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94, 96

. ~hac11e. and acoustics ExamHlatloD Questions '142 :Re:'ris~on Cbecldist t44 '~:.2) I 136 13'8 :l4{J [] 6:.~~' .08 [J I..~ns .l l4a~[lS.[ 'mig'hE.01 :EleCDlc motors [J 9.) .: I! ~ . 0:( sound .m: M~gnetic eBect: 'Oil'~..t3~02 'Wave: effe-ctsi '~O.efE~etioncalenladons Exammati'Q.. Electric 'fieltb~ 01 8~11!5 CeUs and batteries 'E~:alminaticn Q.cmren~ 21.tve~ 114 .07 Se~:3iriewarv. 1 [] 7'~04 ''l1:u:aID :wliter.1:1! Light.~. ~ :198 "ilifrlt'rl ~uu tJ '6~03 Sound w.~ircU!~u OJ Series .eleCIJr~ci.rid~s.II 'Q[].'.V~Iii' ~ .&evis~an Checld.Expanding solids and.induced corrects :E:xBifilinailtion Quesdo.[. (l) !i. Q. C IUD' o 8~06 8io. S~1 .. 1:]".~. u 6.4.· 0.estiQns :Revi.) CJ 7.EI.nd pipes (1.05 Lenses.O'3 Ciu_IT~"L~t ~. OB SQu'll_.'glij 1'9 3.es [] 6.. 'through pSJ..e$'dons Revisicn Checklist :202 204 206 208 2nO D 6t.M.gnedc n~]ds 0 Q g. 'eye: 0 :1. L30 132 :.t)s t:J 9...mduclta}o-n [J [J Refrac:t~k~~0..gy~!C'l1lati'a<fi's a (. o :5.'~.(5. r:l 5~O!J The gas 12.t 1:80 182 1:84.(:J 1 .fS a (1) (] 9.ce Resistance (t) Resismnce: (2) ..:p~~l].11 Blectromagne:tD!c 'Waves (2) __ '1. 100 10"2 01 :5~'D2 Temperar~ 01 :5~oJ Therms].ds nom stdng:s. '~¥:aves "1'..2:34· 236 238 162 Copyriqhied mate rlal .05 M~gn~c ro~' LJ '7'~01 Lig'ht: and. .. 5~a1 . nd tta~ru!ffor:m~.:1:]' 1 PotenmiaID mfi-eren..4 [] 9.8.on..e]e'Ctr.) :118 lIS l2'0 ~.and. a ....a~ 04 Speed.pie.ectrie 'cJmge"1(l.4"' :li' 1. gas Laws (.. 'p'.roagnetic ..rmal . 21.iclty (2) 1:8:8 l..iiI_~! . llqulds o :5 .lves (1.68._: i tit _ 0. 1017 10:9' 110 1. projettQ:[ Cl ' .54 :156 :158 160 9".121\4o'rl:' abeu'[ .06 rn~&olJIDdl.. o 8.07 EJ~ctK..106 Lenses (2.:~ ~nd Uquid.) [] 6. OJ B"tl~ Elecmt: charge (2) Cl S..simp~e in cllcui..1111 Power aCIr!Q~S oountty the' ... 98.1:1 EJectlr.04 E10ctr0mapels 101 '. 8 The human.mOl echoes: C 6\005 Ch~cooifisncs! of SiOU11l:d \Va.nal mHeC'bion Q 1.J.:~'1 126 128 o 8.91 Colour to t:ll 101 Blecty'O:M8(gJ'lelic w.Q and.2...iM 9.M.. 2 Ma. .and. 1:8.09 .) c 7.BlODl .. Cl . Coils."\[3: 'R.10 Hearieg.~~ Cl '9. 9.) [l.: .j. 116 21.sene$ .1''I Latent heat Exarminatii(l~.ns .s "Eu'(L'ec~"LC&IL power--' ~:~. (m.1'IJ Specific hJ~~t c~p{~td~ o 5'. C~ecldi8~ Di 7.ty' 0.SJ16 Liqm~.7 Ca!m>er.ngitrl]L~3il W.0.'..Moving' hS4 "li~'~ ·~u 1. 174 1'1i6 10'4106.ruj~[iJJ~r.'r-meTS (2) Cl 9..k:_.iiItiOJI. 3.S.01 MS..O! [J 01 6~01 llinsv~e and 1I:l. 2~2 '~Z4 ~ll~J~tQ[S 226 :22:::: .srlo:n:~ Revlli~i. .om The..09 Sounds from strings and pipes (.04.4\ :1 117 Us.02 Reflection in plane: mirrors [] -7:' O-~' . noise.CillT~lD!t. 1 1'~4) '~i9·: 6. :parrde~ drcliim (2) CUilOOfl!E8.:1:0 Coil$ and ttSn'Sfb.IIil.skn~.[. ~I ..:lui. I~. 'condluCnatl -1.D Que-..!tl4 CimlveCtiOIl... C 8.1)5 The.• ' ' 1II 0'.2J -' :5. ...Ch~cHli's:t 17'0 II TJ.1.230 231 .. gll. and VapOll[.8 l:!O :148 '1:50 :152 C 9.

' 1'1~Og Atoms ~nd l'articles (2) 271 27:4 :21'f~ a '14...1:'11 Spre~ds.tlifir:IJS 260 cfl.. R~~~wsicn lCh.)1:12 in tb~ ]~bom1ltol'Y LJi! .stiptions.08 .~il!!ii"!il"""..' eneI'.) _ 278 pretpQrmg [J '14.) 304 306 308 l:nO 24.rod.. 'El~ctdc~...ing' 'Om..e])'m ill physics 01111".. l~_~.2 o 1 0.l_ ""' _ ICJI '14~1\7' IJ"..m'bers. 0.02 _ 1 D. 'Ii.Slmfbo]~ :mdl cOO_e5. 328 33..ve decs.procedures .. 'Idi. .... -.6 .o~ f~.5.~--~.perlml!.. . 8 Communicstioas 0 EI. (3) ~.tH 5pl~tld numbeMS"..1 w~df: atoms lell 1'1.I!C3tions C 1. ].! 'Ute~vjdence :Ex.h~ eJqlarnrl..pr~ads in th~ prnvit)u:s edliriO:Il- p]a. "'liAI'!:J' L}~~Cl _ 1D~09 TnLnsi~lor~ (1) 1DJ14 Translstors (2) o 1D~05 Logic gates (1) 1 OJJ6.-Iol8 : the G'l!'ri:derlC!E':_ (4) _.ll!l :illi'l~1miEt:~~ .ve[r.-"" 10.1..['II...esliOFls 180 282 284 :pl'cced~J~s. ~:~~l'l 31.02 Rays WiL'V'il!iS:" and p\:n'trcles l:J :3.u es.4...~" a.i011 [] "2'.) .~~ caome_nts (2) E:manrui!fIDarban. 33:" I "Q'te.!IB Expffimmmrn :Ex9Jmma1)ion Qil!l."]] m.U D 11 . ..~n.Revlsww Gheddist IIJ '14~16: S!Qm~ex:pm".Mov.(2) __'.s!lt: ICII '114~II.es.lectren 'm':!' .286 :288."UilfL sit:!!ii~_ ~'-"'''''''' _'~"":I! 3IF:Iid A'di13iviiPiIl' ---'.ecITon. plaines (.\I'nlel1'~ s. metien. :Z9M.:~O 'ri.\N__~ II!. and 'RlOst page n:!lJ..02: n '12.05 .tl!l!J. energy '1].:ion Checklllist 2.lAM ZJ4l.~dio~ctillv~ d~-ay (2) Nu. .2.y -I 11. (2) 1 "" 254~:5. 0..!D. "'Ii ~.. .aDd : . Expemitl"fiimtaru:pl-ccedJu~es.'(J1 ElccuOfllk: csseruial s Diodes.~ ('~.ni ".iIJ11Saf~ "'.09 a '12.~~ :Ex:..-'.O'n.J~.igto'~11.05l! 1D.~ -..A:roms .'. 3H~ 318 .O..104. '1] .bi C 1.tean match i~'ose"Cl<feqiLJi.~nd.O:~ Nuolear 'fadi~tiQ~ [0 ' I!:II 1 1101n 'N'iIllc]eat :mdiati.~hfii~ q:uestions 'l):mtsf :BlOO: e'~e'metllim.."I!E' IYJ!__ ~'" eY4JU"""!il.2.06 (1) Q 1 '1. -'..07 l. : 292 294 .2) T.100.361 ILl 12.Muiltru.:wAly r I '1. ..Je~ .~ "!t.. beams . Questio.2~04. 327 . ".p~it'.BJ . They have been placed later in ~~'ebeek so l~lrtaJ'0 ~ih.omrrnufiI. {II 1 beams 2.m Stlxtj.(DUOW 6.pcrooenm]j :p:rocedm.JC~:I1U!ruI]arlJi.:11 . :--... 01 1. •• C 12 I:J 12.0.jH~1~{lltif" .O:~ The E'iirw. M~rs... Logic [ga.mc1es (1. and beyond 13.2~05 01.(]Slt na Ilutilffi..on (~) 1 264 266 26Bt 270 o '1'1' ~'04 :Radio8ic[].2 3V~.6.and]12.ec~~st 262 _ ... b3fIldlin.stn"s. O'b" -' ttl C'r'~( CTea"~ o 1 0.~ Panerns ~nd positions 296 298 300 .:iD.3.. -'.h~h~ch]llics-would .dear.imtenW.QlS Rev~s.08.-.immm'~ :lnve.302 Loo:k.:I' If 1)' I..0'7 on sei ~mic ~vave:~. Key dev~lopm.2 33:3 :334. and rectification 240 Z412 .3"Oil Foree.07 U:!:5~ng' ntUo~cti.~ life for M(Yvi~g cQIlJtin~nts (1. . ~t'tilng the evidence "'14.les (2) o 10. Q'_' '5° @l .

. I • I I .. J 1- ..'.. . I.. i .': . . "!":.. ..I.• 1~ . '1IiC' .

n 0 tilimes metre)... urn:us :s!ho~:...... anCtUliIIUli:b.~...E. S me:mes ~"s .. dh~de the distance 'trar\'i~'!Ei}ed y 'the tim.c' 'taken~ ~ik'e'mills: b ~. 1!l51il.1'011.!IT ."'fl. To 'WQ..all :s:ta:S.dIl. 11115IT!~thod w~rk. 1$.ymooill in .l11o"W' the ~dlii:m~dc w.. '~j 2. and s :have' "been left out.':.. It.MhM .can.. . 'w. mea'SuremerJi~l' you :migbt get the one aJoo.~ 'd~at you can rO.md..0 m :reaUymeans ~qrUJadon"Thls is .BJ :s.-t . '1" '~~UI!. eaJlall~mon. not ~-inCOrffi"~CiIL.J!~~~l UJl .po:rmmU: '""mCml cQmb~rdog units.im..saV11n~: of way WiflillWlg -tt ~f:IJ 2. o~:me~ns TIt 0 X s: (ret] times .[)dliv[dedJ th~ .girl.rk 'out the speed. equals Smct1y S.S 10:£ a..Jt~ _.~nd. tlti(!' .aDd. ~.~ . b .reSll~t]me .iJ ~e =----.iiI...~n as s''ii.11.l'~J/V _ of eiiJIiusillon.~.~ke .'kIJa!IL a!lL. make the . U..-. o. I.~. '!l~.~:]~Y 'written..aD" a1. You..re: a mSl'ance of 'IG :m. ~.'Wllell :yurn.~o~'Lg€b:~.5 - __ m_ ~ i:s. CombitniQg uBits In the dmg[::im abeee. :ru. yQ~. not' 5 m!s\.be used '50 Copyriqh: ed material .....pf!ed ....]]'C3IJd~g:l! b ~II" i'_"'_ ". ~I:s: iTu]'~.~.I.. _ So mls.ml~. a5....~jbr.li H_.. C":rc1es110 metres 1 5 m/s lis.' . .i:moUiC 'until'S 'which.Il ~.a~ sp~~e.v~ms.t ~ rrli ~!JJI .. . This e~uartio:n [~I cerect: e It is tneorrcer b~~auSl~ In.shO'WRnrg: ljill iTII~~.U= en _".. ~ .j. -:-s: ."" ln U'!f!l"1!. sorm~~h:nes..:5:ti I'IJrld. iE [m ~v..- _ s@ 'the s~ooo1can be writmn.The oomp']e'te' measuremem is c~lled a :p:bJ. X m ('~_e.:':C: -1 m T'. Sj. __ _ :s ..caJcwa'llo:n look more compUcat-ed.if'" . ' .~y second.':: .a :s~acec.11.i!'!: - :~tt. inelnded be ... treat the m just like ."'1j' 'i:iii...X).... made ~p 'Oif 'two P~m"OO': ~ nl!llmb~r. just :as .slciid. .3!ic ].::..m~tte~ per second.:.-I..m. as 5 ml s. So she 'tm. A~50~ -cal!1! be 'Wl!'"fet.. is ehe unit of is. V-1i.unir.i'j .L. Her $"~ is 5 .'IJJuaDd1tJ. UIllJL~.e OQ~mOIll in adV\i3inredl 'To s.~ '" -.~.

1 1000 km I[kilometf\€i) ....._"...fi~'If'I.:~.Also) :~i'(}n :i~n.em1i.-':I1:Mi']'ie: numllf-eiE'~_ ~."'""'.g ..:!!J.1 5 ~ 1Cr:~ 100 5 1'000 ·NumJbet. ~tmig'hlc tl~.AAJ [106} (10') MW (meg.ento t. dilLw41' .~ !I:. were: :lmown "mo:re.the po:pwatio:m.uion" m '[ S W:r..Ill Jj..7 X 1.. down the fiOllh.d Im8Ih~r.~ 3Iid~liIic1D.1~" tells 'y'Q'U'mIt me ngtlI'es. UP 10... '1 = 1(}4 . ':':_ 'J ~2".o..Yi5 that the P<JI. v. .1 (101' .05 (1. (109) GIW fgigawaW M (me-lIB) k: (kilo) 1..I.. W:[i!tt~down..!-"..v gi!i'3m... (iBeLow~ "If s®ands :fo([' watt.'!L~J. in 'fn1r:.'Oillow. 200 :m 2' :x 'H:r~~m !fi.pmItrion. the folil~ in s: ''] U'8~g :s~ie~dilc :nQts¥tio~...~a~~il. '1.~wm. . "(r"" .Wrltreiii}.Qn~enIDeurt.An 8t1e~:sa. l( 1ct~ ". ri.! 1!1rl i!l.awatl) 10' x 110' 1 ... :form .wc JliJIlJL.a\iI: .-. ems at. The num'beli' is b~m.it~ dOW. a p:r. e (centi) " 10 ~fi '1 ~ HJO -1 - ._'__~ _~~~_~~~~ r'I:71l'I'Ii"f'I"~' ~lnL~a.. ll"'" '11 'i.a un~t of :power. of'Iceland is this..' prefix G example . AQIt ~tan.aJtd. 'by' . ~~ ~ [~W' ~ww .ght:are to one sigrmiifWc:Ilil]l_tfigure.iftI: If!II!. '= De:n:gtb x ·\vid.~.. !'Ii 'PoweJS of 10 '1lXlO :... 'WIitiqg Jots.[:Q '[lqn 8...~d. vewy (.:: - 102 U~a ..f. "IO'~[lCr There are two problems .t don?t :blow w:llkb zeros are aeearate.t... O.2.n"j'i .. Copyriqhted rn .." '~e...'. 5 X '1l). .c~lcub-~ .}'~ '~:i.f ten are in SdcDti6~ :uoUltlOD.of ~~rQ!1i. a :r.005 fractlon 10 X W..: .l~m OJH5:m.IIIi~'''' . n.!J' : .''Vt'i!te.'The exa:rn:p:~e5 OU lthe r~. 100{ll 100 11 11 n m (rlIanometre) SeieDdle~ :noitation .ry-'u ~1J-1J1J I!J<~ '-b't •.-w Ult. sdentiflc notatlon 5 X 2 ...) :0.g g~v._ 10-3 _. 1~ :5 ilG 5.th~ r.ti. ~_A ~ ul3i~:J ~ = _=~_J~ ~~se: ~ !I!-~ _ II ""i "7 .. us~g pOrwets . .mtffl'.J"'IA.'? ·4..Y .! uuu ~~y UVY n.ii:' ~'L......dle tbe' umts ~v.w m~' ~'~...i.1::11 ILIiIi .am.UIW.~ .]o ~ l. .. a :1:\~ctEJ!1g1e:~r~a.l3!rethere ~ecolld. !bIUU t.t ..~iI'\i!"'I.wne~e?' 3 H~w m-UJ:Ym1!c~<fs ...l ""...iii: pIO.and 7 are: :krip..Onmt. •_.1.. .i ....iiJLhJtCF. km~ 21QO[)~m.~f'e ~re: in '].ugja) .""..""' ~ UillP.. ""A v '10:5' ..11.~1 Jwn~c4-!nt fig\~1$S •.2: IT!!.II ·U..!Jill . . If. _' < . ~orua:.ill.~~ .fi .~kYI"~ii!" '... .3[\~ or. 'u~e :lJIiu_m~t.::.. :.. 1 :Ho. is 111J~~d.....~!h~~~ m ]$'[H):m 1500000:m.:s Milne". :u.t.e!i!!. are .O 10(000) =. Tb~ e qua'tii on.~~tthgillving me :l11U!mOOlr in ttds CO'ln1.'10 l( 110 x 10 ~ 1~ 100 0.~t8.iv ~ .~~in.:" 1'Q three ~'~gni:ficafit flgUF~8..JS '\Vl1[00fI u:nng p-ow~:ts '0'.:!tM:-.~h.~r. ..::::0 '. X ~IO:S (U)~ =: 10 X ro X 101 X declmaJI 500 0.~'m. ik~ 'mm..tIO 'work: O1iJt '~ .'You CalD m_ak~:~ unrueibigp:r Q~ sm:a]j~r' by putting an estra :sy:mbol"i called.>~C'tl=l!pgle~~m'~ 3i ~1.. 5 0-. . ii"V'II'iI iI""uI'\rI. • ~ 4e:-_II".e: ay'rnu"1... 'm-. rt..I..

..mear!lU[.mt ~ dj[rectiOfll~ The greater 'm'e mar:s~. l--'fll1lgtib l1ii1!i>! I~ml lb O-z: yd 'ft M 'S hour rnDt1~ 9 kg eM ton m~!e Ikm day mm yor ms :Sl.= it'".ma_k~ethem.am~e_W.... '''T'''I!... . U~ ..iiin Icf'U:mte.'nm ~iik€t~is. .gJ' . . for m~asl.liMti'fjc.~ '0'". ..l\J" . ba:s~' U].~gvolunle.t.O:~ectOnl ~ 'ithe pan!.te: .. . "".:eto (.'"'. a:n.affects how' obieces 'behave a 'w...lked to :shil:)w~rn~ mrJijl)...II..... _'_:1 ...dlle'mJgth are the killogram... Ie'nl:r. l"ep. ~.I1IDldJ..han~ m metio n. I. ~~ '"'1.'~~ U~~~~ .~~t!~ a 'I••.'.ie:: .D'.r.Q . 'found 'i!.e~S'u:ringtemperausre).k!IJL' ..avita:o. 'p'~la'l.. V ~.gmo.eallter the .=- '1 00) 11 g:- Copy rig f. I~._'_' ~ ~II lfIi1 111f. 'O-'~ib@.'I~.i~n.tffi~ U'~ S11JI'll!bs I(full name: L~ Sy:St~~m~mJefm~tiOJ.sn: units :fOiE measuring :rnla!S'S'. lm~ 'the' :scale '~.-. Mus '~s...l1ul].the glLearelr is th~'~-s~~tnm.. ma:9~.]e ra:~~ of uflmms...:i»lJI ~CI -~=~ '~cr~~".._. I 1 .i t!i~ . 'ttrne.~. SI~.ing electric (for me b_nv~['](for '[n.t"iIum-' ~ :a][0LY.mMS S!lJn'Onger .'.'" " NJlO<Ir.lJ. l'iIotatTon 1 ~jJnl'le m -----------1(100.Je 'L.A. _ .::I.. ..m!JY'~ __ "'Th' 'iI."'f. ~~ ~ ~_ _ . '.~ MO\st 'S'c. Q.Uobjects are attracted '~o'we Earth! The gr.inrilurle the .'i':lit ". mmpd~ml JtIi!l W IbUl:~ UIiI~t 5i..ilD NI1~ll!l..!J."~ ~g~. ma. the second.wsthe E-artluts sy.. ..~ hJ!1.iI1_. -u '_...01iU!f q.J1S11ng .It'". _ I .A system o-' "IT'· ts ':. .uantities . Mn ways:' • .-f'.the lh.::iml'~m..i.'I.ilUU.s)....led m assri a I .a.' ~ (·''l. f UI _ ~ __ _ _ . mYi]:terious :p:r{Jope:rL'y. sy...~ mass of' armfJ!bj~ct esn be.~ ~. bahmae reall\Y d~ed:5 tihJ(!I ~ra"~tarliofll)al ull en the. Od]e. ilne.'.~~bje~ts reelst . force.att1empts "t.a dU:fer.y.I.~ ~ y~ f W~il" 'h~ and . ~ Ib ~~~ ~~_ . pull on ~t..mass of :l!Jn.p. 1.g..rer O'r ~n . . • J\U .I!I' '0 ====~.Ma. m The ~'3:!llmt. .3'i¥. .t' sm base uni!~ .-m.~speed. and 'we :meJtre'. .(.of =~~~YbIJlIJ~ . these base' um!tus come ~ 'wno. .=1.ni:t.F.. go fasteil!" ~dOVl. carrent) ~~d M~aS's.!:'I . Q'bL~'iectj. ~g ~== ~ ~~allirl (ID' ===~= ~ ...ornaJ.

I W'Jiit of ~·~ti!l~? 11 Wh.a.m. !WY:IIU. • 1 'What is the. The 5H:flnd 'We )l..a~is 'med..Hi ~ ruO-'1'mm in m... *e:f 'CdJumM as bel~w..!f "!i... '006.'000 ~(m 000 'Il'!.mndm-d is now' used" barsed on m.. [The SI base u~drtcf rune is 'Wliits ba~ m~rseooud 1 [(symbo~rn. "'!J!I'..g-e a:) m.! WIDit of tfum.e~. mm.aqt.ii'lidil 'l.m 'Paris.on a 'metal b~I' k~p:t ~u: ~rnetU. mm.JJ. Tb~: ~OOpag~iS. :m m me .9)..". I Len_ The Sf 0081.1i!J'i"f'iOj!."5 :..S . t nm 's mg' ns tin ta' iC) 3dSS x: U~t~g :kg' 'ill I~)I J6 8) 1. based om memelJle~ wmpmfi'lln 'wUhl . II. . !LU~ ~"''''!. . Wri~ dn~ V3bi~of 62 ~ :~ S' . The ~ts . Alt: one time.uysmt ]e:ngth ls '!b. i.564...n .e"[ uIJJLi:m of: ]e:ll.m. l 10'..m1 JliI]'[S 5. Here are: S1O'me shorser .suI~s..and .e?' 4....9.(I) 1 " :k.es the I~rth to oon~'tant 6i~: ~heIEarth~ rotdiO'~HSl Iqurlt~. r.u:f.5'[0 :kg'... A.. be:.orM'ii'Q] ~_~'~YiL . 1000 .te 's. ri..H. 'fns !Jg ~.'J._ .p' liime:l!IClocks and watches need 50me1t. ~ CO:UIl. IlS 'on the rig..'~[ . 'the! 5-Kond is.a. 3'1 W'liit of [e'p_gt&'? :2.ats. 'Will!lJt is the' S..OW dldine.v~o 'i'~ .emetre (symbol 'M). _ h"-v~ 1 PiI.._. - 'lIQ'-'il!. deHrnled as '60 2~ of' a day.. .: 'ilie 'fre.1) 6.. "'1"'~.Le To kee.. " W.~IUI~.00 'in ofd~Fjo '~th lal~'tt ~tthe oo&".tt"bo'a8stand 'ful"~ g q t Jl..1I:Fge5t~ unitt Copvrlqhtcd m ...!II '.b~lI!n'H: s1l1e n ltifi~· llil~tajIlJoo! '--------- -- --.eUlsof .m each oo~ i!li~lou1d..---~ 1meR' ~m'' . s.lD!Jl'U .: .gIh... .:'.e' 'S'OCQnJJ. b) ].Arra~:e the abo·ye. u'!.gh'lJ. of a book 1m. masS (If 2"._. net romb. S'o~'fOr ac.I.Time...(1..'i. "Wh. ~ 'b] :i. (:ns) = ' ']..d 'i'~1'terms."ijP. __ .t 't'll. .he ~.. 'o:ne daf be~flg: 'the' 'tJlfi!1~ ~ttaJk. ~'I~~ p:Ci!i"iid'I~'~\i M.. • q g' :m...lI. orf ~Jlmet'nij'l'iIg 'that' nEi¥er chan!i::e'S..e speed of Ugbc.... ' .~~=='S ].M[ea.a! :is lile: ~ of.cb pa.rL~.. '.e the dis:mnce: between mo :m~n:-ks. 110 ' en 'U1.mo~e aCCU1... '10'.:' onre.bit There are larJe-r and :SJr:IaiI]..'II_S""1i.~H) g in . .qlllf~ncyo~ aJl'ii ti5'Cilla~0'Jl! w1l'i1h~h 'OOC-lIr In' ean -u (lull:ll... 10( em '!i11!Q'!1 '11 '10 -4 ~.ulflg tiba'it.g:" 's . 1 (lOO'OOO t ruutosec(. Un1Jt .[aiVl~3. ~t do *e :fbU\[}w:i~' ~J..kg' j .t the vibrations made by a itiny lq:u~rl:2:.ld:' 'II.gt .f s<mndiarrometre \VaS the Office: of 'We~..c~Si'U'i'!fl aIttUtli...'hnd. al a s~f:9dyrate. ~ [ori_grifilally )f.. ~"'" """odern ru.::. ~ni"~5ln.(II~..

.. ~Q . .. u~. !of w~tef (pure..: 'The growinG' g~ in me ~ili .e~. .sl~-..::.. ~J "~d' ~. _.r..5 the 'Volume O'f iii elUbe rmeastjffin:~ 1 em '. to caJJculate d~.1h"". i'i'fip·"-'5ril"lfld jp!<.rn~t itffiktres: tor nl11ill.j'o:f W.iofts... U.:m...~_. lead bea. ~': .I!!!31d.efa mattriam is.tt 1 em x !II"'~'Iii tan. 3.ting' 'ito It-l/m.OOO go) 'was ar.oliher ul'lIit$ are OfOOID used for OOOl\l.~ ::.m it: :ls s~mpleir. and! '~"""r '_. ~... d~ctm~trf1 (d~) " Iii ltie ~5< the.. .ities ~n ..this~: l~ in 'tille' ease C). Copyrlqhted material .--" . kilo~~1Je. 'U's~g .~i!lilo' '~a!!. of :~. IUIlI!r!. 1'5.::-_.dlensn~ of'~~e sas ~sless ~bianJa kilo.lJ~wr~ityof space an .3ite.any of 'thes~<seb of 'flg~s worb Qut to be: '1 000 kgJm~. de. a.Volume and density 'Va'mome 111.'I. 3 1 .above '~'l!ua:lJ.ever.I'warlilim mmJ be t!'Jl'rllJ~d wi lh a 1 (one).·0. fn..e as 1 eu tJJc o l 11 is tJrne 1 mmmtre (ml" same vdJU!llli'HB as :Dlm.c~" as 'sihol\~m.!_I__~ '1. ~000' . than. ~.ig~n3il1y supposed to be the maJss arf lOUD (:ID'. ~'rl..m.' has m' ~.lm...""n LW·Jjlu ~iOO!i1iIi-."'.d~ag.ml3. The d.d ~t 4.bic .. and 3.10111.U t:m ." .3.kill Q.eas. ~C!!'I!II..y ciI!J.. . depends.. pad{cd into .~m~in.glcm:3". iJl. ne:ces'sa:dly.es .ma'S$ of' 1000 kg: 0:( walter...Rdieftml:io:~ fifme :kiCilgraul. die ][f'mil'sises are measured :m .. :ram.rB:m£below: ICubic' ee.V'efY' slight errol' w. JliiLiairai more :kilogram. lI.r:n~'lts eere...~_' __ .]nf:ll.~C)" However.... 1 cubJc.as In.:=.!.ru.'"+:.0····i"JJ i ' 1 The .1"-. . masa af':3000 kg: afW9tem: MJS 9.c ltctte (m::J) . :m 'the .l"i"'ri~'ili'i (:-"I!!\1 I.::.) !OT mm i1111rr~ (~f:t~ mt) ~r N'Qte~ the ~mb~~ .. '\i'olurme of 3 mi3. more dense ..8. C~onveir.up is cl'[I. Tbe densl'Qr. The Sl umc of volume is.en. mass of.00 ~·cchi)en!t.Jlis.r of I'cad. .!!{'I!I: lb'!..ffl. It.eT'1are:e D .. me \'.gf ~ .Q' on..y.."" nlj.~ .. "". on H"'-'iI"i/!lNeiV:1M" "i.$""'m3.gr3.same ..s ib@nrna 'the oo. a!s. f.ade:in 'the' eady' measur.g.meltre...svolume u. .. the .of i .simp:me' vaIDueL'S.!iJ'''''.ed ]J1..1'. 'H~Qwevel~ is. 'volume O'~ !it c!J:b. c~[~ulait....gram p@r'cubic kil'omm[f~'.' .object tak.. ie. 'v'QliIlUlJIC a.l'\itJ'II'f:H:: He. !.\fier...oo.used. 'this fQl' .o:n.. ~ Hitte nt.olum. i5II:'" . V::-.. Tm.. '1 000' milll!I~~ (ml) 1 .rarns (0) I3lnd vo'ffiumes~ cubic centimetres (cm~)~ ..cJufbiJj. 'W'at.me~re (im3} is the.II..emmt!j So diis :~snD .e qJ. 'Ijile ... '.evewyday WUf11t-. ..1Jl.ger.::lity' of W.' .C!!Jibi!: (ji:!f1ftim~ C. /1.f Wa!l'e[~._!!.. The g/cm .lter' is :~.200a kg -of liWoor has a 'volume iM 2: ml 3..~.c.~d . ~s .al].tl"'? N'ot. 1!'ri~1St!ri!1g 1~"'i ~ m x '1 tn.

- ~1 p _ 'm ~: TIp = 7BOO k. 19.ny C's].ld wei~h as ITtIlLn:h as' .~ :lbml'~ ca'l.[.u' in..~5 can vary ~~dd merwry g'. ~. :litN:? 3 :U:Ow ma:n_y mJ ate 1lhere in 1'm3? 4..Ocrkgfm. Jill t' Jr~' =- 'V These MI~:~~(Lful the d'rn~j!~" s~!i)W.asurin£.m!e '0:£ .oIli . MoiSt 5!1iJ bsbnoo5i ~ a f:ilile bigge~'when h~a. 1. pf :Ieald. A 'mrnkfu[ o:f lliqwd hss a volurne ~f 0. 'vo]!U.2 m~" ~'~ &) cm$ ~) IEnl? 5 AJ1illmiml1m. 'lill~'volnme or mass is '00 be jf ~ calcu]atedL.0013 OdJ14 0'.. .Llg.. m~ "'"'. -<">6 h) What ]8 t:tiB~mass 'of . water (4 ~t) 1.3f cmJ.I~. i. .wa .AJ' ~ "lj'J"id!'ij lFn.nlf' seo :'-20 cum [l92· CL95.4l~V5.s 14750 1100' 27'00' '1'800 8900 IJ 2:1 7'.6 E~rth= If this ooock W~rf mad'e.-. '].8 Whal[..s 'Uae me mf~tmllti{ln :m 'me: rab]~of demmbi'::S. what V' -ijS @quall' . .' yO!Ui'..:rt !. copper The d€liSFHes.IJ brtance fou r.27 g of aluroJmum? !!ii \VhaIl.the dJ~ils~iyliD....~\':..I!.9 alJum iniurn ~.3 2~. 1'1:works: t:CUf In aUld! p as 'weill.a. gj!Cm.w ma. :S':m X :2 m. {.5[r F' e:ti:pand~tI p.I.ti' \Vb. :biHi~ dms:ilty ~f: 2..4 1~.S CfFi1~9 of ''1 Wb~t: ~s ~¢ mass uJa1rr in a room.of . oIiifij .1.-0.tml lice ~IOD<C) p!I}iytne.." ..Hel (!iilrunle~~') the de l"i!$itJt pe.VJI~.'I 'QiI~. of esm lu m.0'[ :fMiSS 39' ~'~~as a V\o]um. x 3m.m ~ The d~ns. w.600 kg.~? is 'the' 'v-ohJmw :i~a) [iwe:. an "me.'5.0 2.e: . ~~.J'·In . • .ayY 5'uitcase. 5400 ~g of aluminium ...1'400 21 500 221$00 mefua::~ nslltr'QiUl1i1I1II 'Ike deiilse.olys'tty~e n~ wo~d '~_edi) glcm1 0.. lIiI'I"'d . .ig'~iItis.. vary sl1ghtly 'with templ2l1'a't!J. • .i\DII" 'II" '!ii.. .o:f tbe p8j..cw~l'eme' mass of '~l~ steel having 'ti:h~J ssm e vo'1um.ities 0'( ~Itcl'i ail'ild IiqtJ lds.8 :8.ar'B ~e.Okl' pl~JtinUlIfl'iil 1'11400 11..~:ii peU. ~ h~~ $ame' vdM:ne as 'l600 q 0:(' Copyrlqhted m . is the 'm1ume of a smr.1~~'a:I!iI:.I~ 'b1!J'!..of steel Ia 15 . three 'eqiJ1:±luou:'S~ Exmnple Us in.e see'.5600 t:g Sa the mass . It mu.sulHtanc!..@.u!1: .? . The ViI'i ~e in v~lume redu{es i.. ""'Aft 'Ii"'"'o""!.ter~" .U.gl:m3 X 2: m 3< iiii.2:0cm~ ol1:ElilumiinilLml'? .'1". :me.a.sity lRJ\sl:y subjt1Acv density density CiCl!l1l Qlm-!lc .:r. are 1 :H~ m~' :iu ] m1?' mnm..~ te tb~ £{:tU!J~'VimJg~: .ted..is. . 'V': _.. a :0) 'w.to\. CleMlty dJaL'I .'f'.I.~.tf~lm 'mb~. pe!I. The' concrete glas-s Cv aJ' j'es)1 .h~L' ~s~.e.ai[: ~ top' .g 9~. 'Wl1~chNUl 'hoM..!ll.Ho.~ 900 1'l:lOO 1~3:1500 193'00 erlO\rn1@uSily d~~J"I(Un:g an how oOimp~sed 'the:y am.~ as.:]d IOn raJr'f' '25'00 IOsmium 22. metbod of 'oociin..75 granJte Q/. 'c). der. 1 .! fi~.atF: tarDk. ma. .

Se' a CFOWril 'w:Wlml 5il~er i'mi a: \iYQykill have ~ was. .gold.medj. 'be meu. '.cylmder. The ~.-.).'i Y Sre.CW.i r"''''ilg'the' \i\~h. oDd If aJ_D.ii iCfi'OW'fiI IDlLh 'Wi1:'lelili '11m~e or-own was . ArchTrnedti not~t:ed'the: nl~ in W.~ . mrlred mMS.ve. va~uimIG. uU'"_ lLa.p~ebape.p.ec~S'e. I-It.meas~d.p~.IDUII.andl m@JSUf@MJ th~: rl~ in ~e¥.quaJ ass of pUi~ gdd. ()'f. pmbabl.. '~epllnirre e:~_. ~'I..CtdaUlOO.lm~ scale ghrl~ the vomume:o..O'Lh· i:. v:olume is fcrUlWld.... ~new tlh. oiiii.. So '[the' 'oFOWn (:Quid (lO't have been PUfe' .(lPe' 1'5...grlea~1l" 1'1 m IUlmi!!liII'I.. .of metal.shQWn GiD. In. iJt.. ____ ....·-.measuring' . U . 'ith.!.5O'lUltlon to a pmbl\em set Imiml by'the King o1i S'YlraLWU!I.'_". a m Atd1i!lliied\e~ put the' Q'Q-wn In . .pJng niiilto his bath .t .. . volume: of tile :mf'taru is . 'hue scales .BjtiJiDnonce 'the: mass a~d.. . ~d Ililali. mme' (if Ine loldl 2lFiId !!iIiiIixm Auhhmede§. Ilived ~nlS.utt tevm ..~ndl.r.relhl'!oi ~ whidh me~fl!S.. aoo:1!lt . d.J1mrrne of ~.y~:a£.ef:is~ty iOf BJ :m_StEeI. liqu1~ 'yO'~ .' so Cain.-J' W.easuriq' dleositJ' 'The...o Ikn.~' The as!1oe~ Alrdlinmeae5j '00' t:e:!l~ the' crown. ~~mveli less dense..Irre. 1... J " M. uS~B a measllllrimg' cy1in~I'..rom his !bath Mel ra!I'i! f nalk-oed Iri 1i'011Iglm 'the' s:tre'emr shouting' '"18~.!DOO ~ 1--- mleatSliIrffll8' ltIeasuriB. .-. be CaID. ::JI'II..tood..lrt:time: C~OW\I'ii the... He ahi..a rocunguJar b1oC:k ~ len.!Io ii. 1:-. 1.aI"llI!~-ib".ibutt is.v.~--thi!!!.8J.. 'vol'llInC have been measured.taI. I.rli!llle iV' u W&S 5~~p]C~O~lS.li:.oe.f' the :SlO'lid" on 1£ the solid Boom:s-~I lean tie' 'we~gli1ed.m8r~ed ~Jinder' :in :1l'IDn_mjr~t(!ls (mID) 1!I).et h€. made imponam: di~ve~[es. Th_X!:' mass ~!'a. 1 i Me~i..the cyinde.. Greek maihemaJtidafll..f cub~. ~Ie !!~e~!J! .a bWJ.and Iliqu~dlls.a!I1l.Afd'li:medes 3:n:di'lie (now in I"!MII . Time KJII1I'8 had ~venl his pldlsli1I1ilhserne gold 'w ma'k~' a e.c 1.pdarr' 'solid If 'me: sh8..Herte wa.-. .goes.ntarunet'. .i3ite:~' Ie-veil.s 'We 'vri~Wme'" .dm.. " 'l'T -----.gtb.i:ii. .aOO.. _I ~lltme"].iii.A.as. ia. the ']e:ft" "!"he' mq: in'~~~] the '~11!J.'.dO\VIt w1jrn a ~MlmP.t:eI'" Th@'PI: oontainer of war:elr . the can.J I' ~ . "l llaVi~fQ~ rl!d. 'loo 91. ii.an~r:ll He Wmi.dt~m..ob~ec~has a 's:im. For example l : volliumoe:o:r. ." .I Utre 0. be found by ca~cuiI.one' d\aly~ ~o the 5tmy.u:s~ :sr:ci~) a:m!l1~ld 250'lBC..RUI'st :rem~ber' '00 ~Uowfur the m~ss of :its OQ.'sm~111 S(..d id lh~' ~~ir'h~:~anl n !I1.Pelrttiillp!i! 'llIe .W~rd :mr 'lire vO]JlI.s. :~m s volume .eErt. he~gh.geddlsrnith had 5t:o!@n Ulnl c~~apelf' :i'flver ~~!'i!~. lJJlb.lnc~~d ' s from this tom]..._~":~ __ .~' OO!.yllnder~ .~le. in.---~ 1~''i. .t 'tadiu[!j~:)1(.g vo:IUDlc: Uqm.ii.v(illllme of li~IUiU~ centimetres ('~m.II 1-.~cdboo .me leeel on me :5a~e gi\r. tl1:aJl gold.duffer'e\rlIt. smaMl solid or iQf a 1iqmld c~n be messueed iIilSiWlg . x 'width x hejgbtt..:m 'elttil:ed that 'm:!! ~~pt. The.~) ~ RegWlar.A!f'(himede!£~ (1.~. .. ---_'---_ ..~'kQW aJ!I. ''Wh~n 'dle: '~iquid i$ p'Oull~d into .!I~Of!1 Sc:aI~ gJve~.UDe to be C'.~. .e.. .s 'the!.liiIg ~! lW@n:~.i'e~.~in.M05:C:.. Ii:.am~~:OO. X vcffiume: o:f' a cylinder' .lrd! 'The: volume can be found as . 'of:9.e::solid can ree lOweled bUD a part1'y 'Died m'easuriing c. The! rls:e' in Ilwei!l W~ .t U!mel'1lill~lied f-Q\r:' his cI~er . .d .e~ '~:at: waiS .

03 ..f' the lh::J...ZUJ kg/:(G'~(1. in . .a..6gh-m3· 1'9.~-7 ~/OOli! 8.a'~C1' FbI' !exRlm.1b:e:r w'ffilo&e~ue is the' S~Ple the demi:ty.9:c/orn9 11.ith.gO:~d·\'. as ~:spec~.is 'si~.3 gfcm.ve d~S'i.O!:kg/m~ (1 gjCln~)"So:. gpk~ 'mat of wi um~1 c:m3i• I 1 'Use the 'i~fO'r:nna~onabove decide \!irhielL croWlii.1.~ ool2per .s 1'9-3 l~.'1'12 ..ple~ lead bas .. ~o1ume and density o.g/m~~ as '3.sub~"tance tells 'you how me denshy eo.ricm3• ~tused to be: mown.·0.mil-nur."l"r~ nd \\1'h~ch is a .ra'~.~============== ~hl{("' alurJ'!!inhJlm 1J).d!msity of 1Ot}.~.: b'.' 'tJ:1C mijS~~ vohll1i:ej and d~mil1jof t:bl.. is .ve ueflS~rny The.. lit is a :num. lhat 'Of 'water" It is calcwatted.e~~'ti.f]'cg..m. ~ik:e:mlS': sUb.:II '.stmce dens:ity relative density 1_0 £"_7 d'~'njtilY of !so bl~r~~n~ .e.ty has :rJLO uo~m.9 lea:d i'li'H:!!fC:Ury H. 1·1! aU.v:hich.i'ty~'. ·O'f a. piane:b 12.1) and '\~.te:r as a 0 h .' ~.Si) the 'llitTlSSSj.© 00 k.4g/cm3 deD~ity of \V.. .>C smne..raden'sity of 11 .. '11 3'(] 0 ~k:g!m..3 glern3 4 s..pares w..4 t . a ItO :2 'Use 'the ie]furrm~!'ioJ'il9ib~e t'O ~kub!. :relaitlve:dens]!!.• ..tn:bd. l\~~tiv:ed~nslty' of lead '.~e: ./cw .

LIL .~J_at.~ ~ . ~ ~~l~ IRamr mass than 1 Ci'iiV' . [I 4 SI Il. (t . 1~~Jl.""if' -¥r.e :. iirS con.2.W"..~..' " LM. ~ ~. :i..IIJi.FlI:~~l ""..EXA . :frgm O!..3...l:"-r.i'!iI-.L ~..._~_ .e.~ Y~J... .r-' e~: /wi' k I bhJCh' .nmu(y is '1he . ·. ~_ Q U:e:5110...l.hM a. 18 .~iiI' .A. .i:"-.ru:dful.. 'I."J~ ar~..ider the' :ftiUoW]. you which theY' are.0 4 .lIL-"'!1o.(1~I03) o d: 'How den~ity·is. .mr purtm.. 4810-=:: .~~'Il.c~~ 1~4 !Ull~ Llll_J.:i...i.-'.. '[ ~ 0 A One ~ eqJllWs one mliiml ~. •• _~ .mclud~."""'''....)!- ol:lil. eaeh cd'the :f'tiU. ""'i!l' ..'" 'ib. ""'i. .. :littes 0[" lJ. "'.'thousm.... .i.) Use yCiur.aj meaSlllIr.ggm 0:[" mnalm~r'tmi.] S The m~ measured of..04) Mf:aoo5.U"'.~m \IIJiY~~1Lii1I 'UQ~I1i .3'6:0 I ~'1~ .0 1) (l.'.The.ll lyeI1Sl1h~' :~ .. .~ ~sln.. a mti' ... ~i"'.....~ ILk.indew before: .'''..a!m!!l ~q'll!lJ8iI~.. mass ~I u-! ..~fir-Ull.:se'.. ·(he ap'p~ms aoo-ve'? .'tl/i ~r'!In-oII~· lHger? • )1 ..g· e'Ow.~_.. 300 ~.1L~n' . ''L'Vn.uU..tr'iljff' ..j' !IjJ!YJ~ I B ~~..I "' ~..:3500:nl?' b) :~ ·o:r· 1lOO.nd.:..g' !irteas~!'iIng ~n!lfde~ 8!fld..ing' Cj'.if".. 1 '_' J I :imn 1."" .~... of Me :Iliqoid 3M ~le ~roDe' .. a '.. d_~n_shy' of~ ·fhrI . .en&]ti~s.. _ - __.[ ..u. the bag'is S\!jllee:zOO a :rilfud cmnItalifi¢f..g (}]Il[[u:~: . '~~n ~ir. .nr' ~.... scie~tific notaiThon..~~l1Ce' :tn.J~2} 'm. [1.008 m~.& __ .-.d ':mm~ 'eQ..~un-.' il'l..'-.A 'h: derni~i:Y' Co._.03i) (1.: 'Wi'-!l e ..-\J. ...d '~Em }fO'ilW cal\clllate~ using I water s~meDlffi: .. ..fi"i'o:!'eo:!i"· .' has.:!! ~ '»1... I ~• '8 .IWil!'iI~ ..~:e m~l! ' kiiil@gf'il'm~a_'__fld secend.. Io:f ~-Y' & 'Sy.~ .and d~fisjty.......~jbbj(~~U'~·l.. rru.jof w. If"I3l". Qr .)_~e:r :"3 ') C.~...lni.e.i.. •• Il.. a~ [11:2 How ~g' tn U'Se ·un1JW..f 'Use' 'the f'Qrmg yolum~' lUiIJUiii..~ilg· p.A :plastic' bag filJTed with :aiir.A I 1I$(l$S/" IlJl1gthl ern $ I. deffunoo...104) .'Q2l kg W :8 1CJn~. ·':L-""D· _' 'm itlI'..'b.[Spread :£rumbet in b .~~ lliJv.:!Ii.t-._ R E·V:i5.[u.i!tmg: JJumibe_ni.I!._ i I' . U_Yr~~ VtllJ or...JldIlU.....nlJ:Jii.. _..-..(h::mi~.I.. .~Jl UW~~. I:J 1 (l.mDlt' M c) :2 tennes '0[" 3000'kg:?' d.. ·:·.2'k!m..omil....r.....msjl. (1. ~_LI_lMU\'" 'ui ..I.~. .ofi:s.I .bll. I!::.mit ..'~ I I' ()ifdlL«:: frul..:.. l 43.'NiS .. ~OO 600 ruo .~IIt-~ Y:I-I:I!~'D ~~.tenl$·ar...J"". . 1I.of 0.1J. ll!!Ll ~~IL..."'iI!l'lb. :sm~UGT V1filume' tlID~n..r ..-...(U) m.n:"'~""...gof '~~P~F u~ mro -~e' 0([' raise:'? '".~ rly I~ I!JJ.lu._-- ~~.~~ ..!Il . [2.of ..l·· U~~: Jl~~ 'p' list 11ioJ..'I!.~t""n""'" ~Ii ..~·~I""'IIl'·n-. [NATI'ON M ..:n .·e ·~·"". 2' WTh1Iiic'h. .Ii!J" nLllIi1W. C ()nG' :mUllinn :mi!l~..si'Onft fu.~'I!.. "'"'~~ .nil I~..in yQUr~~amiIlati...Jl :_. ]...~~:_~-~~ '·1"'" ·U] ·l·'" ·t. ..gr.yJabus.i 10 iN ~ ~ ~....il~:~ C due d. III :5: Units for -~SUfffig ·VQl~rn....n~ ...41 'ifi'ir'k...true or '~'I .LU J... ""O'l'lilf"i>i'l'l!' ...~'n\~ 'l!1l'J. .. ~ mass .sIlilil'ID. nns 'L..'I".~·J.9 I ~kb mea:S~flXil. -u.. 4. 1...1 '~L~l I.jX· teaeher should be: shIe: fltlQ t:eIru.2: .L.when you :re-vjs~.J ·I"ir:'fii .!II .ru.E(:K·l__..[.5· 4- . V Ci 8' Thoe :m~mg Qf:lleh'iti~: .. J 'fiU]i3 kg'.~_.m: {witb.]' .l.. ~ ii!!'i'\ D 'l'~ . OO~ D One :millli~I1milijgrai~ eq~m5 one ·ldlIo~.~~~has :ai ~~r' ~ th-.. -'''''~i'")I..I(~f::mea. B o~. t'~...af...B· 'Wr.""...aii'S~ which Iq.~ CH.U~ILI. .. (yO..iII.' Jj$~.~e or fails-e'? [l..~ .I.. -one g:~.-. '~..01) lUI ..gmm..~ 'I.-_. 1 cm~ of meran. ._~ 11 Iii...g p:J'eIJx'es. ta:ir) idC~~U~e!ij. '..~ST I L . b.. .3? rc~lilM~ ~tai~-e:mimts ·]s!am· [4] OOfi'CClt? e 'D I :. 'ml!:tE :miiIJssof dIe: OClnraw. liQ!mdO:rtlY 500n~ ~y from.:it t"..~~·I') ~ l.i"oji!'''''''''''''''''''H'iI"'U h.~~.J"'' ' ) [ltim ..ng 'k [_~-.I.5 .. (1.

~alcu'mmdllitedliis. _ : .4. moves in the shortest ~e :YQU can meesure..-oll:u'idls.. uwttCtwOD (s~:e) ace .. J l .) .D or 'Q'. so 'm. as H. -.:20 . O(D..a.ttes per.-- ".: L .~!JIi..rgeo~ 'two ~I!!i im$ = down 'the c('-Ur$e' ..age s:~d..o mj:'flj.[j3I_nd thsn DalCK ~i Iml .rutj'l'.ell m.. acce eration ... '.I _ me' :aWl'. .. 'WOIi.rulsm.uan'~tl~s~ :S1lll~~-1 'VICJ£u.. s: A "'lill1il'mU~~~.mis.." .'mOst itJm8' t'.] 5 ..'ve'loc~ty'lof 10 :m!s due: ea'St.left) ~D 'Nknoe. 'Velocity nuLe~!!i. .IP.ill l' __________ is. Cl3i' v. The 's..Ull."cma]j'sI.) ·Wlni.:~1 out 'Fmlin'the aIVer. . OJ:n. 'taken If drusta~Geis m~a~!I!'ed iwt metres (m. I '-' . 'Jiu8~as m.are ·itim~ @'if@'J" II fI!iI~asul\"Gd Gli'smrlC@' ~.' 'iii .cf':nO mI._:. 18 .- ..0.eoo 'to Idjj:s.' .:. Si) lIN ave:r.-.. '~ 105 '. eltQmple: WII car moves 90 In.) ~nd 'tlm~in :fiieoorruds (90) :il~t. me +. '(I 'I' .lI:iBive.:'~'fk 'ii...'Q!~Ulfllg· 'lh_aJi1 seund.m speed! :B.' - . If:9o calII'travels 'between l\vo '~nl1!nm: n o ..m.-edis measured . second (m/:s)..d . S..' d as 'W~'iIlJ..arlles. F'~r~~poeed oo.+:~OJllJj'S! may be ~rdtl!.~ .mJ)ve~0.pe-e~_.. ' 've:ioc"ity ClaD 'roe. s..a.e ...: a.m~s ro.e :5. :m .u~~d\i' :you :1f:I.~1·' 'i. . ~lt"OW..~o~r:bow f~_f m~c~_!.~_ts. e .ght 'ba~e ~.. j 3. .(ve'~ool~ O'f 10 .tIi'e . rCaJl:s . .:~fi~. speed carn be kilonmeioo' or on@' mnile.. POl" 'me eN2[mple~ IJ CJdlilst ml. '_..e' aCbJ.'it@: ..peJ!d i!.+ 10 n~ls..ou't ..tb.j. 'Thiru5!' sup~rs(mic ear ~rai.~531®I:m$s..peed of ScQiim~8 {l_Mits dkecIDO. ~II ..d velocity Ian.\ :m8Jd~.as a magmru.aveL.'-' -_ -.iii~ a~' .effects OIf w~nd aJre ~nceUedl out rime.~(l.: lO~m/5 I~' I "~Jfand.t .[$1 u~u:allf' diBer"en't from 'To. :me-. . .~y ----.@iUl@\r'@m~' f~r Speed. _.m/s (-vdoc~tJ.a~.eWIDed ve~. 011 ps:per..~f:a c~ .S'j' mtlii :sp~~d efa .pe:ed.aken·M tJra~1 jj Ik [i0 I1I'1If:: tre (1i()tl)!l) iFlll) juurm~..c..momoent .t. an .~.. For. Q. 'Wid.g an arOO~. Fbr ~xalmlPle'lI. 1.'.m}$ to' ~heright) .

esecond m.lIl. '~o~m. .t I DR'S. omnttUlg some of the' wUU! ftn: sim.' 'vdod.~'lchhas (ni redtlion $S we~1as $i~:eJ. dhM~aI1OOn.gra-m. the CSlT travelled after.11 vel'o'Crg'l(mra!:5) 11 '_ men.. . Sit tIl~ 1~:J[Ua:D~.Ii(llW. m!s"t.24. is unifonn (s.:a.an fu.'. ~.r3. 'me: loce~~eta'lion.il'lle Md.2 '. m._ ~l!mnl1DS ~ lI~n~IlDg'8" :U~ v. h. 4. sero beeeuse 'lite ClI Slmflts. 1m: p..'J~j)~d! : .npt~ A ell' laQdel'alCS from rest ~rt . fli'2 X .ti:kf'J" (8) ' wft1:ru.eqUlIUonS.to lOonf'u~es..a:r 11as.t.~ dis.t~)~).~ndud.3.pl~c~m~n~~f1m) u'~ AifI!iiti\a.in a 'S'ttaig'hi~ . but oort 'iV~ ~Wld +.'I!Y. c'hoosiQg me 'equatiQ'n which . II. .' o~ 1tlI). 'G.'.3 m/s2 along a ~~i~n road. x .'Used . I10U: :indude a) &a.oE:-S.edior ls . The: d~a.~~e:ft'siho-ws w:ffi:u. (d. [They app.Ws..' .est r a is 3.. wHJh s.m.e5:s.·3 ffi I (a 'i#.. flinaB\!'elo~ty ()f'nts:) ~ ~ Kool~rati!Qirnll ('muls~) (does no~:indltldie v) : Be cali'efu! n(!l~ . T:tme ~:la!ller:} it passes rrh.24 SCI. :m.g m(lIrVing [O\1J~ecm be solved.s 3J~.m. (I~] 4'J X .gjust fu~ll" em . :[s.) """'.tt. the '~l1i!lool for' s@condl." Fill~e s. :1'"' 'k-' .l\lany problems dt inwlv.e.i. a ~ t 'velocity :U:!' :wtsi:"nilial w'lm:.ly' if the :ml):tio:~. 'mS't D1Hlker (A) wi.u dl~Y mean.. a ms:p:~acemJfi!int S.ass-~Sifue.yttiibo1s ~.plidty: $ .1l.4l.gjlny' iql~~tity w.Equations of motion ) A di~pl~~rJ!iIeM: Yector ~blPlacemei1t .41 s S' .: N~: ~ BJnd r. 'iIilh@ I L di~lplat:errl!jmt Ii ri! meb~s. 'v-clric:i-ty 1)~ its fi'nt. a. Sl~. . in '~e equations. 'tJ~~n. H:O\v r. :!.~y. l: is .ry be 'fliJ!und '®O u i~. :uI~~J. The car.

..g..awm.glh. d.~ __U:l~!IJ!O th .-.11-•.-~ II.. .. . 'I.tin'oo on tbe n~.. .'[..].ll.l.~.. 1.Air reslseanee :h:3J~ :Ij..-.JI . -.. ~~..!'!~I!!I . '.:I!: f''f.'... ~~-.vy . !LJ.Or"WDWaT'~ """I '~II '~Sl'S't2LI1tC~ 'aim c~!!lI~ectsWUUlIl'U i. 'the: ball.g. 'io." n!Oll~ iil.c' 'nl 'L..a.n~ M-....iI'e!a' !I' .": :~im:p:~e.:r.. The pf.ljJ:rface'~lighit and h-ea.. me: E:u1:jh." lUi G~~ "l'.:c~k'[:ati~J}:U'O'Dl.. tt5jng: eqnation (~pmr.ver~ the .k\I..t.."'f . B .!! 'H'uml ...aU 'V¥ifinl '~e. . a 'walll!i with t~~.. ~a ~.. 'w.aWR\y' .~I!~"" _-~.P through..I. the a(..in.gh'l1y n(lm one p.~s ~'~owed much 'b.!I'i.S.Bl"I!!!t to mhl2..ciple iSi to rwJtea'Si:'ii:tm the time. bea.. lij...o![l. .~:for a.g' .u\Vlili!W~:l~S L.iii' 1~ .il-~ ". .. .. 1::.mat would happen if there were no sir ..men shows '..b. rliol"lln th'~..~ Vi1ll"·':l.i!u:wdl c~~w.u-i:JCa!u~e . ill.re. . 1!. :m'oif.'ocetel'. '~. ".' ...'~fiL O It ."...Jti." '" .Jl.I[U -b"". .vy' ball '00' wd g' is '8<ool\vn f8illlif.• VI'I'. figure is aecurste enough for .e' i~i .e]..e'nmr tri :stop ~mtcll.D 'IJ.~~.er.s 'sli.Ullttitlg tlie power . u u.. used in Ibis book.' I light ~eji'!l$O' OOSii:.e me~ aooe~er~ilti. experiment on the 'left. 'n '..".J'.'of :ff1e:e. 'by' (.!!J"'~T . ". :lPaSSe8. a 'fe:a:ith@f"WQ:u... 'I:"'-'!ii' .g g' ArI.". ~" .b.'I).Clliose eo ..'9... me b 'a_u i.I!iJ.D-a:rUJLfS.u!ft lb\lliil . __ ~~y __'~--'3.i!' UJI...f free fBIl" g' If'iUI '_ yo_: .: '1!IJ.'will ibe the one. 11~v.y g.g' onily . frem .. ".~.[le~ me lID.e effect on.\..lit ~g_!'L and a .""-"--~'V'JI'Ii'N""'(!.ttll.~!J'-.Free fall (1) The a~-e'~era.«D. 'taken for s.. d on -.i:liuVlo:.3..DoC.Q.1.e~ilil.allil.U].rII"..-:-&'.:1"'iII!!IIU¥H"""" d-.a lead.llli: 'tim-foel On.dr'O'pped..~.it.g--..ll objects...8.:.!:o less .... .. fin the .~..F.".. '"'. f'.sam@' aec..ld i.Y's:mtc~ie 1'Ik_ l. shou di.::_s.-- 2 It. the &r. f~: .boE. nuS! bmil!i' . 'ii~\ • tlirm. 'me lower beam.... same aeool:emMon' as a ~ea.l.iIfII:3!'~'~J!!:"_. "Mdlout [reSisl~a~ter Irgiklt. ".m/'S~'.-. .~.prea:dJ).mmty ca[cllla:tioJm~~fid.illa"ce."".n'ir~""''''''!li.&.d1 s :s.>ls surface to mome\li~ because m~'Earm"s 'i!H"lIIVi'h.&::o..aU![omall"cu.tf'd is repreeenred by the syru. steel [.-.lJllon.. 1I!'Ii 'e~pe~i'ment ~bO¥e'i' ~I t~.--:.e tmo ...I.'1. Thi...ed off wJwn iit..J{~ :8.~1.:' -_. :fd is II. p!l"es tl]_I·O-u...e~Ir' 'the' b. • 'R.@I@ratJol'1l: as a.oj1..fa:Uilng :nea...ii.. N 0'"..:. mown ..9.object.etThe e'toc:[roru. "''I!."" -1""II"atlUi . Its value varillifj..feather .d wei'gjrnt :Measu:rin. ---.IlRce U:..".:I .caned the acceleration 1 af':&ee: IoU" IrtE.!'! artm!O~phe!re.' 'tUJe: 0. 9 .~s acce'ille:l"91t1. ....'Ik~. 16: t~then 8 an 'be: ....tion._Jl" .c'.Q~. :!:O!I': ~ ... .. The ruagtBrm.'L.~arJJd. and the' 'time lBk:e:l].II ~ il! 'WI ~..~.. 'i.._I!•• from me Et'll[..[iLefi 'i.· me: ~~. wd~: V~ .--"..is ieffectiv.d~t: of the. IT me' h. w.. .IL ~JlLLl 'UCI.'l..to .. The ..-". • $Q the i~]eC'lJttiomagm. is .UJroUglW U1PP~ tne 111ght'~~.. me :S3m.llIiFi.ul~![ed.~.g.c~k. .J1 ~I' MIJliY.-. U. .. h@avy one.~.y.'tn and out: illlltosp3ce~ g decreases. IIJgM e.." ·t-hil:i~ ·If~ ne .".Sit3:n~e~.--.. __ . so The bal[ :~.rooo to.I:' "'!in-tv ..r.mv~ly:H(f\w.'I-..'Il._p e __ '-'-" ' 'i'L. 'I~' it m-/!""~'~If'... !13'""""': '!i!J ~.r-o.'-"1. . e-- . a small.:·:4'Ilr'~_ I ru-h.iii'" .s lis ...aljr' e]lf!la1'Of!'!iill.on..u m !:i Th' ~s S:'---.

l ~ush or a ... 's:tm. liiriIov1irtlg:ObI)8ct willi ~eelP ff!. on the s~~... soon come to rest 'because: .A all a Q. m The ·f'Oi!(J. nEi.~~ D~ or itu~ (N) Small..!Gi.11..@ j~t @n:gin~.. _ keep i!t: rf. the mon!Jii1 ef f~it~O:jfj Tti~ r(oF(:@ (ih:at materfaR sl~drnE' p.~ I]ary~rem aiQ S1LariOiD~.~'external force is acting 00 .5tiM1iiJfliher.c~.o.lm~T..·Il'· U~ ~ "~iI'IiI1l~~~ IJLl'rli ~~ia.: s~i"JItO'Lt . is a've<.- illil I!I"". Tlhmst lile ~aJd 'rortE 'tlfOlfIl ao aJ. fr:icD!O:rn Ifi!rity~ O'th~r ~~mmalferce • or :. . I force to !!j.ILlI.0:1' fricti.i:linil..i!i"'i.h~ :S1!. Thl~ id~~.m~~. ~e :i'5._.in.[. teltirs:JO!iJ at ·s. forces carn.1 ~i"IJ illU .. s ~ti. mowg "'~i:'i".ir moving...er'i' It li13. :."...!i..n""I!J!iiI' 6 GG'!'I' ~ liJI!fo.[tIlO'Ul.._. Copyriqh: ed material ..I ..0[.d~1 'ollF .iHU.I r~-' f' : roes T" ...I~M obieet .ml! :need a foree to.Wiit. N The Sill w~·t :f()Ii~: . -.puilJ.£i... iii'" !Ii..an 'o*d'.il. '--:1..H.. Thl~ g:rl~oor the '[..!! ln oppo~s....~raJtii.1 _"\I""'~L .. . ~\OO' ~.0N 1 fome to pull open a drinks can .1"'-' mOVlDg . ..vrm!~ 'rnreve-r.. 'vehicles.!'..WI!AL -ili· .'e c'b~~ on.. A.. --II- :B\l:ll~ w~lli ..00] the :mDN the :s.b~.pr.loI'.~:\.·lUln1..1.wJrtOMI 'on -a bainl. : m mm~to Uft '" h.u)vfu. in space ..Ri <!i. no...1/...oo~"lii~~t.S ·direcDn:rn as we'lli. 'up in :30 lSfw first put :fbnwFd by Sit ]SlilifiC 'N'ewto:n in 'li 687~ If n. .dne.. obDe..ll .e:terted by OD.the highei" dl~. ever or -..t. 'one Welpl nil:: j8m~ilI.... ..ovlllg 3}( a steady' speed in wm iii Deep.0([1. .i!I.be measured using' :a spring ba1MC~ like 'lite one bdow.g·is.lI]s Cn:jffilt'HiQ.. ....lill:.. ....3rHDna~ fOroe on .ltt!Jli.:!'u..ry if . .h fUJ' for:oes m' slow bt iii.'0. keep lNil '~I:n~.Q. K\f:Cp m.. s:nretc'neCi.:tt"I..l1'l~1rn~. 1-'Y~.o:o. N'·· rome hlOm a iair~.u~d.... as magn~m.g.' •.p~red.'1'·1.~~d&og.die' (siizc)..!b _ y _.9. 00' iJt..tre!tclie-dl aterial.ignt line. MotlQ(fI 'withoum fome iOn .~~.·"'." :2'50000 N I Ftlf[le-l~j!'1~ in newh. .

.pu1~ frOtm.a."IiYo.mathd in mass un~~. . _ _ >i!'_.vetihaJt its gr. thb book.mose 'mJn~.Force. Bartf. . I·!I StterJigID.a~ has .~.e.!oll~.. 'af ab!ll.j:lo!.1v 11' --... 11~'I~.m~s:..~.t'5fll. :~t. za f" .. we cfte-n use the w'O'rd.g.\ve].. '1 '~i!Ii. '!InTh:m.aJSSleS" the str.L masses .t~:s. 'N. Greater masses :hs.firmly c'n '[he ..O'Ilt-.' 'b~~en Y'O'u.g SiD.u __ ..~5 ' " -r han.._.gh . wm.I.3.i"'iJ!l!r'"ms . :~ N is..- ~J. Even:.alcurua1lo:ns:mdl. force OWl.""u~~\J' ~~.-.':!' !'U. mass :m. .' • . c:.l!'1!' --.'an.m'~.ilIit~..g ~ Ir.~. Thist'pull :[S.. e:'mDl...vi!latil..'" ~g:~ .ve g:r'e9!te:r' we:i:gbtts . (!''Um-·b.1. and I.t..Q!!o""Q'~'I.. . (Kn.son in the d~:agrltm. _!.iP]es:: 2 kg g fflg := ~FavJtatro!'1a!1 '5eld stJ.aJ·~igh.n8 (N).gbt' when it should be 'mass"..m~a8:1Xe a dowll\vud. .I.' ~!. and gravity '~n Grari~~i~. 'H~ na.~s '~nrollg .ro!l~d.WS 80 mass~.r. ~'_l'i.·~ EI"Ii'-:::"'I!.J.. W:e~.u. 'we~ghto:f'!9.g' (g =' 1. ·~".. weilg~t 'W . ev.~~J.V. 'yaUJ.umd. a. _lA!'!!i~ iL!'~"""" :!d" ....uflI\ger the fO. The gte~ter the :m..8 N:!i though.~J_ifi.En{[_' many' c. .ut 10 newt:ons. 8JbO\fleooes:ott ~w~Ih":SO tilog.ee1ilsmall..~ =~ ..of' ..it!!' J.!!!!: wei'giht'r lin newoon$ ~~) -I"" . . pull . sull1arce In.t' of' ..-.. .'ilitatt:Oli'lall'~~d ~'trengt:h~ '11 01 N/k:g: n:e:ar 1 the ~BrID~I'S....mam .nODal :lIeld.JU ..~I''''''I!I.:l' 1Q<13'~I'C.i-oe.~'~ each on.!IJ'!J. !o.onw force.• Here are :sam.(~ _ ~ _ _ N kiogtam of .mms . 'd be used 'i[n.s.!L""'!Id.!Ii."" . • 'The deser m_illSiS.o'h~...". Is: I"'" ~~. :m. No one is sure w'b.if'j.~11 .i'!ii"'a·. . "!.oe .""m-··.niare i .~~i. .~_ 'IlI1!dA-I~:~-'r.." B:uw. 'IiII.ph:~S 0 newreas g . _ per.'!Ii P. 'weight. ..th exerts .~. objeclt. lh]~ Is ~ts 'w eight 1 Ne~r the Eaf.o:nail. tlIIliID .~>\1ivi'MI"'..!IJ.~ceoil i~ Nea~r'I'ne E:arlh's '!)!!. :it is meas. 1II't O h~ ~'-l'S ".1:iuue~: • All: masses a:mrac[ each other.gra.. loC'tairaJtte~ 0 enou.-AA.. m~' . Emrth. llemo..e. "'fl' les -.~fl. me := . ''''."r!ei~ 0":~ U) :n~~ll1Iii.es. _ •.oili .1I"i. gl'awmtiomtl mce...~ ~.·J g" iIIIKIIIUV. called ill. ..... a. a spring balance."li'!rri·'h!Iit>.Earth . IJV .(]I .. lite :pew:. . t..ne\VID:[iJS..~~ ~ ~ _. ll!''!OoII'~.ellphi ~ 10Nj. s anomer name for 'me Ea_t'th~s. til1!o~a:m (Nr$g)..:50 'ti~ogI:a_'_ms :~.iIi1:11!l :t'oF. ~m:y he .LUre i 1 kg i'iIli. Gravitatio:nru :f[:eld.avi.. ra'¥i!~ation:al Jicld !F~·e-m. . ~rtreDph.a ather' :f~foeS.AY. fea.. 'The _ :f'i!uU ber-~". ·w·. ILbLW~-.:::l~yy~~~~ ~_~~·l~Yr!....eld whj.-~~.k~ The :Ean:h has...tOf ma~$ ~ k_g'hMI a.ili~$:su:rf~ooJ~n obJ~-c~..~..i me me mr-a:....~~rLYU.~er" m -. ..~"'_..-i'W"i"·'·. 'iiiii' 'i.. <o'tdec~':fr'mD..i"j. balances.!l1l.a. [f' JOll I~ I ~' NI . 'm h.g._"_ ~ . !I.n...0h deteet 'we~ht are normally. W__ ~!mIg' ='!'!"l~1 . graryila)t:i~nal fo. IU:L~J. 'illf. .:500 . ."t 'We~ght.'~. Gran.. gravitatiDnal 6.~~ Ilo.iIi'""..gua.~'I.0N~g) ~rnassx !!!~"'iJ I!!!!!!I\ ~Inlll~' l'Il..'lite' S'tI~r . II~'~ '.'1.IlL. :is! r-epr~smood by m~ :symIbQlg" So.t'IDe. this boot! B.ulld.l _ is _!.~-~~.eryda!Y' lan.

....~s.._.1 are . ~!Iir'W. Tho vectors ~ctb:il' at a .t' 'vp~ .I!sing' d~:splaoement w-t&~ ... Q:uanrdDies sueh ss mlS!:!l. '1!l1!".Tb:i£ is 'lheilr '~s~t..ormantal... 'm:ber. UJJ!W ·m~'!. +. ++++++ T++-+++++ ++ +++. II: _I~~.~ .L ~~v~~_ ~J. ..Gcton and sea'ian -' ~-' - . be :re. TO 'ooe' why ~e p'M._.~dQf5i: N I I l!....Ul .caIed aam. . the jOUlme_y has 'been shown as the ~um O'f iJlr·I~~IIIII!I~"I'1 ' - d·l"'nh.......i:oo\.-. &I!.~ocQmp:fu'!~a...3 Dmw' in the diag. '!Iio'[i' orooorti . 'W..£ '"" . (Bel!~w:t..' LIJJ_I.~:~:"-.'''''''''m. ..Jll~ rw..' U:hiiiii~ rul. .. 'i&f.. its: diaronaJf .p:ap~J"~raw two' ]runes.S~ of ...------------="'711 ~ »: .~ ...lI' f t. w'lllc'n have .Ulhll ~v - ii!"ii .aJ~I@I\olr~m~5draWll.. '''!I'Ii~. _1\ .& GIL. v. ~1If--.wa'f!ii Il'!l!E:S 3i .t-ons'ld:er thfs :s[mple .-'..a. force of 60 N .how 'witb the sa:~ to :6nd iiE: in :simIph:cases. I1e8mltani: in both ma:gn1!frude.!i.. U]JI!P. f\ro:m :Pythagplra!!)r the~rem~file pe~mll m'IJH!l.~JI.:~r.I~II: ~. Wham 1iI@ pM..['Or..aJI!e~olrtaml .....-!A:UiIl.. more vectors . and measure its length.u 0"'11.~f.as.-'. I~. 'The directions d f must 'i4..· t8:emm" r . """. ' C. 8.rJi"'5j ....!J!Ir.A...'YOU ~81nsee .... :m8$~of 30 'kg' .. 0 to represent the: vectors.. .maplm..~dded.''''0''''''''' I"I\:I! 1.i!II. · """0"" ~ '""ILI'. -ygL 1Jl]"-! IU_:Iij ~t... e~~p']e) the resultant is 8.-.. . :and V'oi]ume'. .:.-...=-UIJtant . C~[i.." 1~liIn. O... -' "--' ._.Q 'II"'""n~k 'I~.._-'-. 'The d!iqanal represents 'the.'''....."".'I" .le" fcrees of 3:O:N and.n 'the left~.) AJtxw.. .all~og.e of each vecil[iOI'.~.!y..i:.cemenlt..._...iilil"\'ii.".. . . y. a'c~g' veaors (fur !examp.MoO _ D' I M" .~ .~ed A.imes.. dk~ction. to ai........ 'N..O'aal from 0.d. rote WQi'kSii. .Finding' • I••••• me..:. wrO!l. :2 Draw iml... two more ...."~ .. is ears..F.. Above~ :s.exampre v. Copyrlqhted material . :resul'mnt (IfmG' fir. _~ _ - m~lnh~ud.s.giivcesthe correct di~pl!a.--.1mJa. '. 40 'N ~t a IPOHlit Q.mBSS '!i.mmi .'V~ ~-ffect. "'1' [I . J /' _:/ ~~CJi1m . ..iill: '26°' to me h.~!llk$ 40 m ~~ 'lNerril . "".i!'..po:mt. in 'rhedlliapanl..omeOJ!l@ sta..di:ng s~~t..+++-+-1-++++ -+++++++++-+++++ V...!11 .... .:1 ".S '])01 'fit1!cl. 'bclow) ~ or ~o 1 ()n ...rt:sat 0.. . .. - are eden'v'cc.y.de: bur nQ dllTe~dQn..!I~r...-'. Tfu~ t\Vo vectors..~ !!!OOI ri!il ~ I ~ tw'(i! ..pla!iJoo by a sing]~.~ ~.tOlm.end up 50 rn f'fQm 0..310'ml north". _ '..n:d.

These IDusttarro: ~.\II1 .g tili-~k!~-:ta!p'~ '~r..tne '~e.~i~ive+):: ( B~ Alter' the spw-r.. abO-¥~j[ total. . [Wo or more obj~ 'Ill' '~: :r~l~~'eof'd1e :s. t11~ .liI'u '. memennan iof the ttoIUe:yrs. s~h~ '~ica1 ma'Ei~.t".~o~ity ~ 'the: rlgh~ (tr.._.::>.e.-~~!r"l 0 [9 mi's.tn'£' :u.ll's lhir. > C0l1senr8'tioD of 'IDOllDell'tllllDl 'With me mass ~!IJjJJ.k. m. x '~Loc~t:Jto mo:mneli'1!t~m ~k.~ik..ociltY.~liIhiml esse.·~IIl. ' (: ml))m. This of momenltBll'i act on eacb other" their IbC3"W :mQ[JIenU1lm.- -- - .i~cda. r.. law' . ibe m~~suood 'usm. -10. bas most ve[.b' ~c mcmentem gain '00 .n must.:.- This 'r-es-llffitis '[0 be ex.a.. .8) l i. m The: mQ..aib~: a~' stadOnMY.L+ .rn.AI. From N'~wto.: '+2:~' tnJ/s So..ttole:ys .olltey .0 rn/:s !:l:2 kg' n'lls ..a1""~r..~ .Qtal momeetum of 'tt:-olID~s.LlI... 'ooJll oppo:siJte.Go:t: .'lI-!ldo. u~ .. But wh~p.~' (~'illle:y Al. rlgh~ :. the forces Q:O(~~ 'M"o trolll_ey-s are equa]l.~'dnG- Copyriqh: ed material .cuiLadOO1S.ICILL.· '.__ liI1_I1.:W' .:S l'd/s ~ -2 k:g m/s :mO'm..pecrod. "'Pl"lin'.pr. When..2' kg m\ls em 'htle ret1) m/:s If1l[iIlITlenlLJlIlIiI iOlI .--_- -1 ~ 'Vtdodty' il_t!dIm.41. C !!UI\I..parl'io~~alf To b~gjn wldl".. ifia5$.mllals ~Ioti~ '~s:ipeed direQioI!'lI..chiHlge: . a '~.wlOm."I.ellmm) .~ ~!ts a __ ~o.g'mls) Cl' m~S x wl'ocily ~~) (mIls.~. 'piston is :reles_sed.A [~~ . ~®.-. U~lILV.. .iUlll . 0 So '!he: '~0:taJ1m~menmm (~e.2 ~g ':i{ '1.r: =.~~~ -. of o.entlLulfIlI:: . 1Da.trolleys ~Sih."sooUllted ~i~.) I ved_o!l11.gx 0..m. ve10clty values.m.-1-++-1--1- + + +4- .rule 3 'which awli~sin :aU.al.!IllIe. . ..~. 'i..awWg' icd.. Their d 'velocities ea~.s!!l. 'rbey siliHjM')t~ .~:rtktg""l~~u~kd.. .y A .. . SQ 'itte.d.. sueh e:x."-''IiJ!_:. 'me' le:n' '.jim. a .~ of th~::.in:g. : .' .. p:miudedl [10 eX![ern~ ~c"r~c8~re .as~ lSlS.ll._.ocity 'w]j-de:S...arn~amp[..oUIDdl c:JU6!e eqQw bur OPptJ5~te.e:mfumo:ftrolltq' B = ma:s~ x 'velocity'~ 2 'kg' x 1...if"""-". SIring 'M' rE~~ m. them.J '~~! _~ ~ d.i :a wc"i"i.. .) the forces actt.a$S m x 'y.ty :~ .- .ll~T'iI~I.DUUl.'~nged is . mcenemum ('S!~fara:<x 1:i.mass X v.eJloci.geS :m...~fCilllDfiC:~OD..:::::.=' a.ro)is.L~ and 'V~'~. O'f b.ap:l'r~ 'me tta]1ey wIth '~.between. 'r~m3JJi['ljs ceastaet.ODiU!'l:Dintm.y :s'rn:. re~ed~' total .1Il. 'When. lhey have direcUorli as I w81~ magnitude (:sFle).4 kg x =O..ca~ be shoW!1!i! ushtll' Velod'~ amd mommbJl rn a.5 := :.~iflf'()iW[i'OJ ... ch_Wl.g:mm. ilil~eur as d~fi\!dJ:OJiiI' .:. 'IDe:foU.omeI1iidWD.'-ents. of. . fell' the' :5a.'i'Ji. In..peri:m. the 'mlR~ys.()of' motion. be §iIlowedl f~t.I'.~..-.otI::m ~PlP~swte~ke-cdoIDS. ....~t right} em --..r...0ml:'~ ... 'lite...ial~I~'Ii.n:IDe."1<T'rn -1i'fii'i'i'irj'fiJ . ~.

..J\ >c~r has a. f3] 'ma.'rude..II~_ uv. 'by me b~1I..a~..~.Y: .i" )1) II!!IiIL~ 'lD' .5 " 2Jl 1..IJ: (I) ho'w' :10:0.ii) 'b:~C~h... The ·ttsu$ts obtained are ~ll0~'wg.:I' '''' !!iIILIII\.3] ..~ 1L!!I1:[iu. .d time.":. ICa1t.Q]l~d.[B~. i A....0 aeeelersee car' at a :far~eot 1.4l.h.~oII.i~.m/~. [1] tiil) Use the' d!3ltEil...!!J.rE ll'if'Si. 1 'LI ~'~" ~AI lI'.b a.Ch~UIgm.cceler... :. (Jill: me !U!m~lI.. 'l~!l)$ition.a:r '\~. me 'iliwte~ '~n..ll!hU.e:a.:ub1!e 'tlt~QwttJJge $p~ed o.!I ". 'V. :iD~tafJlt [U (U) W:r.a. . -~ 'c'L..c~!Y~d..~s h ~. .\VFb.. . a) Startl_e [he :~ize of the total dmg H§ht5'enS~ ~ :.j. [1] [1] lell ]Eli(p18~r.:fasmt:.OOj .e.:_.y:fmm 'lhe: ootro~. t.'Ii::.3]1 'me l'l (0 'Iili. . b).t'..= m ..~: aH 's..t_ .'Iii~_'" Jrj!.~C:K~r!jd..A ..".~ 'nm.~~I~t a st:e~d. wolJild ha. -.e·Wali :r.e am . f i(.').ythe e.. .P~~tlmJided...a. '0.2.g 'me force .Qtion-~ .. lI<'!. -. : -. . ['n (ill) Oa]cwaite~ 'the .miJtffi] jlca'mOOn of 'Ih.. 'birllJ . 0V1e.t-o:rnt . (ii. WtiJte dow. ~~e m~fYI.nt spe~.t'flt!!: baiU. 1\""..r the edge' of' a ibe:ndi 'l'Op 3~... '. :full] .:.'.~:i.i!le·d~n.c) E.waJt't:the foree req'ULked 1. [2JI .J/J.i'e'll~nc: OO~$ta:l]t speed. shO'wiF:L.. WUlDE.2 :m/:s2. tal' 'wr~ij"~""]'IIPii"i'.'O.-tt' ].:.0.llJt :i.[i'...~Il.'!oV...n a curved tr. (2] lin'e 'mal\.i" """'. to ~200' N.~...3 Copyrlqhted material .. 4.'Io.~ 1UU'p.~nd '$"0 010'\ W W.e~ ~r...:-_. dJaw. J)()~ 'When _ !:fi . ~.5:~.'Ili. liig'tilit !!Wl~n COIm. ia) C8l1cwait.'le 2.iO...". .!l!l.rt'dU[. [1. ..1wlIl~d.. ' ')l.p.. .1. 118. it. The dliagram .-.p[\ojected. .£k 2. tr~...rolled dOWW!lJ iii..~aJs~s as the eaLr ~. D£W :¥c\r oo·n_sm:.. the tOl!'!i'l ".~'-wa. '[0 ..[ 1]! [1]1 5. ~..A '~O B. .iflltiDiI1. w..!ij.m rest ail:.. Tile dlia..!! flrrun B 00 C i_~ O.s:h!3w. :f~om one. Ca1ciliil3:I~'11:fue a IT ~~ ru~taJll~~:'lr..~. use and ~bgw' '~1Um'l!Ifo:rkJ~g'.~..h . .m .!l!Jn1elow shows seme O'E the' :foro~ !a£Jtmg '0:11 a b .. O(J]..c~r' of :mass. in . 'Ii. a ~~!lit fl' :a~' tb~ 'ben.g~~p~..~s of 900 q. .' [1]1 'Wl!EC..A." . to c~c." a) 'Wril<l. .it .. (i) 11md the re~Hi1~t8!l]t foree OIl di. the 131itlil:~1e.E!!'ffec1l:s the 3&:OOm:adon.. (liE: Hi'maIDlii1~ as ~i!'tt :r. S'1).~"" .DeId!__rs. f!iktloi"llI2'S5~ tjf. M i~.ppalrams :a!bo-ve..]1 '1. mil !~ltI :rt-om the dia~m slP~d(iqg ~p.tt~'jmass. 'to re~cb.ec['. . :8'00 kg~.yJ. wr~~ .o.s.'? [. from the ~!pb to' C8ik uJ ate' the' maM Cif'tb~ :trollq.a:d!1JelerIDbon d..It [1]i [lamp .~it wi'rub the: engine: ~'Q'l~ 31. posiitioos O'f .. from.~. Oq1l3tiQIl!CiOml~Dg' >sp~~t\1Jl dilislanc. ~' is 'mi!.a.ch ro.vgil~ed b.J([ f!U."1'. . [2JI ~) :~piTaln'\~h.w .3'0 ~s.kt wnnbi the ~atiotlL Gorumttring: m~~~h ferce a~-dacce~tiio~.fivcSti.". It! . . ev... [.. diriv:illl~ !OOiEttis lIltm:e3sed.:ancl 3ccelettr:uio:ii1.~ raee ((f ].i:""" .-.po\Ver~ 'dte Cair'~ .'. en :E!!icc~]ef.n.!...vS.~~..o.....'11 'I.lIllL'I. ~~Je_n. ]$ :PIOgram:_m.o:f a 'tf1olI1ey 'P~iing d:u~ : :am b) Th.ai balli. is..."'". dlista!nc~ ~.gr.!!J. . ..• .. b)..:. tf' liG~t :sefisor 'it!t9ll.. the bal~. .aroQ!l ..'11.vnj :Ut ~!rdEji !tftt€. 'tUt~ll'[0 reach a. Ske~ 'We WllP.f 'm~ ill.track biJij 'wQk ~lS lIoJI1. . .1] _ ronnwBJ 't!llat you. it a'QQe:Rer.'if..~s.c.(\\t:Il00.e.d.r.A srud(:nt measW'eS If..~OO.e.U).5i 1J1 :. i~~AI "':=.a~ :from.~..~Dil1iarny :reacl1 a.e~~~.~$it ~t·.mpute:r 'wmeh The.f 20'Ill/Sl. Cia) 'WrMt'edQWn~ :m WQnIs~ the eqm8!tiQIl oO'mecWlg .g.. ~ . .} 'w~y tl1. [2]1 ia:) (1) Describe haw .: do'. vdQci~ 'o:f .i!dU '.n. Ill!u: a.a!ttd ~ m{]i~O:D.'~'O':~ 'me I!I.o 'ne _ '[.Ci1I!r.a.~.

.U ~W~AJWJIiJ.dlja. edC'~atoo lite: A IIta:r. = 42: N m ('dockwiise.aOO"-It..ofnt ~ If an object: is in leq.li1L~'Ui'l. .. .(.. -II!. 'This.J 'me: barr is :m ..u:i..force = abont a .!I''!Io!ll!i. ..:"""'iift~\~.'II~· Iih.• (l..~ ~Y~~'d! _ _~~I~-~. once :al~. .~lllrIin. .il~) !moment Copyrlqhted material . e[ooc~.~I~. . .iIi_ l.gJ.clockwise ii""if' _~'I.: ~nnef ..:...~/ng m'OmelJB" ebeue 'the' n...t'-~i!i!-~~"'i9 1UIlLl1!.-.~!'rise' mli).cIO(1k"'i.~.. .lih:r.-..c'~oc~s>e moment. lONI'IiI [. _..dllifficult cai!il..00 If ~~e..I3:Nx1 !ifi! mom~nt .equtiUbl'. _...Iml B.we .!I I !O:----...41~i"iiif..e~· t ~lU:ii ..~:rnn \Vi.2 m ~21I)Mm (afl1il:1~wr&B" FIiIo:rnetrl moment aboiJtO • 5 th<:.() !!!!.'t Be1o~:I! 'there are S'~e leJCalmples .w. LILl~ i.:. .~ONm.t]S equal to me sum.Ql'1i"'rt"'iIl~"'1':'II'I. ~ ~ _ ~~ ~__ ~~~.lit tbe e\nd O'Lllo:rttg mrs. J.a:ny 1'o:L1]..-. e t.<~lh.IiI'i"".[:L..IDlGW-ent aibourt. 8.you can produce al lMger 'ttl1[.1l10-1f1U:nt.pwm.."io lI- ~ .".:":'CUii'ijli.g~vesa large ~lllIlflrill1ng:e:rfect~ moment . t ~ =lNxlm iOl!O'Ui~ ~ 6 N 1m {ial1~jclookwi'~) 'The p.I state 'mat 'Ute :3Jr. 1'.O :a'!El.. I "_""_ •. :s.IU.. .es alsn cded i ~lN lIT'! CIfI"IIB n t .. :fol'oe is.r. ofthe clockwffi~e nlome!]tEl S!bolJlt. :£Qrce Qghmn . . =.and 'me<jr"mameom.ue .ib-oytO a 1110 N X .Forces and turning effects __ ..o~_]SI!O..G..af a.. .u'wenIl. iO is 'T-dtin:G: ImOIfti@IiIit. .A. Moment of s.mo iif"_ .I . ~ !I.ih.." I ".~da.1I ..'t force x perp endiculae m5:tal1Ce from the 'pa. ~.liltidn~'!. 'ik'l!.3. .. N@"te .: the 'sum.. a p@~nrt: is called 'f.iil!. Tit. rri'll ::!! 20 N irI' mlJnil!Bliift: . The: 'turning.~i. 'Inrqli~.ge furoe . It is.'u~: 'lIdIJa·~..:yO'tW fingers.~ ' there are more fOfC~S1 ~cting' butJ. f a..is :m...1vt!lm~m:t5 are described as_ ..:B:NiIiTil to~ aoout C) =3 Nx4."I. abol!J!t. 'The 'wmiin.0£' f'Ol-c:eS . about 0 ~ -a (Ii rNI )< 2' 'm ('ani!k:~(kwis~1 . 1fIil .poi~...iIIi __ .• I.ilIj I 1 • 1 l pi ml---~-~-4 ~:2 m-=Ii!lII' 11I11-----i'I . ~.jJl:'~"'i~h....t ~~!~:W II. 2m [mom!n~ ==:::::::~==~~ 9.~!-:.iEI< .a..41.wise'~ aool!ltO Ii:.2 N 111"11 Cel 0 t: fi:.'O It ~s .i!!-. greater if 'YOU even increase the: 'farce 01" use a lQ:nger':spa:mroer.." .m~. 4 !'II .* ".S.c~..~..'I!..- - oj.g etioot: 1.'D1OIDeal:.of ~ :~Dro.f1~I'''lI'~1n '*-1.j!.iri.ne 'ruming effect 'bBruan.---""". tOf "!I. g~!YiL (Jf' balMlitOel!' '~iL1' ~_Q3 or equBihnutfi-. Ca&cula1Idn~:Ulle liiIl~men~.ium. I~Wal te the :mti. .mng effect..""'!ldlulfll. But 'With.ri:n_eip~e tIlOOlHIts... p!lJ'. 'mime"the: mllll cloctcwise: ..dlt~..Ute other'" In.."S .m. of 'In diagram A oo'ID()w~the 'bam.-" .U .~ij moment .IL. t'ii'i!'i .g."im¥''-~~jj).. " '. •.-.~.er~.gli~ibl~ W'i1Ii.t-· 0-' ~ .. • F' .iL'\r:n.

ldmejTIu:.ves eIDasrlcaH). . is!tool 'SP~ing is stn'l~.exJt'efi'sionis 'pro'poro~fi[l_l to the load. o E :~'sitselasd:c Omit.. keeps.. _:1 .__ =_~' __ :Sjli'~". sprJng~& b~lmVjOUI'.tretcnmg anc comp.J .t hd <::1' rressmg S-·..y :~00 :8.11"'. is dC:uJibl. .g. tJii. JLII. (1:be :malielr. '~ID this .". • 'Hxt~nS'IDn -+ load a'lm. is d. &Om. be siiJl1i]jmed.ia]s :mat behave: ..tmn. I!i!lII ~ ifIji-:!io~!!.1 Malrft~mati~Yil.. dl[ffeRruJe. StretehiDg JR._.ySi h~s the same vWtle (~. the'5p. _.~ ~~ :1.. :reJeUG' it.]j. l"'i.mmJN).. :18::1 'N' ffir' ever. nnerHWll1!d in • Weig~t.0 NIkg. whe:n the ~ood.o:r :llJSlSiSi htmlJS. U'p 'm~e lcam.!i _10 3-0 Iii: 20 10 1 'The readrings 00.-v~ _.[lf5 'We. 8!EI. .primg' is 'mefl: :permatnend~ll' :srtm1::jt.1l... 'marks anoHl..d ~_jU. (mO~). the :S].'U:p 10 ~O 20 . • .:11""" ~li'Or ie_v~ .' . nf~ .~ !I!in.Q"~""~e ~_ !...-- .s . ----- ..between ~tsm.. "".:. 1__ i'-. '. J'etW.Feue' . cded lhe ]0'34.•. to :~uJ:~[I. Oill"fl~~O _ .~ and :pas<S!esWo~gh 'me crlgin.0 poiktt ~ th~ lI..die extensiion.bl!Vte • .~ikre tfu~sare plastic. 'the load..~"t:choo and 'oostfetdll~d.'''IIO'''' Ii lij.!I...3. o:meend.sUgbdy Materl~_s that 'be.bent: 'or SIrI.med : wlten me lfi~d is liemdVed.aigbm.igma11engdi.:!l''''''.. '!Up a'S.:I' n~l!!.cl1edby ha~' masses. 'me .!i7lr.~. [.. :r~:a 'f.~-II~ !~ iI: -"..esliDre:s: • 'The :ooe is s:b'.a:re' eludei Hcr~eve:r. 60 50 E 40 E -. :~IOnd E.!I 'iI"ii. I:fYO'1Jl.">. _.A~d. ""'0' UI . im.~m..ery.iia]s \VC .. strereh..ooIDow.produces 'the' ~il!me.Ls.I. the: :Idl:can be plott~d as Q. 'Iila. ~~«. 't'Jt"IIi'I. .:!j.alph .9 ill( G.i.'~'I:"~ 'I!'~'''U'!bU.iil! ~_ .~ the ~ :Poiltw£ E.I!"da. N :k:tcreaSle:~m. iVm!: ~ilin._.'.L'ali 'p1asd~' '~I~ d~rn.. s. and :Si~JiOwl.e lOQJd.fnllom:: .Ji"\.I.med (out of' :sbape).-J J .:~ni'Qe. " .:00 :p~arsdc and mouffidilib1e' when hot. ~O:iiid. .' t. V:p' to B.wE Spciml8' d~fo:r.) . -.ppU:ed.~ '-~"'~I I'i.~~: ._ _ _ ~ N'. Thc' fOl"ce a. -grapb~as ~bDV~.~J\':)~. II.u.r is 1.i" ."" QJift.' .er C~_3j[Igein.It:o the 'spring' Is.".ne. . U ~.lr. . bacJ~ its ~rilitIDaJ :S~~'. I ~mlS. ~ .lengths..I!!~160 .n~ioID.outJ.tnp beiD(G: e'IDasdc if '~ey Tb~j laiith~ break or become per-l:u_ruJlien!tiI" ma.£ed.Y m· _ . or iDend :PJatsticme~ jJt.:}O! [.. .: E1lasitie and :pluJtic If ~u bend a.ros to . . mom. A. ti~I' ~N).~ b¢ha.'if'Fe ~~~D. "iIlIil .and wei&l1l ssemJaI\s Force 'is.is 'in". 'dt~8. . ..".~iiIIGed_. .d.' shape.Iline~s 'lihese :f.t name oocaruse: dl~ . r~ooovied. . 15 '1_!i.".O. "'-hi -F -' ~tf:"'A ~e'W'e!\G--~:iO' ' !!U1 O__:~.~tc:l:IDoo too :m.: III'!~' I En the '~pe.lrhr. II' II _ . Mater.ed..

~ pgA'h .~ •• 'Ofi 'tb~ rigbt~ .ilht d'e~[~ty'(in :~glm'~') 'mass (lin kg) w.'"""'..i'rnh i11e':pr. X de:pfu. O'f:"~lle: 'tmk.cmctlil. '~~..and w~~ ~se~~l if10r a..of ..~s:s~. '" ''~~1r .~ ."''''''' ".""".._. 'm m~ 'w:lter. ~ 'we~lll.Jl.~". 11"1. "' '..x vol ume ICah:~Jllaj'riDg'tb..1 .th.:II . ..ii!J dJe.3.ifI.. I 'b) :H::OW dnes the p~SlUle all :B Il.J'esto a :Slniac-e~ fO'~~ lpn..LL- f ~~n':' .~I/Ir~~iY=-IP~~' ~.rt:w.: p'.. ~~tdare the ~ru. ffom these eq t!aiti~fI.(6.'. 8\V.~' r~m~d 'wililb ~Eooj..pR1lsme at tt]u€ bottom.. ri") H-. d) ~. to" ... letter .Ii ~ Copyrlqhted m . gells~:ry. jil.. = I~y." ~ . what is the pressure due 'the mIlLeT at ehe bonum of !/ii. :=.ate the pressure crJ.i'. __ _..'f' ' y..~ = 'ii. .and aen'Slity Df a nq uid lbut il"teed '~ findl il:s weigh" For 'lhi"is" '~h~ eq ~.~f" ii'q'.~~. ~"' j .U1sefYJI oonnedilQ\fti's.~ en the ri. c6Mparle with. clen:.'/ttl '""" biMear'!i:a AI 'IDOl &amp.: the Mqruricl.e :.pgA'h.t.~!5!I". For ca:1[ul rutiOIfLS I~ketho~€ belowi you need .~""'.".rreslure in II..OOJJ1't1. m doop~ I .l~rt!1e.)'a in square Ipil\i!~Uli~~ n1!e:tn. mas..~ _. om '[]rStt need.:A'~] 1 In 'th~rual.. !lNdter OJI.i'(~ssn'[~ .)! volume 'then ls in 1~S'cals'(P.gIltt. d· ...t.~... ..2. I~ to~ is in [mie~nli$ (N) ..e ....s x g:' fbrc-e 'on base '.~".e pmssiW'C: $[ SF ... rn ~O:llgby ......~]1.i.'11.d:e: is.'.". ~ <lf1fl\..um. ..Ak 'mass .nifi. 3J Hqmd. ' . '_ •. bEJ~e.In. :8J'IIEt:1It m. "1 'e) :How dees the p:ms:Sll[.i"'~'~~Q..o:m~' v.Df T 1!ff! ~~ l-watl11'l'~ ·C I A ~~ B--~-----D . A '[\eemllgUiar... ~1i'n£I1) r 0: pi!m::llli~llin...k. ~"'" _~Ir!ril '1"j1l'Cll1l"'.djue to ~.!! JL:'II~.m w.th~(JOn iilecr.3 'In *e ..:s I[:rml...nij.2m.. :skn~age:'t8Jnk 4.u~d. bow' WCllllDd: tn:is..of' ~[q-..JJ3 If me de:nsity of warer is I [)00 .>~SI1R'at . • !_~.l~ 'wii:t-J.. on.re..~ c.til 'If ~ W3im~in.iflo ""·1[fI~' • ..:1Il5F OOl 'ltb~l..ptb .grarm.I~ at :B.i. 'rome' :aJQt:in:g' art 'r._ '~oo-:·-: tII. . 'W~s~stlim.a1ton5! required .. _ =" 11.tof i~luffid. :fi'R\ed 'With :panMn. J.o:f paramn b) ~t!'e :mass 0:[ ~Efiml ie) '!:he 1Wf'iliJ'lino:f :panBrn. m5e'4).1icns ~e'~n v'QhJrm~(in mil) 'lh@~@f: I I Pms~~.wm~.!i..~.a!n.:iil¥ = .~q&j. o N/kg)1 At 3J depth h:m. _ ali~t~ Fo r ilil).e . . ..urnd.. n.aLre.i.m.'r . J.. due. m~pmiS!lli~eat G? ...ei\gh~ (in~} i' 8 (11 0 iNl kgl.. "B''.--~ rma~. 1.)~"Ib .le at A. Liquid The .t has a base ar~~ A.. :&) Ute 'i!fo].ampi~u you ml~ht kr! ow the: vo.b.irnmmg pqo] 2.iii'~'lLlJJ!lIl UaJ .. . .. 1J!U!iJ' ..o.I\g~. due: ~ the: ]l:l!!t9ltian .to klrl)~w .Q'fden~ity p. base the..and ..P (G-:re~.. It is 'tilled..'if[oa de~.'~J.. d~DSWty x: VQ'~UJm(~ '~ pAh. A" cnm' . to know the weight of the' ~id y volume .'Ir....~r It 'folbo-ws -that: mass = dWlSilJ' . CatCid8iI C... tIJ liquid of d~nsity .

.aL~'Why~ when.!!lli:Je' ~ ~ ~.1'60.!.8!O'f]~~lk.6 mM ( as of :mm:!J. can see be]ow.~ ftTP~. i.e~r.e arre caUed 'bp.. w.~ ]..i. me diagdm on the :rjgbt is :Wiled.. _ . hoW ih1gh..eSS'lllire to' mo:'s.M:n to . l I". -D.sU1"e. AtmJlsphuLe preS'f..'O'~. is 'Used in the .cu.amr' co'llWm1 when Sltmos:pl1eriic pressure :l aJt'.. :pressUR. the gas supp]y has hl ~ddJ.' ..~~~I!IloL:I.) '\Wll\at is.e5S 1~~5SIlIr!! A 'man(fj'.' .ij<"'.-. :N. Ot1.1I """.~ d a~. m easure .8~m.). Ltlobt at me d. ·...·lld '" J[ II' • l • ~f~ .fll a~f." ~rt.-. ..plPly (m rom.a.led H.iiOs. .ib I:m.ttl.<"N.."..1i~5 ..Slj.l!.~ic U peessuee hi's puS:h~dl . JJ. asa p.0 m.:'ett.1fii'L-r-~''''''' r'" ·~.... The barometer an 'Figh~contains 'du~.~ of' n'ruercuy~'.. The :he~g'h1td~ffeI'eJl.. li:tp._refllry barom.airiiaib~r a. H. _ ilL!i..~ ~ In ca!lcular~o.eng~ty'of mereury :I.cJlmg :m~i"mean 'Chilli :mm [s on.e :that '1 ann ~ 1.J" . ..:1 _£liIJ nfh-lo.t. In.t.1"\roj'y' 1'0 mm hi~h~ Q. If :ii1rr:ms.um.:..g tube.. yion . mib ~ :~.c' smg W3~E[i'loJSro3d of u m~l'Cm'Y~ and a vc~t Ion.tly dependillng.ic:pres~UI!r. 'me The actual valne O'f atmospheric pressure varies :sJili.\"eb!..me height o:ftilile' oo~umn is 0.ometer illl mm !Of l!Jileift1JJY' ' :....8 At a d~pm lei: '~n aliquid Qf d~WlS~tl'f Po.g' ws '9. pgli.~. I@!fi. Rain doods form in ]a:~~ areas 0:£ ']QW~ p\f~sl!Jr.-j . Ia 'Qo~nmn~.~~.in ~_IHlu!i]l! _ _' _~ ~'IA ~ \ IlL Qrld. 1 'V:hiii:e do-wn ~ "".760 ()m: 13 I I 1 artfilJJ =.P!Ply.en:u~~tn 'bJ) Wb.g 0".etel' [1l~Uu. 'V .. 'me g. Tms .g:e'".&~) Ri'lll .PJlf:nC . 'J1tVj .JI~'IrIJ~ . .s.f 'the ~~n::w.A .lre.em. 'I'~' 3i v8c:uUID.netic pff8iS.3 :590kgt~'~ ~e den~ity of '\fttflE' :i~'] 000 kg/m.t...tu:n~ Vi\i]}'uld YQ'U exp.'~ .. 1~~1i. 'to.~..':rea.pber...ospl~~ric "'lij:O ~. forecas'rimg~ the .ILU .e'reta:r.excess.~.~¥~U . :ill :p. of me tniiiJnDm~rul" en 'mil5.pPO:!~a column.~~..millibar ('.extm. ..lrnibars? 6 '!]"hu~de QS. iP(reSSUle - -Ii'fj 'd!II. ~ I ~ ''! c..1'- The'man. fJiO000 ]?a. atmos..al~. (io. s. I"UJ..sslill"~ the g3$. 'lite weamer..lj.oweve:r~ 1m ea:s:illiy is converted :into pascals iltmd other umim} as JJj)). A'i" sea :IIe:~)e:.it.---. ttus . As the d. i:' ~ .~~ arne.. !Ll·.eSSUR: ~~ called dle' .eieD.:807:N~g (or.r{e~!mu'is 7'610 mrn of ID~[\j~:tiJL'y: a.U :I.P SJ ~:u)u]'Jtai~ .he"ic The 'pi'~~lU'e ..ity" you :VOI' 1C8I[1 ~. 'iii JS ~. 1"i_"'''''f''1'.ry' 160.ali: the bonam o.:.! lOOH-I--I-~_"lr"'_ height: d ififierel1Q1!:' 1_---"'.~. do..~DlH.acy 1$needed).uid m~ml m~rrur]p:.LW_~ ~.nil'" ~Il.£. .~61um.y iE..t1sMi sometimes describe malS..'eilter· measures presti. 'For convenience..Hllf:e a]so delc:re~e~ vrim heighJt a. @Y&t-~~1. 1. '~ 8.JJ..es:~un' (in 'P.'1r.r·D~ .'tt Q.2 :ExpJ.(:e shows the ~fm .f :II' c.~S P'fess:1:.bO'v..eT..-. of . lR:: un:i.~ _ g.h" where .~c pr.:!!ry)?' Copyr lqhted rn .lll.~sc.olJLmM'ljof '\~raJter ] metre 'kl:ng? oJ :~fn llr&r:ome:re.memfS tha. pres!!~.nO! mill m rt.om. 8~....w~*e ljiqrlmid t[.3~:Id pre. a fd in the so blU'O:mte~.~ .1~·oIl. q.:..e.add a:bl'MJ~$lh..~..[dei!l. :gas 'Supp1.rs~ s:impi'c. 'me 3~~ f ~~y~.~._".aJttimeteF.p:reS!fiJiUre tila~. 590:~m. in ument J.1)ID Jlllie:rcmy.~nd .mb) .'.[~ssme of'7!60 rlm:illim~tt.I.~:tm!lsp.g~s ~l!.~ ...'ID" .mm high is: borwn. .". is.meOCll~y' up ttu~tube because the spaee at the: 'mJopef the fi"jil!.I.J. U].. The 'one: in..h.~~_~~ '!ill' !~-{~~r~. .dl_1Je'MJ'lce. rs ~ !iIl. aCCU_F. 'be :found. L.. :DiUilCa.cvrrn. :If a mer>'Cuw:y' b~mmeIDeX were !l:8itY.30[HP~ ass.f m~.'U.c.. p:r.t'" . Fa" so rsmndard atmospheric pressure :Iis ~pp:mxim'iittel~t 00 H)OOI JniruJlb~s.iJ pl3JSCWS.0.:e sea level.'Up it..tt:me~su~' ~trDQS. :m~d. the excess. J\:tmosp'he.. ~ !i::l!lIlIU.fi'iJlf~It'lir' . . 'I· 'W~~:P.ys.1t!oTII ..Wit16.. excess pressure... .1 .Jt: :mm 0" the..c:st on a stnr.. :you '~SI!Jl.... cha['ig~?' tQ.jjj~fh~ sde :f!i#..'~_~.g.J. aircr ""'if: t tij. w.fi.... c) :ijf[ :i'i:ifi.The '.is. '1 'ij.eCit 'me' ne.ilit 'Ii.f] "~.35'90:kgl:ml x '9..t .. '.1#' ..S...me .: pg.l'lI'lI"1i Qldli ~I~. :sDPJ)'ly ell].) "I'M '~~u"~'i".U'e: in idle: i ~ c~)'~3r...'Onte'ter. :5 If.. ('J.3..'~ ""m pressere will "'lI!.ure."'''':'' m.s.n 'which (hie pns~n.'".tmosponeuiS. co'IDumn of .''h'a...irt!ll' of:m.mer'CUF"Y)'? ~fj 'b) :in1:3. c.l1z!llF" a) ~1! ~sthe: :llr. .'U.y. 'AOI G~· tb3Jt w.pffi[erJc p.f the g3r1 supp1:y. m~ actual pre.ls 'O:[ :s. 'weather.m.f is ~i~t8'].e:E.. p. is the' w. the pressure . ~~ . To :find. P~)? pfCSi!r~' o. "~I!' Standard. 10 'N/kgJf less. 'me wa..m sup PO(ft: :8.~. 'PHSStmll' of ilie . is: .fitten"used as '. by IcakuJattng the pressure due 'to sue'h.

.' IWI. !LIIv".. ..the pai.l~_ _. e'""...c '~'it..~ ..... tne~'~. spee:d@d .. ~~L!ising @. .B. ha~peps lo ~t:s.i '~roYBh the....~aTr ~$f:aJNloe !1!T5es sharp.". _~ aJr __ 'the ~_.] g !JiliWd to 11fn~~ure ~~d.. _ WId_ U~l.___ higher .... . .g. ..b .IB~ Wh3t ~appentS eo :itB. 'i:!l'~''''''r..e' '~m:pl'e8:: li'~... tube 1ffi!\lOOWS..-~-~.. .. 'Wl'1I:.w.Unoul ."...wI' I"n '1...:!..5pinntlml b~111Oille-.' 11:""""""~:'IIiI-IIII~!!il: I!DW~! ball.. 'In me PS.llllft~(Most: IO'V 'the mH' 'is dus to 'Ile '~lj8h~ ~pw.dm."Cure.:lth.. g ]m. ~. j.+.e 1O\V of ~ ~~ p3!lmt ftow tip 'm.t ~he'ftuid speed~.I!.. '·"'n'n··<i'...(ii: 'rtl~·. -.'_oov.Tms is ....L~ lL... 'fJtcw has become: turbLlrei1t~ In. pressure :fil~:S.. 6 ...e'the wing'.. Thi~ au.o .s."r..Ol:t'ef::pipe' :iii .air.~..O\m c8'ect.. d'i'tii!ii7'''' "_ I""...peed iaereases. dle aiir' p:re~'we .I~'!r pl(pe..~ts ~ '--d-. ~n . n . the' 'flow is.is calloo ..dmp..--'.~. ..e :pailint:Ql~ me: Si~ iWow.-jd ia""."..--.I"'-.. ~I!i!'RI!O.iI'... ~t U .UU:I}I.t:o Irrnaire ~e ball swing'...:ifllt :!ip:ray en me tigitiU:} I.V as t~e speed ri~s.y ~ .!!~~ a... 'fIi-.at :13.Qf!ls.. lnnTs reduces the IPJ~~!J... p~um d!rffere!1~Md..plers. Wi.010 Ail: 1a'IU~ UI~I ·th". ..ffi) ~. it ls 'bLo~ a."'" 1!JIC1~_lIl :4I:. :"!I!.. I~'~"aJ~ u~ed .. n '""""I _.".anrCfa . the' o-th:er.The 'lemoll1li. Here are S-QnJ. ~ru.~l !mu.ow :5 peeds iIDIJ} 'at~o!Pthe tIDp.. a) Alii 'ruhe. '!ilpnmll i5 used ..·.M '.m.d· il.a!Kr.·. as 'me lJerftu. mom' pradica~ .~I~iiJe ffQW~ '8jpe SO th ai~. effect If a ftu£d is 'tlC'. I .. :Smootirnl 'ftow like' thIs ... mn.f"iI~ IS l r _ -N !OW .R~ ..'1_. Jii...jIjI\i'Uj"~' ~ 9.1.Fit 'flow 'U.."'.Ii.. .:.1 turbulen~ fIow..1'-.I~Qmpa~e with 'm~t:a1l C? d) 'Why d.\fi.-. ito. '(lO...II-·1f'f· .~II-J' .1~11!. '!lI'be~ Copyriqhicd m . iIllJ)v...t· '0:£ is the deer Olill! th~ :flQ'W' ram of U!i:~ :a) a silirJ. wmg n -'''----cft'''". 8 _.Ii..l en ooe ""1""'"""'''(1.+ .!J.m.!!!.M from.A p'~mp tl. 41 ~'mll'50lilJilie '5pom~. ~eed.~ rIft.caH nlov.. __ in a 'VtlilWri 'wbe. 'ff.1']' QU........ -w_t..'li~..'j.:i i:li~.. a:·~r. aI! !!. oft~@ win..4i 1'I'IL _ ~ 5ilillnl'~ ~ ~-0-:1 lib F.IlJlp wh@ife 'd'ie..I~ :S__ d' '·110 A·.I..its s..in..p~~re'?' ~) :lH"'ow does..."r '. .ii!! ·A~_·· ') W.Ji11f~l!a~-lIlr .!jubJatiiDn5.g'() mudl. lD~ p~e ~ i]!J.. A tttQ..'~ I"".SO ~t'5pre55ur:e' dro-~~.:_'-' _ I.'_. the a11i'illcn!¥ is.U"J!r. .. a 'si'dew~~ ~e on~e ball. 1iuuDwl'len1t:. t:". A!i 11.i!"\IIr -~ ~i law~ng h~ l1'li 91 a :iIi:".Pf!!S'SJJlJie -~- A...a~dgl'@..~' .rnll'.tII . . II..-t-: ITt.. . ! '~'I-_"'_'~IH'" .~fS I!J.~I liJ\pward '~-Of!ie'whid'i oonbi'b'WJ!w~'t\o the 'i" ~. ) <~it:fj~ p:mssuf!e) pusihA!-S! 'Wilter Wou~h the' far end._ .".'W _S.? my?' b) M 'me' 3iir' lows HiJim A til) .g 'ilIro:ugh th~'ar~1\OJ ~eil!:a_mpl~.1:1.!!'~~ eas __ . r:!i~"'-' II!"~""'C~!I. (IU~~l!"llf~·j' ~''illl''.w.P WillI.. aJ.'t'Ota. .".HI5 p -!Io!1if"'!' ~ t!lre'SS'!Jfe.J'IftU'l.~ __ !~!!Ir ram.11.The'-f~tef '~e 'flow~title ~~_er 'the' -.' S'I OWl.~ iii W' !IlJLQ!t/...J~~.

.every 'second Mo~.WER.J [Eli ERlGl' .. .-ws the S~.AND N:ON.C ENElIG'Y.~ wak flow 0.. over WD. '~5ed by a lb. elJow.J CCNS'ERVATlON OF' EN'ERiGY' J ..Sho.'M~"'t. _ 'me' '£aDs .. STATIO NS _) ENIIlRGV' flOM EN ER..E ENERGY' lHIE 'SUN .RENEWAIU._) WORJ~ J oJ . OD I.nthe fans.t ldIe emerzy is o wa~d. h-. P{).11 .rur'l:' the water bollbl 30 me't:ir£& 'to the rivet t.om ' .J POTENnAL .ydroeLecwhim Icnera~ ·'cpower StatbIdl elKtridty &1:' til" SlDTOnndin area. 71 .tiOD JUIIQ.MACHI NES Nla:gMa faDi:ll ontbeUSA- lb pbotfigracp.ct' POWER J. t s. . of Nearly 'three miltJ.AND IUNETJ. .Q RIUOlUlICld J REN'EWAB.J FRI(TI:ON J IEFFI'CI[N.

can.!mY.:b..fli. :fw ~ 'e'lecm~ 'm._'.:ll) ~. {Was~dL i!l1 b~d:y) ~llerlifii[Jel'l~ " tl!rernnall ettil!IlW (wa.A. ih. :fla}t:tem.'ill) 'Wha'l). 'WQJk :i~don~ energY' :l'S ~fO:rJn~.r~t~.. . . De~h.S5~ nO'H '[\etil:rmnce" 'Wills is ehanged . WV. .er:n !Yb~ 'ifI:'"~ .Otol'l! SQ .~:. ' '20 ] potefiltj'ij] tJ'r1~Y Again 20J tlf'wom is done as.th~~ bas rut tbe!: iQjOOURfiI.~'Iii.r.o_m.[' milms su.j. ben_th.'1"I('i.. andi~DIiI~ 'Work duRcr Md.~ .of"work... cne.. Thi~...l "_..uru .rnl"A-""·d· ~~~~~b".~ ~nergy d!O~ .me ground. 2'0 J {!!If p.fUll._.iB'xplaiD.2J) J of tine1i~ Melgy is cll~d. aU. iIlOt. fMI~.l:Sin.Jl~-_·_ 'wolik 20J d'me! " :SOl Qf'WQrk .i1.gr.0.~1!r.. on the righ~ 'COl ~xmn.. '{he dia. 100 til ..ee'lSi.'.~_".~~ !~T'i.pmd~l~ Ci~b-icit~. vase. _. a. .m. . bib tlIe ground and... . $:01 20.it :MYe JUS1!..:. the brick.fr.~ l 1 ~!!...'t~ .l'lf'ndail energy..' :L...idt. :Ii).ra' tr.l~. .u.hi £... b~pens 'W 6iSi en~ ..eleF. ·l.rni.ver.$ied becay~ of a1r !J'e5iJ. oI2np~ ~.. . ..aI~_OltlmlfI. 'bi). ~ 'S(Un~O:De-\. .lllilsfoFnu:d 'W!hene.e]f."n iII-~. .' . :If 1he. '~ .~'~~~~~. a geneatnr..mus~.~~at IIL~r'!r...a. . eases: i"1"'"".: . )I) fA . .-¢.. .. " .. rri.iPly' is :necdm! .S.··'SSI!JBle ulat :1m' ireS'l.~ olt. ...l. lOOro~. ~p ~. ."..i~ !r§...ne' ~ooy . ''WOrk .gram.a.o.milOl 20:)' of kinetit energy. the.:isdone m. ~~j ~ ~ . id:eil. The ~1~(.~a falling 'brllck loses. ~..ce.be' dooe ro i!if~'j) 'Wi5e from tlie iBWCWiLd. 'why' 'IUSi [dea.-!! -!!II~' :.? :I Whwt ils 'due law 'o:£' oonse_rvauO'J1 of ~~? 9 0..itamall) dumUtai ~ (in muscles) !I • 'lhemiIa'l1 ene_ray 10111' .OOm _.F'..3!OOgthe 'brick.u.II:!' ""'" . It. f.' . ~ ishtd.1 ..P.~m!~ u..ple.J ... . Htrw :mu..igb't~. W'-i ~JL-. W'illI. In.~"P'iii!ldl.."Hi!i.I.d1! .motor' whi~h t:u~ die: :faa. ~mm:Dthermal m~.1i)l'C lit '_ats '!!i!!!~ gW'll.-~_. :ldtteti.fa r the: Dl!. :If 1ihe:'br.Eo..1I>i:...0..~ . k !UUJl:.n ~t eesrs nmhing 1)0 :n.J~.. "H-IiIL-W!.

.r' it '~.timoL'J.Jtbs· ~n~fgydUJnilfig 'Uileim.F.-...p Uu~ pMsenge...Iciirt~tic '~Ili11r.iI!i. 4.~~~ ~ !~~ .r' times: as.i'cu ·. . f 'i.mum .1_". 'this: energy wh~n.llI.iv~'s Jj~r£ioo.g.llIu\. .r!')['J !I~ .eed .lI!I: '~-.-'1'" . :""1..."...pmds 'On speed: ."SO de~trriu:cth!~.":""'.o:l"e s~eed.t'l!UJl\et lUI!. .. This ....~mBrgyi1I. ~ie lll..d amd lI!:inetic e-llile!lW' ..". .em.ii"" .[....mOIi~ ~.. 5 e:) R..~'J1.5t." ~b 'me: me time~ ~lme. the b~ke-'S ~ire'avpl:ied. -~ -" -.-. n~l!"t: me 1i. ~ _. :S~a~belt..!. i3l1.. aJnd the m. . ear does mlott :s]QW dc<w:Il.j h'S bruking dli!!5'i::3llll0e Is .tJlmalte .gy needs aroot.Uf'P"'ij. br.-_..:n.1t"1'!o.reacting'. ~pUed toe dJro:rn'gily~ Uu:! CJalr 'WUI~ '$..gd~~taJfIi~~'". 'mi...J'lt'··'... The.. :2 A fas~ CM" .plythe Th·l'. ar~.s~.. • tl1e: .{. uI/Jl1!u-... 'm£ chart 'Olr:Ji.:. ..... ~:i1i • app. mL'1ltgf at .. 'if.ppirn.~. t~\-':::J1 .Vy.rs. iI\..ave~e 'ifigur:es.td@ratkm of th@ pass@nprs.... hss :EIj..[kiVlerabout 'balf 3. s.'¥'. '1!r~~~..~t. fricli@Q. how' mr 'l!1l. e-\ne~.~ i@:I!!4.rlJt makes hi.""''"fI'.:!II L~:jJ .O-"'" __' ~~ ·~"'D'ntb·__ ..genc)...gy..~ .bu£. . has.• ~ s:mp:piRg: dlis.1·1""+... liiI1uch kilrne:ti:c It takes an average .r~~ p. 'time..vily'11(J~~dl. kinetic..Liol! ~c. d) Giv-e I~ ether f~. 'What i:l!ap~t:i. til".. ~.. During' this ltime~. I~ br:ake:s . ~.'$ ttl. react!wn 'WIre of: 1.roppinG' . ."" 'n.. A ~Jt :b~s.im bow :far tihe . ~ .<Jj1.ala..?' J A car' is 'tt3'1eluog alt .U~.~~'~:". . ""'Iilllb... I~r a.S.". de~rWlled1o ~oJI. f'[QWnt: "Section of" a ear ii's .:..rve:r s snu . ~~~4U':a! '~I ..thin.. 'I. 0 $pee. ceJr to lose 01111 r Its spfecl..~'Y~ __ .~U~. . ...'ik ... db1!JJbled...p''pUed- a car W11ltJhdoub~@ Ul)~ !il~d has f@~.. .p:~ t 'stead\tly in '~e ~vent of a.-~~"""· ibni1'I'" ""..e ~oppill..ki'l1Jg distance. lit The ehart be'~ow'sbows how' me 8'mo:p"piDg im's..g 'the: b. :1:5.U"i!Wll:ilille .: ~I·'_. ~~.eed (if .ms hOrw':far' the car tftlive1s t:Iltr the brekes have.. a mass of ]_lO~O b'.toppilog d~stanee In an emel'.~r.."..are. ~._.~lrhet _. a) OaiIcu[.'~1..-~". .h...Ol!. is.f":.·.iJ: '['arumpl\! ~one'· r.. . 3~1.::..vcllis 'be[i:!u ~~J:~' ~!)es.~l 'mfuedriver' driver is tired and......lI..I.. '----------...s P~geliesti.~.k....rgepcy stop. I~.:H. . This is.1.. ... kirlle"itk of e'Filerrgy: AfJ' i~~Ii"e~it: e'I'lI'errgy'is 1f~..-a "".j"!!oiDi 1UlIi!Ol'!iiA-iIlII"'I!iii?. s!1'ow.2 :S. ..~ _ v . ...nlng: ih~t '.V~~..rrecitW.e...~ tnl:nking disltoooe ~ '!nhe smpping dij'staJlfI~: on Mile' I)@ift aJf@' .aJr~whi~eialr ugs CU9~IOWb 'the' e~: ' o-r th-e im!~~·t b).il _meac 'I~~e:gr..g dis~()e. Thl5.. massx ~peed~ (1/~mif2)i 'been.".. ¢ali" .p.(l~~hes. "'. its. the ft:mme. -.!b.s......aLdClC'".:..c.gh-s:p. Dsq: da/t:ill :fr-o.) .) r:reedls to be red~lOedJ...1.. crash.f)the driver of R car" :r:nay' have to react q~lcld:rand.fio£l"""'o-i. cCiwd ~.~~~~~ .A.~...1Iu..v!!illl...a.d.~SelljtiLa] 't.*....:i.~. ""':"" . '.Il3.sto.krd'.'..= iI.t:5... a itt rlirnlUst rase al~ ibi. are: '~-:'fi. The drivers lCamon rune i5 0"J6s.!!W. dtltC.. 0 m/s b) :20 :~s? 5 EXllila.~~ . ~: iI!i~ J!'iI. nlil.~ti:. I' ..d\e pa~ of Ine c.]il": ui["".n'lQite rC~r~s w.ifl why" :if'the s.t~_ncede. . r • the braJdng' disit. seeond to react and pre~$ the brake.lCi'~ itn"" "I'I"f' tU a:ld. • .-''lI.rs hnlij~ginsi. '. "0' . "'-~l~ D~~!l:iILI'_~II'1I n ~ flJf1l![ii ...I~@Jis IhM.... ..1.e'al~' "~iFiIcre~ k'· ".-rodd R5 we~ lOr i-. r ~~edlr:~Vi9fJ'$ o ~'eaction tiime fs.'U1f/.is dotlb:l~d.ilI' '11m . a. ..:it fuu~ aiilt1 t. Wbalt is.. 1.coo.'IfI'.'1'"".car ·tt:aveills be/tWe the br.e ..ofuf' ~:l1!_A~.. 8{)1 ."".Wr. ~.ve1S.'1~0!i!> .oe "1_ II '~I'''''i''' .." '"""_L... Copy rig hted n13' .g tbat ' dh~!taR~. l[l" a dry h mad_ U ilie. "i. IIt .3'D mjg" Slld(h~IliJy~ drrIwr sees a the iL1Iapg:er@head ~nd decides 'tQ dQ an.pad Wild ~duee5 '~hle... ped~l.kin.·"..

W!eT :smtio:n does. ~ • ...e~fJt: type~... HlJ1ginem. chart lilk.. cully'm.b _ -_ _.~ is m~ . wh~ [nrnl is this '~_8'[ed e_ne_U\gY' last? '..and lesaes ia two.l t~n'den~y l'll) ~pread out.ergy' ..aOOWfl:'ilhe :PQWer:mpu'tt .IVV~ ~ "'!!'!! __ ~-~ ~~~ •_ w_-~~ I~f~~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ • ~ _ of a typ.Ii .art aJ .. ~" .. 'the emcienc)" .gf fuel u~ed .Q~ .ves . be 'Used..in gel'iiernrnrs power to Wid rn:ita.in eaeh :staiion.8) WMt is me :sr~!1Mm ~'Sed.~n@rlY" is m.e 'maJt 'lh.. '~l1ergy ~Q~ il'il ~lLIIrbirJje!ii energy k!.e.~t<:800011: .. Usmg lO.fF. .1ll 'W'a'te1' ~afew' dep'e. poaill. A.'ii o\.0' ~'I~3!t"""(1'l!"and wastoP IDI'!9seSt. 'For examp.f~~rdi.QDS:~I(l\ltne .~f sam..r .. :steJti..Witt) eJiL'~'~W : .ic:j.mO~'~' (yw am ass. '. tty te mike power sit:~ui(lim.oo. ~_e8rtilpg The 'Mused tlfue:rmaJ-efJergy :_crom. A's it spreaJds~ It lbeoQ'Jnes less ~wd.[ !o~i[' li:'J.es....... . as e:ffiC.-...dJiqT~m b~lO'w' S:hOr~swb~t ba:ppe:n_9Jto the ~~Itt: ' n. :iI) '~.spleadiing 1:lter. This w~ ~Itte~' ~rud net be use-d...:11 \S\l~.€' 120~rgy in boilers' I~s..BUltt !once: energY' me me 1 'Wril<edQWD.-e 'e]ecttiica[l..nis omy ._ in ~Itber . iIi::o drive the:' genesamrs.. T. ~ . 'w·or..pumclfls ('su.. _ ffi • _ Disbi(::t.....mrbine.fJow (chaJrt: fo.maIDp'. 'not n[lve: eo be: 'w.in turbines ..eT ~ta!l:iali 'lh~ is caned a 'SamkeJdl~.tt...firm 'In MW ====- 4Q 00 .a.~U'JJ. :f~1o:des in tlle local area.21.i. a P(lI.h.=bunrlng' power s:mttiiLJ. L:.:gl .~y !llOvmg .ient: as PiQss~ble'.red? b) ~.Jlllhl:l_g::W l!imJ.. li~'e' 'thcd(lMless..o~ rei!!Ch IlIrTOW re~nt:s the ~mount .eumple' the U-li_ flDP-!~ ~~J !I.r. -_ . in MW 1 . c:onc>entratood en...u~ 18.) Id) \lVh~t is.l f' I''i.itt ean' bealt hQm~.y aJooUl ~'~I' /CJ 0 "tl~e: energy' :~n. But ..:s.cl! as .i'!i..I:iQ.e:r' OU!l{P'Ull of.".oUn.ut 351% . 0...~IJ.~' I than th~' deU. .[ii Wltei' pip~ . :2 I'll a 'dtentud PQwer.ks best if the p~ stam:IQin.:mJ"QUfll!r ~'m~ the ! energy were' 'spread 'mmug.n~ooa. less 'Useful.'The .a~led. 'Il'.ight gi..oe :r.3. as ~a:1l energY' by :SOUf:C~ fiQ:I" a turbine.."". .1lII~~ '00 fililn pow..1.of.e a. thermal POWe\!'"smtiO'JII.fJ~r? b) What do *e cooling towers do? ! The~ table' an.3.40 eledJ11cal power~Uitput.e mib]e S~O''''fS aU 'the: pow~ losses . p~[" i!:Iimtg!an~!<'X and Y. 1 ilk.elleI'GY."l.:11 huge mrikful of WBIter~ it 'would. in ~enera't!Jl'Si e.~I WO!ruS..~Dch 'S~lI.'!I' '.i"i..~i'Ji.I~~il..M. il· C' d. ill :.enermrof :rand.Ye!['" .of' e~h 'pQwerstation? power station X Y coal nudear power il!1Jpw: from fuel in MW power J~ = 5600 600 l~ 200 3800 lin MW: in reactors/boilers: .aJoom's and Q1ol'~iUlle5!)"I't bas ~ . :pow. a bot Dame could 00 used te mai~ steam :IIDO([' .owef s~a1ions ~s... more '_ .~n.. men:l1'al form.~1:"O:U m\.WtfJlCe~. b.d~~.~~: mOiSt as is..l:u.:Energy .~iuy So nener ~ter.. 'dfid'eficy l ene~gy inptlt tram fuel '4 'fypl:cai eneflgy . ~~ "'!iII'!iI:'[i'II"'l~I.e[lcy 'um!t: '1..:) What is 'dll.~f~et. • . O'ffi'o~" and .ss. Theemal en..' 18 'P'l.hii.~e~.i~ menna:lli power staMm . For .aD.]s run .m.. :mQ:~tc~ ~s.

and He: methane .eb.maI.i!».gy st see. grow s!ufficte'nt :pru~'n'ts. a. Th~ :includ.o. etma genera..omne:ntaW. S'.p:ie=cbal['tt$ ~n 'me QP.erep.t Expensive ®l.~m PQWIi!r. Hut me aillre:rnati. 'IDilli cn~ .o'~S:8.lid~. ~'en~lgy Solar p'm~]8 absorb rnd]an~ ~jJle.pojill.P~(Jbk"lI Varria.i'Ms~).1:.ID1g~~d.a ~c.er . .:gy frcm 'ch~ Sun." to speed 1·. t:jl~. Wu~hi. aHd r]ses. O\li.p""!lirQ "Il" 'lr1!. ~!Il<Sl~g.3J15. w'O-od" ~ili~oha~ made frcm :sugar cane..I~.j' . 'if.iiS.lllillmlg fossil fuels canses poUu:b:on. ~u:.ds could . dC'w'll tj)jl hot rocks deep underground. Tidal.gu 'from rotting waste.in'~. 'Winds.include greater use of public trn. I.oli.r.1Y 'Bu. Il'nl Bra:zilr. bllt net coair_ Can. m~de' from sl.:R.'· .~~ ~l!r§!.A . w'b~1:1Jthe tid. have been successful. 'can :s... ~ii-"'~i''''''I'II~.fL..~s have.fuels made from p.~*._. k. a . sif.. mnan. are: ]~fid and tfuildlmg ("I..a ~~rs smwn as a. ~..ia]s.are aB~o !quii'ck.11_ ~ II !I@ "~.few devices.Ii'" _. ] :man~.]a.!r :~aJtions. 'Des~ri.cttjc ~n~[J]!} ut a ]~ke flllil'S. p~wer b pow. 4.5 L:..if1. These are .Y' . FloodLl'lJ.I:_~()Jiroo~ ct(lt ii'ii~.g~8. ~". g~".a to b comes .gi'L.er. :Bioftl. Saving' ~Der.ve lwo .or ..mi~d.!i'II wave: cnef. better IDs'Uilatlon in buildings.in end empties 'when. .~ach f.a.be ~ prob]e.by 'wind 'Ll.matetr...(photovoltaic) cells preduee dectt'idty' directly .take kmgest .I.~...alt.i.o~s 'tth]s ~lJil Gi. and use it to heat water. ..*. .. mi'v:e:n by the up-and-down motion of W:±l:~e$ ..e ~i.. dam causes env~n]nel1taA I damage.ProMe~' Huge: aJf.e~. dJa[m.erp researces H:.. of .Bxplam bow it .ato:r:s are dri.:ielf~ u Ft1i[. ff'SIe1tve~? e) 11te' USA needs '10 :b-mPOftt ..E.exam_ple5c '2' Gtv.ngs. . theiilr.n~p'on .reacmr.~e'8S: wa~t:eml'with 'fue_.ti..cars.e~I~~e'n. Thai is whry :mflln:!1'P'cop. sometimes o c~ed.ifr'pr:JL"'dc' 7~ . :l'le:r..~ most :fOS8:iJJ :(l]els.! 'rII! ~~. 'lbi. _~ ~ .[)I~:P . :!italions 'Cl3Jncome V~nl' .y V! .-IllS'I!-I!~e '~''''IV'I!"I .l.l.('jIM! !inlti'.I.t(ii~ n1IU8't lbe bmughrt .~nd recycling more waste .Wb3rd. .? b) ~~1i Copyriqhicd m .lJyr ~('r.o y011JJ ~nk C(n:l:nfi.veJl.[s 'b.rcells are . ql1ic. . larg.taltic!11 h1ke~ ~ll"]iut M'@' days to' r.P@~i'tte 'p~e.~Wng clec~k~'1J' in 'WhldlJ no fuel .i()'k. Or water wS' pwnped. b~t:yc'i]es.ar power ~s. t '\ '\V.t. 3' 'The .got . Large.ts)b]e. ~bkrIU D"~@ dJ:"Wjj~g di:ffkwtt' and :is ~l]J~m]ve. '\V.I~.W'os 8'0 00 s 11[n~tlast mallig.q]j. a~ steam . Gene"rallo~ 3J!re. mel":gJ'Simil~~ hrydll1c~l. whid111 ls "".Jgar csne. t@ s. it gees out.$ive. ..? l'i) '\W'hkh ':re:~. amounts of sunshine.otuo~as. comes from."he.m. .!.mnidlli.arnd.gtO[i. . Dand 'of needed 'to.gy m. dl. problems. haee pilie:1lIiiffit:1iL res-e11'\f"es (if. and.Y use ~c.c~me :[f. • 'k ~1. The.·IYr...wib1le. down from 'me '1a.ti:tvrns.b]~.octtlc energy~. Ek~']aJr.O]fi the :Sun. enei:'gy Ste~m.bumlng :power IUp Simall.. ILI. The demand for el\ednCliity varies ~hrO'tI'gh'iii@: day" Wh€itll mote IPOWjU' is 11100cded!. ~'6-eSrt ) 1 Some ewamr resourees 'W~8 are no..o.t1rt lLJ'p•.o the petrol. hot underground ~pd.L ~ves.Meidto.fundy :s~J!e~re. caused 'by u&ing fiOSiSi"il WeillSl. needed. river fills a lase behlnd.ProbJemlSJ D~filcJU]Jtt:to buMd = .e.m~ 'en~:rgy A."J r"---."" '~"'II'iI..lJ:bmt~:Cwind_m. remote. pellTii] origjntill..¢t>oelec..n~'enewab&."enewableem. W'iDd cacl"If Prdbk~ Gene!'. a ~nd turbines are noisy and.J)~ haG the ]W'gtS1r uJtruraJJ .. Geother."" W!CiO~~Ol! IS .]e . the landscape. M~ variable.ms ethee fuel does this :~on.gy:" .t!e. a nutJe.. P1'l)bkn'l'$ A'rs. Water lowing ml.ke turns generators Prpbl. of' gener.g l[1q build. 'yo1!ll :suggest :r~\fl'$ why'?' d) \Which ~iQims o:ITtb~'world.tllmt 'm2rt we sbcr~d be ener.. for :h:y'dlroe'[. 'Few areas of the WD:r]d.~mt r animal matter. e:nw.etler.

.B_I: tJll lU~rr·-1! .a)5 the o1:. For tnJe i@"'lll@f .. 'fur~e TiS. iJl)itput ~[)FiCe " !np~ t 'force' .s les$ thalfl ~ne velocity' mtilO '_. So· 'the Qimm ean m. Iie8'1I11t moves . ft ~ load weQh~il.I .f.ed as :FI.than YO-!UIIfootrt' moves.nTcai aiCIivantage is a~w'..~r:Ol:i!Dfi~ 'f.i'.~: :r:ir1ladl.~. !Ut~~ ~ lhe ~e¥ier !iIlI "tile: 'Op... I!lQ!a irlI'''' di\~ In@ ve~ocity ratio depends ~filly Off1l ~lme de'Sil" of' the mad~~'ne.[j~ 'b) nail c'li.:s d..Bind1 i~L$ 'lh~5whf... memul:cal aan..age' hasa !ltr'ie~ha!n~c~ foroe hi.. . ~)..1]1 m each eScie_[1..li"""':·I.oPPoSii:te . -111111!11 o!J~'Put J lnput mO'i.luJ."~~ .ti.of tlhe Here . lliMh:ip.aw. _'e! III!I~ 1:1 _b e !IV!'ee _'-" 'mO¥enriiem!it. If a mad' i'ne' wa~s w energy.d1[!. : m"".cem~S Mict as 'far'llsi the' OWlllput f@fW..e.es '[WJQe' rail ~ong t f]e 'V'e'looty ra1ti..wm:k: ~s done O~ the ~'r la liiftLIlJg :i!t? 'b:) :How .a..SiSthan i~s 'ijdeaJI' vflJ!!J)~. atld . lhi~ i~blue for .iiUI'm A s~~1 m@'!fernen~ O'f tne mruiscie arus~.used.e oo. are msmm'ce' :mUl'dp!liers~ the' O:Ut.Ilt~ t['C!t]D"'~." .fu:rilie]:' Ilililstle' .o.: 'i.vdodrty 1r.lth uah '~h--f"". ~filolllg!~ the 'rol"liVard 'f~~ is ~e~<sU1!p!n t~...li1O is calw~ated like tIli:. "iJi""11l.:_Ur~d.1Ji.pOSIJtt p~e h~ a 'It\elodty ratio ..~~twuJ'lIJgh size .are two e::xa:mpleiii: me :force '~s:reduc. p'f~ ~he m.i!)!n 'Ifl!i:r.ist~na' moved Ibf '~l~~~dle' 'time: 1. 'the.~perg~1!:.!\'@JI!OCJ~ m«hmlc1'Jll1 ildv@!f1bl..). the j>ae:k" a) Hoo.I'''''''J''"'''''''Im'' III m~ ~-d.S.I. fo~ mJilJ1p. ~3DlTIl oJ ...2:5 m.aJw\~vs ~e.PUl~. by ln PI._§~ Oecalli. The 'trbl~ oo]ow' ghf'~-SSQ~ ful1Cum:uuiomt800U.laJn~g\@' an:d v@locit:Y' 1l'a1j@''ari~ i' equal. l~e le:v. 00 ae h3[]dlle~ ~:ack50% Copyrlqhrcd m '91 .D!1Yi .mmu~:tt be done OR me: bill1.-------------------~------------". fif'tini .iIC'ed bY' f. beeause' "the O!lJrtp!llfl.a..- - - - ------------------------------------. furilfiler fm'\ivard~.q' 0:f e) Wbat :fo:roe must be used. ·.Food rises 0.. ~ reduced . :2 Pi le.{.l1lch :~: A CIir is liffl)oo ~I[]I' a ~g.em~nl output mO~i'l!'!~!ii!t ~O<'!I(!'m~~ --~~~~======~--~~~~----~-push On :[II..~ alc']Gad ~nd.an.. the' b'icyde' m(nl'8.er O!f!1 the .~per8 c) deer baiEldJe' d) 'b(id:m:(iiom. 'fQrlC€ .iGh'work mltU.ch ~~ one .. if~:tJ0 .g200'N~ 'Wlle_D.Iii.. -_iIiiiIe~il.r :l]1lIlJch.m.y' .? i b) :OO'W it..J'(e 'bToi1ii ytiUf 'ro~t YOUI Humanl .!i: 'be deJI.bas sn efficiencY'lilf ] lOoP".= dis{t1!lit1lCe! oved m dl$tanc~ moveel by o~rtp~t " .!II.d.he\r~.o alt 2. .--o_--. ~g II ..is.o~~.e! Ul@ m)@dlitJJftt!Q1] !8id!j.~ . 11 D~:cid~wb~lh~r.q)ke' lla~.ornilfE!'II anJUilpmly en 'I~ow' liiI1uch the OUltpllit With the le. ~ In It .[j [~lJ!'!II'D!f~ m.b... - -.++++++++~++++++++L+++~++ +++ +++ I+~ I~ lljstsDcc mD'~ti. 1 m. 'The' l-~orl:. ~\aJlr.~5..5 ~l all Ho\y' I.pliiers Some mll!!dru~nes.se~he ~utput of':2 ii1rn[p'LI!1' feree.ea~b to '6n-dl OUlt) ~ a a) 00* @.'<k.n.Vfm". the ba:~dle'? '0:1'1 load Uft:ed (~rei~htJ~4!I)()O N disUW!ce nflwd: 0.1it1i!lch~liIe !th anr efficeency of 100%.5.f2' Q b~CiUlseine input fo~.ever .l~r' or a OOWJrCf. ~pid !-II-"7v. mil 'the: OPPO:siiE@ pa. 1$ calGIlJ rated ' ' ~ikeithns: A mn3. iIIiiIi IiiiIiIiIiI_~I 'I I .00 ~~lQ~S d. 'me ~ h_-dlc' is push-e.l{:t. 'be' 'i..h~ ~ ~'ffi~T~n~y I!e~~'thi!t!l'il ~ 00'% ~~e m:eiOha. b_3mdle~ ptlifhed down: 1.'8it'4I~s (with pg..chh'rle~'S.r ~mple'lf t fb~ ls re.IfWJI .l'l1flive tn look ~ot n e7{~mpFe(!ff'. .dJJe? iC} Wb~t f@'fioe . .._~ . the 1mdJ ~i1~iCtiin. twice :tJhe .I~ en the ~~dh~'? :m..~n~'ut force ~ . a ~a:rg~ 6:h:yoh!! Wn en '~'Tthe· ~nd.J't.. 'S1 '9. foree than 'the . . g - -.A" mathlliil.pposir:e 'ID.QEIi~on. .1inlOOt) e:) 'brni).w:h wo. 'fa ref! _.ve~ o. thlwnwards.f.ay.I.mul.18 ~.iw.J" C1('O'1J :mi3i.".~...''''n'I'".""m "~~nD.ge =..d dmv..

:!!llQdet':vb:'O~eJ]ft eosts of .nl~ ..~'tmllslfamd :m~ g..u!. ~. [1] d).=.e'.. unw.g~b:Elire!le.....l' ~!iiqfossiit €Y.o:ftbe e.. i.. 11i.. elat:tic gravitational JUI.11.rgy]S nDS... .e~ .. 'Use ~rd!l.. j.o::mver..l!' el~iri~ Id~J 'b) Iden~' ilInd comp.i'[ies .the . ~nOW'S... ebelllicd.."..clsand lV.---rf.~. [. IIi-'I·· . ['~.om .. ¥-Ji~~~J' m""'_ .~abLe: . :If....319.'s ener..~"-'" .fnllliowms mbk' 10 give examples o.a~.. ilI'llaiIlJl.a:o~. ~~ tMf.. eJ]. ell.~..e '~s of po<'tentiai.ugy :i.'. n:ru..lWrD' 'm~.b) CQ.ga~'cing: ~kctti~i'i..~' into [:ru." 'b.] 'WJ'HC 11'11 a) Copy md ro:m. tb~~5t bellow: Esdi wo:rd May be....P¥ ~nd ~Qm.8tima. on...~\i...millions the 'one of th~~ .eqyT.' we s'b.:!.!.:i' ~1l~~:U" m~·'.in. ..~~~f&:Y ~ ..dJ .i3!ll...!. Copy and comp~~[.. at alL 8 ~) The dleJn1J~'en~~gy stored in a :fQ5...\I.....res otim'Ge s.r~T~j fmJn'" in "~_" ~'"~ •• - . C~' a~mbFIii and ill.. . MOtt m. o:ooe orIi{)il..'~~1l !pOW¢:f f.gy u.j.'... . e~ :[4] 9 ~)I ~======~r=======9F==========~========~ (WJ:m:n a.Mo!S.... the '~r~".I [2] aee 'bume'd.ce:tmn~fen Ibe:lle. ==' =.ene~' w.ind.1 b) The' lii!F!I be1O'w . 1[2J '1.a. Eeirdl.materitd wbiDh 5Y!PJ:....fIl~I~. (iv') m .:.. .~r:gy..pi~ d:tc' s~nte~ b~low 'M ~y w:balt aJ 200 0. ago.. used 'lo prod)u~e e1e'Gtri£~lrenergy at a ~"-I!nl""" iii"i.o.. tQs~iID b...~' m ". d.~e'l It. SMs SO~ !~ergY' e$ou¢:e$..c [?] e~ .ene.) IBxpla1n wh.~".....'''il (iii) :rnn a v3cU1illrn Cll~~['.feued :mro :ma~y.4 . ... !heat.he~'~ :w.l~.~. ~'b" . :bas ¢Qme1'bm the.~.v'.. '~orcb" eleclCk..nil:0(1' been d\J~e row you.'e: Swu.J.en.e..er ~~og. ~ ..~ 'The 'tal:iite ... ..plete me· [ol:]owing :seD!t~ abo!!1t h(liIUlseh(lld ..d~ C~py .~~. c) S~ 'Whi. [2]: b) Stale whiC'-JiDJ applilim..~d ncm.lm ~ fuel does. 'I'.. ~nd some: lm.~' '.arst a:M<¥.. in the blank. [2] A fuel is iii . lmuo :mam:ly. :Describe: how '~~ ~t: e~~ is then. ~_I. !Ii!II~'l~~ImIJ~-. ..'l.ilie.] ~ a) Bxplain what you umd'e. ..er. [7.ve' .~.e~tri~ d:~~.tilJtfd.silJ fu~ JU'-OOUc~s..LS . moo j..l:ltY' StiO'red «:8..and completce '~ 'tiI'bIe' be1~'l' by' n~~ tb~ potentia[ ..tIuM ~e less 'f'Ossilii .LII..lu.~~Vje 4!..ii. wh~ ~l ~~~ "di£: difi~f~O~~' ~~f.alre the' 6~anc:i~J.. is 'tt3l'iD'e~d . .u. '.a1.od.IL':1l!~. 1[11 (iii) S:ta~ two rea:SOM 'Wn. .I] sys!te~ e1ecmcal eD. C'iJ.. U...:.('11OIJ.1) 'ID '_i~~n.. s1[o:1l.y :m.imtO'.1lev~ra'blefle~gy eeseueees e .'h ~. _.'om. 6 ~') . . 11" CQ!II!!.~ .II' . emt.ch .g}:!' all'seble' Oi1iiiJ ~rh.. j'ru.pp~Ifuarn'ce.m. 'i..oQntams sa..300!!le: :ibnw"9..."".. i~.g Qlf ~e' ~lecttkai ~). of :y:e9llS. ~ ~~Q'b~~ . . IJ' n!lI1t!wabk..0 pmdnctd.gy' WMcWilbll1l!li...i. c) N:ame' a [lo~7're._~ '~L..] e. sp.~~!kI U~" '~n~"".eiis 'bumoo.energy '~ed.t! ~KuicaID 'he~t :!1lnd:kme~ e~..u~ .d in 'the' Earmbt~ "'T"II". comes]! or. w~. ir'ioft'l::"t""_.oNRlI .. ~ crufit.....:t"i •.II~ Do..... '=' ~d.:2] 'me'[ab]e f'Olr' *e ether melsJe'Jle:~ wcl~~ U~ all ...e1.L¢d and rus {O'lllD.. used enee..r~tand by 'the ~hr.~ .ilmilf.o:st.." ·nn. Name [:1] . ..V~"'.f' some' fu~ls and 'theiir 'U~" The 'Mit one '~ .'I.!..t.... U~ 'worib :fro~. ~t!!'i:!i~ ~ ~...] reSO'URe whtc'h is no:t [:W. L.\irI' ~II~ :fi--.ase ~oo~ ~bk e.ed. :fuel mJ"~.~ &d oomPJeh:: R:s~a~ :Ilam.~~'"..w~D!Wd! ___ M~SY is .WJlIi'tile fuels..ow' produ~..iII~eWU'. .~ .

mr~~- jllass.!R. . . 'v~ltI]t'ite" m 'Vll'tuaU:y' !!!'¥. 'mouon::: evideuce for :movll.olecuiles 'm. 'w'IIlLW_1.. a microscope" .s. ~. effiect? 3.....J . 'eDeqy" Tbe :bQ:tter a.. do :yon see W:h~fi you.ual.S :beat:... .ghto he seen."- e) . C~)Ffumd i5'hape.e' U]?"O[:rWi..p~ 'urjj. have ene:~ 'lbec_ltusethey ~re. They aihiiQ'hElve potential '!!!r:lie:rgy' because' . at ~gh ~peedl.oory ~x.gas is !hD..~ ~~_~~&-e':p@S~E!ions.iaill. Is kIilo'Wn 9.' • ~~t na 4. '~:i!i'i'i'li' .~~eJ> ~D...~ed.uitJ~... . energy' it :has.mi\l1i1 m The ~etic meQ:r.on kOO.erIrs :pmti..~3ntby' the :i~~ ' .aI energy is O£1t(!ll used fur. .~ine..1QulldJ'n.o"iiP m~/p. the ligbt A_s they !dlrift. o'f §l'I!lIoL:i~ bitsi ! ~W' IDerlY of''palti'c~:es 'The .&iI'::'''~ ...~'mIDS Qf smoke :glmJ~g in.. l1bQut: as 'liLo)lsarnds oJ' paJl::de~eSl (ga.omij ~ewttlf. . 'What is :m. OQ~~ in .fiO:O$ Q:f. '!I7~11'l'l!!ll'll"" !Of.. If :a .'w-fii..QI' particles.. liSE' ifl micr~p~.le'cuiles) [n 'the sun.of i~ .I!:!.fOj..A ~vjL· 'Id' j'j.i' "" . '1.lic . . ~.of the atoms Or m.. ]i'!jj lli. an · Energy :stored because of a change in lposi~cn orr'sh!a[pe'.Wnila. Zil-2~~ paths. how d~ dUs' alffe~t .energ' 'The hlm~.L1I. and v6~Ume·.o.]B.1. ibom :inteirl'rnm ene_r.part~..:kiIrn:enc.-.'i'II. ~) How does.[>Q. "l'i'!i"... gm: '0'1 a) :'Mticles m.y l!I]ummiiJtied smoke... "If.~ bii~:SofatSh diro~ets. IO'f medioh...mlJHon. ':b ~~ ~ QC~~1 'Vl~~SlI'e 2: S:mj[du~' :is mad.mted and .is..j('ll.art'e ~ ~nQt ch8lQ~ :~dQ~. ""ir.-gy and nea 1t'. mo..3.. _Rb~.~ jll:st big 'eJlolW.ecWl~~) soli~~ U~l. :mo'Ving'.at y :SnlQ'ke 1ihro1:4gh.p.If Y{ld look ..cl~s :m.mm u]Jj._. vvGi' ' ~ uu ri:li~ IM_~1U1 loses :mrternail ~~IY~ wrn[e the tOO~d. --.aU!'S' in of w~ulm~ 1827~ . The bits fif' :sm. 'W'.j~ .o~:r.a~o:n~.j_~n~' fif an...eSOFJib~s a :5!OJ. Ib !. d..? 'b'..No. .m:lid~f ·4.y explalns .a.g pa1!hIi.V. .'P-lafun the.~~. ..)..s.. 'their' :mcd.dID_g·. on me ngl:tt... ~__il.say wh~tber ~£1h . MLWem.. J " .-'I!'!IiD.t:e.aIids.g:~u~e~ :kinedc' m. have the m.&t oo:1ioed the wobblmg... !object? Copyriqhicd m .. Jb.1!r._ t~JJL~~ =-=¥ ~!jJ~y'I!r.pa.ILioili. 'the ~'tic th.. me fa:s~-..s.s.. -'. memo men1 !ll"h!rg ~nelfgy because' Poiemlia:)I. ~o." ..p. the more internlill. bult.ur~!iIi!!I.~'l. gi.mater. .Brownian.mime: mass 'mat me:y are jostled.. ~'iq.i"I. .. 'b)1 ~~le-s 'vilibr. is.. p:3rttch!s... ''C'wd..th~.gaJns internal ene~~ 'The energy 'tnrruiSfetted.ofth~ ['OJlI~ng d.ms effect is . :Iixed sJiIDape' A ~-IL~ _. of tin__bitS iQf' ash or..mo'ttOll.g ail bump imU'D ~m at.. 'see: th.J' n.lbItLa'!!.......iii'). afill1eT'the: scientist l~obert :B~n 'who :lk..'11. The p~rtich~~.opposes rhe oo'OOSr trying 'to' pull tQI'~th~'. potentlal energy because 'm~~f ar~' ':furthest 3[. U]!Ii ~:.. ~i~d. m .~.:ll IIhI~l"-' WltV.~ DO 9Jt8.". !Lii:OI~U.' ~!. em. fill droP~w. ·wmdl~·.. ~irD.Ti . "..'I.. a'nd.P1S Siep.-!~~~ ''''I'IJt~~..r:ii 1 u-~ .b~e about ~n. J+ ]~.[d.Qition pcmlefl..m. ~'nr. d:wough "!he"am~tiley' 'wlO(b. ~~ ~ ~U.11l.rid~. " . is! caned iltsi int:er. have so .II~~ 'L.rlidl~s (aJoo:m.:'·'~"'_~1 o:!'IL-. a) '\Vlrua!I.iiJ r Ci-! mamria]. Sm. OJ mol. one' b~a!5up ~nd .tJOU.alm :tS. ~t.!W A--i'N~ "' . Of to iQl1 .I1l!tiBllenerliTJes .vc' abollt fl\e!td. made up' of .B!ir.ove~md...o~e .moIlIion as :fQlJows.T. B~ :mooon.rn.~1 oj]. The ·tenn dim:rm.:n.

...~ot. ..ra!tie: fasteir. method. allll_. 1.ons :so :met:aills are.oj...h~ e'n~ t :I05Sr be ~d~c~d. \vmdO'W'S'~ MO sheets rrla.window .o:f [~e :fcl1iQWi..Cf'ilL!' ~~L-~~- ]~il~'£i.as goodthermal condiu{. Ib. .om~.·d:!!BiD..Qllmeans mOwer :fuel.mJlall condltu:tors. plasti(l' hSlDdl)e...rom 8 hO-1Jise.u. r In s. • ..iilttached-. ... .. whe_ll.j~V~~ I. then mast r()'mer'nlat:e_IDi~ls? Copyriqhicd m .~. .. electric 'current Is e~ectr.!" [!II !! .. :im.: ill "..good ~ne!!fl'i'a~ ~~!!I . !......eated.electdcal eondactors as vreu.p As . • o· . _]!..!it .gJ.tlld. ~!!.: way.~[~ ~.? exper~t: .. 'msuIDating' materials aee U800 to·reduce he~t k)s!ses~: ~ l ].'I.[(l!l'S • 8.:. G~a8S.. ooppu bottom bur a.~ .. ..apidm·y' 'traimls:Fe:IT'W aU parts.p~. 'Wh__y~' metals much better ~. some are 'loo~e:'~ and free: '['0 drift between the at.~~~III!I!. ~ .bQll.L A'l u~~.Wll~~ ~r ..tiog imlate~·I~·are: 'U~ed: to mdu. or How :ma'ter.-- in$u~. fi.n. .po:rtnfi11: to mat-e Sl!.·u..ms alSQ transferred '!by' .aition _ e-Sr1!Kialh~' wnelf!i... ~m iii d~Y' cloth milD. glQQd infS·W.~~ II 1~1e lm 1m s ln e atom .. ~ w.JJIl 'materials ~Vtl:~~~V.eare tiiln'y 'ptmi('Jes eliecttons.'~r""" iij. ~..... .1. on ~Je op\pOSiire: JUi..UJ.~ 'r' -.ve ~tJ.mJi"Io~(. 4 I -oo'k. ·plastic· ':Forufi}beads.~ th~~..~)!.a~ tg'Ood]D~Wa!tor. l!.. n. JIJK~ anQme'J"~ .ll' .. tlu:::ycolide~ w~iii...'_glli .ili. ~~..tic :fQiJml lag~ round the .' + i AD. DC1l)J1b1~-glu~d. bu:t :m.lU.U.W e~p~. . f miaeeal 'wool insuletion in the loft.. O 'Wi'ffilcavity filled. "0' .'·'mnk ra) ..aribomsand make them vilib.... Q ~ .. . '~\y:_. tJj'_~I!!r. )i.. ~~ 0 II • • . ~."~ ii!!!i~.. lILl-\. ~ il1:loctJ.'1mu~ ..ati.. cO.i!o '-'IJ~I:~ ~.:'·0.~ a..'s.if'vD ..:.llfe ~a~ lhe te-S'~'bj (3i_r...e: best COl1dUiC[m? 'b) . .." iI l~ '!. ...~l1iIl wh!!:11 :How CC!..s•.much.Ii.. :feSlllHre1j oli'dlls· experiment w:h[clil....\Q'Fi"!i..j)' four m~i'n'l:rul oondu. 'metals." ~..S$.eil1rJ'.iiJ'1j.i!i!1r"m<!ir'l' I ..~ ~~I:U=61I~.om1..I.5. ~:) .I a.~d" ~_e ]OS~B 'th~l'rn. 'Un. ma~ h 3. b)r Weol :800 'f'Hmer:s . :YOIl teueh it 0)l~]5...:!!'Ir'".nn.mudl '$~fet pic'Jd~' ~P' hot dhdle~.:!! . aad ~~~.WtiJ~n a mreml is :b. itbi'S. :z OJ. :fair '[...AI .L!I.: o . iIi'\I'''lI_~ .rt!g~ 3..6...gDod. J .~r-'. are some rof me 'way:s:ki'wmc'b.._~_J. Up' to tr:ap more air.IilI<O. II 'f:re~ . ~ter ~to:raJge·t~ . AbOrV'f. mese :fre.i~" '!ir...e: firmly .C.j.) butthe process is slow. ..'H 'II .ill. a wet one.. 1!J. .Mri:W· ! ·]" ...j!Jl mui§' ~. III In atems..N"'f~d' ".~'lJJ...I~ . l .iU. 4Pla.i..Qm.et8~is ltlb...y 'wiiWhl tbe memJ-..JL-~~ ~ ""f'I. 0·..! III •.n .it :i!S..Jl U"t. .05·[· hj:.. .... . with ~h" between ·~m ..ce d:te_m"l_al. or mme:m[ \vool.. .'l.. 'IDeT..~ed.s) Wbi~h ro:f the :m.. II! .It 'saumpan.!.p~m eseh .Aia.!.~ .MAli:.. In this 'Wia:y~thermrut e:rn~rmr ls :r.. 8! woOOen window' :f~m.. to rC'aJ[ed me:y' . Feathern . 'with.e.. dlL. .gfrv. ~ihlmlirdilLm~ 'wiQd~f' '~e :['eel~c@lder.!lQI Oili"l. .'''iir1I W·IILl.ost 3'[. :~c dJds~.. 'l!. 'fh}w' ·of .in wbk-h m~ujla.'UlIll!ir ~J~ lr''_ ·n..~~ .p.en !iit..o~.e. M.~. . ~ ~' 1!llllOEi' II • ~ .. quiclrer.. A bot W1iiej. .mc've mnd.mow.ia~soorDducl: ''I'!IfJ'ru.. .'~1 .e el~etrons :s. 1\ . mrig'llt:~w. .... house...In memh) efl. ..e_ile_fgy' ]osse81 f.yv.."."'~ ..-!!I~l. Wl~te: ~ d ~ll!ri1!J. • "·0'· .

subject JOlr !G'CS. C. experime ntadon. are provide.peciflh:ally on measu rement. her-e ls ad!ditional material whi:ch eencentrates !. _I N umerical ans.:l'tJe ~nd S:i:lct[on 'il'll': the end o. a wo rlrdwide: s '(O'r:!r!C@xt rCiOmpJ'e~e Biology by' W IR Pi'.com.~leVieil)I!.! [O .fetB' Ph. con cepts re.rtJon:s Wlrd~.si.' 0" k'1!1 ldeas h.e.nelfol sclenee Clca~lrs e.f each .or as pilli'"it of a g. el~tfh!e:r as an ~.e-s!Ji.e. Com.s~es at.Clo\mp.OUp.d I eve!.ompfete Ph.p:~ion~'and 'the hic~tIOIjf.qlUli fled ·!t01 study' plh'ys ks..d.e.ep~.ovides a sel.ke phy. phySj~c~.'flle Ph.~.. Wnv.been ~lrl'anged iln'oo ~2 mai or r()O'lilit:ent areas Tcrpk.ndrHviduaJII.ruse as ·a br:~c(!liJ~:ese urce for thos e: st!u dena inrtendi rflg r to ·m.:slrer rf~\III'bb.CXC.ckering Complete O1em~sV"y ~Y' Ros@lMh:u~~eriIJJ b.siiEl sets the pr'im:ip es of physi cs in a g~!ob3J1 pers pectJiv'e and !U'tUiizes i IIIIIJtr:a.linsalii 'tllru~:£:ts:senltial] .. n . rq lillesm:ioili1i are a1 pro'~ided th rc ~ghou~~ a s.E or IGICSE (1!logether wiiroih'.Ir.UlllO'f IEx3Jmhlation Beard q ueS'tion:s:. a more advi2iJince.\~hle and Paull ~ngl~am G r vurt our web site at 1VWW.wers.s [has.content aJrlea Ipr.cti'~. It ls ideal ~1O.

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