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M. Budhu April, 2002

Laterally loaded piles

Structures founded on piles are often subjected to lateral loads and moments in addition to vertical loads. Lateral loads may come from wind, traffic, seismic events, waves and earth pressures. Moments may come from the eccentricity of the vertical force, fixity of the superstructure to the pile or piles and the location of the lateral forces on the pile with reference to the ground surface. When a pile is subjected to lateral forces and moments, the pile tends to bend or deflect as illustrated in Figure 1. The deflection of the pile causes strains in the soil mass. To satisfy equilibrium, the soil must provide reactions along the length of the pile to balance the applied loads and moments.

Figure 1 Pile - soil response to lateral loads and moments Because soil is a non-linear material, the soil reaction is not linearly related to the pile deflection. Consequently at every point along the length of the pile, a non-linear relationship between soil resistance (p) and pile deflection (y) exists as illustrated in Figure 1. In designing laterally loaded piles, we need to know the pile deflection, particularly the pile head deflection, to satisfy serviceability requirement and the bending moments for sizing the pile. The pile head deflection depends on soil type, pile installation, pile flexibility (or pile stiffness), loading condition and on how the pile is attached to the superstructure and pile cap. A

II JI_ . They have undermined fixity somewhere between free head and fixed head conditions. Passive so I I I pressure _ l (a) L - : : : I I I Translation of a short.------- -. (d) Long..--. free head Figure 2 Possible failure modes in short and long piles. II Passive -' L I I pressure -C"nultol 'ololion -. II r. Lateral loads and moments applied to a free head pile is initial resisted by the soil near ground level. soil type and the fixity of the pile head. free head (b) Short. the soil behaves elastically and as the deflection increases the soil yields and then permanent soil displacement occurs. Short. The mechanism of failure depends on the length to diameter or width ratio.... fixed head Two types of piles are normally defined to distinguish failure mechanisms. One is called a short pile that is characterized by length to diameter (or width) ratio of less than 10 (sometimes a ratio of up to 15 is quoted in the literature).. Fixed head piles tend to fail by translation. I I\ Passive roil pressure Yield and failure L Yield and failure ---L 1 (c) (d) (a) Short.. The soil resistance is shifted to the lower part of the pile as yielding progressively occurs from the top to the bottom of the pile. For very small pile deflections... Free head piles tend to fail by rotation. Piles in general are neither fixed head nor free head. You can view fixed head and free head as two limiting conditions in which piles in practice will respond somewhere within these limits. LOad H -n -. free head piles tend to fail by rotation about a . soil . fixed head (c) Long.''>' . . . A pile that is attached to the pile cap such that rotation is unrestricted is called a free head pile (Figure 2b). 1----- . 2002 pile that is attached to the pile cap such that no rotation occurs is called a fixed head pile (Figure 2a). Budhu April. fixed head pile (b) H~ .-n L s.: . 'A' r .n- # .. / I - I I assive soil / pressure '~~l .Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M. "..

i. and shear deflection is negligible. The free body diagram for this element is shown in Figure 4.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M. of the pile shown in Figure 1 at a depth z. the loads lie in the yz plane.I"'~ Figure 3 Group piles subjected to lateral loads Laterally loaded pile. ~tIlE'91l1Q) ~Qim1iI·OIlI f. Short. 2. 4. Budhu April. Long piles tend to fail by structural failure near ground level rather than by soil failure.e. fixed head piles tend to fail by translation. Geometry of the group Pile-soil interaction Stiffness or flexibility ofthe piles Load conditions Individual pile response Pile group response resulting from individual pile responses. Rotation occurs when the sum of the soil resistance (called passive pressures) at the top part of the pile is lower than the sum of the soil resistance at the lower part of the pile. particularly group piles are particularly difficult to analyze mainly because of the complexity of the soil-structure (pile) interaction. The response of a pile group to lateral loads and moments is influenced by 1. dz. The displacement and rotation are in the directions of the resultant lateral load and resultant moment (Figure 3). .. deflection ofthe pile occurs only along the y-axis. Analvses oflateralloaded piles Basic structural mechanics Consider an element of thickness. We will assume that the pile is symmetrical about the z-axis. 2002 point near the pile tip (or base). Outer piles in a group are subjected uplift (pull) and compressive (push) forces while the piles in the center translate at the level of the superstructure connection. 3. no out of plane deflection. 5. The failure of short piles is due to soil failure. 6.

7 dz dz If the pile above the ground level is subjected to a distributed load.4 dV Eq. for example from water. 4-6 into Eq. and Ip is the second moment of area of the pile.l Eq. we get dz Vdz+p dz-= 0 2 Neglecting higher terms (e. 3 gives the governing equation for a laterally loaded elastic pile as d4y d2y EpIp-4 +P 2 +ky =D Eq. k is a soil (stiffness) parameter. E.2 Eq. is the vertical load. Substituting the above Eqs. ~) and rearranging Eq.g. we have the following identities d M =E I d y dz2 P P dz" 2 4 Eq.l gives dM dy -+P --V=O dz z dz Let us differentiate equation with respect to z.8 Z- .6 where P. is the elastic modulus of the pile. p is the soil resistance. Budhu April.5 -=p dz p=-ky Eq.3 Eq.W = 0 Eq. y is the soil compression (or pile deflection). Taking moments about 0.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M. 2002 Figure 4 Free body diagram of a pile section under lateral loads and moments. then 2 2 d M +P d y _ dV =0 dz2 z dz2 dz (M+dM)-M+PzdyFrom basic mechanics. then the governing equation becomes d4y d2y EpIp dz4 +Pz dz2 +ky.

Kj. the pile is assumed to be an elastic beam that is attached to discrete springs representing the soil (Figure 5). The soil stiffness parameter. is the ratio of the horizontal soil reaction per unit area to the lateral soil displacement.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M. in the governing equation changes depending on the assumption made regarding the soil response. cone tests and or laboratory shear tests to Kh. The finite difference equations are shown in Appendix D. The lateral sub grade modulus. Budhu April. The main problem with the elastic beam on elastic foundation approach is that it neglects soil continuity and soil shearing resistance. The determination of the lateral subgrade modulus is often difficult and expensive.001%) Discrete springs representing adjacent soil mass Figure 4 Simulation of adjacent soil mass as a set of discrete springs 2. 1. It is assumed to be a constant value for fine-grained soils and linearly increasing with depth for coarse-grained soils. Eq. is taken as the lateral subgrade modulus of the soil. Three methods of obtaining solutions to the governing equation based on three different types of soil responses are described below. Empirical relationships are often used to relate results from simpler and routine tests such as SPT. 8 therefore varies on the assumption of how the soil will respond. This method is satisfactory for very small strain levels «0. The term. (1973) as shown in Table 1. 8 can be solved using numerical methods such as the finite difference method or finite element method. Elastic beam on elastic foundation method In this method. The solution of Eq. and elastic properties was proposed by Valsangkar et. The lateral subgrade modulus can be obtained from field tests using instrumented test piles. The lateral soil reactions and the bending moments are inferred from grain gauges attached to the test pile. al. One can assume an elastic soil or an elasto-plastic soil or some other type of load-deformation response. ky. The soil is assumed to be elastic but discontinuous. A relationship between K. p-y analysis . 2002 where W is the resultant of the distributed load. k.

.g.:. Yielding occurs when the normal and shear stresses on the pile reach values determined from a limiting equilibrium analysis. The soil is assumed to behave linearly elastic at small strain levels.-._'.':.: .-._'.:.: .-.-._..:..'-.1986. 2002 The p-y (soil resistance .'-.pile deflection) method (Matlock and Ripperger.: .: ." :._'._.'-. Like the elastic beam on elastic foundation approach.. 1958.. 1987).._'.:._'.-._. Figure 6 Soil stresses on a pile segment resulting from lateral loads that are taken into account in Davies and Budhu method We will adopt the elasto-(rigid) plastic solution using boundary element method proposed by Davies and Budhu (1986) and Budhu and Davies (1986..-..-..Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.: .:. the p-y method neglects soil continuity and soil shearing resistance. 1975 and others) is conceptually similar to the beam on elastic foundation method except that the soil stiffness parameter k is not constant i. 1987) for the general analysis of lateral loaded single piles.-._.: .: .-.-.-. General procedures have been developed to construct p-y curves for many soil types lessening the need to conduct lateral load tests._. 1981).:. it is recommended that pile load tests be conducted whenever such tests are feasible and economical... . Com 624) are available for routine use.-..::-. H Shear stress on side faces .-._'. To account for soil yielding. Budhu April.: .._'.._'. Bearing failure on the front face..»:»:»:»:»:»:»:»:»:»:»:»:»:>: -.':.-._'.-.: .-. The non-linear relationships are obtained from results of well-instrumented test piles.:.. However. there is a non-linear relationship between the soil resistance and its displacement (equal to the pile deflection. shear stresses along the sides and tension ._'.:.. at least. 3.:._. Reese.-.: .e._..: . Continuum Analysis In this method of analysis. Computer programs (e...':. 1971. Randolph.._'.:._'.' ._'.. Budhu and Davies. The simplest stress-strain behavior is elastic described by Hooke's law.. the soil can be assumed to be an elastoplastic material (Davies and Budhu. Cox and Koop._.: ... Soil yielding or pile yielding cannot be obtained from this analysis.: . soil is treated as a continuous media with assumptions made on its stress-strain behavior or constitutive relationships. The solution gives the load-deformation response of the pile for small strain levels (Poulos._'.-.-. in the preliminary stages of design.-._.':.-._.-.-. 1986..-.

3. is the ratio of the elastic modulus of the pile to the elastic modulus of the soil. N. On the back face or tension face.e. in general. The analysis is valid only for a pile with a length greater than its effective length. The important findings from the continuum analysis are as follows.0 or greater. The lower the flexibility of the pile the greater the pile deflection and the greater the maximum bending moment. Eccentric lateral loads increase the maximum bending moment (regardless of the type of analysis). 5. = 1. 4. K= E Fixed head pile 2 _p mD i. solid piles embedded in homogenous stiff clays (undrained shear strength constant with depth).. Failure on the bearing face occurs when Ubf = Ncsu where O'bf is the limiting compressive stress. Laterally loaded piles. homogenous soft clays (undrained shear strength varies linearly with depth) and sand are summarized in Table 1. The maximum bending moment in free head piles would normally occur at depth less than 5 diameters below ground level. Piles longer than their effective lengths will behave identically. the normal stress cannot exceed the in situ lateral effective stress.3 K9 . Flexibility. 6. au. Clay I\: 'F z Free head pile Effective pile length (Le) ~ Le= 1. is usually 1. is the bearing capacity factor that is assumed to vary from 2 at the surface to a constant value of 9 at a depth of three pile diameters and below. A summary of the relevant equations for single.3 K9. ' Ubf <K isuzo where K. For soft clays. The predictions from boundary element analyses are curve-fitted to give equations that can be easily used in practice. The effective length is the length of pile that is effective in resisting the loads and moments. Budhu April. Table 1 Design equations for laterally loaded piles s. Fixed head piles reduce the pile head deflection by about 50%. i. is taken as 1 for soft clays. The limiting shear stress at the sides of the pile is where the adhesion factor. Kis. 2. K. Soft E. 1. 2002 failure along the back face (Figure 6) are incorporated into the analysis. is the lateral earth pressure coefficient that accounts for pile installation.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M. fail by yielding of the pile section well before the soil fails.

32ko.6f b = 0.53 n Pile rotation including yield at ground surface Maximum bending moment (elastic) ME (None) = IMHHD 2 ME= -IMHHD 2 IMH = 0.008 u WrL] D __!!.2K-3 IuM=5.48 n .1 Yield loadIW orking load J3e Pile deflection (elastic) at ground surface = exp( -2f4n ~ 1 .:»: =0. by H.. au :-:.0K-9 5 IuH = 1.8n3 3 cD 4) H 3. 1 2 co c.2 g+0.5+(l cDL2 g+0.L] D 2 > g ~ . Budhu April. 3 0:-:.-.43 n 105k0.14 By k~.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M._=~[(4..4K-3 Pile deflection including yield at ground surface hn =-3 u=IuyUE I =1+ uy H H hn = cD3 h n . Replace H.k 'n =__!:_ 1000 Pile rotation (elastic) at ground surface (None) 8E = ISH --3 H mD + lam 5 7 -4 M mD Ian = 5.025 U W. 2002 Collapse load ~= 00 cDL2 1.88 )+0.17f-O. to get working load uE=IuH --+ IummD2 1 H M mD3 uE=IuH -- H 1 mD2 IuH = 3.32 54 k0. 3 0:-:..88 [(1+0.3 K 9 for e = 0 For eccentric loading ImH = aKb a = 0.-.g z ..0 K-"9 lam = 13.32 n 96k0.3 8> f> 0.54 n cD . au :-:.4 K9 Maximum bending moment including yield I My =l+n- h 8kO.5 Mm=IMyME IMH = 0.25a )+0.6 K-"9 I = 1 + hn .

S4 n ...5n 3 J3e cD J3e = exp( -2f4n 4) Replace H.25au)+0.5KU D 4 . from ground surface t. 3 H ~ -y =0.025 w.au ::.. Lm. 2002 Maximum bending moment occurs at depth..008 1. (None) 8E = Ian --3 H mD + lam M -4 mD ..5+a cDL' g+0. 1 WrL] D )+0. . .au ::.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M. 2 co o g z .= O. K=_P ~=____!2_[(4.32ko.-. by H. Budhu April.32 40k~·S3 U=luyUE .1 Yield loadIW orking load H ~ ----.L] D > g ~ .1.43 n 105kO. L> t.2g + 1 2 3 0::. to get working load ~ 1 Pile deflection (elastic) at ground surface uE=luH --+ H 1 mD2 lum- M mD3 uE=luH -- H 1 mD2 luH = 3.2K-"3 5 luH= 1.4K-"3 luM=5. = 0.88 U ~= suDL 00 4..-. Clay Free head pile Effective pile length L (Le) Collapse load _e_=0.8n3 3 cD 0::.0K-9 Pile deflection including yield at ground surface Pile rotation (elastic) at ground surface U = luyUE luy= 1 + h.1 [(1+0.53 K 9 D.4k~. 2 - r s. I uy =1+ h n . z Stiff fT Fixed head pile E E s E.

c = slope of line depicting the linear variation of the undrained shear strength (su) with depth and D is the diameter ofthe pile. Wr = yKo . = H3.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.14 k~. = elastic modulus of pile.3 K9 for e = 0 For eccentric loading ImH= aKb a = 0.0 K-9 5 ISm= 13. = area and the superscript R refers to the real pile.5 Mm=IMyME 1=1+'My h IMH= 0.y = soil c unit weight (use effective weight for submerged section). m = slope of line depicting the linear variation of the elastic modulus of the soil with depth. the equivalent pile stiffness is.E. The above equations are for solid.32 k~·53 (None) ME = IMHHD 2 ME= -IMHHD 2 IMH= 0. which should account for the method of pile installation ( a value of 1 is reasonable for soft clays). For non-cylindrical and annual piles. .30k~. is the lateral earth pressure coefficient. 1000 h. L D . from ground surface 8kO. - 2 K= E _p mD . Budhu April.53 n 7 Pile rotation including yield at ground surface Maximum bending moment (elastic) 8=lsy8E Isy=1+hn .3 8> f> 0. .17f-O. cylindrical piles of diameter.4 K9 Maximum bending moment including yield Maximum bending moment occurs at depth Lm.53 My 312k~.53 K 9 D. 2002 ISH= 5.6f b = 0.56 t. L> t.32 Sy 54 kO. cD where c slope of the undrained shear strength with depth. = 0. K..32 n 96k~.6 K-9 I = 1 + h. kn = (E: J:) 7rD4 where Ip is the second moment of 64 ____!_. g = ~ and f = _:_. E.14 54 k~.48 Mm=IMyME I = 1 + h.

concrete). The working stress. the pile head deflection = u + e8 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE A 460-mm diameter timber pile of total length 9. Calculate collapse load. clay deposit of medium plasticity. and (3) the maximum bending moment. Procedures 1. normally consolidated.> 1. crw. IuHetc. Wr. Scale ground surface deflection as follows.20. k.8. for timber of this quality is 11 MN/m2. Determine K. Required are: (1) The working load. 6. A 2002 D. WrLID . Obtain soils information for the site. Calculate total ground surface deflection and rotation.70. Obtain loads and moments 4. = exp(-2f4n-4) = 0./ _ __ = 1.4 kN/m3. Iuyetc 12. D is cD nD 32 the projected width and y is the distance from the neutral axis to the extreme fibers. yield load and working load. mlc =1. Determine fixity condition . y = 9.7 MN/m3. g.075. 13. an equivalent n value can be calculated from n = ~ (~~ where I is second moment of area.8300/1000 . Budhupril.4xl 2. 11. J3. e.g. c = 2.3 GN/m2.7 = 3. L. 8. Calculate elastic maximum bending moment.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.7 kN/m3.. with n=~ cD where c is either the yield stress or working stress. 14.3. and m = 2. Calculate elastic influence factors. Determine effective length and check that embedded length is greater than the effective length.free head or fixed head.000. f. e. (2) the lateral deflection.14 m in a soft. i. and its Young's modulus of elasticity is 10. 9. h. . The latter for only free head pile.e. kn.75 m is embedded to a depth. 2. n = cry/cD= 8900. LID . Calculate yield influence factors. g . 5. n. K. Neglecting the bending of the free-standing portion of the pile. of9. K = 3 1 _ _ Ep mD = 8300. 10. particularly the variation of undrained shear strength with depth. 3. 7. Calculate elastic ground surface deflection and rotation.76 Step 2: Calculate collapse load and working load .5.5 . Assume: au = 1. For other types of geometry. Select pile (geometry and material. A lateral load is to be applied at a height. Calculate total maximum bending moment. of 690 mm above ground level.0. SOLUTION Step 1: Calculate normalized values wr =- y'Ko c = -- 9.

8kO. Step 4: Calculate elastic influence factors IUR = 0.32 4S" . Pile head: Neglecting the bending of the free-standing portion of the pile. mm Step 8: Calculate bending moment on pile ImH = aKb. b = 0. e = . e = 29 kNm.033.008-rWL] D .u)+O.5n3~e. 8E = 0. " .Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.1.54 Thus.2 g+O. U = 33 mm.8 Step 7: Calculate deflection and rotation at pile head Ground level: u = luy UE.015 rad. IMy = 1 + "96ko.0083 rad. Budhu April.H w= 42kN Step 3: Calculate working moment M = H. a = 0. and ISM = 0. He = 236 kN H 3. ISH = 0. Upile head = 33 + 690 X 0. ME = 68 kN. Isy = 1. 8 = Isy 8E.17f-O. Step 6: Calculate yield influence factors Iuy = 2. h .012 Step 5: Calculate elastic deflection and rotation Ground level: uE=luH Hw mD2 +Ium~· -4 mD ' 3 UE = 16mm 8E= ISH ~ H mD + ISm M mD . ImH = 3.16.5 ME = IMH HwD.88 [ (1+0. ~ = 0.3 . MMY = 104 kN m.2Sa.6f. 2002 _c- H cDL cD 2 = 1.015 = 43 IMY = 1.m.

2002 AppendixD dM dy -+PX--VV=O dx dx 2.J.2 2.8 2.9 2.13 2.16 (~.18 +p o x =0 0 2.19 .15 2. Budhu April.5 p =-EsY 2. 3Y Ro (ddx'J =0 Y (ddx) 2.6 2.14 2.3 2.PxsinS Vn=Vv-Pxdy dx 2.4 -=p dVv dx 2.7 Vn = VvcosS .Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.

2Pxh2 WOh4 Ro + R.20 Y-l .34 .28 2.2Rm_1 . + koh4 .23 2.2am_1Rm_1 .32 2.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.26 2.24 b= o Ro +Rl Ro + R.27 2.29 d m = Wmh4 - dm_1 (am_2Rm_1 .30 Cm = Rm-1 .2Pxh2 2.bm-2Rm-1 + am-2am-1Rm-l -Pxh2(2-am +kmh4 _J + 4Rm .25 d o = 2.2Rm + PXh2)Cm dm_2Rm_1 2.31 2.33 2. 2002 2.2yo + Yl = 0 2.22 2.2am_1Rm 2. Budhu April.21 2. + koh4 .

38 2.46 2.49 .45 2. 2002 2. Budhu April.42 2.44 2.40 2.47 2.41 2.36 2.37 2.Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.48 2.35 2.39 2.43 2.

(atYt+l t . 2002 2.53 2.59 Yt = Y-t 2.50 2.58 2.52 2.Yt + dJ 2.55 2. Budhu April.57 1 Yt+2 = Z.60 .54 Yt-l .2Yt + Yt+l = J Yt-l .Draft on Laterally Loaded Piles M.51 2.56 2.Yt+l 4 2.

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