomes meaningless at the limits of experience. traces which are probably not even yet entirely For. . the one by way of idealism seems to me this the easiest and the fear of most natural. In my early youth had work through these tendencies myself. strikes not only men of science. which at the same time seizes my readers. tion of Kant. It is only from this point of view that we can understand how. a materialistic founda- tion. My world of elements. if the phrase be preferred. in the interpretaand psychologically intelligible fear of being considered fantastic. And connected with pan-psychism. as too unIt seems to me that. whether remembered or still expected. I feel it to was still As regards these two points.362 is. and Avenarius labouring at them in his book of 1876. Many verse I are the victims that fall a prey to pan-psychism.

even here I should have avoided the expression "possibility. 363 When is I treat matter as a mental symbol of sensational standing for a relatively stable complex elements. 1897." would have served purpose. exposition on broad lines would have been more that which some such exposition as H. my In any case." and should have substituted for it the concept of function. The concepts of modern and Psychologie als Erfahrungswissenschaft. and that a popular useful. without a fairly well-marked man of science cannot accomplish much. Cornelius^ has so admirably given "on the concept of objective existence. is felt. particularly pp. that a short.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS substantial. i On no the contrary. to this. speak expressly of functional relations of the elements. and conceptual thought. is not adequately expressed as a tions. I must observe that for me also the world I not a mere sum of sensations. p. From expressions used in other quarters. I namely the ever dreamt easily over- mathematical concept of function. But this conception re- not only makes Mill's "possibilities" superfluous. we ought at In reply is least to bring in Mill's possibilities of sensation. in addition to the actual sum of sensasensations. Leipzig. and in. this described as a conception which does not make enough it of the material world. Indeed. precise expression Had would be so looked. The external world. but places them by something much more solid. But this does not prevent him from forming clear and pre- cise concepts. 99. sensationalism a in a correspondingly inadequate understanding of the value of abstraction and Now. . it would appear that the true explanation of my position is to be sought in an exaggerated sensationalism.

364 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS those of any other science. the philosopher will surely not want to be even more of a physicist than Naturally. further information the reader must be referred to indeed. in point of precision and height of abstraction. however. familiar to people it much more that they are . there is the physicist. far may remark in am . who for are not professional physicists yet is partly it want of familiarity with my works which has for made possible me to be accused. no room for the necessary working out of details in this sketch. from thinking meanly of the concepts of physics I for nearly forty years have been occupied with the criticism of them in various ways. It would. which is intended to be merely a programme for the closer for connexion of the exact sciences with one another. For science the gulf between intuitional presentation and con- ceptual thought I is not so great. . finding acceptance with physicists. my works on physics. hand as gradually expresses himself satisfied with definitions which reduce everything to a functional relation of sensational elements. physics will stand comparison. after it long resistance. and passing that I is not unbridgeable. will perhaps be allowed that this is no cheap and facile agree- ment. with but they offer at the same time the advantage that they can always be traced back with ease and certainty to the sensational elements on which they are built up. and with greater thoroughness than they have re- ceived before. whose training has accustomed him with to having a kilogram weight pressed into his definition. be all highly pre- sumptuous of me to assume even that physicists are acquainted with these works. instance. When every the physicist. And since my results are gradually.

is The apparently destructive tendency of the superfluous. If this adaptation ful. But into since imperfectly adapted thoughts come conflict with one another. To many They But have feel readers the universe. additions our concepts. a hopelessly tangled web of elements.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS of 365 having entirely overlooked the " spontaneity " and "autonomy" our attitude of thought. is of scientific development. in which I have only been forced to repeat what have frequently said and have long been saying. is Even towards bare sensations not one of mere passivity. which are of value for the special sciences and for the philosophical considera- tion of the world. the logical process ? not covered by this statement to Here may be permitted break off I for the present these controversial remarks. remain capable of further application. and between subjective and . were immediately and perfectly success- the process would ipso facto different come to an end. of which the natural continuation is precisely the adaptation of thought to facts. the want of leading and unifying points of view. for sensations disengage a biological reaction. Now I should really like to know I what process included. All points of view. seems to be a chaos. and indeed. What I have called the adaptation of thoughts to one another takes place. Thus I believe that the contrasts between the psychical and the physical. I this depends on a misinterpretation of the task that set myself. the biological process continues. work merely directed against to and therefore misleading. as conceived by me. are so applied by me.

for even a single head cannot work out such Hence. This.366 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS been correctly reduced by objective. or the bias. is For in I am convinced that my exposition full of defects more than one direction. is in no sense an act of resignation really . fifth degree in closed So. I cannot put my finger on them. can feel these faults. indeed. which one of my critics asks. too. and at the same time have been purged of traditional and superstitious conceptions. is the only reasonable course open to a physicist man of science." an sufficient attitude of rejection of everything that is worth knowing and that can be known. The who refrains from seeking for the secret of perthis as petual motion. though I a process completely to its conclusion. with more general philosophical questions : the problems are either solved. who no longer troubles himself about the squaring of the circle. For to refuse to attempt answers to questions that have been recognized as meaningless. in view of the it mass of material that can be investigated. and at the time room desire is made up. need not resignation. If . strikes me as very harmless. I have no to set in the place of the lamentations of obstinately self- a piously whining " Ignorabimus. or the solution of equations of the algebraical form. " In what exactly does the fallacy. have is me to what essential in them. for new points of view. nowadays regard an act of any more than the mathematician. or are recognized as pointless. of Mach's philosophical views consist ? " This question. this And same has been done in such a way that scientifically es- tablished points of view are not altered. can scarcely be avoided when a writer's views are undergoing a radical process of revolution.

even though will it has been partly at my expense. wait a little longer. to read my books nor have I the least objection to that make to a criticism which decides patible with Kant's. therefore. my But neither have faults been able view of my from the writings of my Let us. not take it ill on my part. I hope they mark. and. 1903). I should be a long goal. which both in this book and in other mine . if I do not re-act to every sally hit its and to every sarcasm which they fancy has Honigswald. but to it. as I recognize with the greatest gratitude. my position is incom- Not all philosophers will draw the inference that my to position must therefore be untenable. however. peculiar. My relations Kant have been His critical idealism was. Arguments have been brought against have been writings of fully discussed my views. I have never discovered in myself any taste for this important vocation. all told. to read everything that published.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS I 367 could. the starting-point of all my critical thought. in a more or less latent form. in Kant's . way I further advanced towards to obtain a clear critics. which are contained. and consequently I have only written three reviews. it was very impossible for me to retain my allegiance I soon began to gravitate again towards the views of Berkeley. has subsequently devoted a book to my standpoint (Zur Kritik der Machschen Philosophies I Berlin. that they should have saved themselves a certain amount of trouble. must admit that he has taken the trouble . in a period of forty So I do not grudge it to the reviewers. years. must be a real torture to is have to more. but I do not state this fact with a desire It is to reproach anybody. what have to pass judgment conscientiously and deliberately in a brief allotted time.

and I by reading Herbart. though at that was still unacquainted cannot help logically con- with Hume himself. Erkenntnis und Itrtum^ I90S» Preface. are not directed to pure knowledge as an end Only consider what the position of if. on the other hand." when they in itself.368 writings. he completely cautiously tentative methods of apconstants of the proximation employed by science. It is not the business of a man of science to criticize or refute a philosopher like it Kant. I must leave to time to ^ Cf. . When Honigswald enunciates a to elicit number of general misapprehends the points of view. This has long since been effected by the progress that has been made in all departments. of then arrived at views akin to those time this I Hume. and proceeds from them a closed philosophical system. Mach. The man of science are not absolutely constant. To very day as far I [regarding Berkeley \sistent and Hume more thinkers than Kant. nor. in- cluding philosophy itself. he had to refute the philosophical systems one by one. all is before he began to think. THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS By studying the physiology of the senses. Whether I shall ever succeed in making my fundamental ideas plausible to the philosophers. do the changes which he investigates correspond to the limitless flux of Herakleitos."i there no such thing as " the philosophy of 8. Once more. the man of science would be. *' I call biological aims practical. though may be observed in passing that it would no longer be a particularly heroic achievement to shew the inadequacy of Kant's philosophy as a guide to modern scientific research.

whether they be only regarded as insoluble at the present moment. ridge between physics. should like them. present." The 7! psychology.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS decide. and I I consider that such an under- standing is attainable. have a great value I searches such as those of S. in the widest sense. should all like the scientists to realize that my view eliminates metaphysical questions indifferently.^ and 1 believe that Entwurf zu einer pkysiologischen Erkldrung der psychischen Erscheinungen^ Vienna. Everything that we can want in to know given by the solution of a problem mathematical form. which can be set free from the individual influence of the observer in a precisely definable manner is (p. I 369 this at do not attach much importance I to though have a deep reverence for the gigantic intellectual labors of the great philosophers of all ages. 1894. as to I which I should for re- to say something more. to is reflect that everything that we can know about the world necessarily expressed in the sensations. which are to the kind of physical and psychical objects according combination that is being investigated. This knowledge exhausts the knowledge of " reality. Exner. all or whether they be I regarded as meaningless for time. Probably a good many physiologists have taken objection to a point of detail in like my position. further. . 344 above). is and scientific formed of these very elements. by the ascertainment of the functional dependence of the sensational elements on one another. I But have an honest and lively desire for an understanding with the natural scientists.

after investigating the whole brain. delivered some very bad lectures being on the subject. My that personal opinion The electrical researches have been made on the nerves are no doubt of a very delicate nature. .^ this. 1894.^ p. 3. cit.370 THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS as to psychical many important problems phenomena can be solved merely by the investigation of the nervous connexions of the central organs/ and by observation of the way in which stimuli are arranged itself is still in a quantitative scale. Fechner's psycho- which have had so important an influence. I said : " But will the electric processes in the nerves prove to be too simple to explain adequately ? the difference of quality in sensations Will it be necessary to thrust the explanation further back into regions that are still unknown ? What is if. nungen. how the qualitative variety of sensa- tions can arise from the variation of the connexions and from mere quantitative physics. any more than could nearly forty years ago. ^ Op. I cannot conceive. ' By what Entwiirfzu einerphysiologischen Erklarung derpsychischen Erscheip. did to stimulate not fail me I exceedingly at the time. differences. we find everywhere nothing but electric currents? this. after explaining Helmholtz's "telegraph-wire" theory of sensation. but in one respect -they are very rough. except that a definite quantity of living force passes in the time-unit through a cross-section of the current. from I my point of view. the value of my I still further diminished by the fact that soon came to see that Fechner's In this theory of formulae of measurement was erroneous. connexion. For. intensity tells An electric current of given us nothing. Vienna. 4. Indeed Exner's book that the evidence of But I feel main problems remain unsolved. Inspired lectures by Fechner's book.

1902. as by referring to the presence of an identical current in different electrolytes. . has brought into connexion with one another. Ueber die Erhaltung der Arteigenschafien. vi.THE ANALYSIS OF SENSATIONS processes and by what molecular force is 371 movements that living assisted.mvs\z.^ logical chemistry. 5 " Entwicklungslehre und spezifische Energie. Chicago. and discussed in a very instructive manner.^ to seem to me to-day Rollett 5 be still more decisively in favor of my view. 1896." Mittcilungen des Vereins der Aerzte in Sieiertnark. Vol. a number of important questions closely related to the discussions of this book. See the preface to the preceding English edition of this book. 335. 3 The progress of physio- and the experiments that have been made in the transplantation of different organs. 336."^ rid of this idea. to-day I It is possible that the most diverse processes underlie one and the same intensity of current. pp. VII. with reference both to his own work and to that of others. Prague. we do not know. ' ' Huppert. 8. Even and I have not succeeded in getting cannot refrain from bringing forward it evidence that confirms for instance in essentially the same form. und yi2. pp. "Ueber Transplantation von Ovarium. Vienna. 1897." Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechafiik^ 1898. " Vorlesungen iiber Psychophysik. 1863. V. " Zeitschrijt fur praktische Heiikunde. Hoden. 3 • Ribbert. No.

.

Atoms. 64-69. with sensation. mental. principle contime57. 351 Chick. 250 reflex in. Blind. 2 135. with physics. on author. 149 "8. 364 Congruence. with space- sensations. 131. 157 Cyclostat. personal equation of. 55 w. 103 — connexion " Concealed sqq. 171. 328. 335-338 Causality. 105 movements. permanency 191 is it ? and 13." what 32. 346 — geometrical and — optical. 253 Astronomers. 235-244. 97 Ants. 329.INDEX INDEX OF SUBJECTS Bodies. 97 Anthropomorphism. After-images. 325 Adaptation. what is it ? rigidity of. space-sensations of. Association. " Body. 272 sqq. 84 sqq. 188 Color-adaptation. 256 Continuity. 133 139 sqq. experiments on. of. 365 Acceleration. B Biology. 174. 126. 175 Art. 165 Accommodation of the eye. 78 n. 159 Causal explanations. of. how effected. 113 intelligence of exaggerated. 95 Color-sensations. 264 inertia of. 107 Consciousness. Consumption. 257 Conservation of energy. effect of. organ reacting on. 117 sqq. 187 A 373 . 139. 319 Crustacea. symmetry in. organic. 196 Abstraction. 178 sqq. sensation of. 311 Change. 228 s^^. what are they ? 321327 — physical. the. 112 Attention. meaning- ^ of. 330 — Cats. 100. 180.. 251 Asymmetry. asymmetry in. nexion of. experiments on. Apoplectic stroke. of Animism. 85 sqq. connexion of." 313 Concepts. — — movements 171 198 — measurement time by. 196. 179. 252 Animals. the.^ sqq. Consonance. organ of.

120. of. 328 /Ego. fear of. function of labyrinth of the ear in. Homodromoys of time. H Harmony. Helmholtz' theory Equilibrium. behaviour of. vertigo in. 253-255. 11. experiments on.374 INDEX Frog. 308 Heterodromous processes. motor apparatus sqq. on physiology. bearing of. reflex movements of. of. 357 — — Galvanotropic reaction. 255 Illusions. 97.. 158 Dreams. function in. 3-5 «— self-inspection of. function hearing. 79 of. 351 Images. Miiller's. theory of. processes. 20 not primary. 341 Freedom of the will. 164 Economy of thought. 266 — author's suggested theory 291 — Ewald's theory 301 sqq. 49. 93 concept 363 Functional relations. Ideahsm. in sense Eye. 35 dependence of.. I 132 sqq. in in the. experimental. notion physics of. middle. Heredity. 72. 253 68. 344 Embryology. — Doves. 93 (sensations). sqq. definition of. sqq. 281 anachronisms in. 71 sqq. visual. 253 — mathematical and biology. deficiency of. 120 Ghosts. 367 explanation — 202-208. apparent permanency of. Egyptian drawings. in ' Echidna. 308 Geometrical space. Force. 183. 158. 234. of. 35 Ear. 345 Geometry. 241 Deaf-mutes. 95 Emotions. 75 Guinea-pigs. of. 159 Genius. 161 sqq. — — Evolution. no 260 — experiments movements reflex with the. 341 288 of. 128 of the. 299 sqq. on one of contrast — another. 11 220-231. 23 impermanence of. 85 Hearing. 200 . 255 — auditory. 8 sqq. 168. Greek and Indian. mental. 159 Function. 68 Horopter. Hawk-moth. when deprived of labyrinths. 21 influence of. 162 sqq. 77. as scientific hypothesis. 261 Energy. 125 Horses. 13 sqq. the. 232 Elements Electricity. 181. 362. 357. on time-sensation.

physiological origin of to. 239 Innervation. 162 Music. parallelism of. function 154 sqq. equilibrium and hearing in the. 25 Impulses. definition of. Intuitive knowledge. dualism of. standards Mechanical systems. 51 160 sqq. 28. analogy physical traces.. of. 146. innate. 236 Mice. theory of. 173-176 sqq. Memory-images. Musical Introjection. 265 sqq. electro-magnetic theory 104 — distribution Optical space. 172 Memory-traces. Pan-psychism. dependent on physics. view of relation between. 263 — relation speech 280 — modern development 307 of. Numbers. 327. 362 Perspectives. sen- sations. 173 Mouse. 312 — = combination of of. 289 sqq. the. 241 Judgment. 238 Otolithic apparatus. 158 Labyrinth of the of. optical. 342 Membranes. 22 the. 347 — 233 — Pompeian. equiUbrium and hearing in. Light. in. 60 the. 375 — — Mole. 196 Intervals. 162 sq. 212 299 220 sqq. 139 sqq. identical in Mach and Avenarius. 228 Intellect. ear.. peculiar characteristics of. deafness Millipede. — 217 plasticity of. of. process of. 169 Insects. tones. 17. optical phenowith. 223 sqq. . 331 — absolute. retina of. 319. 232 Italian. sqq. Memory. 320 Motor sensations. and the will. 235-244 — Hering's theory - Physical 72 of. on the retina. blind. Measurement. fluids. 188 to connexion between. 51 sqq. of. mental. how determined.INDEX Images. 232 the. Japanese. Immortality. 20I sqq. Moment. 317 sq. of. 141 sqq. 98 sqq. of. in mena connected sqq. sq. N Nervous system. 192 Painting. Helmholtz' analysis of. 285-287 sensations connected with. the. interaction of parts of. not immutable. 168 Organisms.. 153 M Matter. 165-167 of muscles of the eye. 90 vibration sqq. 346 Nystagmus. 328 Inversion. and psychical. musical.

Relative motion. 37. 351 Time-sensation. Right and left. Euclidean. 80. 1 86 tion. distinction 112. — movement122 images on. 258 dependent on our sensibility. inter- dependence of. sensations of. of hearing. 138 sq... 149 " Thing-in-itself. — analogy 187to tone-sensa278. 282 — geometrical. 115 Solipsism. 257 Pseudoscopy.. Retina. 349 Silk-worms. 108 s^^.. perspectival contraction of. 341. Teleology. identity of." 194 Sensations. 21 Plethysmography. iii. functional tax:tual of. 84 sqq. synergy of. 196 Species. Representation. 58. 36. 83-101 Temperature. 122 sqq. 134. 181 sqq. experiments on. 168 geometrical. 310- 353 Physics and biology. how determined. 199 — — — — — — — and optical homogeneous. 120 visual and conceptual." 6. 195-234 — — — irreversibihty ! Time. 182 tactual. 339 of.. 244-261 . reflex movements in. bearing of physiology and psychology on. 350 Semicircular sqq.. 339 physiological and geometrical properties of. Pigeons. 257 sensations supplemented by. preservation of. — Resonance-theory 269 sqq. the. of Retinae. 158 — 115 272 music. 165 Subject and object. 212 R Reflex movements in animals. 358. Sound-color. 319 Symmetry. 154 Sight-sensations. 81 Specific energies.376 INDEX Similarity. 275 Specific sense . 256 Rhythms. 269 Sounds. 359 Physics. 149 sqq. 140 sqq. principle of. 365 Substance. Rotation. 114. 108. in n. contrasted with physiological.energies. 73 sqq. connexion between. 73 Planetary motions. 225 Puzzle-pictures. analysis of. 345 — and time. 348 Sparrow. 109 Sheep. 330 physical. 144 " " sqq. optical and geometrical. 124 optical and geometrical. sqq. 74. — sense 170 sq. 258 sqq. canals. 361 n. no symmetry in. 303 the. 262-309 Space. 171. 333 Sufficient differentiation. " Thought-experiment. 263 specific. the. 106. 142 sqq. of. principle of. 336 Pleasure and pain. of. 76 of. direction — 184 — lower hmit 243 — sexual. what is it ? 328. of. 123 Rhythm. phenomena of.

361. 139 connexion of.. Crum. 268 n. galvanic. Paul. 103 n. 136 m. Darwin. 160-163 Aristotle. 133. 155. 85 Avenarius. 148 sqq. 268 n. 286 B Bain. H. Alexander. — rotatory. fusion of. 30 n. 46-56.. 129 psychical. Boyle. 122. 153. Laura. 174 Breuer. 362. to move. 100. n. 262 freedom of. Biehl. 66 Auerbach. sensations connected with. 272 n. J. Grant. Buttel-Reepen. 48. 197 n. 76. 137. 74. 196. 324 Brown. 323. 163. the.INDEX Tones. 121 Bethe. 136 n. 79. 154. 274 Tone-sensations. 351 II INDEX OF NAMES Abraham. with music. 87. 27-29 of the physical and W Will. 27 n. sensations of. 197 Carus.. 162. 367 D'Alembert. 138 in deaf-mutes.. 197 n. optical. 171-180 connexion of. binocular. 263 Berkeley. 135 Bernoulli. D w. 131. 164 n. 356 n. 159 159 sqq. 261. 158 Allen. the. 123. 241. P. Chesselden. 103 n. 173 Benndorf. 154 Vision. 64 n. Comte. Autenrieth. 263 Delage. 363 Cornelius. sqq. Briihl. 174 n Bridgman. 241 Vertigo. 268 Ach. 230 Berg. 339 — Vertigo. 159. 71. Beer. 49. 135 n. 118. 48. Aubert. 154 Cossmann. 377 Vestibular apparatus. Dove. 268 n. 125 U Unity Unity of consciousness. 144. 262-309 Touch. 84. 23. with innervations. 140. Brewster. 123 81. 132. 354.. sqq... 135 Tropisms. 89 Cyon. 14^ Briicke.. 104 n. 63. 155 Descartes. 46 Cornelius. 164 .. 197 Diderot.

149 Grabei.. 371 w.. 81 n. 117. Krause. 303 Exner. 4 n. 149.. 368 Hering. 116 K Kant. 336 Kessel. C. 87 Herodotos. Hammerschlag. 241 Gomperz.. 159. 268 n. 96 w.. 61 n. M. 119 Euclid. 310 n. 194. 291. 30 n. Forel. 27 n. 164. iii Heller. Herzfeld. 292 n. 316 Hillebrand. 144. 321 n. 241. 270.. 269 n. 277 n. 292. 124.. 292 n. 113 Guye. 197 «... 299 «. 88 n. 301. 160 Hankel. i Goltz. 268 n.. 356 Huppert. Jerusalem.. 61 n. 89 Hauptmann. Fischer. 290. 302 n. 368 Herbart... 178. 86 Hauptmann. 257.. 327 Govi. 269. 64 w. 65 Friesach. 148. 168. 126. 225. 173. 334. Honigswald.. Helmholtz. 306. King. 361 n. 80. 270 Kornfeld.. 265-275.. 80 n. 100 «. 279 n. 325. 49 Kohlrausch. 298. 30 n. 72.. 158. 65-69. 228 n„ 230. 313 Du Prel. 324 n. 67 n. 269.. 46. Kirchhoff.. 226 177 «. 310 Geissler. Dubois-Reymond.. 145. 219 Groth. 252 w. 99 «. 148 James. 219 n. 323. 368 Gay-Lussac.378 Dreyfuss.. H Haddon. Konig. «. 67 Gruithuisen. 251. 136 n. 139. 131 Hume. Hirth. 163. 99 «.. 264 n. 367 Kepler.. J n. 367 Holtz. 263. 221 n... 245 Fechner.. 55 n.. Emch. 265 n. 125 «. 210... F. 74. n. 120 Harvey. 226. 86. 307 Ewald. 109. Herakleitos.. 172. 63. 48. 305. 197. 173. 191 n. 61. 20 n. 177. E. 117 Haga. loi 251 n. 129. 197 Fourier. 4 n. 302.. 272 n. Fraunhofer.. 122 w. Grimaldi. I Heymans. 50. 357. 252 Goethe. 181 n. 183. 191 n. Hofler. 7. 326. I79i 181 n. 272 n. 257 n. 153. 168170. 273 n. 297. 301. 98 INDEX Heidenhain. 252. Jones. 271.. 137 n.. 122 n. 21. 103 n..." i6i Driesch. 168 n. Guldberg. C. Euler. .. 369 Hermann.. 175 «. Krause. 190.. 176. 174 n. 181. 255 Dvorak. j 303 Hero. 268 n. 112. 370 Hensen.. 136 n. 318 n. 125.

352 Pfaundler. 257 Munk. 103 M. 299 Pollak.. 186. 28. Maxwell. 245 «. 273 Leonardo da Vinci. 232 Locke. 262 n. 265 Oppel. 121. 77 Moser. 245 n. 326. 122 Purkinje.. Oettingen. 327 Riehl. 4. 59. 217. 224. 237 Mosso. 132.. 202. 66. 135 «. 61 n. 122. 92. Lipps. 89 n. 103 w. 196... 346 n. von. Pfeffer. 356 n. Nietzsche. 255 Mariotte. Miiller. 203 Miinsterberg. 36 n.. 155. 21. 253 Petzold.. 135 n. n. 327 Kiilke. 126. 206. 76. 113. 85 Reinke. 165 49^ 64. Ohm. 157 Preyer. 159 Polle. 163 Kries. 30 n. 144. Morgan. Ostwald.. 48. n. 168 n. 181 Robert. 27. 223 Plato. von. 133. 273 n. 273 Lissajous. 261 Mill. 159. 270 n.. Poncelet.. 371 w. A. 239 n. 25 Newton. Plateau. 157. 83 n. 247 n. Politzer.. 153. 153. Obermayer. 149 Ludwig. 247 Loewy. 123. 112 n. 134. 144. Mayer. 226. 66 Panum. Lubbock. 132..INDEX Kreidl.. 86. 37. Prentiss. 31 n. 153. 313 Leibniz. 174^ 307* 334. 173. 135 w. 131 n. Menger. 337 Nichols. 241. 350. 99 n. Ptolemy.. 98 Meumann. 191 n. 69. 273 n. Meyer. 103 n. 135 n. 272. 219 297 w. 98 126. 229 Pauli. 137 n. 221. 286 Kiilpe. Poulton. 31 w. R. 20 n.. 64 Mayer.. 153. 271. 159 Ribbert. 39. 265 Reimarus. 252 R Rameau. 69 n. 119 Molyneux. 176. II Polak. 245 n. J. 254 . 252 Mygind. 96 n. Ribot.. 341 Popper. 162. 92. 139 Riemann. 160. 61 n. 318 Loeb. 67. M Magnus. 341 Meinong. 98. Meynert. 268 n. 275. 310 Marty. 68. von. 94 Manac6ine. 335 ^•> 363 Moliere. 336. 351. 125. 379 N Nagel. 287 Lichtenberg. Laplace.

. V Vergil. 86 Sandford. 252 Saunderson. 122.. 6 n. 6 n. 77 Spinoza.. 145 Schnabel. 206. 153. 324 n. 112 Tschermak. 99 n. 126 Schmidt. 78. 303. 260. von. 49 Schopenhauer. 56 Sachs. 173 73. 49 Smith. 104 w. 199 Weber.. 123 Whitney.. 226 n. 95 Wind. 126 n„ 262 n. 261. Wallaschek. 228. 298. 117. 290 «. n. 46 Schuster. Sauveur. 269. 52 n. 290 SeeUger.. Zollner. PRINTERS.. 274.. 181 Wollaston. W Wahle. 136 M. Schuppe. 118. Strauss. 71. 71 Scripture. 126 Tylor. i. Stumpf. 240 «. 335 n. 246 n. 96 n. INDEX Tolstoi. 65 Wundt. 245 n. 72 n. 265 n. Wilner. 273. 280. 36 «. Smith. 341 Zell. 50. 136 n. Spencer. 88 n. 197 «. 293. 24.38o RoUett. von. 299 Weismann. 265. 230. 308 Wheatstone. 270 n. 81 «. 227. Vierordt. 197 146 w.. 75 Strehl. 2ig n. 261 Steinhauser. 318 n. Wasmann. 95. 46 Staudt. Seebeck. 104 n. 200 Stem. 31 «. Ziegler. 299 Suess.. 64.. Schumann. 1 60 Strieker. 225. n. Witasek. 56. 262 Schultz. Stohr. 305. 371 Roux. Young. Zindler. 229. R. 82 «. van. 255 n. 272. 61 n. 200 Steiner. 322 n. 226 TURNBULL AND SPEARS. U Uexkiill. 72. 265 Soret.. n. 228 Schlodtmann. 135 n. 77. Scheffler. 236 Szily. Semon. 158 Schaik. Schneider. Adam. 219 m. EDINBURGH . 245 n. 346 w. 77 Volkmann.. 309 «. Wlassak.. 265 Schafer. 73.

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m QP 435 MI32 2 ^ ib/ Mach. Smst The analysis of sensations and the relation of the/' physical to the psychical Bx>log)caI & Medical PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .

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