Direct and Indirect Speech

We often have to give information about what people say or think. In order to do this you can use direct or quoted speech, or indirect or reported speech

Direct Speech / Quoted Speech

Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes called quoted speech) Here what a person says appears within quotation marks ("...") and should be word for word.

For example: She said, "Today's lesson is on presentations." or "Today's lesson is on presentations," she said.

Indirect Speech / Reported Speech

Indirect speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn't use quotation marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn't have to be word for word. When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.

For example: Direct speech "I'm going to the cinema", he said. Indirect speech He said he was going to the cinema.

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should She asked what we should learn today." Past perfect She said. "I taught online yesterday. "It's cold. "I was teaching earlier. "May I open a new browser?" 2 Indirect speech › › › › › would She said she would teach English online tomorrow. Past perfect continuous NO CHANGE ." Present continuous She said." Present perfect simple She said. Past perfect She said she had taught online yesterday." Past perfect continuous She said.Tense change As a rule when you report something someone has said you go back a tense: (the tense on the left changes to the tense on the right) : Direct speech Indirect speech Present simple She said. might She asked if she might open a new browser. ." Past simple She said." Past continuous She said." › › › › › › › › Past simple She said it was cold." shall She said. Past perfect NO CHANGE .She said she'd already been teaching for five minutes. "I've been teaching English for seven years. Modal verb forms also sometimes change: Direct speech will She said. "The lesson had already started when he arrived. Past continuous She said she was teaching English online. "I've been on the web since 1999. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching earlier. Past perfect simple She said she had been on the web since 1999. "I'd already been teaching for five minutes. had to She said she had to have a computer to teach English online. "I'm teaching English online." can She said. could She said she could teach English online." Present perfect continuous She said.She said the lesson had already started when he arrived. "I must have a computer to teach English online. "I can teach English online. "What shall we learn today?" may She said." must She said. "I'll teach English online tomorrow. Past perfect continuous She said she had been teaching English for seven years.

Direct speech (exact quote) "Next week's lesson is on reported speech ".e.There is no change to: could. If the reported sentence contains an expression of time. You can also use the present tense if you are talking about a future event.Indirect speech She said yesterday's lesson was on presentations. Today "Today's lesson is on presentations. Direct speech "I might go to the cinema". Indirect speech She said her name was Lynne. he said. For example we need to change words like here and yesterday if they have different meanings at the time and place of reporting. my name has always been and will always be Lynne so:Direct speech "My name is Lynne"." + 24 hours . Indirect speech He said he might go to the cinema. might and ought to. she said. 3 . you must change it to fit in with the time of reporting. Time change Indirect speech (not exact) She said next week's lesson is on reported speech. should.Note . You can use the present tense in reported speech if you want to say that something is still true i. would. or She said her name is Lynne. she said.

.. the pronoun often changes. 4 ." You She said she teaches English online. For example: Me "I teach English online. In reported speech.this (evening) today these (days) now (a week) ago last weekend here next (week) tomorrow Expressions of time if reported on a different day that (evening) › › › › › › › › › yesterday . For example:At work "How long have you worked here?" Pronoun change At home She asked me how long I'd worked there. those (days) then (a week) before the weekend before last / the previous weekend there the following (week) the next/following day In addition if you report something that someone said in a different place to where you heard it you must change the place (here) to the place (there).

Reporting Verbs  Said. promised. apologised. admitted. For example: Lynne told me she felt tired. alleged. For example: Lynne said she was going to teach online. denied.  We use told with an object.Here me is the object. begged. He suggested I should come to the party.  Using them properly can make what you say much more interesting and informative.  There are many other verbs we can use apart from said. told and asked. 5 . ordered. He advised me to come to the party. agreed. These include:accused. Note . For example: He asked me to come to the party:He invited me to the party.  If said is used with an object we must include to .  We usually use said without an object. For example: Lynne said to me that she'd never been to China. invited. told and asked are the most common verbs used in indirect speech.We usually use told. We use asked to report questions:- For example: I asked Lynne what time the lesson started. For example: Lynne told me that she'd never been to China. boasted. replied. implied. He ordered me to come to the party. Note . advised. explained. complained. suggested and thought. He begged me to come to the party. offered.

the word that is often used. instead we often use if. 6 . that is optional.  However. Note . For example: He told me that he lived in Greenwich.Use of 'That' in reported speech  In reported speech.That is never used in questions. For example: He told me he lived in Greenwich. For example: He asked me if I would come to the party.

Kalimat-kalimat tersebut tidak dihubungkan oleh “that” melainkan harus ditandai dengan (tanda baca) koma. Direct Speech – Indirect Speech Simple present – menjadi – Simple past He said ” The woman comes “ He said that the woman came Dari contoh di atas dapat disimpulkan perubahan untuk bentuk waktu dari reported speech sebagai berikut : Direct Speech Simple present Present continuous Present perfect Indirect Speech Simple past Past continuous Past perfect Present perfect continuous Past perfect continuous Simple past Past continuous Future Present Past perfect Past perfect continuous Past Past 7 .DIRECT AND INDIRECT SPEECH Kalimat Langsung Dan Kalimat Tak Langsung Bilamana reported speech menyatakan kata-kata yang sebenarnya. Dua cara perubahan bentuk waktu pada reported speech : Peraturan I Kalau reporting verb itu past tense. Bilamana reported speech memberikan isi pokok kata-kata yang dipakai oleh si pembicara dan bukan kata-kata yang sebenarnya ini disebut indirect speech (kalimat tidak langsung). Bentuk waktu reporting verb tidak diubah. ini disebut direct speech (kalimat langsung). akan tetapi bentuk waktu reported speech harus diubah berdasarkan atas bentuk waktu reporting verb. bentuk waktu kata kerja dalam reported speech itu harus diubah ke dalam salah satu dari empat bentuk past tense. Dalam indirect speech kalimat-kalimat itu dihubungkan dengan kata “that”.

8 Indirect Speech that = itu those = itu go = pergi there = di sana. “The sun rises in the east” – He said that the sun rises in the east Dalam reported speech. melainkan tetap persis sebagaimana adanmya. present indefinite atau simple present dalam reported speech tidak diubah ke dalam bentuk lampau yang sesuai. contoh : Direct Speech – Indirect Speech He said. ke sana thence = dari sana thither = ke tempat itu before = lebih dahulu then = pada waktu itu that day = hari itu next day = hari berikutnya the previous day = sehari sebelumnya the previous night = semalam sebelumnya . bila present tense diubah ke dalam past tense dengan peraturan I. “I will come here”. ke sini hence = dari sini hither = ke tempat ini ago = yang lalu now = sekarang today = hari ini tomorrow = besok yesterday = kemarin last night = tadi malam next week = minggu depan the following week = minggu berikutnya thus = begini so = begitu contoh : He said that he would go there He said.Kekecualian : Kalau reported speech berhubungan dengan kebenaran umum atau fakta yang sudah menjadi kebiasaan. kata kerja atau kata keterangan umumnya diubah: Direct Speech this = ini these = ini come = datang here = di sini. kata sifat.

Dengan mengulangi kata tanya dan mengubah tenses jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata tanya diberitakan. here. Reporting verb – Reported speech Present tense – Any tense (bentuk waktu apapun) Direct : She says to her friend. now dan sebagainya menunjukan pada benda. jika pertanyaannya dimulai dengan kata kerja diberitakan : 9 . (tidak berubah) Direct : She has told you. maka tidak dilakukan perubahan. “This is my pen”. “What are you doing?” He inquired of me what I was doing b) Dengan menggunakan if atau whether sebagai penghubung antara reporting verb dan reported speech dan mengubah tenses. ” I am reading “. ” I have been writing “. (tidak berubah) Direct : She will say. bentuk waktu dari kata kerja dalam reported speech tidak diubah sama sekali dalam mengubah direct menjadi indirect speech. Indirect : She says to her friend that he has been writing. Indirect : She will tell them that the boy wasn’t lazy. ” You have done wrongly “.Akan tetapi kalau this. (tidak berubah) 2) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat tanya a) Reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi ask atau inquire. tempat atau waktu ketika berbicara. Direct Indirect He said to me. (tidak berubah) Direct : She will say. Agus said. Indirect : She will tell you that you have done wrongly.” The boy wasn’t lazy “. Indirect : She has told you that he is reading. “Where are you going?” He asked me where I was going He said to me. – Agus said that this was his pen (ketika berbicara pena berada di tangan pembicara) Peraturan II 1) Bila reported speech kalimat berita Dengan peraturan ini reporting verb dianggap dalam present atau future tense tertentu dan kapan saja ini terjadi.

“Go away at once!” Indirect:He ordered his servant to go away at once b) Precept : Direct: She said to her son. dsb yang berarti menyuruh. a) Command : Direct: He said to his servant. 3) Kalimat perintah (imperative sentences) Bila reported speech merupakan kalimat perintah. He asked me if I could come along. Dalam perubahannya dari kalimat langsung menjadi kalimat tidak langsung. misalnya ordered. misalnya forbade yang berarti melarang.  entreaty (permohonan yang sangat mendesak). reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang menandakan :  command (perintah).  request (permohonan). “Please lend me your pen!” Indirect: He asked his friend to be kind enough to lend him his pencil d) Entreaty : 10 . “Are you going away today?” He asked me . “Study hard!” Indirect: He advised her son to study hard c) Request : Direct: He said to his friend. misalnya advised yang berarti menasehati. “can you come along?” Indirect He asked me whether I was going away that day. commanded. misalnya asked yang berarti meminta. Tegasnya. didikan).Direct He said to me. misalnya begged yang berarti meminta.  prohibition (larangan). bimbingan. reported verb (kata kerja yang diberitakan atau kata kerja dalam reported speech) harus diubah menjadi infinitive with to.  precept (petunjuk. memerintahkan. modus imperatif harus diganti dengan infinitif. memohon (dengan sangat). memohon.

my dear son “ Indirect: He prayed that God would bless his dear son 11 . “Don’t go there” Indirect: She forbade her daughter to go there Kalau reporting verb say atau tell diubah menjadi reported verb ask. reporting verb say atau tell harus diubah menjadi kata kerja tertentu yang semacam itu seperti exclaim. 4) Kalimat seru (exclamatory sentences) Bilamana reported speech terdiri dari kalimat seru atau kalimat optatif. order. pray dsb. predikatnya diubah ke dalam infinitive with to yang didahului oleh not atau no + infinitive with to. “Pardon me. pujian. cry out. b) Optative sentences (kalimat yang menyatakan harapan. “God bless you. dsb) Direct: He said.Direct: He said to his master. Direct: She said to her daughter. command dsb (tapi jika bukan forbid). a) Exclamatory sentences Direct: He said. sir” Indirect: He begged his master to pardon him. “Don’t go there” Indirect: She asked herdaughter not to go there. “Hurrah! My old friend has come” Indirect: He exclaimed with joy that his old friend had come. e) Prohibition : Direct: She said to her daughter.

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