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Graph Theory and Algorithms

M. Ashraf Iqbal

ii

Copyright c 2010 by M Ashraf Iqbal

All rights reserved.

ISBN . . .

. . . Publications

To my grand daughter Nariman

iv

Contents

1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Why a new book? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What do we emphasize? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How the book is organized? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How is the book designed? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Some salient features of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 6 8 8

What tools do we use? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 A Possible Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 19 31

2 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms 3 Problems, Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 3.1 3.2 3.3

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Reducing One Problem into Another . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 Reducing a 3-SAT Problem into an Independent Set Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Reducing the 3-CNF Satisﬁability Problem into the 3DNF Satisﬁability Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Reducing the 3-CNF Satisﬁability Problem into another graph Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

vi 3.3.4 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

Contents Reducing the 2-CNF Satisﬁability Problem into a Graph Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

An Activity Scheduling Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment . . . . . . . . 48 Sequencing by Hybridization in Computational Biology . . . . 57 Discussion & Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 77

4 Basics of Graph Theory 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 A Mutual Friendship Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Representation of a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Complement of a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Equal Graphs & Isomorphic Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 The Degree Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Walks, Trails, & Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Multi-graphs and Pseudo-graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs . . . . . . 107 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 Tree Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Bipartite Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Special Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

4.10 Integration of Concepts, Properties, and Action Items . . . . . 120 4.11 Self Complementing Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 4.11.1 Regular Self Complementing graphs . . . . . . . . . . . 125 4.11.2 Non Regular Self Complementing graphs . . . . . . . . 130 4.11.3 Constructing Self Complementary Graphs . . . . . . . 134 4.11.4 Transforming a SC graph with 4k + 1 vertices into another SC graph with 4k vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

Contents

vii

4.11.5 Transforming a SC graph with 4k vertices into another SC graph with 4k + 1 vertices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 4.11.6 The Self Complementary problem and Graph Isomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 4.11.7 A SC graph has diameter 2 or 3 - not less than 2 and not more than 3? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 4.11.8 Bipartite self complementary graphs . . . . . . . . . . 156 4.11.9 Decomposition of a SC graph G . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 4.11.10 Permutation, Isomorphism, automorphism & Self Complementing Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 5 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5.1 177

Design of Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 5.1.1 5.1.2 What is Design? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 The Moore Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

5.2

The Bucket Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.2.4 5.2.5 Understanding the Bucket Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . 183 How does it Work? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Playing with the Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Solving Other Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 The Right Provocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

5.3

Finding if a Graph is Connected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 5.3.1 5.3.2 The Number of Connected Components . . . . . . . . 186

Finding a Bridge in a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188

5.4

Finding if a Graph is a Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3 Every Edge in a Tree is a Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 The Number of Edges in a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 The Spanning Tree of a Tree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

viii 5.4.4 5.5

Contents A Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

Finding a Spanning Tree of a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 Cutting Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Growing Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Selecting Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Integrating Concepts and Discovering Algorithms . . . 192

5.6

Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph . . . 192 5.6.1 5.6.2 5.6.3 5.6.4 Cutting or Growing Edges: A Krushkal’s like greedy algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Selecting Edges: A Prim’s like greedy Algorithm . . . . 197 A Panoramic Picture of various MST Finding Techniques199 The Maximum Spanning Tree Problem . . . . . . . . . 202

5.7

Finding a Path in a Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 5.7.1 5.7.2 Cutting Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Selecting Edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204

5.8

The Shortest Path Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 5.8.1 5.8.2 5.8.3 5.8.4 5.8.5 Dijkstra’s (like) Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Discussion on Dijkstra’s (like) Algorithm . . . . . . . . 207 The Shortest Path Problem Redeﬁned: The k-edge Shortest Path Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 The k-edge Longest Path Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 The Shortest Path Problem in Undirected Graphs with Negative Weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

5.9

Graph Traversal Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 5.9.1 5.9.2 Traditional Techniques & the Bucket-Algorithm . . . . 223 The Underlying Data Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

5.10 Some Graph Theoretic Claims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 5.11 Shortest Path Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Contents

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5.11.1 Single Source Shortest Path Algorithms with positive edge weights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 5.11.2 Single Source Shortest Path Algorithms for Directed Acyclic Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 5.11.3 Single Source Shortest Path Algorithms for directed graphs with negative edge weights . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 5.11.4 All Pair Shortest Path Algorithms . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 5.11.5 Johnson’s all Pair Shortest Path Algorithm . . . . . . . 272 5.12 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 6 Network Flows, Connectivity and Matching Problems 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 293

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Konig’s Theorem, Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306 Menger’s Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 6.4.1 6.4.2 6.4.3 6.4.4 6.4.5 6.4.6 Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths in Directed Graphs . . 310 The Concept of a Minimum Cut in Directed Graphs . . 321 A Proof of Menger’s Theorem and Finding the Minimum Cut in Directed Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Finding Maximum Vertex-Disjoint Paths & Minimum Vertex Cut in Directed Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Menger’s Theorem for Un-directed Graphs . . . . . . . 330 Edge Connectivity and Vertex Connectivity for Undirected Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335

6.5 6.6

Konig’s Theorem, Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Network Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356 6.6.1 6.6.2 Finding Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths in Multi-Graphs356 The Maximum Flow & the Minimum Cut . . . . . . . 360

. 433 Finding a feasible ﬂow in a network ﬂow graph with one special edge .4 6. 425 6. . . . . . . . 362 Lower Bounds on Edge Flows and the Max-Cut . .2 6. . . . . . .2 6. 428 New Problems . .9 Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem . . . . . . . 436 When upper bound is higher than a non zero lower bound439 How to solve the Circulation Problem for un-directed graphs? . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. 423 6. . 412 A Panoramic Picture of Similar Problems & Solutions (once again) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . 379 6. . . .7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6. . . . .9. 379 Maximum Matching in Complete (Binary) Weighted Bipartite Graphs .3 Maximum Matching in Un-weighted bipartite graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365 The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs .9. . . .9.4 6. . .8 The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem .3 6. . . . .7. . . . .8. . .7. . .1 6. . . . . . . . . 402 6. .9. . . . .8. . . . . .3 6. . . . . . . . . . . . 404 Category 2 (and 1) network ﬂow Problems . . . . . . .5 Introduction . . . . . . .6.6 6. . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x 6. . . . . 428 Finding a feasible ﬂow in a Circulation graph with one special edge . . .9. . . . . . . . . . 425 New concepts . . . . . . . .8.7 Prior knowledge: . . . . . . .1 6. . . . .3 6. . . 402 Finding a Maximum Flow or Finding a Shortest Path? 402 Category 3 network ﬂow Problems . . . . . . . . 382 Maximum Weighted Matching in Complete Weighted Bipartite Graphs .8. . . .9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Contents Algorithmic Issues & Complexity Calculations . . . . .2 6. . . . . .8. . . . . 386 6. . . . . . 448 457 7 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem . .

.3. .2. . . . . 523 Closure of a Graph: . . . . . . . . . . .6 Bipartite Hamiltonian Graphs . . . . . 534 A Categorization of Hamiltonian Graphs . 475 Eulerian Walk and the Chinese Postman Problem . .6 8. . . . . . . . . 508 Prior Knowledge . .3. . . 513 Basic Intuition . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . 527 Some Theoretical Claims . . . . . . 492 507 8 Hamiltonian Graphs 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents 7. . . . . . . . . . .2. .1 7. . . . 523 Ore’s Theorem: . . . .5 8. . 508 A Loose Suﬃcient Condition for a Hamiltonian Graph 509 Suﬃcient Condition for a Connected Graph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Properties & Actions . . . . . . .2 8. . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs . . . . . . . 545 551 9 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 9. . . . . 525 8. . . . .2 Introduction . 552 . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 Actually Finding a Hamiltonian Cycle in the Puzzle: . . . . . .3. . . . . . . .5 Necessary Conditions for a Connected Graph . .4 7. . . .3 8. . . . . . . .4 8. .4 8. . . . . . 458 Eulerian Circuits and Graphs . . . . . . . . . .2 7. 520 Summary . 520 Bondy & Chvatal’s Theorem: . . . . . . . . . . . .5 xi A Special Class of Graphs . . . . . 508 8. . .2. . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 8. .1 Concepts. .1 8. . . . . . .1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . 509 8. . . .7 A Puzzle: . . . . . . . . . . .2. .1 8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 510 8. .3. . . . . . . .3 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hamiltonian Graphs . . . . . 465 Eulerian Trails and Related Problems . . . . . . . .3 8. . . 508 Necessary Conditions for a Hamiltonian Graph . 509 A Concept Map . . . .

. . 584 Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: . . . . . . . . . . .3 9. . . 583 9. . . . . . . . . .2 9. .6.4 9. . . . . . . . .6 A Panoramic Picture and a Concept Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Tournaments . . . . . . . .5 Contents Strongly Connected Directed Graphs . . .2 9. . . . . . . . .xii 9. .5. 588 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. .1 Unilaterally orient-able Un-directed Graphs .3 9. . . . . . . 590 . . . 558 Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) . . . 583 A Hamiltonian Cycle in a Strong Tournament . . . . . . . 565 Strongly Connected Components .1 9. . . . . 583 A Hamiltonian Path in a Tournament . .5. . .

Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7

Why a new book? What do we emphasize? How the book is organized? How is the book designed? Some salient features of the book What tools do we use? A Possible Sequence

2

Introduction

1.1

Why a new book?

There are a number of excellent books available on topics covering an introductory course on Graph Theory & Graph Algorithms - almost each with a diﬀerent approach. We shall discuss here why there was a need for another book designed with a diﬀerent pedagogical structure and suitable for students and practitioners working in diverse ﬁelds who intend to use graph theory in their respective ﬁelds of study. Before we start making comparison between diﬀerent pedagogical approaches and talk about the merit of our approach we shall ﬁrst describe the basic structure of the said course. There are basically three layers on which such a course operates: 1. Deﬁnitions (concepts) 2. Implications & theorems (connections between concepts) 3. Algorithms (actions which transform an input into an output) Let us start with a few concepts used in our subject. For example graph, connected graph, tree, vertex, edge, bridge edge, edge weight, path, edge-disjoint paths, & edge cut are all concepts, and a learner needs to become familiar with these concepts. He or she should be able to feel, visualize, and connect these concepts. An implication connects two or more concepts. For example if every edge is a bridge edge in a connected graph G then the graph G is a tree. Menger’s theorem connects maximum edge-disjoint paths to the minimum edge cut in a graph. We need to prove a theorem like this one in a formal but convincing manner. An algorithm converts an input into a useful output. For example an algorithm is to be designed to ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths as well as the minimum edge cut in a given input graph. Many books tilting towards graph theory do not emphasize graph algorithms. Similarly a number of graph algorithm books ignore the theory part of this course namely graph theorems and their proofs. Unlike these books we operate on all the three layers, thus reinforcing understanding at various levels. In fact we try our best to design constructive proofs which not only prove a connection but also provide an algorithm to ﬁnd something useful. For example we use constructive techniques to ﬁnd as well as prove that the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths are equal to the size of the minimum cut in a graph.

What do we emphasize?

3

Most of the other textbooks use a historical perspective of how and when a graph algorithm was discovered. For example Dijkstra designed a greedy algorithm to ﬁnd shortest path between two vertices in a weighted graph. Similarly Prim designed a greedy algorithm to ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree in a weighted graph. The historical perspective encourages one to teach these two algorithms in isolation without making any connections between the two algorithms. We think it is important from a learning perspective to integrate as well as diﬀerentiate concepts and techniques especially the ones which solve nearly identical problems. We thus encourage our readers to transform one algorithm (Prim’s algorithm) into another (Dijksta’s algorithm). Similarly, it is possible and desirable to transform one proof into another. For example we encourage our readers to transform the techniques used to prove that Dijkstra’s algorithm really ﬁnds shortest paths into techniques to prove that Prim’s algorithm really ﬁnds a minimum spanning tree in a weighted graph. We think that not only the similarities but also the diﬀerences should be highlighted between two almost similar concepts or algorithms. For example Prim’s algorithm can ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree or a maximum spanning tree (after a minor modiﬁcation) and can handle positive or negative edge weights while Dijkstra’s algorithm is unable to do so.

1.2

What do we emphasize?

The single most prominent feature which distinguishes this book from other books in this ﬁeld is an emphasis on transformations (or reductions). We expect our readers to ﬁrst think of a non graph problem in terms of a graph. (see Fig. 1.1). We then encourage our readers to transform that non-graph problem into a graph problem. We also encourage them to transform a graph problem into another graph problem. Similarly we encourage them to transform one theorem into another theorem. We provide platforms where a learner is provoked to transform one proof technique (or an algorithm) into another proof technique (or an algorithm). We think of this course on graph theory & algorithms as a course on (intelligent) transformations. Transforming one concept into another and transforming one graph into another is the driving force behind this exercise (see Fig. 1.2).

4

Introduction

Figure 1.1: World Cup 2010 round of 16 is represented by a graph. (http://www.ﬁfa.com/worldcup/matches/index.html)

What do we emphasize?

5

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4 2 b

Figure 1.2: A visual depiction of how an algorithm transforms a graph into another graph while trying to ﬁnd the shortest paths (Chapter 5).

6

Introduction

1.3

How the book is organized?

The book is organized into eight chapters other than this introduction (see Fig. 1.3). The second chapter provides standard deﬁnitions. The third chapter describes how a (non-graph) problem is transformed into a graph problem and encourages the readers to think in graph theoretic terms. The non-graph problems come from diverse ﬁelds like operations research, civil engineering, digital logic, distributed computing, molecular biology, and computer science. The fourth chapter focuses on basics of graph theory with an introduction to several concepts and properties related to graphs. The ﬁfth chapter handles some important graph algorithms. Here we eﬀectively start using our emphasis on transformations. We start with a stupid algorithm known as the Bucket Algorithm which provides us with a platform where we encourage our learners to modify and mould the Bucket Algorithm to design various useful graph algorithms. We purposely do not use a historical perspective and avoid describing an algorithm in its published (or polished) form. Instead we encourage our learners to devise cruder versions of an algorithm which are relatively easy to discover and appreciate intuitively. We also provide other tools like a colorful visual puzzle which diﬀerentiates between and integrates various shortest path algorithms (see Fig. 1.4). Chapter 6 is the longest chapter in the book. We discuss concepts related to graph connectivity, network ﬂows, matching problems, minimum cost ﬂows, and the circulation problem. We actively demonstrate how a theorem (and its corresponding proof) like Menger’s theorem is transformed into Hall’s theorem or the Konig’s theorem. We also show how one problem (and its solution), for example, the circulation problem is transformed into another problem like the minimum cost-maximum ﬂow problem. This chapter consists of multiple & diverse topics as described before but a conscious eﬀort has been made to make sure that the number of important milestones or bottlenecks in learning remains very small. For example, all the above mentioned topics depend upon one central and crucial idea, that is, if we need to ﬁnd multiple edge-disjoint paths in a graph then we should reverse the direction of an already found path before ﬁnding another edge-disjoint path. In Chapter 7 we discuss necessary and suﬃcient conditions for Eulerian graphs and the Chinese Postman problem. All the proofs used here are constructive - we not only prove that an Eulerian Circuit exists in a graph with even degree but we also ﬁnd that circuit using an algorithm. We show

How the book is organized?

7

Figure 1.3: Organization of our book consisting of nine chapters. The directed acyclic graph illustrates a possible teaching strategy.

8

Introduction

that the Circulation problem (already discussed in Chapter 6) was in fact the Chinese Postman problem in its general form. Both problems and their respective solutions in fact converge into a single problem and a single technique to solve it.

Figure 1.4: In shortest path algorithms (described in Chapter 5) we transform one algorithm into another solving the same problem. In Chapter 6, we transform one problem into another and the corresponding algorithm is also transformed in the process. We describe Hamiltonian graphs in Chapter 7. We discuss suﬃcient conditions for an undirected as well as a directed graph to be Hamiltonian. Hamiltonian directed graphs are discussed again in Chapter 8. We address strongly connected graphs and components, unilaterally connected graphs, and tournaments in this chapter as well. In case of tournament graphs we come back to the problem of ﬁnding a Hamiltonian path and a Hamiltonian

How is the book designed? cycle provided the tournament is strongly connected.

9

1.4

How is the book designed?

We have followed a three step design strategy while writing each section and sub-section of this book: 1. Identify a potential bottleneck in learning a speciﬁc concept. Identify its nature using theories of learning & pedagogy (this is done through a statistical analysis of student feedback obtained in the last six years of teaching this course at LUMS, Lahore, Pakistan). 2. Remove the bottleneck by introducing a number of bridging concepts and by drawing suitable number of colored diagrams taking advantage of the role of visualization in learning graph theory. A number of research projects undertaken by students registered in a course titled “Problems of Learning & Teaching ” highlighting various problems of learning in the ﬁeld of graph theory & algorithms have immensely helped us in the design of various sections). Several hundred colored diagrams play a central role in the design of the book. 3. Some text is added where needed in order to supplement diagrams unlike other books where diagrams supplement text.

1.5

Some salient features of the book

1. Discovery based learning is practised by ﬁrst asking provoking questions before actually describing an algorithm or a theorem. 2. Instead of describing a concept in its ﬁnished & sophisticated form we ﬁrst describe its cruder version which is easy to discover and appreciate 3. Emphasis on prior knowledge, its usefulness and limitations 4. An integrated approach where concepts, algorithms, and theorems reinforce learning and understanding 5. Starting with simple and easy to use building blocks which are used by a learner to construct more sophisticated concepts, algorithms or elaborate proofs

10

Introduction 6. We always make comparisons highlighting similarities as well as diﬀerences between concepts, algorithms as well as theorems 7. Constructive proofs with the help of algorithms 8. Complexity of learning under our control because of a conscious eﬀort to keep it under limits. 9. We sometimes encourage our readers to make errors as we think that making an error is a step towards meaningful learning. We then encourage our learners to appreciate by themselves the repercussions of that error and in the process ﬁnd an alternate path to solve the problem correctly.

10. We use a number of tools from the science of learning, e.g., concept maps.

1.6

What tools do we use?

We occasionally use concept map as a tool for better learning which enable a learner to explicitly make connections between concepts as shown in Fig. 1.5. The book has been used several times to teach a graduate level course on Graph Theory & Algorithms at LUMS. It has also been used to teach a similar course at the Virtual University of Pakistan. At the VU, we have used a 3person drama format instead of a single person monologue. Yasser Hashmi, Komal Syed and I tried to discuss and debate various issues concerning graph theory & algorithms using this book (see Fig. 1.7). A lot of technology tools are nowadays available for synchronizing class room video with multimedia slides and lecture notes (synchronizing annotations for educational multimedia). Some of the VU lectures along with Power Point slides are available on Synote, and can be viewed after getting an account on www.synote.com.

1.7

A Possible Sequence

A possible sequence of lectures covering this book is given below in a typical 3-credit course in a semester system at a higher under-graduate or early graduate level.

A Possible Sequence

11

Figure 1.5: A concept map showing a number of relevant concepts and a number of theorems which relate diﬀerent concepts (taken from Chapter 6). We use several visualization tools in order to enable the learner to visualize the working and the subsequent time complexity of an algorithm as shown in Fig. 1.6.

12 Introduction Figure 1.6: Visualizing how an algorithm changes a graph and what price is paid in terms of number steps performed. Each edge in the pink graph exactly corresponds to one step in the algorithm. . This helps a learner to visualize the time complexity of an algorithm.

A Possible Sequence 13 Figure 1. .7: A 3-person drama format for teaching Graph Theory & Algorithms at the Virtual University of Pakistan.

.14 Introduction Figure 1. A learner has the facility of expressing and sharing his or her feedback regarding the understanding of a concept in this software platform.com.synote.8: Virtual University video lectures along with Power Point slides are available on www.

and Action Items Chapter 5 (4 Lectures) Basics of Graph Algorithms Design of Algorithms. Finding if a Graph is a Tree. Konig’s Theorem. Finding a Path in a Graph. Konig’s Theorem. Equal Graphs & Isomorphic Graphs. (3 Lectures) Network Flows: Finding Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths in Multi-Graphs. Single source & all pair shortest paths. Algorithmic Issues & Complexity Calculations.A Possible Sequence Chapter 3 (1 Lectures) Problems. Integration of Concepts. Complement of a Graph. Matching Problems & Network Flows Deﬁnitions. Finding Maximum Vertex-Disjoint Paths. Lower Bounds on Edge Flows: Min-Flow & the Max-Cut. the Shortest Path Problem. Multi-graphs and Pseudo-graphs. Chapter 6 (9 Lectures) Connectivity. Graph Traversal Techniques. Representation of a Graph. Walks. Menger’s Theorem. Finding a Spanning Tree of a Graph. Broad Categories of Graphs. the Satisﬁability Problem (in Logic Circuits). Menger’s Theorem. a Proof of Menger’s Theorem & Finding the Min-Cut. Lower as well as Upper Bounds on Edge Flows. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 15 Reducing one Problem into another. Finding Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths. discussion & problems (from Operations Research) Chapter 4 (3 Lectures) Basics of Graph Theory A Mutual Friendship Graph. the Bucket Algorithm. the Matching Problem in Bi- . some Graph Theoretic Claims. Trails & Paths. Menger’s Theorem. & Warm-up Exercises. the Maximum Flow & the Minimum Cut. Properties. & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Re-visited. Finding a minimum (maximum) spanning (MST) tree. & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem. the Degree Sequence. Edge Connectivity & Vertex Connectivity. Prior Knowledge. a Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment (from Distributed Computing). Finding if a Graph is Connected. Menger’s Theorem for Un-directed Graphs. The Concept of a Minimum Cut. Sequencing by Hybridization (in Computational Biology). An Activity Scheduling Problem (in Civil Works).

. a Panoramic Picture of Similar Problems & Solutions (once again). Problems & Claims. & Actions. Negative Weight Cycles & Improvement in Cost of Flow. Strongly Connected Directed Graphs. (3 Lectures) The Max Flow Min Cost Problem: Finding a Maximum Flow or Finding a Shortest Path? A Panoramic Picture of Similar Problems & Solutions. the Circulation Problem. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s). Bipartite Hamiltonian Graphs. Maximum Matching in Unweighted Bipartite graphs. Eulerian Trails & Related Problems. discussion & Conclusions Chapter 9 (5 Lectures) Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Concepts. Properties. The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs Chapter 8 (4 Lectures) Hamiltonian Graphs Prior Knowledge. Eulerian Circuits & Graphs. Maximum Weighted Matching in Complete Weighted Bipartite Graphs. Strongly Connected Components. Finding a Minimum Cost Feasible Flow. Tournaments. Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs. Finding Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost (Category 1). ﬁnding a Feasible Flow Under Lower & Upper Bounds.16 Introduction partite Graphs. Maximum Matching in Complete (Binary) Weighted Bipartite Graphs. (3 Lectures) Chapter 7 (3 Lectures) Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem A Special Class of Graphs. Hamiltonian Graphs. Connecting the Network Flow Problem with the Circulation Problem. Eulerian Walk & the Chinese Postman Problem.

& Graphs Basics of Graph Theory Basics of Graph Algorithms Connectivity. Matching Problems.A Possible Sequence A Possible Program of Study in one semester Topic Introduction Deﬁnitions Problems. & Network ﬂows Chinese Postman Problem & Eulerian Graphs Hamiltonian Graphs Strongly Connected Graphs & Tournaments 17 Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Hours 0 0 2 6 8 18 6 8 10 . Models.

Yasser Hashmi. VA. The Magic of Dynamic Programming. Yasser Hashmi. Alvi Atif. Ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Education. Network for Eng. Alvi Atif. ”Should We Teach Algorithms?” IJECE. 2003. Australia. Arlington. (iNEER). The Magic of Dynamic Programming. 134-140. Arlington.” proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Teaching of Mathematics at the undergraduate level. 5. Nooman Nadeem. 2005. (iNEER). 4. Int. 7. Network for Eng.2. Valencia Spain.2. 409-418. Ed. Harika Masood. Innovations 2004: World Innovations in Engineering Education and Research. 3. pp. ”Problems of Learning & Teaching. Turkey. . pages 78 to 87. ”Teaching Science and Mathematics: Discovery Based Learning”. pp. and Res. VA. Int.18 Acknowledgements Introduction 1. (iNEER). 2004. Sara Tahir. No. pp. and Res. and Res. 409-418. Network for Eng. Arlington. Innovations 2005: World Innovations in Engineering Education and Research.” proceedings of the Second International Conference on Pedagogies and Learning -2005. ”Bridging over Problems of Learning in Finding Strongly Connected Components.” proceedings of the IADIS International Conference on Cognition and Exploratory Learning in Digital Age (CELDA 2005). VA. SummerFall 2003. 6. Vol. 2006. Istanbul. ”Meaningful Learning of Graph Algorithms. Int. Ed. 2005 2.

Chapter 2 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms .

Usually the size of the vertex set V is represented by p while the size of the edge set E is represented by q. Similarly an edge coming out of a vertex and terminating at the same vertex (known as a self loop) is not allowed.some of the pair of vertices may be connected by directed or un-directed links which are known as edges. Thus a graph consists of vertices and edges. We may represent the set of vertices by V (G) and the set of edges may be represented by E(G). A weighted graph is one where there may be a weight associated with each edge of the graph. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Adjacent Vertices A vertex u is said to be adjacent to vertex v if there is an edge {u. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Regular graph An un-directed graph G is regular if the degree of each vertex is the same. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) . In M ulti − graphs we allow parallel edges as well as self loops. v} in graph G. Please note that the set E is a set of pairs of connected vertices. It is a set of ordered pairs in case of a directed graph and a set of un-ordered pairs in case of an un − directed graph. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Degree of a vertex Number of edges connected to a vertex x is known as the degree of vertex x in an un-directed graph G.20 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms Graph A graph G is made up of a (non empty) set of objects called vertices or nodes . (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Multi-graphs We assume that multiple edges (known as parallel edges) between the same two vertices are not allowed in a graph.

It is known as a star graph because it looks like a star with rays of lighy coming out? (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Chain or Cycle graph A connected graph G such that the degree of each vertex is exactly 2. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Isomorphic Graphs Two graphs G and H are isomorphic if graph G becomes equal to graph H by some relabeling of vertices of graph H. v} in graph H and vice versa then the two graphs G and H are equal. Please note that two equal graphs are always isomorphic but two isomorphic graphs may not be equal.21 Star graph A graph of p vertices in which one vertex has degree equal to p−1 while every other vertex has a degree equal to 1. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) .(Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Bipartite Graph A graph G is bipartite if the vertex set V (G) can be divided into two subsets (or partites) A and B such that every edge in G connects a vertex in partite A and a vertex in partite B. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Equal Graphs If for every edge {u. v} in a graph G there is an edge {u. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Complete Graph An un-directed graph G is complete if there is an edge between every pair of vertices of graph G.

(Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Transpose of a directed graph G T ranspose T (G) of a directed graph G is obtained by reversing the direction of each edge in the directed graph G. v} in c(G) if and only if there is no edge {u. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Automorphism If a permutation p of a graph G creates a graph H which is equal to graph G then that permutation is known as an automorphism of graph G. We may be more interested in the non trivial permutations of graph G? It may be possible for a certain category of graphs that the only automorphism is the trivial (identity) permutation? Please note that if p is an automorphism of graph G then the permutation p2 is always an automorphism of graph G. The identity permutation is always an automorphism . (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Walk You can walk on the edges of graph G edges starting from vertex u and ending at vertex v traversing diﬀerent edges and vertices. A walk is open if vertex u and v are . v} in G. In a walk you can traverse an edge more than once. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Complementing Permutation If a permutation p of vertices of graph G creates a graph H which is the complement of graph G then the permutation p is known as the complementing permutation of graph G and graph G will be a self complementary graph. (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) Self Complementing graph G A graph G is self complementing (SC) if graph G and its complement are isomorphic to each other.it is known as a trivial permutation.22 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms Complement c(G) of an un-directed graph G The complement c(G) of graph G is a graph with as many vertices as in G and an edge {u.

Thus a trail is always a walk but it is not the other way round. In a weighted graph G the minimum length is measured in terms of sum of weights of all edges in the u − v path. A closed trail . (Please see Chapter 4 and 7 for more details) Path If neither an edge nor a vertex is repeated in a walk starting from a vertex u and ending at vertex v then the walk is known as a path. (Please see Chapter 4 and 5 for more details) Shortest path Among all paths between vertex u and vertex v. A path is always a trail (or a walk) but it is not the other way round. Please note that it is possible to traverse a vertex more than once but an edge should not be traversed more than once in a trail or in a circuit. It is a closed walk if vertex u and v are the same.that is when vertex u and v are the same then it is known as a circuit. (Please see Chapter 4 and 5 for more details) .that is the direction of that edge. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Trail and Circuit If no edge is repeated in a walk from a vertex u to a vertex v then the walk is known as a trail. the one with minimum length is known as the shortest path between vertex u and vertex v. Please note that in an un-directed graph you can traverse an edge in both directions but in a directed graph you can traverse an edge in only one direction . A cycle is a circuit but a circuit may not be a cycle as no vertex should be repeated in a cycle. In an unweighted graph G the minimum length is measured in terms of number of edges encountered in the u − v path. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Cycle If a path is closed that means you come back to the vertex from where you have started then that path is known as a cycle.23 diﬀerent. It is known as a u − v path.

v) in directed graph D. and it is zero otherwise. (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) A Unilaterally Connected Directed Graph A directed graph D is unilaterally connected if there is directed path from vertex u to vertex v or a path from vertex v to u for every pair (u. The Reachable Relation matrix of an undirected connected graph will contain all 1’s. The Reachable Relation graph of D can be represented by an adjacency matrix A in which A(u. v) in directed graph D. v) in directed graph D. (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) Square of a directed graph The square of a graph D is another graph (known as) D2 in which there is an edge from vertex u to vertex v provided there is a two edge path from u to v or there is an edge (that is a one edge path) from u to v in D. In other words there are no cycles in a .24 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms A Connected Graph An un-directed graph G is connected if there is a path between every pair of vertices of that graph. v) = 1 provided there is a directed path from u to v in D. (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) Directed Acylic Graph A directed graph D is directedacyclic (or a DAG) if there is directed path from vertex u to vertex v then there is no path from vertex v to u for every pair (u. (Please see Chapter 4 and 5 for more details) Reachable relation or Transitive closure of a graph The Reachable Relation (or the transitive closure) of a directed graph D is another directed graph in which there is an edge from vertex u to vertex v provided v is reachable from u in D. (Please see Chapter 4 and 8 for more details) A Strongly Connected Directed Graph A directed graph D is strongly connected if there is a directed path from vertex u to vertex v and a path from vertex v to u for every pair (u.

It is also known as a tree graph provided graph G is connected. In other words a connected graph G is a tree if every edge of G is a bridge edge. It is known as a tournament graph as some (actual) tournaments (like f ootball league are played in the form of a tournament graph? (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) Disconnected graph An un-directed graph is disconnected if for any pair of vertices u and v there is no u − v path. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Cyclic graph G A graph G is cyclic if it contains one or more cycles. v) in directed graph D. (Please see Chapter 4 and 5 for more details) Bridge edge or Cut edge An edge {u. (Please see Chapter 4. 5 and 9 for more details) Acyclic graph or a Tree An un-directed graph G is acyclic if it does not contain a cycle. Please note that a tree is a connected graph with no cycles while a forest may be a disconnected graph. v} is a bridge edge if its removal disconnects an un-directed graph G.25 directed acyclic graph. (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) A Tournament Graph A directed graph D is a tournament if there is a directed edge from vertex u to vertex v exclusive OR a directed edge from vertex v to u for every pair (u. In other words if we put directions on edges in a completely connected un-directed graph G then the un-directed graph G transforms into a tournament (directed) graph D. (Please see Chapter 9 for more details) A Forest A (disconnected)graph G with no cycles. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) .

In other words if you remove all non bridge edges in graph G then you get a spanning tree of G. (Please see Chapter 5 for more details) A Binary Tree A binary tree is a tree such that the degree of each vertex is not more than three. A graph which contains a Eulerian circuit is known as a Eulerian graph. (Please see Chapter 7 for more details) Set Cover Given a set of subsets S of the U niversal Set U . what is the smallest subset T of S such that the union of all these sub sets in T covers all elements of U . (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) . We have already witnessed the subset sum problem (in previous courses) in which we have to select integers (out of a set of integers) such that the sum of the selected integers is equal to a given constant. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) Hamiltonian Cycle It is a cycle in a graph G which traverses each vertex of G exactly once. (Please see Chapter 4 for more details) A Path graph A path graph is a tree provided it has two vertices with degree one while all other vertices has degree exactly equal to two. (Please see Chapter 8 for more details) Eulerian Circuit A circuit in a graph G such that every edge of graph G is traversed exactly once. and it is a tree. A graph which contains a Hamiltonian cycle is known as a Hamiltonian graph.26 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms Spanning tree of a graph G A spanning tree (known as ST ) of a connected graph G contains all vertices of G and some edges of G.

(Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Maximum Matching This is a matching in a graph with as many edges as possible? Please note that maximum matching is always maximal. (Please see Chapter 3 and 6 for more details) Edge Cover The Universal set is the set of all vertices in a graph. In other words a matching is a set of non-adjacent edges in a graph G. What is the smallest subset of vertices of the graph that covers all edges? (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Independent (Vertex) Set It is the largest subset S of vertices of a graph such that no pair of vertices in S has an edge in between. Is there a connection between the vertex cover and the independent set? (Please see Chapter 3 and 6 for more details) Matching (Independent Edge Set) It is a subset of edges in graph G such that no two edges in the subset has a common vertex in G. Then the edge cover is the smallest subset of edges.27 Vertex Cover The Universal set U is the set of all edges in a graph. as compared to the number of vertices in a graph? (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) . that is.Thus it is a matching of maximum size. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Maximal Matching This is a matching in which more edges cannot be added in the existing matching to increase the size of this matching. no two edges in the subset share a common vertex. The edges in this subset are also known as independent edges. It may be possible to increase the size of the matching by ﬁrst discarding the initial matching edges. which covers all vertices? How small (or big) can the size of the edge cover become.

(Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Minimum Edge-Cut or MinCut A set of (minimum number of) edges which if removed will disconnect a special vertex s from another special vertex t in a graph G. Every perfect matching is both maximum and hence maximal. the term complete matching is used for it. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Bridge edge or Cut edge An edge {u. That is. In some literature. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) . (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Edge Connectivity It is the minimum number of edges which if removed will disconnect an undirected connected graph G. (Please see Chapter 4 and 6 for more details) Cut vertex A vertex u is a cut vertex if its removal disconnects an un-directed graph G. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Vertex Connectivity It is the minimum number of vertices which if removed will disconnect an un-directed connected graph G.28 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms Perfect Matching A P erf ect Matching is a matching which covers all vertices of the graph. v} is a bridge edge if its removal disconnects an un-directed graph G. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) Minimum Vertex-Cut A set of (minimum number) of vertices which if removed will disconnect a special vertex s from another special vertex t in a graph G. every vertex of the graph is incident to exactly one edge of the matching.

Please note that the Chinese Postman Problem transforms into the Circulation Problem (and vice versa) for directed graphs. The source vertex may produce ﬂow while the sink vertex sinks ﬂow. We may like to ﬁnd a f easible ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) . One is a source vertex s and the other is a sink vertex t. (Please see Chapter 6 for more details) The Circulation Problem We consider a network ﬂow graph in which the incoming ﬂow in every vertex should be equal to the outgoing ﬂow in every vertex. We assume that the Circulation graph is connected if it is un-directed and strongly connected if it is directed. Feasible Flow in a network Flow Graph A f easible ﬂow in a network ﬂow graph from a source vertex s to a sink vertex t is one in which ﬂow through every vertex (other than the source and the sink vertices) is conserved (that is inﬂow is equal to out ﬂow) and ﬂow through every edge is within the prescribed upper as well as lower bounds. an upper bound on ﬂow.29 Network Flow problems in a Network Flow graph D It is a directed graph D with two special vertices. We may like to ﬁnd the maximum or minimum feasible ﬂow or maximum f low at minimum cost. Every edge may have an associated lower bound on ﬂow. We need to ﬁnd a closed walk in this graph such that the total distance covered is minimum in terms of the number of edges of the graph. We need to ﬁnd a minimum cost f easible f low in the network ﬂow graph (also known as the circulation graph). The problem is solvable in polynomial time for directed as well as un-directed graphs. and a cost function associated with ﬂow. The lower bound on ﬂow through every edge is exactly 1. (Please see Chapter 6 and 7 for more details) The Chinese Postman Problem We are given a graph D which is strongly connected if directed and connected if un-directed. The problem is solvable in polynomial time for directed graphs. There is a uniform cost of ﬂow through every edge.

30 Basic Deﬁnitions in Graph Theory and Algorithms .

4 3.1 3.7 Introduction Reducing One Problem into Another The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits An Activity Scheduling Problem A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment Sequencing by Hybridization in Computational Biology Discussion & Problems . Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 3.3 3.Chapter 3 Problems.5 3.2 3.6 3.

It may happen that out of these multiple known problems. thus showing that a new problem is indeed solvable. possible to make reductions play a positive role: In such cases we transform a problem into one of the solvable problems. the problems are taken from digital logic. The real challenge is thus to ﬁnd an intelligent transformation into a simpler problem. As demonstrated in this chapter. Usually reductions are used in such a negative context especially in the ﬁeld of complexity theory.1. There may be good chances that you are able to transform (or reduce) your unknown problem into one of the solvable problems in graph theory. A more desirable option is to better understand the problem in terms of reducing it into one of the known problems in computer science. molecular biology. one of the problems may be relatively simple to solve while the other known problem may be a hard one. thus showing that the new problem is as hard as some of the known hard problems. however.1 Introduction When we face a real life problem then one possibility is to solve it right from scratch. We shall discuss a number of diverse problems in this chapter. 3.2 Reducing One Problem into Another A reduction is a transformation of one problem into another problem. it is very much possible (and in fact desirable) to reduce an unknown problem into multiple known problems instead of just one known graph problem. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 3. 3. yet each of them is transformed into a graph problem. 3.32 Problems. civil works. Transforming one problem into another requires that each instance of the new problem should be transformed into instances of the old problem. It is important to note the total time complexity of solving a new problem . Once your problem is transformed into a known problem. Sometimes we reduce a known hard problem into the new problem. It is. and the ﬁeld of operations research. distributed computing. We show such a transformation in Fig. Even if you end up reducing your problem into one of the hard (or unsolvable) problems – you certainly get a better insight. we then solve the old problem using a known algorithm and then again transform its results to obtain the ﬁnal solution of the new problem. the complexity of solving your unknown problem will depend upon the complexity of your transformation as well as that of solving the known problem (see Fig.1). Almost all these problems do not seem to have a any relationship with graphs.

In complexity theory such problems are known as P problem. In complexity theory such problems are known as NP-complete problems. Reduction of an NP-complete problem into a P problem: Does it mean that an NP-complete problem has become a P problem? Why? .Reducing One Problem into Another Inputs 33 Outputs Algorithm No. Reduction of a P problem into an NP-complete problem. The inputs for the new problem should be transformed into the inputs of the old problem. 2 Algorithm No. 2. Does it mean that a P problem has become an NP-complete problem? 4. Similarly the outputs should also be transformed. after reducing it into an old problem will be time complexity of the known algorithm (needed to solve the old problem) plus the time complexities of Algorithm No. We shall categorize a reduction into the following four categories: 1. 2. 1 and that of Algorithm No. 1 Inputs Outputs Figure 3. Reduction of a hard problem (a problem for which) a polynomial time algorithm is not yet designed) into another hard problem. Reduction of a problem (with an existing) polynomial time algorithm into another such problem.1: Reducing a new problem into an old problem. 3.

3. 3.3 The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits Satisﬁability in logic circuits is the problem of ﬁnding if we can assign 0 or 1 to the input variables so as to make the output of the logic circuit equal to 1. In the 3CNF Satisﬁability problem (or the 3-SAT Problem). we are given a Boolean expression in disjunctive normal form (DNF). Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory We shall provide (or discuss) at least one example from each category in this chapter. a b c a b c a b c a b c Figure 3. the 3-Satisﬁability problem is to ﬁnd if it is possible to assign 0 or 1 to its inputs that will make the output equal to 1.3). If no assignment of input variables can make the output 1 then we claim that the logic formula (or the circuit) is not satisﬁable.2). in terms of logic circuits it is the OR output of clauses of AND gates with exactly 3 inputs (see Fig. in simple words it is the AND output of clauses of OR gates with exactly three inputs (see Fig. we are given a boolean expression in 3-conjunctive normal form. have explored assignments of inputs for which the output of the logic circuit is 1 – but many . Again we need to assign input variable such that the output of the circuit is 1. Given such an expression. 3. In the 3DNF Satisﬁability Problem. A lot many of you might have played with logic circuits. The output is 1 for the selected inputs shown in orange color.34 Problems.2: A logic circuit consisting of OR gates (each with 3 inputs) and one AND gate.

Surprisingly applying DeMorgans laws it is possible to convert a 3-CNF Boolean expression in terms of a 3-DNF – giving a false impression that we can reduce an NP-complete problem into a P problem. A 3-CNF circuit is shown in Fig.1.The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits 35 of you may not have realized (or truly appreciated) that the 3-CNF problem is one of the NP-complete problems while the 3-DNF is a solvable problem (in polynomial time). 3. 3.3: A logic circuit consisting of AND gates (each with 3 inputs) and one OR gate. We shall reduce the 3-SAT problem into the Independent Set Problem in graphs.1 Reducing a 3-SAT Problem into an Independent Set Problem Let us start with an example from Category 1. Show that it is indeed possible to solve this problem in polynomial time (in fact in linear time).2. 3.1.2.1. A 3-DNF circuit is shown in Fig. Try to use a similar technique to solve the 3-CNF Satisﬁability problem. In case of 3-DNF problem the output of the circuit will be high provided the output of any AND gate is high. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve the 3-DNF Satisﬁability problem. OutPut a b c a b c a b c a b c Figure 3.3. the .1.3.4. Remember in the 3-CNF problem one has to select inputs such that the output of each OR gate is high so as to satisfy the output. We shall discuss this issue (in detail) in the coming paragraphs. The output is 1 for the selected inputs shown in orange color. The purpose of this problem is to appreciate the inherent hardness of this problem. 3. Thus in Fig. It will not work. Problem Set 3. Problem 3. Problem 3.

the 3-Satisﬁability problem is to ﬁnd if it is possible to assign 0 and 1 to its inputs that will make the output equal to 1. Please note that at least one input from each OR gate should be 1 in order to pass the test for Satisﬁability. The problem is to ﬁnd if it is possible to select one vertex from each triangle such that no two selected vertices have an edge in common (they should not be adjacent). . 3. in simple words it is the AND output of clauses of OR gates with exactly three inputs (see Fig.4 is the Independent Set problem in a special graph consisting of k triangles with edges connecting certain vertices within diﬀerent triangles as shown in Fig.2). The ﬁgure also shows a combination of inputs (shown in orange color) for which the output of this logic circuit is 1. 3.36 Problems. The old problem in Fig.5.4: Reducing the 3-Satisﬁability problem into Independent Set problem in a graph. It is obvious that for the size of the Independent Set to be equal to k we have to select exactly one vertex from each triangle such that no two selected vertices are adjacent. 3. Inputs Outputs Algorithm No. 2 Algorithm No. 1 Inputs Outputs Figure 3. In other words we need to ﬁnd if the size of the Independent Set (a set of vertices with no common edges) in this graph is equal to the number of triangles in the graph. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory New Problem is the 3-CNF Satisﬁability problem: we are given a Boolean expression in 3-conjunctive normal form. Given such an expression.

the output is high for the given logic circuit? Input : A Boolean formula (or circuit) in 3-CNF. Output: Yes/No. If Yes then a combination of inputs for which the output is high. Output: Yes or No. We consider this as a known problem in graph theory . Input : A graph consisting of k triangles. We consider this as a new problem: You need to transform it into a known problem in graph theory? Algorithm 2: The Independent Set Problem: Find if the size of the independent set in a given graph is k. 1.5: A graph consisting of k triangles where some vertices from different triangles are adjacent. Algorithm 1: The 3-SAT Problem: Find for what inputs.The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits 37 Figure 3. If Yes then select a vertex from each triangle such that no two selected vertices is adjacent. 1. We need to ﬁnd if the size of the independent Set is equal to k.

.6: The 3-Satisﬁability problem (top) is reduced into the Independent Set problem in the graph shown in the bottom.38 Problems. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory OutPut AND a ¬b c a b ¬c ¬a ¬b c ¬a ¬b ¬c c a ¬c c ¬c ¬b a b ¬a ¬b ¬a ¬b Figure 3. Orange vertices in the bottom graph provides a solution to the independent set problem in the bottom graph while their orange counterparts (input variables to the logic circuit) provides a satisﬁable solution to the 3-SAT problem in the top circuit.

2 Reducing the 3-CNF Satisﬁability Problem into the 3-DNF Satisﬁability Problem We know that it is possible to convert a 3-CNF Boolean formula into a 3DNF formula.2.The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits 39 It is obvious that a possible solution of the Independent Set problem in the graph provides a combination of inputs for which the output will be high in the logic circuit. 3. 3.3.2.1) and you will be able to resolve this contradiction your self. Problem 3. We also know that the 3-CNF Satisﬁability problem is NP-Complete while it is possible to solve the 3-DNF Satisﬁability problem in polynomial time. Such a conversion is done after drawing the truth table or the K-Map of the 3-CNF expression as shown in Fig. Try to use a similar reduction to reduce the 2-SAT problem into the independent set problem in a graph. Problem 3. 2 as shown in this diagram. Is there a contradiction somewhere? Design the corresponding conversion algorithms (Algorithm No. Problem Set 3. Discuss why this may or may not be possible.2. 3. the solution of any one problem implies a possible solution for the other.6.1. In the next section we shall talk about a Category 2 reduction. Please design Algorithm No. 1 & 2 of Fig. Thus if the size of the Independent Set in the graph is equal to the number of OR gates in the logic circuit then it is possible to ﬁnd a combinations of inputs which will make the output high.1 and Algorithm No. 3. Discuss why this may or may not be possible. Unfortunately both these problems belong to the class known as NP-Complete problems. and depicted in Fig.7. In fact the reduction goes in both directions. Try to use a similar reduction to reduce the 3-DNF problem into the independent set problem in a graph. Problem 3.3. 3.2.2. .4. We have already talked about the 3-Sat problem and its reduction to independent set problem as modeled in Fig.

Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory OutPut AND Dr aw K Ma p OR OR OR OR ab a ¬b c a b ¬c OutPut OR ¬a ¬b c ¬a ¬b ¬c c 0 1 0 0 1 0 00 01 11 10 1 0 1 1 AND AND AND AND aw Dr it rc u Ci a ¬b ¬c a ¬b c ¬a ¬b ¬c ¬a b c Figure 3. The truth table. helps us in this reduction. .7: The 3-CNF Satisﬁability problem (top) is reduced into the 3DNF-Satisﬁability Problem as shown in the bottom. also shown on the right.40 Problems.

. For every OR gate in the Boolean expression with inputs x and y.The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits 41 3. This problem and its possible solutions are discussed in detail in Chapter 9. in other words we need to check if there is a directed path from vertex x to vertex y and from vertex y back to vertex x. The 2-SAT problem is similar to the 3-SAT problem except that now each of the OR gates have two inputs rather than three. 2. x and y. In fact this problem can be reduced to another graph problem which is solvable in polynomial time.3 Reducing the 3-CNF Satisﬁability Problem into another graph Problem Here we intend to discuss a reduction of the 3-SAT problem into the Clique problem in graphs. It is left as an exciting exercise for the reader? 3. Path ﬁnding algorithms are described in Chapter 5. belong to a single strongly connected component. we claim that the given Boolean expression (or the logic circuit) is not satisﬁable (that means for any combination of input variables) if and only if any vertex x and its complement vertex ¬x in graph D belongs to the same strongly connected component. We still need to ﬁnd a combination of inputs for which the output of the circuit is 1.4 Reducing the 2-CNF Satisﬁability Problem into a Graph Problem We have already talked about reducing a 2-CNF Satisﬁability problem into an Independent Set problem in graphs. For every variable x in the Boolean expression we create two vertices with labels x and ¬x in the directed graph D. we need to ﬁnd if any two given vertices. We shall partially justify this reduction and leave the rest of the details as an interesting problem for the reader. Once we have a constructed directed graph D. we add two directed edges: One directed edge from vertex ¬x to vertex y and another directed edge from vertex ¬y to vertex x. we construct a directed graph D according to the following rules: 1. We shall describe this Category 2 reduction brieﬂy in this section.3. Given the Boolean expression or the logic circuit.3. The graph problem deals with directed graphs.

It is transformed into a directed graph shown in . Check if there is a path from vertex x to y and from y to x in the directed graph D.8: The 2-CNF Satisﬁability problem is reduced into a graph problem. 1. and if the answer comes out to be NO in each case then the given Boolean expression is satisﬁable otherwise not. We shall provide some hints in this regard and leave the rest as a problem for imagination of the reader. If any vertex x and its complement in the graph (shown in the right diagram) belongs to the same strongly connected component then the Boolean expression corresponding to the circuit (shown in the left diagram) is not satisﬁable. This requires a deeper understanding and appreciation of diﬀerent concepts involved in this reduction. Output: Yes/No. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory ¬a b ¬a ¬b c OR ¬c OR AND OR Convert a b a ¬c ¬b ¬a a OR c Figure 3. and two vertices x and y. Algorithm 3: Find if two given vertices belong to the same strongly connected component in a directed graph D. If yes then vertices x and y belong to the same strongly connected component otherwise not.42 Problems.9. We apply Algorithm 3 for every vertex x (and its complement ¬x) in graph D. A 2-CNF expression consisting of a single OR/AND combination is shown in the left diagram of Fig. 3. Input : A directed graph D. If the Boolean expression is satisﬁable then we have to ﬁnd a combination of input variables for which the output of the logic circuit is 1.

If a = 0 then Output =1 ¬a b OR AND For what values of input the output is 1 a b ¬a ¬b OR If a = 1 then b=1 then ¬a =1 ¬b ¬a Figure 3. Note that if a = 1 then we face a contradiction in the implication graph.9: A 2-CNF expression with only one OR/AND gate is reduced into a directed graph.10: The 2-CNF Satisﬁability problem is reduced into a graph problem. On the other hand if a = 0 then there is no such contradiction and the output of the logic circuit will be 1 for any value of b. . The directed graph is in fact an implication graph with a truth table shown at the top. Note that the implication graph tells us that if a = 1 then b should be 1 also otherwise the output of the logic circuit will be zero.The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits 43 a 0 Tr Lo uth gi Ta c C ble irc o ui f t a→ b ¬a OR b ¬b → b ¬a 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Im Trut pli h T ca a tio ble n Gr of ap h 0 1 1 ¬a b AND OR For what values of input the output is 1 a ¬b b ¬a If a = 1 then b=1 for Output to be 1 Figure 3.

The truth table of this implication is exactly the same as that of the Boolean expression as shown in this ﬁgure. This transformation works both ways: if the circuit is satisﬁable then we can select an independent set . If a = 1 then b should be 1 so that the output of the top OR gate becomes 1. It will be interesting to ﬁnd if the circuit is satisﬁable (as we add more OR gates). But if b = 1 then according to the implication ¬a should be 1 so as to make the output of the second OR gate 1 – but that is a contradiction. We show the same 2-CNF logic circuit in Fig. Again the implication graph is telling us how it is possible to make the Boolean expression satisﬁable. But if a = 0 then the implication does not dictate any thing – it means that the Boolean expression is satisﬁable for any value of b. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory the right diagram of this ﬁgure. it is possible to reach from vertex a to vertex ¬a.10. The implication tells us that in order to make the output 1 we shall make b = 1 if a = 1. it is also possible to reach from vertex ¬a to a as shown by the closed path shown in red color. We show various 2-CNF logic circuits for varying number of OR gates and the corresponding implication graphs in Fig.11. This makes sense because if both inputs of the OR gate are 0 then the expression will not be satisﬁable. and in case it is then what inputs should be applied so that the output is 1 for each logic circuit shown in this ﬁgure. A directed edge in this graph from vertex x to vertex y implies that if the vertex x (or meaningfully) variable x is 1 then y is 1. The implication graph for a Boolean expression consisting of two OR gates are shown in Fig. Please note that in the bottom diagram of Fig. The Satisﬁability problem in this logic circuit is transformed into a graph problem in the Implication graph shown in the bottom diagram. This implies that the logic circuit is not satisﬁable. If it is possible to select one vertex from each adjacent pair such that no two selected vertices are adjacent then we claim that the logic circuit is satisﬁable. As you should appreciate this directed graph is not just a directed graph – this is in fact an implication graph. 3.12.11. It should now be possible to design an eﬃcient graph algorithm which operates on the implication graph but which ﬁnds the input combination for which the logic circuit output is 1. The Satisﬁability problem is also transformed into an independent set problem where each OR gate in the logic diagram now corresponds to two adjacent vertices (known as an adjacent pair) instead of a triangular graph.44 Problems. 3. 3. 3.

In the bottom diagram this is not possible. In the top three graphs (shown on the right side).11: The 2-CNF Satisﬁability problem is reduced into a graph problem.The Satisﬁability Problem in Logic Circuits 45 a ¬a b AND OR Convert b ¬b ¬a ¬a b OR AND Convert a b ¬a ¬b ¬a b OR ¬b ¬c ¬a OR a AND Convert b ¬a ¬b c OR ¬b ¬a a ¬a b ¬a ¬b c OR c OR ¬c OR AND OR a b a ¬c ¬b ¬a a OR Convert c Figure 3. . vertex a and ¬a do not belong to the same strongly connected component – it means the output of the corresponding logic circuits is satisﬁable.

This implies that the independent set problem (in some special graphs) can be reduced into an implication graph problem.46 Problems. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory with size equal to the number of OR gates in the logic circuit. The same problem is reduced into a graph problem in an implication graph shown in the bottom diagram.12: The 2-CNF Satisﬁability problem is reduced into an independent set problem shown in the top diagram. an sf o Tr an sf or m rm . It is now obvious that the independent set problem in the graph (which was derived from a 2-CNF logic circuit) can be transformed into a path ﬁnding problem in an Implication graph. Given a general graph how can you determine that this graph in fact represents a 2-CNF logic circuit? If it does represent such a logic circuit then we can solve this problem after reducing it into an implication graph? ¬a b ¬a ¬b c OR Transform ¬a b OR AND ¬a ¬b a ¬c OR a c a OR a ¬c Tr ¬c a b ¬b ¬a c Figure 3. Describe an eﬃcient algorithm which ﬁnds an independent set in such a graph using an Implication graph.

the lower limit will be the length of the longest path in the graph. So that is an upper limit on time to complete the job. We also need to identify those activities which are critical: that means increasing the time duration of these activities will certainly increase the total completion time.e. In the table below. If we are unable to schedule any activity in parallel then the total time needed to construct the house will be the sum total of (the duration of) all activities.1. we have described a number of tasks. we assign the incoming edges the same weight as the vertex. Now for each vertex. 3. How will you model this problem in graph theoretic terms and then solve it? We start with an example of constructing a house as deﬁned in Table 3.4 An Activity Scheduling Problem The problem of activity scheduling is described in simple words. 3. their duration (in days) and what tasks must be completed before they can begin (prerequisites) (http://www. the tasks they represent have no pre-requisites). Then we add a special vertex s and connect it to all such vertices that have no incoming edges (i. We need to ﬁnd out the minimum possible time to complete a house according to the activities described in the table above. with the duration of the activity as a weight on the vertex. A longest path in this graph (see bottom diagram of Fig. We represent each activity in the Table usig a vertex.htm). The problem is then transformed into a graph problem as shown in Fig.An Activity Scheduling Problem 47 3.com/projex/PERT/aoa. we add a directed edge to all the vertices such that the task they represent are dependent on the task represented by v. Then there are activities which can run in parallel while some are strictly sequential. their IDs.15. On the other hand there are certain activities which if delayed do not necessarily increase the total completion time. .waa-inc.15) corresponds to minimum amount of time needed to build the house? Why? The underlying assumption is that we should be able to schedule as many activities in parallel as possible by the pre-requisite relationships. For each Task vertex v.

8 Table 3. This kind of computing has a typical serial or chain like structure as shown in Fig. Algorithm 4: Find Minimum Time to Complete the Job.5 A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment Chain like program graphs is common in many digital signal processing applications.48 Task ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Problems. A new problem: You need to transform it into a known problem in graph theory? The challenge is to transform one problem (Algorithm 2.4) into a text book problem (Algorithm 2. In such applications each packet or frame of data may be processed through various transforms in a ﬁxed sequence. Output: Minimum Time to complete the job. one module may run faster on one processor while the same module may take much longer time on a diﬀerent machine in a typical distributed .16. 9 2 6 5.1). and Pre-requisites (Table 2. 3. Duration. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory Task Description Clear land Lay foundations Build walls Electrical wiring Plastering Landscaping Gardening Interior work Roof Handover Duration 14 28 42 21 21 20 10 35 50 00 Prerequisites none 1 2 3 4. their IDs. Input : Tasks. Each program module in the chain structure may have a very diﬀerent computation requirement. their duration (in days) and what tasks must be completed before they can begin (prerequisites). 9 3 7.1: We have tabulated a number of tasks.5) 3. 1.

A text book problem. see Chapter 4 6 20 7 10 1 14 2 28 42 3 4 21 50 9 21 5 8 35 10 00 Figure 3.13: Graph representing a speciﬁc instance of the activity scheduling problem 10 6 20 21 21 35 00 7 00 14 1 28 2 42 3 4 5 8 10 50 9 21 35 Figure 3.A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment 49 Algorithm 5: Find Longest Path in a directed acyclic graph Input : A weighted directed acyclic graph D Output: A Longest Path in D 1.14: Transformation to a new graph .

3. Let us concentrate on a sub-problem in order to appreciate the intricacies of the problem. For example the execution cost of module 2 on processor A is 20 while it is 90 on processor B. it is zero if the two modules are assigned to the same machine.16. . The execution cost of each module on either processor is indicated below each module. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 10 6 20 21 21 35 00 7 00 14 1 28 2 42 3 4 5 8 10 50 9 21 35 Figure 3.50 Problems. In such a distributed heterogeneous computing environment we should somehow take advantage of the diverse and special characteristics of each machine as assigning all modules of the program to one machine may not be an optimal solution. A module can be processed on either processor A or on processor B but only one processor is active at any time. the total time of computation is the sum of total execution times plus the total communication times. A straight forward greedy solution would be to assign a module on a processor where it is least costly but then if two modules with a lot of communication traﬃc in between are assigned to diﬀerent machines then it will again degrade the over all performance. The top diagram of the same ﬁgure shows a chain structured modular program consisting of four modules.15: Finding the longest path corresponds to the optimal scheduling of activities heterogeneous computing environment consisting of two processors as shown in the bottom diagram of Fig. The communication cost between module 2 and 3 is 50 provided the two modules are placed on diﬀerent machines.

it is zero if the two modules are assigned to the same machine. The two machines have diﬀerent capabilities. (Top) A chain structured modular program consisting of four modules (or nodes). Module 1 as well as 2 is processed on processor B: Then Cost of Execution will be 50+90 = 140. For example the execution cost of module 2 on processor A is 20 while it is 90 on processor B. The execution cost of each module on either processor is indicated below each module. 2. Module 1 is executed on machine A while module 2 is processed on . 3. There are basically four possibilities for the ﬁrst pair of adjacent modules to be assigned onto the dual processor system: 1.16: (Bottom) Processor A and processor B connected with a high speed communication link. Module 1 as well as 2 is processed on processor A: Then Cost of Execution will be 70+20 = 90. while there will be no Cost of Communication as the two modules are executed on the same machine.A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment 51 Communication Costs 10 Execution Costs Processor B 50 Processor A 70 90 20 50 30 40 20 0 20 80 Processor Processor Figure 3. The communication cost between module 2 and 3 is 50 provided the two modules are placed on diﬀerent machines. while there will be no cost of communication as the two modules are executed on the same machine.

3. while there will be a Communication Cost = 10. Problem 3.1. Total Cost = 80. Find the total cost if all modules are assigned to machine B. module 2 on processor A. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory B. For example assign module 1 on processor B. How to model this problem in graph theoretic terms? Problem 3. Cost of Execution will be 50 + 20 = 70. 4.6 and Algorithm 2. Cost of Execution will be 70 + 90 = 160. it is not a distributed assignment. Problem 3.3. The challenge is to ﬁnd the optimal solution for the entire problem eﬃciently (without enumerating all possibilities as we did for the sub-problem). Find the Optimal Assignment by hit and trial (the size of this problem is small enough)? It should be less than (or equal to) the ones found in 1.3. Find the total cost if all modules are assigned to machine A. Please note that the cost consists of two parts. while there will be a Communication Cost = 10. How about if we (initially) ignore communication costs and assign a module on a machine where it is least costly. Now calculate the Total Cost of this assignment after taking into account the communication costs. Total Cost = 170. Problem 3.3. and the cost of communication between two adjacent modules provided the two modules are assigned to diﬀerent machines.3. Module 1 is executed on machine B while module 2 is processed on A. Problem Set 3. 2.2.3. . The total time of computation is the sum of total execution times plus the total communication times.3. This is also sequential processing but this time on machine B.5. we design Algorithm 2. cost of execution of a module on a processor. How about if instead of a chain structure.8. Hints are provided in the following ﬁgures. Problem 3. and 3. Problem 3. This is standard sequential processing on machine A. and so on. The last option provides the optimal solution in terms of minimum completion time for the sub-problem.6. There is no communication cost if the two (adjacent) modules are assigned to the same machine.52 Problems.3.4.

This is equivalent to traversing a path which passes though the top vertices or the bottom vertices in a graph with two dummy vertices. (Bottom) The possibility of some modules assigned to processor A while other modules to processor B is shown with a zigzag path between the two dummy vertices.17: (top) We show the possibility of all modules assigned to either processor A or to processor B. A shortest path corresponds to an optimal assignment.A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment 53 90 50 30 20 0 u4 00 Path B: All Modules on Machine B 70 Path A: All Modules on Machine A 00 0 20 40 80 90 50 10+90 30 50+30 20 0 u4 00 20+20 70 10+20 50+40 20+80 00 0 20 40 80 Figure 3. .

18: (top) Path B corresponds to all modules assigned to processor B while path A corresponds to all modules assigned to processor B. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 90 50 10+90 30 50+30 20 0 u4 00 20+20 70 10+20 50+40 20+80 00 0 20 40 80 50 70 10 90 20 50 30 0 40 20 20 0 80 Figure 3. . Path X corresponds to some modules assigned to processor A while others are assigned to processor B. (bottom) The module assignment corresponding to path X in the top diagram.54 Problems.

Cut X corresponds to the module assignment as shown in the bottom diagram. Cut A corresponds to all modules assigned to processor A.A Dual Machine Serial Processing Environment 55 50 B 70 10 90 50 30 0 20 40 20 0 80 A 20 B B 50 10 70 20 90 50 B 30 0 40 20 20 0 80 A CUT A 70 20 40 80 50 70 10 90 20 50 30 40 20 20 0 80 Cut X 50 90 30 20 CUT B Figure 3. Cut B corresponds to all modules assigned to processor B.19: (top) A cut in this graph (which disconnects vertex A from vertex B) corresponds to an assignment of modules. .

See Chapter 4 Algorithm 8: Find Minimum Cost Assignment Input : Execution & Communication Costs of each module on Processor A & B Output: Minimum Time to complete the job & the corresponding module assignment. 1.56 Problems. A text book problem. A text book problem. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory Algorithm 6: Find Minimum Cost Assignment Input : Execution & Communication costs of each module on Processors A & B Output: Minimum Time to complete the job & the corresponding module assignment. see Chapter 5 . A new problem: You need to transform it into a known problem in graph theory? Algorithm 7: Find Shortest Path in a directed acyclic graph Input : A directed acyclic graph D Output: A Shortest Path in D 1. 1. A new problem: You need to transform it into another known problem in graph theory? Algorithm 9: Find Minimum Cut in a Graph G Input : An un-directed graph G Output: A Minimum Cut (which disconnect s from t) 1.

6 and then use the text book Algorithm 2. ACAA.9 in order to solve the Minimum Cost Assugnment Problem. ACAG. T ACA. With a given unknown DNA sequence (of four letters A. CACA. it does not provide us about the order of the strings or their position in the DNA fragment. Fig. 3. The challenge is to tranform this problem into a know problem in graph algorithms. 3. 3)) will be equal to {CAT. AGT }. C.22. For example if the (unknown) sequence s = CAT GAGT then a set of all substrings of length 3 that s contains (known as Spectrum(s.6 Sequencing by Hybridization in Computational Biology The Sequencing by Hybridization technique depends on the hybridization of target DNA fragment against a very large array of relatively short probes. an array (also known as the Gene Chip) tells us about all sub-strings of a ﬁxed length that the DNA sequence contains. AT G. AACA}.7 in order to solve the Minimum Cost Assugnment Problem. G.20.Sequencing by Hybridization in Computational Biology 57 The challenge is to design Algorithm 2.21. 4) = {AT AC. 3. The following ﬁgures will provide hints to make multiple transformations. The sequencing by hybridization problem in molecular biology (or simply the spectrum problem) can be transformed either into a Hamiltonian path problem or an Euler path problem in directed graphs depending upon whether we map every element of the spectrum into a node or an edge of a directed graph respectively. T GA. .8 and then use the text book Algorithm 2. 3. CAT A. Then we can ﬁnd a sequence s as shown in Fig. The elements in the spectrum may not appear in the same order and the challenge is to ﬁnd the string s. CAAC. ACAC. ACAT. In fact there are multiple strings possible (s1 = ACACAACAT ACAG & s2 = ACAT ACAACACAG) with the same spectrum as illustrated in these diagrams. and Fig. given its spectrum. GAG. Assume that Spectrum(s. & T ). Another challenge is to design Algorithm 2.

A new problem: You need to transform it into a known problem in graph theory? Algorithm 11: Find a Hamiltonian Path in G Input : A graph G Output: A Hamiltonian Path in G 1. Output: Sequence s. A text book problem. see Chapter 6 Transform the sequencing problem into Hamiltonian path and then into an Eulerian path problems (see the ﬁgures below) . l) Input : Spectrum(s. A text book problem. 1.58 Problems. l) of an unknown s. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory Algorithm 10: Find a (Correct) Sequence s given its Spectrum(s. see Chapter 7 Algorithm 12: Find an Euler Trail in G Input : A graph G Output: An Euler path in G 1.

the edges are going to vertices labeled with ACAA.Sequencing by Hybridization in Computational Biology 59 Spectrum(s. T ACA. ACAT. CATA. ACAC. A directed edge exists from one vertex to another provided the last three letters of the ﬁrst vertex match with the ﬁrst three letters of the second vertex. CAAC.4) = {ATAC. ACAT. AACA} and show a directed graph in which every element of the spectrum was mapped onto a vertex. ACAC. ACAG. ACAG and ACAT . AACA} ACAC ATAC ATAC CATA ACAT ACAG TACA CACA ATAC TACA ATAC TACA CATA TACA ACAG ACAA ACAT CAAC AACA ATAC CATA ACAT ACAG TACA Figure 3. 4) = {AT AC.20: We start with a Spectrum(s. ACAG. ACAC. ACAA. CACA. ACAA. CACA. . CAT A. TACA. That is why there are four directed edges emanating from the vertex T ACA. CAAC.

(Right) Another Hamiltonian path is shown in the same graph. Both these diagrams show various stages in the reconstruction of a sequence. this Hamiltonian path corresponds to the sequence s1 = ACACAACAT ACAG. .20.21: (Left) A Hamiltonian path is shown in bold in the graph of Fig. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory Start ACAC ATAC ACAC ACACA CACA ACATAC ATAC ACAC CACA ACATA CATA TACA ACAG ACAA ACACAA CATA TACA ACATACA ACAG ACAA ACAT ACACAACAT ACAT CAAC AACA ACACAAC ACAT Start CAAC AACA ACACAACA Figure 3. 3.60 Problems. this Hamiltonian path corresponds to a sequence s2 = ACAT ACAACACAG.

AACA} ? ? ? ATAC ? ACAG ACAC ACA CACA ACAT AACA ACAA CAC CATA ? ? CAG ACAT TACA TAC AAC CAAC CAA CAT ATA ATAC TAC ACA ACAT CAT ATAC CATA CAT CATA ATA TAC CAT CATA ATA ACA ACAT ATAC ATA Figure 3. An edge also speciﬁes its end vertices. ACAC. CAT A. For example the directed edge AACA emanates from CAAC and terminates at AACA. TACA. ACAG. ACAG. AACA} and this time we map every element of the spectrum into an edge of a directed graph.Sequencing by Hybridization in Computational Biology 61 Spectrum(s. CACA. T ACA.4) = {ATAC. ACAC. 4) = {AT AC. . CAAC. CATA. CAAC. ACAT. ACAA. the start vertex carries the ﬁrst three letters of the edge while the end vertex is labeled with the last three letters of the edge. CACA. ACAT. ACAA.22: We start with the same Spectrum(s.

We shall provide you below a certain sequence of questions to guide your search towards a suitable transformation.23: (Top) A Euler path in the graph of Fig. (Bottom) Another Euler path is shown in the same graph. For example in the ﬁrst example . Experience can help you a lot in moving forward.20. Does your problem have an inherent graphical structure? If yes then the transformation may be a lot simple. you should also try to ﬁnd why or why not. this Euler path corresponds to the sequence s1 = ACACAACAT ACAG. we can only rely on heuristics. this Euler path corresponds to the sequence s2 = ACAT ACAACACAG. Note that most of these questions may not have a black and white answer. 3.62 Problems.7 Discussion & Problems How can we exploit graph theory in order to solve an unknown problem? In other words how can we reduce the unknown problem into a graph problem? Finding the right reduction or transformation is not easy. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory AACA ACA ACAC CAC CACA ACA ACAA CAA CAAC AAC ACA ACAT ACAG TACA ATAC CATA CAG ACA TAC ATA CAT ACA ACAT CAT CATA ATA ATAC TAC TACA ACA ACAA CAA CAAC CAG ACAG ACA CACA CAC ACAC ACA AACA AAC Figure 3. Please note that in both the Euler paths shown in this diagram there is a vertex which is repeated several times while every edge is traversed exactly once. It is certainly not possible to design an exact algorithm to do this transformation. 1. 3.

3. it is rather impossible to capture its essence without directions. Do you map each element of your unknown problem into a vertex or an edge of a graph? Example 3 is a good illustration of this decision. Thus this example is also reduced to a directed graph problem. 4. Strangely this is equivalent to ﬁnding a longest path in a directed acyclic graph as shown in Fig.15. it is much easier to make a special case reduction. only a certain sequence (or order) of letters can correspond to a correct sequence s. In the ﬁrst example we need to minimize the total completion time of building a house.Discussion & Problems 63 we have activities and a pre-requisite relationship among themselves. For example in the second example it is much easier to visualize the special case (in terms of a . 3. The second example is perhaps more interesting. this naturally leads to a directed graph. This problem is reduced to a decision problem (not an optimization problem) in graph theory whereby we decide if it is possible to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Path (or an Euler trail) in a directed graph. Is your unknown problem an optimization problem or otherwise? If it is an optimization problem where you need to maximize (or minimize) some parameter then you need to search for a graph optimization problem. Do components of your problem have a sequence (or an order) which can be transformed into a directed graph? The ﬁrst example certainly implies a directed graph. l) is given. The activities have weights. The last example is not an optimization problem. in its ﬁrst transformation it is transformed into a directed graph. Sometimes it is diﬃcult to make a general transformation. these weights can be shifted to vertices if each vertex corresponds to an activity in your graph. 2. we need to ﬁnd an unknown sequence s for which the Spectrum(s. In the second example we need to minimize the sum total of execution and communication costs of a modular program. If you decide to map each element of the Spectrum onto a vertex then an edge in this graph would represent what (and on what basis)? Will this be a directed edge or undirected? 5. The last example has an implicit directed structure. This problem is reduced to ﬁnding a shortest path in a directed graph. it is also reduced into a graph problem applicable to an un-directed graph.

The Marriage Problem is a well-known problem in mathematics as well as in any middle class conservative society.17. In one case you have to design an informal proof and in the other case you have to design a counter example.4. 3. Problem 3. It is a special graph in the sense that an edge between two vertices belonging to the same part (men or women) is not allowed. We show two reductions of this problem. The problem is to ﬁnd out if it is possible to marry each woman to a man she likes or knows. This reduction depends upon the hypothesis that each vertex-disjoint path between vertex s and t in graph G corresponds to a matching edge in the bipartite graph. A liking between a man and a woman is represented by an edge between the two corresponding vertices.64 Problems. If it is not possible to ﬁnd such a Perfect Matching then we should perhaps maximize the number of women each of whom is married to man whom she knows.1. (Please note that here we have not accounted for the amount of liking between a man and a woman – we just claim that a certain woman knows or likes or does not like a certain man. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory graph problem) when all modules are assigned either to processor A or processor B as shown in the top diagram of Fig. and the other is shown in Fig. and a B part consisting of women.25. In the ﬁrst reduction. The quantitative aspects of this problem will be discussed in the coming problems. This reduction depends upon the hypothesis that each edge-disjoint path between vertex s and t in graph G corresponds to a matching edge in the bipartite graph.4. This special case more or less resembles the activity scheduling problem discussed in the ﬁrst example.) This problem can be modeled by a graph consisting of each man and woman as a vertex. Please note that the reduction (which ever is correct) not only tells you if a . The problem is to ﬁnd out which reduction is correct and which one is false. we assume that we have a collection of men and an equal number of women. 3. One is shown in Fig.24. 3. Problem Set 3. In the second reduction the problem is reduced to ﬁnding maximum vertex-disjoint paths between the same two vertices in the graph G. The graph is shown below. Please note that the graph consists of two parts – an A part consisting of men. each women knows (or likes) some of the men. we reduce the Marriage Problem into a problem of ﬁnding maximum edge-disjoint paths between vertex s and vertex t in a graph G. Such a graph is known as a bipartite graph.

.Discussion & Problems 65 a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 A Matched Edge a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 Bipartite Graph C Corresponds Transforms Maximum Matching in Graph C Transforms Graph G with nodes s & t A Path from s to t Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths in Graph G a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 b4 a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 s A a3 a4 t Find Max EdgeDisjoint Paths s A t b3 b4 Figure 3.24: We add vertex s and vertex t to a bipartite graph and then try to reduce a maximum bipartite matching problem into another problem where we maximize edge-disjoint paths between vertex s and vertex t.

. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 A Matched Edge Corresponds a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 Bipartite Graph C Transforms Maximum Matching in Graph C Transforms Graph G with nodes s & t A Path from s to t Maximum Vertex-Disjoint Paths in Graph G a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 b4 a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 s A a3 a4 t Find Max NodeDisjoint Paths s A t b3 b4 Figure 3.66 Problems.25: We add vertex s and vertex t to a bipartite graph and then try to reduce a maximum bipartite matching problem into another problem where we maximize vertex-disjoint paths between vertex s and vertex t.

27. An alternate way of ﬁnding a perfect matching in a bipartite graph is demonstrated in Fig. the reduction maximizes the number of marriages taking place. z) is part of a perfect matching in the bipartite graph. For example the P er(C) of the matrix shown in the ﬁgure below will be computed as follows: P er(C) = a11 a22 a33 + a11 a23 a32 + a12 a21 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a22 a31 + a13 a21 a32 P er(C) = 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 1 + 0 = 3 As you can see each individual term in the expression for Permanent is a permutation – there is a one to one correspondence between each non zero term in this expression and a perfect matching in the bipartite graph. 1. Thus if P er(C) is zero then no perfect matching exists. On the other hand if it is non zero then there will be as many perfect matchings as the value of P er(C). In case a perfect matching is not possible. We reduce the problem into ﬁnding the permanent of the matrix C. 3. We need to ﬁnd if a Perfect Matching exists in a given bipartite graph C. 2. it also tells us which woman to marry whom.Discussion & Problems 67 perfect matching is possible. The said edge will be part of a perfect matching if and only if P er(Cyz) is non zero. If a perfect matching does not exist then we need to maximize the number of marriages as before. the problem is how to ﬁnd one? Assume that the only operation that we can perform is to ﬁnd a Permanent of the matrix after or before removing an edge of the bipartite graph. Problem 3. The permanent P er(C) of a matrix C is computed like the determinant of C except that the signs of all permutations are positive. We also need to identify which woman is marrying whom. Once we know that a perfect matching exists in the given bipartite graph C.4. How can you ﬁnd a Perfect Matching in this graph? Discuss brieﬂy. The problem of ﬁnding a perfect matching is thus reduced to ﬁnding the permanent of a matrix. Here we start with the adjacency matrix C of the bipartite graph C.2. We consider the same Marriage Problem as described before. On the . We need to ﬁnd if an edge (y.

We take the permanent of the adjacency matrix and claim that a perfect matching in the bipartite graph exists if and only if the value of the permanent is non zero.68 Problems. . Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory 1 1 2 2 3 3 Pe r fe ct M at ch in g if Pe r(C )n ot ze ro Figure 3.26: We show a bipartite graph and its adjacency matrix shown in the top diagrams.

Discussion & Problems 69 Does this edge part of Perfect Matching? 1 0 1 Pa Ed 1 1 1 1 1 0 Adjacency Matrix of C a1 Bipartite Graph C b1 b2 B b3 ge 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 rt of a2 A a3 0 1 1 1 Pe rf e ct M at c hi ng Ex is ts Find Permanent of C not zero If Permanent is not zero Figure 3.27: If a perfect matching exists in a bipartite graph then it is possible to ﬁnd if an edge is part of that perfect matching. Find Pe M ct rfe atc hin g .

why? How about if we put random weight on each edge of the bipartite graph? The probability of the value of the determinant becoming zero will depend upon the randomness of the weights assigned to the edges of the bipartite graph. Consider the (minimum weight) assignment problem. For the time being assume that the minimum weight perfect matching is unique. and then we take the permanent of matrix C. So hopefully the determinant of a bipartite graph will not be zero unless there is not a single perfect matching in the bipartite graph. How to ﬁnd the edges of a perfect matching in this graph? How about using the previous technique? Problem 3. We shall try to relax this condition later. We are given a complete balanced weighted bipartite graph.70 Problems. The highest power of 2 which divides the value of the permanent is the weight of the minimum weight perfect matching. 4.3. and we need to ﬁnd a minimum weight perfect matching in this graph – that means a perfect matching in which the sum of weights of all (matched) edges is minimum. .4. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory basis of this observation. We know that the determinant of a completely connected bipartite graph is zero.We use the same reduction in this problem as was used in the last problem with one slight modiﬁcation. All edge weights in the adjacency matrix C are raised to the power of 2. It is much more complex to ﬁnd the permanent of a matrix as compared to ﬁnding the determinant of a matrix – thus we are tempted to check if the determinant is as helpful as the permanent of a bipartite graph? How about if we ﬁnd that the determinant of an adjacency matrix of a bipartite graph is non zero? Under such conditions. can we make a claim that a perfect matching exists in the graph? How about if the determinant is zero – can we claim that a perfect matching does not exist in the bipartite graph? Remember that the determinant of a completely connected bipartite graph is zero in spite of the fact that every permutation of the vertices of the bipartite graph is a perfect matching. design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd all edges belonging to the perfect matching. 3.

2. The value of the permanent will be divisible (with remainder equal to zero) by the weight of minimum weight perfect matching raised to the power of 2 provided we have a unique minimum weight perfect matching in the bipartite graph.Discussion & Problems 71 P er(C) = 28+1+8 + 28+8+8 + 28+8+8 + 28+8+2 + 23+1+2 + 23+8+8 = 217 + 224 + 224 + 218 + 26 + 219 = 26 (1 + 217 + 224 + 224 + 218 + 219 ) Raising all weights to a power of two and then ﬁnding the permanent of the weighted matrix gives us a powerful reduction in which each individual term in the permanent is in fact the weight of a perfect matching raised to power of 2. What complications can arise in ﬁnding the value of minimum weight perfect matching provided such a matching is not unique? 3. Of course you can raise a number to the power of 2 or any other number of your choice. You need not ﬁnd the value of the minimum weight perfect matching – just make an eﬃcient check if it is unique or not? . 1. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd edges belonging to the minimum weight perfect matching. Assume that now there is a possibility that the minimum weight perfect matching is not unique. The only reduction that you can use is to ﬁnd permanent of a matrix.

Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory All other edge weights are 8 a1 3 2 1 b1 b2 B b3 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 2 8 2 2 2 8 2 1 2 8 2 3 2 8 2 8 2 a2 A a3 Transforms Weighted Bipartite Graph C Weighted Adjacency Matrix of C Find a1 3 2 1 b1 b2 B b3 The weight of minimum weight perfect matching The highest power of 2 which divides the permanent will be a2 A a3 1+2+3=6 6 217 + 224+ 224+ 218+ 26 + 219 Figure 3.28: A minimum weight assignment problem is reduced to evaluating the permanent of a matrix. In Chapter 5 we shall reduce this problem into a well known shortest path ﬁnding problem in any directed or un-directed graph.4. We show a weighted graph G in Fig. Using this pp matrix we . Problem 3. Shortest path ﬁnding algorithms are relatively simple and are discussed in Chapter 4.4. Here in this problem we shall discuss a (bizarre) reduction in which we reduce the shortest path problem into the assignment problem.29 where we need to ﬁnd a shortest path from vertex a to vertex d. The output also includes edges (or vertices) belonging to minimum weight perfect matching. 3.72 Problems. Consider the assignment problem in which we have a complete weighted bipartite graph and we need to ﬁnd a minimum weight perfect matching. The weighted adjacency matrix of this graph is also shown in the top right diagram of this ﬁgure. We start with a black box which accepts a complete weighted bipartite graph as input and outputs the minimum weight perfect matching.

. We need to ﬁnd a shortest path between vertex a and vertex d. The adjacency matrix of a weighted graph G is shown in the top right diagram.29: A weighted graph G is shown in the top left diagram.Discussion & Problems 73 a 8 2 4 b a a b c 0 2 5 8 b 2 0 3 4 c 5 3 0 6 d 8 4 6 0 3 5 d 6 c d Given a weighted graph G find a shortest path between a to d Adjacency Matrix of weighted graph G a 5 2 b 3 0 b 3 b a b c Transform Transforms c 5 3 0 d 8 4 6 2 0 3 c 6 0 4 c 8 d Figure 3. The shortest path problem is converted into a minimum weight perfect matching problem as shown in the bottom diagrams.

Consider Fig.74 Problems.30.1. a 8 5 2 4 3 b 0 2 5 2 0 3 4 5 3 0 6 8 4 6 0 Transforms 2 0 3 5 3 0 8 4 6 d Given a weighted graph G find a shortest path from a to d Adjacency Matrix of Graph G a a 8 5 2 4 3 Transform 2 5 a 5 Transform 6 c 8 2 b b 0 3 b 3 Transform b 3 0 b 3 c c 6 d 0 4 c 8 c 6 0 4 c 8 6 A Shortest Path from vertex a to d d Find a Minimum Weight Perfect Matching d A Complete Weighted Bipartite graph Figure 3.30: The shortest path problem is converted into a minimum weight perfect matching problem as shown in the top diagrams. 3. We ﬁnd a minimum weight perfect matching in the complete bipartite graph shown in the bottom right diagram. The minimum weight perfect matching (shown in the bottom middle diagram) provides a shortest path between vertex a and vertex d as shown in the bottom left diagram. here the New Problem is ﬁnding shortest path between two vertices in a graph G while the Old Problem is the minimum weight . Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory generate a weighted (complete) bipartite graph of size (p−1)(p−1) by deleting the column corresponding to vertex a and the row corresponding vertex d as shown in the bottom left diagram. 3. We claim that a minimum weight perfect matching in this bipartite graph gives us a shortest path between vertex a and vertex d as shown in Fig.

you will be designing Algorithm No. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to transform the minimum weight perfect matching into a shortest path between the two given vertices. design Algorithm No. 75 1.30. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to transform this problem (of ﬁnding a shortest path between two vertices in a weighted graph) into a complete bipartite graph as shown in Fig.1. 1. 2. in terms of Fig.1.Discussion & Problems assignment problem. In terms of Fig. . 2. 3. 3. 3.

76 Problems. Models & Graphs: Why Study Graph Theory .

Properties.7 4.5 4.11 Self Complementing Graphs .6 4.9 Introduction A Mutual Friendship Graph Representation of a Graph Complement of a Graph Equal Graphs & Isomorphic Graphs The Degree Sequence Walks.1 4. Trails.Chapter 4 Basics of Graph Theory 4. & Paths Multi-graphs and Pseudo-graphs Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs 4.8 4.10 Integration of Concepts.3 4.4 4.2 4. and Action Items 4.

2 A Mutual Friendship Graph Assume that we have 5 persons in a hall. We shall discuss some necessary conditions for a degree sequence to be graphical. With each person in this diagram we show the number of people with whom he (or she) is friendly with. Now instead of a friendship sequence we have a degree sequence. C. If we note down this popularity number. The top left diagram in Fig. and C. This number in fact represents the amount of popularity a person enjoys. we shall deﬁne a walk. as discussed before we are talking about a symmetric relationship. The concept of graph connectedness will also be provided. We ask each person with whom he or she is friendly with and we get an answer like A is friendly with B only while B is friendly with A. this sequence is . This so called mutual friendship is represented by the top left diagram in Figure 4. we need tools and techniques of graph theory. 4. D. a trail and a path in a connected graph. that means if person x knows y then it means that y knows x (for every pair (x. the relationship of friendship in the top left diagram is now transformed into an adjacency relationship in the graph shown in the top right diagram. Some of these people are friendly with each other while others are not.1 Introduction We shall discuss a number of basic deﬁnitions in this chapter. D. & E.78 Basics of Graph Theory 4. Persons B and D are the most popular persons while persons A and E are the least popular. a double arrow edge is represented by an un-directed edge. We shall also talk about some special graphs at the end of this chapter. Please note that the double sided arrows emphasize the mutual friendship between two persons. We shall then talk about graph isomorphism and then come back to a discussion of necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a degree sequence to be graphical. We will be solving a couple of puzzles. B. we assume that their friendship is symmetric.1 is transformed into a graph shown in the top right corner of the same ﬁgure. y)). Let us name these people as A. and then sort this sequence we get the so called friendship sequence. Here each person is represented by a node or a vertex.1. thus A is friendly with just one person while B is friendly with three persons. 4. this sequence is also shown in the top left diagram. hopefully the students will realize that in such problems a stage comes when common sense alone is not suﬃcient to solve the puzzle.

1: We show ﬁve persons with a symmetric friendship relationship indicated by lines with double sided arrows in the top left diagram.3 Representation of a Graph The graph shown in the top right corner in Fig. 4.Representation of a Graph 79 exactly the same as the friendship sequence and is shown in the top right corner as well. The adjacency matrix representing the graph is shown in the bottom diagram. The friendship sequence as well as the degree sequence is also indicated along with the respective diagrams. The relationship is transformed into an un-directed graph as shown in the top right diagram. Figure 4.1 is modeled by an adjacency matrix data structure as shown in the bottom diagram of Fig. In this adjacency matrix a 1 represents an adjacency relationship while a . 4.1. 4.

1. The sum of all one’s in a row corresponds to the degree of a vertex. Why? 3. Salma’s husband Aslam (known as A) received the guest when they have arrived while Salma was in the kitchen preparing food. When we sort the numbers in the last column then we get the degree sequence or the friend-ship sequence. Please note that if these conditions are not met then the sequence will not be graphical. he answers zero (he does not shake hands with females). This is because in our understanding of friendship there is no room for self friendship. Is the husband telling the truth assuming the guests told the truth? How about if he answers 3 (he showed no discrimination). At least one number will be repeated in the sequence. the smallest number can not be less than zero. Problem 4.1) the largest number can not be larger than four. In addition to these we have other interesting limitations as discussed below. Why? 2. Find out the number of times the husband actually shook hands and more importantly with whom he shook hands and whom he has ignored.1. .1. Now Salma asks the same question to her husband. she gets the following answer: B says 3. there is neither any room for negative friendship with some one which means animosity. for example the degree of vertex A is 1 while the degree of vertex B is 3.80 Basics of Graph Theory zero (or an absence of 1) represents no adjacency relationship between the corresponding nodes in the graph. what does that mean? Under such conditions the sequence will neither be a friendship sequence. In a group of ﬁve persons (as shown in Fig. Salma invites three of her oﬃce colleagues for dinner. The sum of all numbers in the sequence will always be an even number. It will be interesting to explore the (special) structure of the friendship sequence (or the degree sequence). The odd numbers in the sequence will appear even number of times. Aslam shook hands with some of the guests. Why? Problem Set 4. from now onwards we shall use the term “the sequence”. Obviously Salma was curious about whom Aslam shook hands and with whom he did not. She can not ask this question directly so she simple asks every colleague about the number of hands she had shaken. C says 2 and D says 1. 4. The degree of each vertex is also shown in the last column of the bottom diagram. what does that mean? 1.

No one shook hands with one self or with his or her spouse. Several handshakes took place when the guests have arrived.3.2.1. (a) Determine if you can seat these people around a round table so that every two neighbors are acquainted. The diagram on the right shows the next stage. The acquaintance graph of a group of eight people is given in the following diagram.Representation of a Graph 81 Problem 4. Now Aslam is curious about the following: (a) Did a female shake hands with a male? (b) Did Salma shake hands with a male friend? (c) How many times Salma shake hands? (d) How many times Aslam shake hands? (e) Assume that Salma has not shaken hands with any male friend then did Aslam shake hands with a female? Under such conditions was there a husband who refused to shake hands with a female? Figure 4. the motivation behind this seating strategy is to create a lively atmosphere.1. (b) If answer to (a) is no then is it possible to seat the people around a table so that every two neighbors are acquainted as far as possible? (c) Determine if you can seat these people around a table so that every two neighbors are not acquainted . Problem 4. Surprisingly each person gave a diﬀerent answer but Aslam does not know which answer belongs to whom.1. It is not yet obvious where Salma is and where Aslam is? Each bigger circle in these diagrams contains a husband and wife pair. The diagram on the left shows the graph in the making.2: We show some intermediate stages (and hints) in the solution of Problem 4.2. This time Aslam asked each person including his wife to write on a slip of paper how many hands he or she has shaken. Salma & Aslam has invited three married couples.

4 on the left most graph and the middle graph respectively Try to visualize a graph C having same number of vertices as in G or H and having an edge uv provided the edge uv exists either in G or in H.3: The acquaintance graph of a group of eight people is given. 4. We show a graph G and its complement H in Fig. 4. it will be useful and informative if in each problem you try to actually draw the underlying graph.82 Basics of Graph Theory as far as possible. we should be able to draw an actual graph with the same degree sequence. Determine if you can seat these people around a round table so that every two neighbors are acquainted. We shall explore necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a sequence to be graphical but before we do that let us ﬁrst discuss some more basic stuﬀ (in general) and graph isomorphism (in particular). Now try to visualize a graph E having . We have already discussed a number of necessary conditions for a sequence to be graphical. we shall need some of its (graph isomorphism) results for formulating necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a graphical sequence. Figure 4. The ﬁrst problem set (some parts of this at least) also exploits some of the necessary conditions.4 Complement of a Graph Complement of a graph G is another graph H with the same number of vertices such that there is an edge uv in H if and only if there is no edge uv in G. the motivation behind this seating strategy is to encourage strangers to become acquainted with each other.

A completely connected graph is shown in the right diagram. Thus these two graphs are not equal. The graph on the extreme left and the graph on the extreme right are in fact equal.4: A Graph is shown in the left diagram and its complement is shown in the middle. This is because in one graph all the four degree vertices are connected in the form of a triangle while in the other graph this is not so. if you draw an adjacency matrix of each graph (after identical labeling) then you will ﬁnd that the two adjacency matrices are exactly the same.5 after identical labeling then the two matrices comes out to be diﬀerent as shown in Fig.5 Equal Graphs & Isomorphic Graphs We show 4 graphs in Fig.5. If you closely look at the two middle graphs you realize that they are diﬀerent graphs meaning that they are neither equal nor isomorphic. So there is a good possibility that they are all equal to each other. Note that vertices with the same degree in two diﬀerent graphs are colored similarly. 4. The degree sequences of both these graphs are also indicated. in fact they all have the same degree sequence as shown in the same ﬁgure. and same number of edges. If now you draw the adjacency matrices of the graphs shown on the extreme left and middle left in Fig. the degree of each vertex is also indicated along with each vertex. they may still be isomorphic because we fail to ﬁnd a visible diﬀerence . 4. 4. Figure 4.Equal Graphs & Isomorphic Graphs 83 same number of vertices as in G or H and having an edge uv provided the edge uv exists in G and in H.6. 4. All these graphs have the same number of vertices.

6: Graph G shown in the top left corner is not equal to the graph H shown in the top right corner.84 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. . Out of these graphs at least two are equal graphs. Please note that vertices with the same degree are drawn in the same color. and at least two are isomorphic but not equal. There is still a possibility that the two graphs are isomorphic to each other as the two graphs have a number of similar qualities and no obvious diﬀerences. at least two are non isomorphic graphs (why?). This is evident from the adjacency matrices of the two graphs shown in the bottom diagram.5: We show four graphs each having the same degree sequence. Figure 4. at least two are unequal graphs (why?).

5? 85 These two graphs may still be isomorphic? What does that mean? Two graphs G and H are isomorphic provided they can be drawn with identical graph drawings. 4. this is shown in Fig. 4. It is quite obvious now that the drawing in the top left diagram is the same as the drawing shown in the top right corner. we rotate graph H of Fig. 4.6 is redrawn here in the top right corner after rotating it by an angle of 180 degrees. Then the two graphs are isomorphic provided there is an edge between f (u1 ) and f (u2 ) in the right graph if and only if there was an edge between u1 and u2 in the left graph for every two vertices in the two graphs as shown in the bottom diagram of this ﬁgure. Figure 4. . Let f be an isomorphism from the left graph (G) to the right graph (H). If. for example.2.7. 4.6 by an angle of 180 degrees then we get a drawing which is exactly the same as the graph G. Problem Set 4.7: Graph H shown in the top right diagram of Fig.Equal Graphs & Isomorphic Graphs like the one that we have found for the two middle graphs of Fig.

There is a possibility that the degree sequence may not be graphical? Under such conditions we claim that it is not possible to draw a graph for that sequence (why it is not possible?). 4. Find which two graphs are equal (and isomorphic). and which two are not isomorphic. Problem 4. Draw as many graphs as possible such that no two of them should be isomorphic to each other and each graph should have a degree sequence 332222.2. which are isomorphic but not equal and which are not isomorphic (and also not equal).8. Find an isomorphic function from a graph G to graph H in case graphs G and H are isomorphic to each other.2. and the same degree sequence. Draw as many graphs as possible such that no two of them should be isomorphic to each other and each graph should have a degree sequence 4443322. Problem 4.1. which two are isomorphic.6 The Degree Sequence Assume that we are given a degree sequence of a graph and we need to ﬁnd the corresponding graph provided the sequence is graphical. 4. Find a visible diﬀerence incase the two graphs are not isomorphic. Figure 4. Find which two of them are equal.3.2. We show eight graphs with the same degree sequence in Fig.8: Eight graphs with same number of vertices. So we need to study necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a .86 Basics of Graph Theory Problem 4.2.

9.9. the new graph H will have number of vertices one less than G. Input : Original degree sequence SG (Example 4443322) Output: New degree sequence SH (Example 332222) 1. We apply the following procedure on this degree sequence SG and convert it into a new degree sequence SH which is equal to 332222. Subtract 1 from the ﬁrst 4 (because maximum degree was 4) integers of the remaining sequence as shown in the top right diagram of Fig. 4.9 2. This is equivalent to reducing the degree by one of all adjacent vertices of v in . we have already studied some necessary condition at the start of this chapter but those conditions were not suﬃcient (for a sequence to be graphical). Also assume that (the highest degree) vertex v is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices (after v) in the degree sequence SG of G as shown in the bottom left diagram of Fig. Please note that removing the vertex v from G means that all edges emanating from G will also be removed and that amounts to operation number 2. Algorithm 13: Convert degree sequence SG into SH . Algorithm 13 transforms a degree sequence into another degree sequence. 4.The Degree Sequence 87 sequence to be graphical. Assume that we have a graph G in which the highest degree vertex is known as v and its degree is u. How about the degree sequence 543211? Let us assume we are given a degree sequence SG equal to 4443322. 4. this transformation makes no sense unless we visualize these operations as if they are performed on a graph. that amounts to removing the vertex v from the graph G. Now when we perform the ﬁrst operation of removing the maximum degree from the degree sequence. Before moving forward ﬁnd a sequence which satisﬁes all necessary conditions that we have discussed (earlier in this chapter) but it is impossible to draw a graph corresponding to this sequence. The new sequence SH will become 332222 shown in the same diagram. The maximum degree here is 4 and the total number of integers in the degree sequence is 7. The resulting sequence will be 443322 as shown in the top middle diagram of Fig. Remove the maximum degree (which is 4) from the degree sequence SG (thus reducing the length of the sequence from seven to six).

6. We claim (Havel-Hakimi) that the original sequence SG (corresponding to a graph G) is graphical if and only if the new sequence SH (corresponding to graph H) is graphical.88 Basics of Graph Theory G. The maximum degree here is 4 and the total number of integers in the degree sequence is 7. Claim 4. Figure 4.2. It is interesting to note that the above claims not only provides us a necessary and suﬃcient condition for a sequence to be graphical.1. You may have realized that the new graph will have a degree sequence equal to SH .9: We are given a degree sequence equal to 4443322 shown in the top left diagram. If the new sequence SH is graphical then the original sequence SG is graphical. The new sequence will be shorter by 1 as compared to the original sequence as shown in the top right diagram. and then ﬁnd the actual graph corresponding to this sequence. Let us start with the same degree sequence. In order to prove this necessary and suﬃcient condition we have to make and prove two claims as follows: Claim 4. So before proving the above claims let ﬁrst do the more interesting exercise of ﬁnding a graph. This meaningful interpretation is possible provided we have the crucial assumption: the highest degree vertex v in G is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices (after v) in the degree sequence SG of G. We remove the maximum degree from the sequence and subtract 1 from the ﬁrst 4 integers of the remaining sequence as shown in the top diagrams. verify that it is graphical. If the original sequence SG is graphical then the new sequence SH is graphical. We start with .6. they also provide us means to draw a graph corresponding to a graphical sequence.

this has been illustrated by the bottom diagram of the same ﬁgure. It is very much possible to have two diﬀerent graphs corresponding to the same degree sequence. Each iteration in the above procedure makes the degree sequence smaller in size. It is then converted into a 5 vertex graph. 1. and eventually into a 7 vertex graph as shown in the middle left diagram of Fig. you can draw the corresponding graph (output “Yes”. If you get a number less than zero in the new sequence then the original sequence was not graphical (output “No”.10. The four digit degree sequence can be recognized to be a graphical sequence. Either by carefully looking at the latest new sequence. .The Degree Sequence 89 a p length degree sequence. and terminate) otherwise there are two possibilities. and terminate) or if it is not possible then repeat step (1) on the latest new degree sequence (but sort it if it is not already sorted). The two graphs are neither equal nor isomorphic (why?). 2. and apply the following steps which outputs whether the sequence SG is graphical or not. transform the sequence into a new sequence using Algorithm 13 (by removing the ﬁrst vertex v from the degree sequence with a degree equal to u. 4. a stage comes when it is very much possible to draw the corresponding graph as shown in Fig. In this ﬁgure the seven digit degree sequence is converted into a six digit degree sequence and then ultimately into a four digit degree sequence as shown in the top diagrams. 4.10. and subtracting 1 from the ﬁrst remaining u degrees of the degree sequence). The resulting graph shown in the bottom left diagram is diﬀerent from the middle left graph shown in the same ﬁgure. The corresponding 4 vertex graph is shown in the middle right diagram.

Let us now take up Claim 4. . This seven vertex sequence is converted into a six vertex sequence. it says that if a new sequence SH is graphical then the original sequence SG is also graphical. We get a four vertex graph which is then converted into a ﬁve vertex graph and ultimately into a seven vertex graph as shown in the middle and bottom left diagrams.10: A seven vertex degree sequence is shown in the top left corner. This four vertex sequence is graphical as shown by the middle and bottom right diagrams.6. It is very much possible to get two diﬀerent graphs from the same degree sequence. Let us design an algorithm to construct a graph G corresponding to an original sequence SG provided the new sequence SH and its corresponding graph H is given.1. Can you design a formal proof for this claim? Is your proof based on induction or is it proof by contradiction? Discuss brieﬂy. For example if 332222 is graphical then 4443322 is graphical. and then ultimately into a four vertex sequence as shown in the top right corner.90 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4.

3. We are also given the new sequence SH and we need to show that it is graphical. Let us now take up Claim 4. this means that we need to draw the corresponding graph H. Does Algorithm 14 perform the intended function correctly? Problem 4.1 then you should be able to prove this claim also.11. this is certainly a serious deﬁciency of this algorithm? Before correcting this deﬁciency let us look at it a bit more closely in the next part. It essentially means that now we are given a graph G corresponding to a degree sequence SG . Note down the highest degree in the degree sequence SG . it says that if the original sequence SG is graphical then the new sequence SH is graphical. Input : (1) New degree sequence SH (Example 332222). Problem 4.1.2. 2. Problem Set 4.The Degree Sequence Algorithm 14: Find a graph G corresponding to an original degree sequence SG provided the new sequence SH and its corresponding graph H is given. and its graph H is given. If the assumption is not true then this algorithm will not provide correct results. Does Algorithm 15 perform the intended function correctly? This is an important question because the answer may be no.6. (2) Original degree sequence SG is also given (Example: 4443322). 91 1. If you can prove Claim 4.3. 4. Assume that we are given a degree sequence 4443322 and a graph G as shown in the left diagram of Fig. 4. just move backwards in Fig.10? Can you design an algorithm similar to (or almost a mirror image of) Algorithm 14. Output: Original Graph G corresponding to the degree sequence SG . Add a new vertex v in the given graph H. (the degree of v should be u (why?)) 3.3.3. Problem 4. let it be u.2.3. The said algorithm provides a correct solution provided we have the crucial assumption: the highest degree vertex v in G is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices (after v) in the degree sequence SG of G. Add an edge between the vertex v and the appropriate u vertices in the degree sequence SH (why?). Is it possible to apply .6.

and its graph G is given.3. 1. Remove the vertex v from the resulting graph and we obtain H (why?). Please note that there are three vertices in this graph with a highest degree equal to four. We claim that such a transformation is always possible. the maximum degree vertex v1 has a degree u. Output: Graph H corresponding to the degree sequence SH . Suppose that we are given a graph F and its degree sequence SF . 4.11.4. The following algorithm performs this transformation.92 Basics of Graph Theory Algorithm 15: Find a graph H corresponding to a new degree sequence SH provided the original sequence SG and its corresponding graph G are given. Let this vertex be v and let its degree be equal to u. two of these vertices are not connected to the ﬁrst four vertices in the degree sequence of this graph. Locate the vertex of highest degree in G. 3. What will be the result of our algorithm? Why our algorithm fails this time? Discuss brieﬂy. 2. (2) New degree sequence SH is also given (Example: 332222). Now repeat the above part with the same degree sequences but this time G is as shown in the right diagram of Fig. and this vertex is not connected with the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence (after v1 ) of this graph. Remove all edges emanating from the vertex v. We need to convert the graph F into another graph G with the same degree sequence but in G the vertex v1 (having highest degree equal to u) is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence of this graph. 1 (Note that graph H corresponds to degree sequence SH ?) Algorithm 15 in order to draw a graph with a degree sequence equal to 332222? Please note that there are three vertices with a highest degree equal to four. Problem 4. Why? Once it has been established by Algorithm 16 that a given graph F can . none of these vertices are connected to the ﬁrst four vertices in the degree sequence of this graph. Input : (1) Original degree sequence SG (Example 4443322).

vn ).The Degree Sequence 93 Figure 4. the maximum degree vertex v1 has degree u. Output: A graph G with the same degree sequence. vk ) & (vj . locate a vertex vn such that vj is connected to vn while vk is not connected to vn . and this vertex is not connected with the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence (after v1 ) of this graph. vj ) & (vk . there is no need to do any thing else) 2. vn ). graph H is now transformed into graph G? . Algorithm 16: Convert graph F with a degree sequence SF into a graph G with the same degree sequence (but with an important diﬀerence?) Input : A graph F and its degree sequence SF . and this vertex is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence of this graph. (If you can not ﬁnd such vertices then graph F is already transformed into G. Please note that the two graphs are not isomorphic. remove edges (v1 . 1. In the graph H.11: Two graphs with the same degree sequence 4443322. Locate vertex vk and vertex vj in the graph F such that v1 is connected to vertex vk and not connected to vertex vj while the degree of vj is larger than that of vk . and insert edges (v1 . From graph H. the maximum degree vertex v1 has a degree u. (Why are you guaranteed to ﬁnd such a vertex vn ? 3.

Let us summarize our recent ﬁndings: 1.13. 4. Algorithm 16 has also made it possible to design a constructive proof for Claim Number 2. We are given a graph G with a degree sequence 432221 as shown in the top left diagram of Fig. Problem 4. 2. Given a graph G in which the maximum degree vertex is not connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence of this graph (where u is the degree of the highest degree vertex) it is not possible to apply Algorithm 15 in order to transform G into another graph H. It is possible to convert this graph G into another graph with the same degree sequence by using Algorithm 16 as shown in the top right diagram of Fig.4.4.2. We show the position of our claims and the respective proofs. Please note that the three algorithms perform a dual purpose. Under such conditions we ﬁrst transform G into another graph G using Algorithm 16 and then Algorithm 15 will correctly transform G into H. Problem Set 4. it gives rises to a number of important conclusions. 4.14. What is that constructive proof? We show our strategy in handling the necessary & suﬃcient conditions for a degree sequence to be graphical in Fig.14. Given a graph G in which the maximum degree vertex is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence of this graph (where u is the degree of the highest degree vertex) it is possible to apply Algorithm 15 in order to transform G into another graph H. As shown in this ﬁgure the highest degree vertex is connected to a vertex of lowest degree while it is not connected to a vertex of a relatively higher degree. Problem 4. Concentrate on the third line of Algorithm 14: “Add an edge between the vertex v and the appropriate u vertices in the degree sequence SH (why?)”. 3. they help us in transforming one graph into another but more importantly they provide crucial insight in designing constructive proofs for the two claims. The . 4. Remember we have discussed this problem in the class but have not resolved it completely.4.1.94 Basics of Graph Theory always be transformed into another graph G. What does appropriate mean? Carefully read your text book (page 17) and then make your decision appropriately.

The graph in the left diagram is converted into a graph shown in the right diagram by deleting two edges and by inserting two edges (shown in bold). All these three vertices (with a degree of 4) are connected to a vertex of minimum degree. it is not connected to a vertex of degree 2. The graph in the right diagram has the same degree sequence but there is an important diﬀerence. Here there is at least one vertex (v1 ) with a (highest degree equal to four) which is connected to vertices with higher degrees only.The Degree Sequence 95 Figure 4.12: A seven vertex graph is shown in the left diagram with a degree sequence shown in the top of the graph. There are three vertices in this graph with a highest degree equal to four. v1 is connected to two vertices with degree 4 and two vertices with degree three. the minimum degree in this graph is 2. .

the minimum degree in this graph is 2.96 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. . There are three vertices in this graph with a highest degree equal to four. All these three vertices (with a degree of 4) are connected to a vertex of minimum degree.13: A seven vertex graph is shown in the left diagram with a degree sequence shown in the top of the graph.

g. The new graph with the same degree sequence and the problem completely resolved is shown in the bottom diagram. g. We again apply the same algorithm to resolve the rest of the problem as shown in the middle right diagram. Do we know how to draw the graph for SH provided we have a graph for SG ? Discuss brieﬂy. c. k and assume that a = 5. Problem 4. d. . b.The Degree Sequence 97 problem (that the highest degree vertex is connected to (relatively) lower degree vertices) is still not completely resolved as is evident from the middle left diagram of the same ﬁgure. i. The ﬁgure down below may be helpful for your imagination.3. As you may have noticed in this speciﬁc problem we have to apply the said algorithm twice to obtain the desired results. Let another sequence be SH = b − 1. j. f. f − 1.14: A graph with a given degree sequence shown in the top left diagram is converted into another graph with the same degree sequence shown in the bottom diagram. h. Let a degree sequence consisting of 11 numbers be SG = a. j. Is it possible to do some thing in this speciﬁc problem so that the problem is resolved just by applying the said algorithm only once? Can you generalize your ﬁndings? How much can you save in time in the worst case analysis? Figure 4. c − 1. i.4. d − 1. h. e. k. e − 1.

Both these graphs have the same degree sequence which is 54444411111. e. b. Please verify if this is always right or wrong in general. j. k − 1. i. if it is graphical then we ﬁnd and draw the actual graph G corresponding to this sequence.7. Figure 4. Let a degree sequence consisting of 11 numbers be SG = a. the highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) will always be connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence SG ? Problem 4.15: Two graphs are shown in this ﬁgure. f. Discuss brieﬂy. k and assume that a = 5. We check if the degree sequence is graphical.4.98 Basics of Graph Theory Problem 4. h − 1. d.6. If the degree sequence is graphical then you are supposed to draw a graph G corresponding to this sequence such that the . d. The ﬁgure down below may be helpful for your imagination. g − 1. f. We are given a degree sequence SG . Problem 4. e. Do we know how to draw the graph for SH provided we have a graph for SG ? Discuss brieﬂy.4.4.4.4. Problem 4. The graph shown in the left diagram is a connected graph while the graph shown in the right diagram is a disconnected graph. In this graph G the highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) will always be connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence SG . c. h. i − 1. Let another sequence be SH = b. g.5. c. We check if the degree sequence is graphical. If the answer to the above problem is no then how can we do some thing to make sure that in the ﬁnal graph. We are given a degree sequence SG . j − 1.

Is there a possibility that a degree sequence SG is graphical but it is impossible to draw a graph corresponding to this sequence such that the highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) in the graph should be connected to the last u vertices in the degree sequence SG .4. Problem 4.4. Problem 4.9.4.The Degree Sequence 99 highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) should be connected to the last u vertices in the degree sequence SG . We are given a graph G (and its degree sequence SG ) in which the highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) is connected to the ﬁrst u vertices in the degree sequence SG . . Discuss brieﬂy if this is always possible and how will you do it? Problem 4.8. What are necessary & suﬃcient conditions for a degree sequence SG to be graphical such that in the resulting graph G the highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) in the graph should be connected to the last u vertices in the degree sequence SG . Either prove or ﬁnd a counter example. Is it always possible to convert it into another graph with the same degree sequence but now the highest degree vertex v (with a degree equal to u) is connected to the last u vertices in the degree sequence SG .10.

The graph shown in the left diagram is a connected graph while the graph shown in the right diagram is a disconnected graph. 4. Both these graphs have the same degree sequence which is 54444411111. & Paths We show a walk from vertex a to vertex d in a graph shown in Fig. .17. 4.100 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4.16: Two graphs are shown in this ﬁgure. A shortest path between the same two vertices is also shown. We also show a path between the same two vertices in this graph. Remember in a trail it is not allowed to traverse an edge more than once – but it is allowed to traverse a vertex several times. Trails.7 Walks. Please note that in a walk it is possible to traverse an edge (and therefore a vertex) several times. A walk or a trail can always be converted into a path as shown in this ﬁgure. We also show a trail between the same two vertices in the same graph. The path is shortest in terms of number of edges in between the two terminal vertices. You may have realized that in a path it is not allowed to traverse an edge or a vertex more than once.

the path consists of six edges. no edge is repeated. The shortest path from vertex a to d is shown in the bottom right diagram. & Paths 101 Figure 4. A path is shown from vertex a to vertex d in the top right diagram. .17: A walk from vertex a to vertex d consisting of eight edges as shown in the top left diagram. the trail consists of six edges. In this trail only a vertex is repeated. The trail in the top middle diagram is converted into a path from vertex a to d as shown in the bottom middle diagram. Trails. A trail from vertex a to d is shown in the top middle diagram.Walks. The walk in the top left corner (from vertex a to d) is converted into a four edge path as shown in the bottom left diagram. vertices as well as edges are repeated in the walk.

102 Basics of Graph Theory 4.e.. (c) Cycle graphs. Under special graphs we consider: (a) Completely connected graphs. We categorize graphs into three major categories: (1) Acyclic graphs (or trees). it consists of no self loops or parallel edges. (2) Bipartite graphs.18. Figure 4. .9 Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs We shall talk about very broad categories of graphs and then some special graphs. 4. & (3) Cyclic graphs. It can be represented by an adjacency matrix.8 Multi-graphs and Pseudo-graphs We show a simple graph. (d) Line graphs. & (e) Star graphs. i. This graph can be represented by an adjacency matrix also shown in the same Fig. We also show graphs with self loops and parallel edges. How about graphs which are not simple? 4.18: A simple graph containing no self loops and no parallel edges. (b) Regular graphs. graphs containing cycles.

Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs 103 Figure 4. .19: A cyclic graph which is neither bipartite nor acyclic is shown in the right diagrams. an acyclic graph (or a tree). shown in the left diagrams. is also a bipartite graph. A bipartite graph which is not acyclic is shown in the middle diagrams.

19 is not bipartite as it contains an odd cycle. 4. 4.1 Tree Graphs A connected graph G is a tree provided it does not contain any cycles. A tree graph is shown in Fig. A graph is a line graph (or a chain graph) if the degree of every vertex is 2 except for two vertices where the degree is 1.19.3 Special Graphs A graph G is k-regular if the degree of every vertex is exactly equal to k. Another bipartite graph is shown in the middle diagram of Fig. We show a number of non isomorphic trees with p larger than 1 and smaller than 6 in Fig. 4. If G does not contain a cycle then G is not only bipartite it is also a tree. A graph G having p vertices is completely connected if the degree of every vertex is p − 1 (please note that the degree of a vertex in a simple graph can not be more than p − 1). 4.2 Bipartite Graphs A graph G is bipartite provided it does not contain odd cycles. The minimum vertex cover of this graph is also shown in this diagram. In other words every edge in a bipartite graph connects a vertex from set A to a vertex in Set B.9.19.9. it is bipartite because it does not contain any cycle at all. The graph shown in the right diagram of Fig.20.19 and 4.9. Please note that partite A is an independent set while partite B is also an independent set but neither of the two is a maximum independent set. The maximum independent set in this graph is shown in the right diagram of this ﬁgure. It may contain even cycles or no cycles at all. 4.21.104 Basics of Graph Theory 4. A bipartite graph is shown in the left diagram of Fig. A graph is a cycle graph if the degree of every vertex is exactly two. 4. it is bipartite because it does not contain any odd cycles. A line graph consisting of two vertices is a special case where the degree of both the vertices is 1.21. . The A partite as well as the B partite are shown in the middle diagram where the bipartite graph is drawn with a diﬀerent orientation to highlight the two parts. 4. We show another bipartite graph in Fig. The vertex set V (G) of a bipartite graph G can be partitioned into two disjoint sets A and B whereas both A as well as B are independent sets. 4.

The minimum (sized) vertex cover and the maximum (sized) independent set in graph G are shown in the right diagram. This graph is in fact a bipartite graph as shown in the middle diagram consisting of an A partite and a B partite.21: A graph G is shown in the left diagram. .20: We show a number of non isomorphic trees with p larger than 1 and smaller than 6. Figure 4.Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs 105 Figure 4.

is always bipartite. A line graph is not regular unless it consists of a special case of a connected graph of two vertices. being acyclic. It is obvious from Fig. 4. The degree of every vertex is 1 except for one vertex where the degree is p − 1 in a star graph. The degree of every vertex is 2 except for two vertices where the degree is 1 in a line graph. Figure 4. A start graph consisting of two vertices is a special case. The degree of every vertex is exactly 2 in a cycle graph. A line graph.22 that a completely connected graph is (p − 1)regular while a k-regular graph may not be completely connected.106 Basics of Graph Theory A graph G is a star graph if the degree of one vertex is p − 1 while the degree of every other vertex is 1. A graph G is referred to as a forest if it contains a collection or set of trees. A cycle graph is also a 2-regular graph as shown in this ﬁgure. A star graph is not regular unless it has a size equal to 2 when it becomes a line graph which is 1-regular.22: The degree of every vertex in a completely connected graph is p − 1. The degree of every node is the same for every vertex in a regular graph. .

being acyclic. 4.25. A number of cycle graphs are shown in Fig. A 3-regular graph is shown in the middle diagrams. The four partites are indicated in diﬀerent colors in the bottom diagrams of this ﬁgure.23. We show a number of k-regular graphs in Fig. any edge in these graphs connects a vertex in one partite to any vertex in one of the other partites. 4. A 4-regular graph is shown in the right diagrams. We show a number of k-regular graphs in Fig.23. They are rather 4-partite graphs meaning that the vertex sets of each of these graphs can be partitioned into four disjoint sets of vertices (or partites).22. It is interesting to compare these graphs with the ones shown in Fig. All these regular graphs are bipartite as shown in the bottom diagrams. is always bipartite where one partite consists of size 1 while the other of size p − 1. 4. 4. Please note that all these graphs are bipartite as shown in the bottom diagrams of this ﬁgure. Figure 4.Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs 107 Also a star graph. These new graphs are regular and not bipartite.23: A 2-regular graph shown in the right diagrams. A curious reader might .

while it is not bipartite if the cycle graph consists of odd number of vertices. Figure 4. A 4-regular graph is shown in the middle diagrams.24: A 6-regular graph shown in the right diagrams.108 Basics of Graph Theory appreciate the fact that a cycle graph is bipartite if it consists of even number of vertices. What may not be obvious is that an odd cycle graph will always be a 3-partite graph as shown in this ﬁgure. All these graphs are 3-partite as shown in the bottom diagrams. . Another 4-regular graph is shown in the right diagrams.

27 above shows the same graph A as shown in Fig 4. It is a 7-regular graph consisting of eight vertices.5. graph B is a 6-regular graph. By deleting a diﬀerent set of edges from graph A. Similarly graph C is derived from graph A by deleting another set of edges from B. The ﬁgure below shows a completely connected graph A in the left diagram.26. Similarly draw all possible non isomorphic graphs of 8 vertices which are 5regular. The middle graph shows graph B which is derived from graph A after deleting or subtracting a number of edges from graph A.2.Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs 109 Figure 4. Please note that graph C is again a 5-regular graph consisting of 8 vertices.5. Problem 4. Similarly . The Figure 4. we may obtain a graph which is not isomorphic to graph B. Problem Set 4.1.25: Cycle graphs of diﬀerent sizes are shown. Problem 4. Graph E is obtained by deleting a vertex from graph A.5. Draw all possible graphs consisting of 8 vertices which are not isomorphic to B but which are 6-regular.

110 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4.26: Graphs B and C are derived from graph A by deleting certain edges. . Figure 4.27: Graphs E and F are derived from graph A by deleting certain vertices.

By carefully selecting and deleting certain edges of graph C shown in Fig. (b) Now concentrate on graph E.5. Try to match the graphs that you have obtained with the ones shown in the ﬁgure below. (c) By deleting another set of edges transform it into a 4-regular graph.3. (d) Draw all non isomorphic graphs which are 4-regular consisting of 7 vertices.28: Shows all non-isomorphic graphs consisting of 8 vertices which are 4-regular.26. Problem 4.5. 4. we can obtain a 4-regular graph of eight vertices. How many such non-isomorphic graphs we shall be able to obtain? The ﬁgure below shows all non-isomorphic graphs consisting of 8 vertices which are 4regular. Please note that both E and F are completely connected and regular graphs. Figure 4. by deleting certain edges transform it into a 5-regular graph.Broad Categories of Graphs & some Special Graphs 111 graph F is obtained by deleting another vertex of graph E. Look at the graphs consisting of 8 vertices and are 4regular as shown in the ﬁgure above. it is a 6-regular graph. (a) Is it possible to get a graph which is isomorphic to graph F by deleting any two vertices of graph A? Discuss brieﬂy. (a) Find which of these graphs is a .4. Problem 4.

(c) Draw all nonisomorphic graphs consisting of 12 vertices and are 6-regular.10 Integration of Concepts. and are regular consisting of eight vertices. and Action Items We have talked about various concepts in graph theory in this chapter.29: Graphs G is derived from graph A by deleting certain edges.5. Draw all non-isomorphic graphs consisting of 8 vertices which are 5-regular. The graph G shown in the ﬁgure below is derived from graph A by subtracting certain edges from graph A. We have mainly conﬁned ourselves to simple graphs in which there are no parallel edges and no self loops. we shall study directed graphs in detail in Chapter 8. a tree . (d) Draw all non-isomorphic graphs consisting of eight vertices which are 3-regular. We have further limited our study to un-directed graphs in this chapter. Properties. 4.5. Note that graph G is 5-regular. Figure 4. Problem 4. Connected graphs can also belong to certain categories like a line graph. Out of these graphs indicate which ones are bipartite graphs. This category of graphs can easily be represented by an adjacency matrix or an adjacency list data structure. a cycle graph.112 Basics of Graph Theory bipartite graph? (b) Draw all non-isomorphic bipartite graphs which are connected. Un-directed graphs can be further classiﬁed into connected graphs and disconnected graphs.

a cyclic graph and a completely connected graph. like a Hamiltonian path or an Eulerian path in a graph. We have also talked about certain properties of graphs.Integration of Concepts. . or a path between two vertices in a graph. Properties. and Action Items 113 graph. a trail. We have also talked about a walk. It will be interesting if we integrate a couple of concepts with a number of properties.

The problem of how to construct a SC graph of ﬁxed vertices will also be discussed. That means that both these graphs are self complementing. It can be seen that the left graph is the complement of the right graph as well as isomorphic to the right graph. The following concepts are used in a meaningful manner to advance our discussion on self complementing graphs. Regular & non regular graphs 4. Complement c(G) of a graph G 2. Graph isomorphism between two graphs G & H 3. We shall show how one SC graph can be transformed into another SC graph with less or more vertices? Some of the interesting properties of these graphs will also be elaborated. Some of the necessary conditions of SC graphs will be discussed next. Both of them are also Hamiltonian? Necessary Conditions .11 Self Complementing Graphs A self complementing (SC) graph is a graph G whose complement c(G) is isomorphic to itself. Eccentricity of a vertex 7. 1. Radius & Diameter of a graph This section is organized as follows. We shall discuss these graphs in some detail as they provide us a platform to connect a number of key concepts in graph theory & algorithms.114 Basics of Graph Theory 4.11. Degree sequence of a graph 5. We shall ﬁrst show some SC graphs in order to give you a feel of such graphs. Deleting and inserting a vertex in a given graph 6. 4. We shall conclude with a number of interesting problems.1 Regular Self Complementing graphs We show a number of non trivial (a graph of one vertex is a trivial example of such graphs) self complementing graphs in the following ﬁgure. These graphs are also regular as the degree of each vertex is 2.

When k = 2. Let us try to explore graphs with 9 vertices with the degree of each vertex equal to 4.Self Complementing Graphs 115 Figure 4. p will become 9. If c(G) is isomorphic to G then it should have the same number of edges as G . Will all such graphs be isomorphic to each other? Will such graphs (or at . We have already drawn such a graph with p = 5 when k = 1. Does that mean that p or p − 1 in an SC graph should be divisible by 4 4? Are these necessary or suﬃcient conditions for such a regular graph to be self complementing? It will be rewarding if you draw a couple of regular graphs with the property that the degree of each vertex is p−1 .30: A graph and its complement which is isomorphic to the original graph. Then the number of edges in the graph will be exactly 2 p(p−1) .that means the degree of every vertex in a regular self complementing graph should be p−1 . The complement c(G) of graph G is obtained by deleting all edges of graph G from the corresponding completely connected graph. Can you draw such a graph if p is even? 4 Can you draw such a graph if p is any odd number? It will be essential to answer the above questions before moving forward? If you have tried to draw such graphs then you will soon realize that a nregular graph (where n = p−1 ) is possible if and only if p = 4k + 1 where 4 k is an integer equal to or larger than one. Does this mean that all regular graphs are self complementing? But a cycle graph of three or six vertices is not self complementing? There must be a class of regular graphs which will be self complementing? The following ﬁgure shows the same graph along with the corresponding completely connected graph of ﬁve vertices.

least some of them) self complementing? If you take the complement of any such graph it will certainly have the same degree sequence and same number of edges? Again it will be rewarding if you draw some of these graphs before arriving at a conclusion? We show three such graphs in the ﬁgure below. It will be exciting if you draw the complement of the left graph? You will soon realize that the top right graph is the complement of the top left graph while the bottom graph is isomorphic to the top right graph.31: A self complementing graph of 5 vertices (left diagram) and a completely connected graph of 5 vertices. What does this example tell us? .116 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. Are any two of them isomorphic to each other? Is one complement of the other? Are they self complementing? Please try to answer these questions before moving forward.

Top right diagram shows the complement c(G) of graph G. . The bottom graph is equal to c(G).Self Complementing Graphs 117 Figure 4.32: Top left diagram shows a graph G.

How about imagining non isomorphic regular graphs having p = 13 and degree of each vertex equal to 6. There are (367860) six-regular non isomorphic graphs with 13 vertices.34: A regular self complementing graph of 13 vertices. A very few of them indeed transform into themselves when you take the complement. If we take the complement of one such graph it will transform either into one of such graphs or into itself. One such self complementing graph is shown below. Figure 4. . Most of them transform into one another if you take the complement of one such graph as shown above. One such graph is shown in the ﬁgure below.118 Basics of Graph Theory If you actually draw all non isomorphic graphs with p = 9 and degree of each vertex equal to 4 you will realize that there are 16 such graphs possible. Figure 4.33: A regular self complementing graph of 9 vertices.

& 32221. Now we have to verify if these degree sequences are really graphical.2 Non Regular Self Complementing graphs One important question that should agitate you is every self complementing graph a regular graph? Is it possible to have a non regular graph to be self complementing? How about a line graph of four vertices? Its degree sequence is 2211. Necessary Conditions Is it possible to have a non regular graph of ﬁve vertices which is self complementary? Let us try out various degree sequences with the above necessary condition? There are only three choices possible under the conditions laid out before: 22222.11. The degree sequence of the complement of this line graph can be obtained by subtracting 2211 from 3333. it comes out to be the same as the four vertex line graph is self complementary. Figure 4. and if they are then do they really belong to graphs which are self complementary? Let us start with the sequence 32221. 33211.35: A self complementary line graph of 4 vertices. Can you draw its graph and check out if the graph is self complementary? The sequence is graphical but is itself complementing? . The other two belongs to non regular graphs and are of interest to us. The degree sequence of a completely connected graph of four vertices is 3333. This provides us a necessary condition for a non regular graph to be self complementary? The degree sequence of c(G) should be such that if we add it (after sorting it in increasing order) with the degree sequence of G (having p vertices) then we should get the degree sequence of a completely connected graph of p vertices. The ﬁrst degree sequence corresponds to a cycle graph which was regular and we have already seen it.Self Complementing Graphs 119 4.

In fact we have earlier claimed that a regular SC graph can have only 4k + 1 vertices.120 Basics of Graph Theory Now let us check the other sequence which is 33221. we can safely say that a SC graph of 4k vertices will always be non regular? Why? . we have seen a non regular SC graph of 4 vertices in the last diagram.36: A 5 vertex non-regular self complementing graph. this indeed comes out to be graphical as well as self complementary as shown below: Figure 4. it is not suﬃcient. We have already seen a regular SC graph of 4 + 1 = 5 vertices. Please note that the condition (the degree sequence of c(G) should be such that if we add it (after sorting it in increasing order) with the degree sequence of G (having p vertices) then we should get the degree sequence of a completely connected graph of p vertices) is a necessary condition. we have also seen a non regular SC graph of 5 vertices. Thus this condition along with others (for example the number of odd degrees in a degree sequence should be even for a degree sequence to graphical) may narrow down our search for SC graphs but we always have to verify if a given graph G is a SC graph? These simple conditions tells us that an SC graph (which may or may not be regular) can only have p equal to 4k or 4k + 1 vertices where k can be equal to or larger than 1.

3 Constructing Self Complementary Graphs Let us consider graphs where p = 8 and assume that its degree sequence satisﬁes the stated necessary conditions for a SC graph. If we connect graph G and its complement in the following conﬁguration then we claim that the new graph will be a SC graph. 66443311. Some of the possible degree sequences are listed here: 66661111.we shall now discuss ways of constructing large SC graphs bypassing this tiring process? The new method will help us further in making meaningful connection between relevant concepts. If G contains a single vertex then this graph is certainly SC graph.37: Here vertex G is a graph while c(G) is complement of graph G. Let us actually construct such graph and see how it looks? Assume that G . The resulting super graph is a self complementing graph.11. 55552222. But if G contains more than 1 vertex then why this composite graph is self complementary? Figure 4. It will be interesting if you try to check if a graph corresponding to these degree sequences is indeed self complementary? This will certainly be a tiring process . An edge between G and c(G) means that every vertex G is connected to every vertex of c(G).Self Complementing Graphs 121 4. Given any graph G we can always ﬁnd its complement c(G). and G may contain more than one vertex. 44443333. Please note that a line between G and c(G) means that each vertex of G is connected to every vertex of c(G). 55443322.

Using these building blocks you can also construct another SC graph? If you have the patience of constructing such a graph you will realize that its degree sequence will be 55552222.here also G is any graph and is connected with its neighboring graph in the same fashion? Here x is just one vertex and we claim as before that the resulting graph will be self complementary. Another copy of G will consist of a line graph of two vertices . Figure 4.then c(G) will simply consist of two isolated vertices. Another way to construct a SC graph is shown below . The degree sequence of this graph is 44443333 it is one of the sequences that we have predicted earlier in our discussion? We can also start with G equal to two isolated vertices .consisting of vertex 7 and vertex 8. How the above conﬁguration would look like when it is actually drawn? If you look at the diagram below you will realize that the graph is indeed self complementary.and that will be two isolated vertices 3 & 4. . Why? The number of vertices in the resulting SC graph will be 4p + 1 where p is the number of vertices in G.then c(G) will be a line graph of two vertices. The number of vertices in the SC graph will still be 4p where G has p vertices. Then c(G) will be its complement .38: Here graph G is a line graph of two vertices 1 & 2.122 Basics of Graph Theory is a line graph of two vertices .

How about if we insert a self complementary graph H in the place of x as well as G in the above conﬁguration? 4. Will the above conﬁguration result into a regular or a non regular SC graph? The following diagrams will help you answer these interesting questions. Please ﬁnd the degree sequence of each of the following graph? Can you ﬁgure out how these SC graphs are constructed? . 1. An edge between G and c(G) means that every vertex G is connected to every vertex of c(G). Vertex x may be a single vertex graph. What would happen if the self complementary graph H in the above step is regular? How about if it is non regular? 5. The resulting super graph is a self complementing graph. There a number of interesting possibilities in the above conﬁguration.Self Complementing Graphs 123 Figure 4. Is it possible that we insert graph G in the place of x in the above conﬁguration? Please note that G is any graph? 3.39: Here vertex G is a graph while vertex c(G) is the complement of graph G. How about if instead of single x vertex we have a graph H connected to its neighbors? In order to make the whole conﬁguration SC should it be any graph H or a special graph H? What special property it should possess? As you can discover yourself H should be a self complementary graph for the above conﬁguration to be self complementary? 2.

. It will contain 4k + 1 vertices.11.40: A line graph of 4 vertices is used as a building block in the left diagram.4 Transforming a SC graph with 4k + 1 vertices into another SC graph with 4k vertices We know that a SC graph should have either 4k or 4k + 1 vertices? This immediately leads us to conjecture that if we have a SC graph of 4k + 1 vertices then by deleting one vertex we can convert it into another SC graph having 4k vertices? Is it straight forward or we need to devise an intelligent algorithm to do so? Similarly if we are given a SC graph having 4k vertices then is it possible to construct a SC graph having 4k + 1 vertices by inserting a new vertex and connecting it to some of the vertices of the original graph? Again do we need some thinking to do so or is it a trivial problem? In order to answer these questions let us start with a regular graph which is SC. A cycle graph of 5 vertices is used as a building block in the right diagram.124 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. Can we delete any vertex and the resulting graph would stay a SC graph of 8 vertices? Please note that initially the degree sequence is 444444444. It becomes 44443333 after deleting that vertex. 4. By deleting any vertex from this graph is it possible to convert it into another SC graph having 4k vertices? Let us start with a simpler problem of a regular SC graph having 9 vertices as shown below.

.Self Complementing Graphs 125 Figure 4. We remove vertex 2 from the same SC graph in the bottom diagram.41: We remove vertex 1 in the top diagram from a SC graph in the top diagram.

Is the resulting graph a SC graph? How about if we have a non regular SC graph of 4k + 1 vertices? Can we delete any vertex to make it another SC graph with 4k vertices? How about this graph? It has a degree sequence 332211.126 Basics of Graph Theory What about if we delete any vertex from the 25 vertex graph shown earlier. It is no longer a trivial problem and we should devise an algorithm to solve the problem? . Will the new graph be also self complementary? Why? Figure 4.42: We remove a vertex from the 25 vertex SC graph.

Figure 4. This graph may also provide insights needed to design an intelligent algorithm to solve the above problem.after deleting one vertex the new degree sequence should possess certain properties if it represents a self complementing graph? For example it can be 66443311 or 77443300. Here we show another interesting graph which is not regular but is self complementing. Can we remove any vertex and still it remains a SC graph? Given a degree sequence 774444411 of a self complementing graph .44: A SC graph having 9 vertices.Self Complementing Graphs 127 Figure 4.43: A SC graph having 5 vertices which is not regular. etc. The problem is to decide which vertex should be removed? . Its degree sequence is 774444411.

The graph is redrawn in the bottom diagram to emphasize that it is indeed a beautiful regular graph? .128 Basics of Graph Theory Should we always remove the vertex with degree equal to 4? Why? Should that vertex be connected with lower degrees or higher degrees? 4. Now start with the same original graph (with a degree sequence equal to 44443333) while the new graph should have a degree sequence equal to 444444444. Figure 4.11.45: We insert a vertex x in a self complementing graph. The resulting graph is SC and is also regular . Again we shall show you a number of graphs and then provoke you to design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve the problem. We show the same graph with a degree sequence 44443333 being converted into a new SC graph with degree sequence 555543333. Please note that we can also put an extra constraint that the resulting SC graph should be regular.although it has not been drawn in a suitable manner in the top diagram.5 Transforming a SC graph with 4k vertices into another SC graph with 4k + 1 vertices Now let us look into the problem of inserting a vertex in a SC graph consisting of 4k vertices such that the new graph having 4k + 1 vertices is also selfcomplementing.

Self Complementing Graphs 129 Figure 4.46: After inserting vertex x we have a regular SC graph. .

11.then can we solve the graph isomorphism problem? How? .47: Inserting a vertex x in a SC graph? 4.this is c(G) and now check if G and c(G) are isomorphic.6 The Self Complementary problem and Graph Isomorphism If we know how to ﬁnd if G and H are isomorphic then we can always check if G is a self complementary graph? How? Take the complement of G .130 Basics of Graph Theory So the problem is where to connect the inserted vertex and what should be its degree? Perhaps another example may provide you a solution? Please check the degree sequence of the graph before after inserting a new vertex? Figure 4. But suppose we know how to check if G is a self complementary graph .

48: We need to check if graph G is isomorphic to graph H? Look at the ﬁgure above. We claim that if the top (or the bottom) graph is self complementary then graph G is isomorphic to graph H? Why? We can also use the following conﬁguration to check if G and H are isomorphic also by substituting H in an appropriate place in this diagram? Figure 4. .Self Complementing Graphs 131 Figure 4.7 A SC graph has diameter 2 or 3 .11.not less than 2 and not more than 3? Instead of proving the above statement let us ﬁrst do a simple one.49: We need to check if graph G is isomorphic to graph H? 4. Can we prove that for any graph G the following conﬁguration will give us a SC graph with a diameter not more than 3. We need to check if a given graph G is isomorphic to another given graph H.

Let us see how the eccentricities of various vertices look like in a line graph of eight and ﬁve vertices as shown below. and the radius and diameter of a graph. The diameter in the top graph will be 7 while the radius will be 4 in the top diagram.132 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. Similarly we show another ﬁve vertex graph where the . The diameter and radius for the bottom line graph will be respectively 4 and 2.51: What is the diameter of this super graph? We shall now attack the more general problem? But before that let us refresh our knowledge regarding some old concepts: the eccentricity of a vertex.50: What is the diameter of this super graph? Again can we prove that for any graph G the following conﬁguration will give a SC graph with diameter not more than 2? Figure 4.

Thus its diameter is 2 while its radius is 1. Here the eccentricity of each vertex in G is 2 except for vertex 1. The ﬁve vertex line graph and its complement are shown in the bottom diagram.53: A completely connected graph G and its complement. Another ﬁve vertex graph G and its complement is shown below.52: The eccentricities of diﬀerent vertices in a line graph. The eccentricity of each vertex is indicated in the line graph as well as in its complement.the diameter as well as the radius is 1 in this graph. You can well imagine that if the diameter in a graph G is more than 3 then . eccentricity of each vertex is 1. Please note that the diameter in the line graph was 4 while it has reduced to 2 in the complement of the line graph. The diameter as well as the radius in the complement graph is 2. Figure 4. It is a completely connected graph . Its diameter as well radius will be inﬁnite.Self Complementing Graphs 133 Figure 4. The complement of this graph is also shown in the bottom diagram. The diameter in the complement of graph G is inﬁnite while its radius is also inﬁnite.

54: A star graph and its complement.134 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4.55: A line graph and its complement. . Figure 4.

Please note that bipartite complement of a bipartite graph is diﬀerent from this complement.thus all the A (and B) partite vertices in BP will become completely connected in the complement of BP . Here we ﬁrst form a completely connected bipartite graph consisting of as many vertices in the A as well as B partites of bipartite graph BP . We assume that while taking the complement of graph BP we simply consider it a general graph . Let us call these category A SC bipartite graphs. Similarly if the radius or the diameter in a graph G is 1 then it cannot be isomorphic to its complement? Why? Does that mean that a SC graph can have diameter 2 or 3 . Let us call these category B SC bipartite graphs. Please note that this not a Category A SC bipartite graph? Why? .we then remove those edges which are already present in BP . Alternatively in order to ﬁnd complement of graph BP .11. That means a graph G with a diameter more than 3 cannot be self complementary.Self Complementing Graphs 135 the diameter in its complement is reduced to 2. The following graph is a Category A SC graph. we ﬁrst form a completely connected general graph consisting of all BP vertices . We then remove existing edges in BP from this completely connected bipartite graph .not more not less? 4.8 Bipartite self complementary graphs Deﬁnition: Assume that the complement of a bipartite graph BP is isomorphic to bipartite graph BP .not more than 3 and not less than 2? How about the radius of a SC graph? Should it be always 2 .this will give us the complement of graph BP .the resulting graph will be a bipartite complement of bipartite graph BP . Now assume that the bipartite complement of bipartite graph B is isomorphic to bipartite graph B. Please note that it is not a Category B SC graph? Why? Can you draw another bipartite graph which is a Category A SC graph? Can you prove that such graphs are not possible if any partite contains more than two vertices? We show a category B SC graph BP in the ﬁgure below.

.56: A bipartite graph BP shown in the top left diagram.136 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. The corresponding completely connected graph is shown in the top right diagram.57: A bipartite graph and its bipartite complement. The complement of graph BP is shown in the bottom diagram. Figure 4.

58: Top left diagram shows a bipartite graph BP. The bottom diagrams once again shows the two bipartite graphs shown in the standard form.Self Complementing Graphs 137 The same graph BP is drawn below in a diﬀerent shape. Top middle diagram shows the corresponding completely connected bipartite graph. The degree sequence of a corresponding completely connected bipartite graph is also 44444444. Here we show another Category B SC graph with red vertices in one partite . Figure 4. As you can see this is a regular SC bipartite graph. The corresponding completely connected bipartite graph and the complement of bipartite graph BP is also shown here. Top right diagram shows the bipartite complement of the bipartite graph. The following bipartite graph is a non regular self complementing graph with a degree sequence 33222211. The degree sequence of the above graph is 22222222. While that of the completely connected bipartite graph is 44444444.

59: A SC bipartite graph which is not regular. From now on wards we shall consider only category B self complementary bipartite graphs . That is an important necessary condition for a bipartite graph to be self complementary. How many edges are there in a complete SC bipartite graph with m vertices in one partite and n vertices in another partite? That is equal to mn. The number of edges in a SC bipartite graph will be mn/2.we shall simply refer them as SC bipartite graphs. . Figure 4. and green vertices in another partite.60: A regular SC graph having 12 vertices.138 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. Thus either m or n should be even.

Similarly there is a graph G(B) consisting of vertices in the set B.although vertex x provides a useful function of pinpointing certain vertices needed for the decomposition of the graph? Vertices in G − x which are adjacent to x belong to one partite while the rest of the vertices in G − x belong to the other partite. Thus even if we remove vertex x the resulting graph G − x will still be a SC graph as shown below . There will be a bipartite graph having edges going between the set A and the set B.9 Decomposition of a SC graph G Here we shall talk about the decomposition of a SC graph G into a number of edge-disjoint graphs . 4.graph G(A).one of them is a SC bipartite graph? Initially we shall talk informally and provide some insight and then we shall discuss it more formally. graph G(B) and the vertex x connected to all . We put vertices in G − x which are adjacent to x in set A while the rest of the vertices in G − x goes in the set B. bipartite graph BP .11. In addition to that there will be a graph inside G consisting of vertices belonging to the set A .61: A SC graph where the size of two partites is diﬀerent. The original graph can thus be decomposed into edge-disjoint graphs .Self Complementing Graphs 139 Figure 4.we call this the graph G(A). Please note that the following graph is a SC graph with or without the vertex x.

The graph (x. The two partites are balanced that is the size of A and B is the same.there is some relationship between these two graphs? . Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. 1. 2.62: A self complementing graph is decomposed into a number of edge-disjoint graphs. A) 3. The bipartite graph BP (A. B) will also be a SC bipartite graph.140 vertices in graph A. It can be observed that the following properties should hold for the original graph G to be SC. The graph G(A) and graph G(B) .

and 4 back to 1. The vertex 9 is mapped onto itself. This is a so called circular permutation in which we map 1 onto 2.63: A SC graph decomposed into a number of edge-disjoint graphs. 3 onto 4. This permutation permutes the vertices of G and produces a new graph which is not equal but isomorphic to the original graph G. Figure 4. 4. Isomorphism. 4. In order to show that this new graph is isomorphic to the original graph G we have to ﬁnd an isomorphic function (or a permutation) which maps the vertices of the new graph back onto the .64. automorphism & Self Complementing Graphs Any permutation of vertices of any graph G may create a diﬀerent graph H.11.Self Complementing Graphs 141 Let us consider another example to conﬁrm/enhance our observations before formally discussing the decomposition of a SC graph.10 Permutation. This graph H will always be isomorphic to graph G but may not be equal to graph G (as the adjacency matrix may be diﬀerent). 2 onto 3. For example consider the permutation p1 equal to (1234)(5678)(9) as shown in Fig.

142 Basics of Graph Theory vertices of graph G such that adjacency as well as non adjacency is preserved in the two graphs. Any complementing . The identity permutation is always an automorphism . Figure 4. We may be more interested in the non trivial permutations of graph G? It may be possible for a certain category of graphs that the only automorphism is the trivial identity permutation? Please note that if p is an automorphism of graph G then the permutation p2 is always an automorphism of graph G If a permutation p of vertices of graph G creates a graph H which is the complement of graph G then the permutation p is known as the complementing permutation of graph G and graph G is a SC graph. The two graphs are not equal but they are isomorphic thus the permutation p1 is not an automorphism of graph G.64: Graph G (top left diagram) and another graph (top right diagram) where the vertices of G are permuted according to the given permutation p1 .it is known as a trivial permutation. In this case this permutation p2 will be (4321)(8765)(9). Please note that graph G is equal to the bottom graph If a permutation p of a graph G creates a graph H which is equal to graph G (that means the adjacency matrix will exactly be the same) then that permutation is known as an automorphism of graph G.

The two graphs are not only isomorphic but also equal thus the permutation p is an automorphism of graph G but it is not a complementing permutation of graph G. Thus every self complementing graph G has a complementing permutation p associated with that graph G.65: Graph G (left diagram) and another graph (right diagram) where the vertices of G are permuted according to the given permutation p. permutation of a graph G is certainly not an automorphism of graph G but the permutation p2 is always an automorphism of graph G if p is a complementing permutation. Whenever we claim that G is self complementing then we have to ﬁnd out the self complementing permutation? .Self Complementing Graphs 143 Figure 4.

thus p2 (G) is an automorphism of graph G. The bottom diagram shows another graph where the vertices of p(G) are permuted once again according to the same permutation p.144 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. This new graph is equal to graph G . .that means the permutation p is a complementing permutation of graph G but it is not an automorphism of graph G. This new graph is also the complement of graph G .66: Graph G (top left diagram) and another graph (top right diagram) where the vertices of G are permuted according to the permutation p.

4.two of them are shown in the ﬁgures below.Self Complementing Graphs 145 Let us now consider certain self complementary bipartite graphs and the related complementary permutations . But in the top permutation one of the partites is mapped onto the other partite in the lower permutation it is mapped onto the same partite? .67 is a self complementing permutation. According to this permutation vertices of one partite are permuted onto vertices of the other partite in the complement of BP . Figure 4.67: Bipartite graph BP and a complementing permutation. 4. The permutation in Fig.68 is also a self complementing permutation. The permutation in Fig.

The complementing permutation p = (1A3A)(2A)(4A)(1B3B)(2B)(4B).68: Bipartite graph BP and its complement. 38. In the decomposition or the synthesis eﬀort to be explained in the coming examples we are more interested in those bipartite graphs which are similar to bipartite graphs similar to the one shown in Fig.146 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. According to this complementing permutation vertices of one partite are permuted onto vertices of the same partite. Why? In the coming ﬁgures you ﬁnd certain clues of synthesizing self complementing graphs using simple building blocks? .

.69: A successful attempt to synthesize a self complementing graph. p(G) and p2 (G) in that order.Self Complementing Graphs 147 Figure 4. The bottom diagram shows graph G.

p(G) and p2 (G) in that order.148 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4.70: A successful attempt to synthesize a self complementing graph. The bottom diagram shows graph G. .

The bottom diagram shows graph G. p(G) and p2 (G) in that order.71: A successful attempt to synthesize a self complementing graph.Self Complementing Graphs 149 Figure 4. .

. The bottom diagram shows graph G.150 Basics of Graph Theory Figure 4. p(G) and p2 (G) in that order.72: A failed attempt to synthesize a self complementing graph from individual components.

8 5.9 Design of Algorithms The Bucket Algorithm Finding if a Graph is Connected Finding if a Graph is a Tree Finding a Spanning Tree of a Graph Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph Finding a Path in a Graph The Shortest Path Problem Graph Traversal Techniques 5.4 5.7 5.2 5.12 Discussion .3 5.1 5.Chapter 5 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5.5 5.11 Shortest Path Algorithms 5.6 5.10 Some Graph Theoretic Claims 5.

how can we check if a graph is cyclic. The original research papers were about encouraging students to discover and learn (graph algorithms) by themselves with minimal help provided by an instructor in the form of provocative questions. We have also studied that a graph is cyclic if it contains a cycle. we talked about a bridge edge and a cycle in a graph. 2. We have also studied a number of properties linking diﬀerent concepts. and ofcourse computer science. Summer-Fall 2003.1). In this chapter we shall study a number of graph algorithms. and its title was Should We Teach Algorithms. mathematics.152 Basics of Graph Algorithms Introduction We have studied a number of concepts related to graph theory in the last chapter. engineering. For example. We also provide a number of powerful learning tools to understand and design various algorithms. biology. A four line procedure known as the Bucket Algorithm which can be molded into a number of useful and powerful graph algorithms based on greedy strategies. 2. and Yasser Hashmi and its title was Shortest Path Algorithms . . Another four line procedure known as 2-edge Shortest Path Algorithm which ﬁnds shortest paths of length 2 from a given vertex to every other vertex in a weighted directed graph. For example. Vol.2. The later part of this chapter is based on one of our CS department research reports which was coauthored by Komal Syed. The paper was co-authored by Sara Tahir.Making and Breaking Connections. how can we check if an edge is a bridge edge. The recursiuon tree and the colored puzzle are some of these visual aids which facilitate a learner or a designer in his or her path towards discovery. Almost all of these algorithms are based on the following easy to understand and friendly to use buliding blocks: 1. we provide a detailed study of a number of graph algorithms that have applications in diverse ﬁelds like chemistry. In this chapter. The initial part of this chapter is based on one of our papers published in IJECE. how can we ﬁnd an actual cycle in a cyclic graph (see Concept Map 5. No. For example an edge is a bridge edge provided its removal disconnects a graph. Again this building block can be used to design a number of sophisticated shortest path algorithms based on dynamic programming. social sciences.

. A panoramic picture of some Concepts.1. Action items and Graph Algorithms. Properties.153 Concept Map 5.

there is no precise algorithm available that can be used to design new algorithms. and stimulating questions posed by the instructor. Our experience of teaching algorithms indicates that creativity in algorithm design depends. concerned with the design of algorithms. challenge. can sow the seeds that could blossom into the genius that produces eﬃcient yet astonishingly simple algorithms. The second one. It is now . The ﬁrst objective.1 Design of Algorithms Teaching the standard course “Analysis & Design of Algorithms” at an undergraduate level in a typical Computer Science program essentially has two objectives. rather incite. on how we deal with the analysis phase. The study of the methods and rules of discovery and invention is a ﬁeld in its own right. dealing with analysis. Though there are rules of thumb that can be followed to help an individual design an algorithm. Polya [10] remembers the time when he was a student himself: he was always perturbed by the question: ”Yes the solution seems to work. one can always encourage students to redesign an algorithm right from scratch. and suspense. students to create algorithms themselves using some very fundamental concepts. to a large extent. we should not formally teach anything. There is no guarantee that one who critiques literature can learn to write beautiful poetry. which is perhaps far more important.154 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5. We stress that while we are familiarizing students with existing algorithms. we believe that the instructor. Despite the fact that one cannot guarantee that a student could become an eﬃcient algorithm designer. This second objective. excitement. following our approach and providing proper guidance. timely hints. and above all the conﬁdence required in solving a non-textbook problem. is essentially a creative eﬀort containing all the ingredients of a thriller: adventure. Similarly the ability to understand and analyze algorithms does not guarantee that one could become an eﬃcient algorithm designer. The objective is that students should experience the thrill and excitement of discovery even during the initial phases of understanding existing algorithms. is to equip the students with the necessary tools and techniques. it appears to be correct. Instead we should encourage. is to familiarize students with existing algorithms. but how is it possible to invent such a solution? How could I invent or discover such things by myself ?” We feel that with the availability of some pre-requisite knowledge.

2 The Moore Method R. The teacher. allowing his students to ﬁnd the answers in their own ways”. made and deployed. in our model. He also does not allow the use of any source material. directed set of decisions that are introduced. We.1. Many professors still use his teaching style not only in his subject of specialization (topology). [6]. The last deﬁnition suits our discovery based learning approach in which a teacher formulates a directed set of questions and hints in order to help his/her students design algorithms.2 The Bucket Algorithm We start with a simple algorithm which we call the Bucket Algorithm (the bucket symbolizes a friendly container where a child puts every new toy or every new discovery) consisting of just four lines of pseudo code: We shall show how this primitive procedure can be used to reinvent a number . Rine [13] deﬁnes design as ”A systematic. 5. on the other hand. In the words of Hale [5]. and have advanced or modiﬁed the Moore Method in a number of ways [3]. solution. It is interesting to note that our approach is similar in some aspects with the so-called Moore Method of teaching and learning. mostly quiet. 5.1 What is Design? According to the Webster’s dictionary [1]. He sat in the back of the room. Moore was a professor of mathematics at the University of Texas. and other courses. or technology”. ”What was so special about his mode of teaching was that he did not lecture. ”Design is the thought process comprising the creation of an entity”. L. ”Design is to conceive and plan out in the mind”. and then actively guides the students in their path of discovery. does not allow collective eﬀort on the part of the students inside or outside of class. but in analysis.1. algebra. occasionally asking a question. game theory. leading to an eﬀective or eﬃcient outcome. In the words of Miller [9]. encourage lively discussions inside as well as outside the classroom. 155 5. starts with something (very simple). Taylor [18].The Bucket Algorithm important to ﬁnd a good working deﬁnition of design (of algorithms). while characterizing (his version of) the Moore method of teaching. he did not profess.

.1: Two pictures of what the Bucket B will look like in the initial stages of the Bucket Algorithm.156 Basics of Graph Algorithms Algorithm 17: The Bucket-Algorithm input : A Graph G output: A Bucket B 1 Put any vertex x of Graph G in the Bucket B. j g h k f d e i g j i h k f d e a b c a b c Figure 5. 2 while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B do 3 Select an edge connecting vertex u in B to v not in B. 4 Put v in B .

Find a spanning tree of a graph.1 Understanding the Bucket Algorithm The Bucket Algorithm is simple and straightforward. Conduct a breadth ﬁrst search in a graph. Find a path between two vertices in a graph provided a path exists.2. the students should develop a keen desire and ability to understand the motives behind. 2. [4]). With some encouragement from the instructor. 5. Find the number of connected components of a graph. .The Bucket Algorithm 157 of existing powerful algorithms in graph theory ([16]. 5. Find a bridge in a graph. They would learn the ways and means of devising their own algorithms. 7. [17]. [2]. 6. Speciﬁcally the Bucket Algorithm would be used to solve the following problems: 1. It is just a 4-line algorithm with a simple while loop (with no conditional statements or recursive calls). because it is easy to understand and at the same time ﬂexible enough to handle a variety of diﬀerent problems. Conduct a depth ﬁrst search in a graph. [14]. Solve the single-source shortest-paths problem: rediscover Dijkstra’s Algorithm. and the procedures followed in order to arrive at innovative solutions. Find if a given graph is connected. 4. 9. We start with something simple but potentially very powerful. Find a minimum-spanning tree of a graph. 10. Find if a graph is a tree. 8. Rediscover Kruskal’s Algorithm. 12. [15]. Simple. Rediscover Prim’s Algorithm. [11]. 11. 3.

2). {b. the set {f. The second is the set of edges connecting vertices outside the bucket with each other: {{f.1). i. k}. d. h}. k}. g}. f }}. b}.2. {i. 5. and those outside the bucket. {i. The ﬁrst is the set of edges connecting vertices inside the bucket with each other: {{a. {a. Next we choose any edge joining vertex a to any other node. The third is the set of edges (the “branches coming out of the Bucket B” in Step 2) connecting vertices inside the bucket to vertices outside the bucket (see the middle diagram of Figure 5.2(middle diagram) shows the bucket B after diﬀerent iterations through the Bucket Algorithm.2.2. f }. in the graph (since all other nodes are currently outside of the bucket) and put b in the bucket. j. say node a. k}. . {g. {d. {b. g.158 j g h k f d e a b e c f d i g h k a b c j i Basics of Graph Algorithms j g h k f d e a b c i Figure 5. d}.2. k}. i}. This set of edges is equal to {{a. {a. These two diﬀerent kinds of vertices give rise to three diﬀerent kinds of edges. c. b. c}. Step 1 instructs us to put any node. {c.1 for a picture of what the Bucket B will look like at this stage. {d. Notice that there are two types of vertices: those inside the bucket represented by the set {a.2: Two pictures of the Bucket B after diﬀerent iterations through the Bucket-Algorithm. say node b. c}. Figure 5. k}}. An edge belonging to this last set of edges is called a cross edge and is of most interest to us. we can implement numerous algorithms. j}. {h. See Figure 5. Now we have a set of nodes {a.2. {b. f }. Depending on the constraint we place on the selection of cross edges in Step 3. h. e}}. d}} to choose from in Step 3 as we iterate through the while loop. of the Graph G into the bucket.2 How does it Work? We identify a Graph G and a Bucket B (See Figure 5. {b. e}. b} in the bucket giving rise to a set of edges {{a.

5 The Right Provocation It is well known that a real understanding of the problem is a necessary condition to solve any problem. For .2. It may be advisable to include it at a later stage.The Bucket Algorithm 159 5. 5. and when would it be false? Does it make any diﬀerence if we have a diﬀerent starting vertex? Note that there are situations when it really makes a diﬀerence. Out of a sequence of six questions posed by Skiena [16] in order to guide one to discover the right algorithm.3 Playing with the Algorithm We strongly encourage our readers to play around with the Bucket Algorithm to get comfortable with it. What is the worst-case complexity of this algorithm? It is recommended that the instructor not involve the underlying data structure at this stage in order to tackle the issue of complexity. 5. v} we select in Step 3 that we discover the new vertex v. the ﬁrst question is ”Do I really understand the problem?” Then comes the role of the teacher in terms of how he/she states a problem and provokes (or guides) his/her students to solve it in a speciﬁed manner. After the students are conﬁdent that they understand the idea behind the Bucket Algorithm. “Half way home to solving a problem is a clear understanding of the problem”. the instructor can start asking them to modify it to solve more complex problems.2. Students must come to realize the importance of cross edges: it is because of this cross edge {u. Such questions could be: Under what conditions would there be no edges coming out of the Bucket? Note that this condition should be met otherwise the algorithm would never terminate. Would all the vertices of the graph move into the bucket after the completion of the algorithm? When would this scenario be true.4 Solving Other Problems The above questions would induce a deeper understanding amongst students about how the Bucket Algorithm works under diﬀerent conditions and give some hints while solving more complex problems. It will be useful at this stage if the students are asked to derive the time complexity of the Bucket Algorithm.2. During this activity the instructor should ask thought provoking questions such that the students focus on multiple facets of the algorithm that would later help in designing new algorithms. According to David [12].

160 Basics of Graph Algorithms example if a teacher is talking about Quick Sort. then graph G is connected. The teacher should ﬁrst make the students appreciate the need for partitioning the array into halves such that all numbers in the ﬁrst half are smaller than each number in the second half. The instructor in this case will have to make an extra eﬀort to guide such students.2. Notice while students were becoming familiar with the Bucket Algorithm. there are still any nodes left outside the bucket then the graph is not connected..1).3 Finding if a Graph is Connected Assuming that the students know what a connected graph is.e. he/she cannot expect his/her students to discover the said algorithm just after understanding the sorting problem. Once all students have understood the solution (having arrived at it on their own with well-timed prodding from the instructor) the instructor should start the discussion regarding cost calculation. Please see Concept Map 5. the complexity of the modiﬁed algorithm.3. after the Bucket Algorithm has been applied to a graph G.2. Not all students may be able to identify this property of the Bucket Algorithm. . however. the instructor asked when there would be nodes left outside the bucket. The answer is simple: if. If. i. The understanding of the previous state of an abstract system and the (usefulness of the) ﬁnal system state after the application of a so called fundamental operation [7] (for example the partitioning procedure in Quick Sort) is crucial in problem solving in computer science as in elsewhere. Brighter students would have been able to identify at that stage that some nodes will be left outside the Bucket B when a graph is not connected since cross edges do not exist connecting them to nodes inside the bucket (Figure 5. discovering (and even understanding) the said sorting algorithm. the instructor should ask the students: “Can you modify the Bucket Algorithm such that you may be able to determine whether a given graph G is connected?” The emphasis should be on using the existing techniques with minimum modiﬁcation. Why we should do this and how should we do this are both equally important for designing. Please see Concept Map 5. all nodes come inside the bucket. 5.

The number of times we have to apply the Bucket-Algorithm depends upon the number of connected components. Applying the algorithm again with a new bucket would give us a new connected component. What would be the resulting time complexity of this algorithm? The . The ﬁrst problem is to check if a given edge is a bridge.3: A graph G that is not connected.2 Finding a Bridge in a Graph A cut edge or bridge is one whose removal produces a graph with more connected components than the original. once the Bucket Algorithm terminates. This could be solved if we remove the given edge and then check the number of connected components in the resulting graph. Applying the Bucket Algorithm once on a graph with more than one connected component would tell us that the graph is not connected as all the vertices of the graph do not end up in the bucket. 5. 5. it is the job of the instructor to at least identify them for those students who cannot visualize the solution immediately.3. nodes i and j will be left outside the Bucket B. and this would determine the worst-case time complexity.Finding if a Graph is Connected j g h i k h 161 g j i k f d e a b c f d e a b c Figure 5. and so on and so forth.3.1 The Number of Connected Components Once we understand how to ﬁnd if an un-directed graph is connected the above problem becomes simple and very little imagination is needed to answer the above question. There are essentially two diﬀerent problems here. The vertices that do end up in the bucket belong to a single connected component.

4.4 Finding if a Graph is a Tree The algorithms that solve this problem depend on how we deﬁne a tree. which makes it a connected graph.4: A cut edge or bridge is one whose removal produces a graph with more connected components than the original graph. The problem is thus reduced to repeatedly applying the algorithm designed to . Thus every edge in a tree is a bridge.1 Every Edge in a Tree is a Bridge We know that a tree having n vertices consists of bare minimum number of edges. Solving a problem from diﬀerent angles and then making a comparison is the single most important exercise for a student studying algorithms (Rawlins [11]). This implies that removing any edge would disconnect a tree. How many times the Bucket-Algorithm is applied and what is the resulting worst-case complexity of the algorithm? g h j g i k h j i k c b e f d e a f d a b c Figure 5. We already know how to check if a given edge is a bridge in a graph. 5.162 Basics of Graph Algorithms second problem is to ﬁnd or locate a bridge in a given graph. It highlights the fact that looking at various deﬁnitions or properties (which come from a study of graph theory) is sometimes extremely useful and it provides the seed for designing a number of very powerful algorithms. 5. Once the ﬁrst problem is solved it should be a simple matter to handle it. This in not only true for this problem but is true for a majority of problems.

We know how to ﬁnd if a given graph is connected using the Bucket Algorithm. Only when the students have gained conﬁdence that they understand the basic problem and can ﬁnd an eﬃcient solution should we move to more complex problems such as ﬁnding whether a given graph is a forest. How complex is this problem? Is it possible to count the number of edges while we are checking if the given graph is connected? Would that perhaps reduce the complexity? 5. The number of times we would have to do this and ﬁnding the resulting complexity is an interesting exercise by itself. So the problem is reduced to counting the number of edges.4 A Comparison A comparison of all these algorithms would be extremely beneﬁcial to the students if they are encouraged to work it out independently. Thus the spanning tree of a tree would be exactly the same tree.2 The Number of Edges in a Graph We can deﬁne a tree in a number of ways. In fact.Finding if a Graph is a Tree 163 check if an edge is a bridge. . This deﬁnition or property can be used to design an algorithm to check if a given graph is a tree.e.3 The Spanning Tree of a Tree We know that a tree has the minimum number of edges required to connect a given number of vertices. For example. Once they have the answers it would again be stimulating for them to compare their ﬁndings with their colleagues within the classroom. 5. 5.4. a connected graph is a tree provided the number of edges in the graph is exactly equal to one minus the number of vertices in the graph. p − 1. i. A spanning tree of a given graph also satisﬁes this property.4. all of these deﬁnitions are equivalent implies. as it is a tree.4.. The catch is that the graph should be connected otherwise the deﬁnition would not apply (why?). Encouraging and initiating interesting discussions and even heated debates is one of the most important responsibilities of a teacher: (s)he must simply coordinate and make sure that the interaction is moving in the right direction.

In the second approach we should be careful not to create cycles in the graph.5. 5. What would be the worst-case time complexity of this algorithm? 5. It is also possible to identify some of the so-called cross edges (edges which are coming out of the Bucket).5 Finding a Spanning Tree of a Graph The algorithm that we design to solve this problem depends on how we visualize the development of a spanning tree. which would constitute the spanning tree. If we just keep a record of all such edges we might get the spanning tree of the given . In each case the Bucket Algorithm helps us. We can start with the original graph and start with pruning or removing edges until the graph becomes a tree. This idea would give birth to an algorithm: Remove all edges that do not disconnect the given graph. This approach is opposite to the one discussed above: instead of pruning we are growing edges. we might have noticed that every time we discover a new vertex it is because of a cross edge (step 3). The resulting complexity would change dramatically depending upon the approach used.5. Each approach has its merits and demerits and the comparison itself is very enlightening especially because each approach has more advanced applications. How many times we use the Bucket-Algorithm eventually decide the overall worst-case complexity.1 Cutting Edges If we remove all redundant edges from a given graph and just keep edges essential to keep it connected the remaining graph would be a spanning tree of the given graph. Or we can start with no edges and start growing edges until we get a tree. and that the number of such cross edges would be exactly equal to p − 1. We add edges out of the edge pool of the graph such that the resulting graph remains a tree. 5. In the earlier approach we should be careful and should not disconnect the graph.5.3 Selecting Edges While running the Bucket Algorithm.2 Growing Edges We start with no edges at all but with p isolated vertices.164 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5.

While cutting edges we select the edge of maximum weight (provided it does not disconnect the graph).1 Cutting or Growing Edges: A Krushkal’s like greedy algorithm Each algorithm used to ﬁnd a spanning tree in the previous section could be used with proper modiﬁcation to ﬁnd a minimum-spanning tree of a connected and weighted graph. We show in Concept Map 5.6. not feasible (although it is correct)? 5. which looks at all possible solutions and then selects the one of our choice. properties and the Bucket Algorithm.2. we can grow edges starting from the edge of minimum weight (making sure no cycle is created).6. It is very much possible to discover most of the algorithms (that we have presented in this chapter) in class once we have become comfortable using and manipulating the Bucket Algorithm. having ﬁrst sorted the edges in descending order of weight. a number of systematic questions that if asked. thus giving rise to diﬀerent spanning trees. 5. will provoke the learner to discover a number of interesting techniques.Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 165 graph. It is very much possible to have multiple non isomorphic minimum spanning trees of a weighted graph but the weight . 5. This would give rise to an algorithm very similar to Krushkal’s.6 Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph There could be many non-isomorphic spanning trees possible for a given graph: each approach that we have described for ﬁnding a spanning tree of a graph was ﬂexible and there was a lot of maneuvering possible within it.2) which integrates diﬀerent concepts. which if reﬁned will lead to a number of important algorithms.3.4 Integrating Concepts and Discovering Algorithms We show a concept map (Concept Map 5. Similarly. What if we ﬁnd all distinct spanning trees of a given graph using any approach and then select the one with minimum weight? Why is this approach. See Figure. How eﬃcient would this be if compared with the algorithms described earlier? 5.5.

166 Basics of Graph Algorithms Concept Map 5. The Concept Map and an iterative sequence (ascending order) of asking questions help student discover or understand a number of useful graph algorithms.2. .

Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 167 j g 2 4 f 2 e 1 3 a 4 h 3 i 6 9 2 3 k 5 c f 2 1 e 3 d 4 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 3 b 2 e 3 k a 5 c f 2 1 3 d 4 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 3 b 2 3 k a 5 c h h d 3 b 2 Figure 5. Another minimum spanning tree is shown in the right diagram. A minimum spanning tree of G is shown in the middle diagram.5: A weighted graph G shown in the left diagram. .

6: A weighted graph G shown in the left diagram. Another maximum spanning tree is shown in the right diagram. A maximum spanning tree of G is shown in the middle diagram. .168 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 f 2 e 1 3 a 4 h 3 i 6 9 2 3 k 5 c f 2 1 e 3 d 4 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 3 b 2 e 3 k a 5 c f 2 1 3 d 4 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 3 b 2 3 k a 5 c h h d 3 b 2 Figure 5.

X c . The minimum spanning tree is also shown in the bottom right corner.7: Pictures of the graph after cutting edges of maximum weight in a Krushkal’s like algorithm.Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 169 j g 2 4 f 2 d 3 e 1 3 a 4 h 3 i 6 3 k 4 5 c 2 b e 1 2 f 2 d 3 g 2 4 j j 3 i g 3 k a 2 3 b e 5 c 2 2 1 d 3 4 3 f a 2 4 h 3 i 3 k h 6 9 5 2 b 2 j g 2 4 f 2 d e 1 3 a 4 h 3 i 3 k 4 f 2 d e 1 3 g 2 4 j 3 i 3 k a c 2 b 2 h c 2 X3 2 b Figure 5.

.8: Pictures of the graph after growing edges of minimum weight in a Krushkal’s like algorithm.170 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 3 f 2 d 3 e 1 a 4 h 3 i 6 9 3 k 5 c 2 b e 1 2 f 4 3 2 d g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 2 3 b e 1 3 k a 5 c f 2 d 4 3 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 2 3 b 3 k a 5 c h h j g 2 4 3 f 2 d 3 e 1 a 4 h 3 i 6 9 2 2 b e 1 3 k 5 c 3 f 2 d 4 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 2 3 b e 1 3 k a 5 c f 4 3 2 d g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 2 2 3 b 3 k a 5 c h h Figure 5.

6. Without reading proofs given in the textbook they should come up with something of their own making.Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 171 of each tree would be the same (why?).2 Selecting Edges: A Prim’s like greedy Algorithm While forming a spanning tree we can select any cross edge.5). select one with minimum weight connecting u in B to v not in B. they are not always optimal. They should also be asked to derive the time complexity . Using this simple technique the Bucket-Algorithm can easily be modiﬁed to ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree of a weighted directed or undirected graph (Figure 5. In order to form a minimum spanning tree. Please note that here we are not using any fancy data structure since the objective is not to have a complicated design. A lively discussion can be initiated to ﬁnd the merits and demerits of individual work. although greedy approaches are relatively eﬃcient (being based on local conditions only).6. We are lucky this time: a so-called greedy approach is working optimally and is in fact optimizing the global sum also. It is important that the minimum spanning tree problem is an optimization problem in which we intend to minimize the sum of weights of all edges in the spanning tree. unlike some textbooks. It would be useful if the students were asked to prove that this greedy approach would actually ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree. we should try to include edges of less weight thus excluding those of higher weight. put this edge in M ST . while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B do Out of all the edges coming out of B. It follows that among all cross edges that we may select we should pick the one of minimum weight. we are trying to minimize a local quantity. In order to minimize the global sum. However. Algorithm 18: Find Minimum Spanning Tree of a graph G input : A weighted Graph G output: Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) of Graph G 1 2 3 4 Put any vertex x of Graph G in a Bucket B. We show here how the simple Bucket Algorithm can be reduced into a minimum spanning tree ﬁnding algorithm which resembles Prim’s Algorithm. 5. Put v in B.

9: Pictures of the Bucket B while ﬁnding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a weighted graph in a Prim’s like algorithm. .172 Basics of Graph Algorithms j 3 j i 6 3 3 g 2 4 3 4 g 2 4 i 6 3 h h k a 2 9 5 4 3 k a 2 9 5 f 2 c d 3 2 f 2 c 2 b e 1 d 3 b e 1 j g 2 4 4 3 j i g 3 2 4 3 i 6 3 h 6 h k a 9 2 5 4 k a 9 2 5 f 2 3 c 2 f 2 3 c 2 d e 1 3 b e d 1 3 b Figure 5.

What is that magic? How and why it is working? Can this magic be used elsewhere and under what conditions? We shall discuss it later in this chapter. something magical which cuts down the time complexity for not so obvious reasons. However the time complexity of Prim’s algorithm (as stated in most textbooks) is better. 5. 5. In the top diagrams we select an edge of minimum weight out of all edges coming out of the single bucket in which we have our minimum spanning tree growing.Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 173 of this approach. we select an edge out of all edges (coming out of all buckets) in the graph and thus this technique grows various spanning trees in diﬀerent buckets.6. This technique (based .3 A Panoramic Picture of various MST Finding Techniques It will be useful from a learning perspective if we make a comparison between various minimum spanning tree ﬁnding techniques. The top diagrams in this ﬁgure show how we grow a minimum spanning tree in a single bucket (this is a Prim’s like algorithm). We should understand both the diﬀerences as well as the similarities. How about if we start Prim’s algorithm from every vertex? Thus we may be able to avoid an expensive check (that the resulting graph should not be cyclic) each time we insert a new edge (as in Prim’s algorithm) and at the same time we can exploit the inherent parallelism which was lacking in Prim’s algorithm? We initially put every vertex in a separate bucket. the process of selecting the desired edge out of all edges coming out of the single bucket makes sure that no cycle is generated.6. The middle diagrams show a minimum spanning forest growing up in various buckets using a Kruskal’s like algorithm. We show three diﬀerent techniques in action on the same weighted graph in Fig. It would be useful if they compare this approach with Prim’s algorithm. the two approaches look identical. Why? The reason is in fact more exciting because Prim’s algorithm is not just greedy. In fact. there is something else. In the middle diagrams we can visualize that each vertex is initially in a separate bucket. In this algorithm (middle diagram) it is essential to check that the new edge that is selected should not form a cycle with the previously found minimum spanning tree. In the top algorithm there was no explicit need to check that this condition is true. for each bucket we select the edge of minimum weight coming out and thus grow various minimum spanning trees in diﬀerent buckets.6.

10: Pictures of diﬀerent Buckets while ﬁnding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a weighted graph using diﬀerent techniques including the Boruvka’s Algorithm. .174 Basics of Graph Algorithms c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 d e d e Prim’s like Algorithm d e d e c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 d e d e Krushkal’s like Algorithm d e d e c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 12 6 b 1 8 c 2 7 5 4 12 6 b 1 8 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 g 14 a 4 3+43 9 f 11 g 14 a 3 9 f 11 d e d e Boruvka’s Algorithm d e d e Figure 5.

The big question is do we need to make an expensive cycle check each time we insert an edge? It will be interesting to ﬁnd under what conditions we need a cycle test and when we do not need such a test? This algorithm terminates when the number of edges selected becomes exactly equal to one less than the number of vertices in the graph.6. In the ﬁrst case we have to make sure that no cycle is created and in the second case we should be worried about disconnecting the graph. This is because of the fact that we consider edges coming out of the bucket only. It will also . Why? Do we need a cycle test in Kruskal’s algorithm in case all edge weights are unique? We do not need a cycle test in Prim’s algorithm in spite of the fact that edge weights are not unique? Why? 5. we grow a minimum spanning tree in each bucket just like Prim’s algorithm. 5. We try to exploit the inherent parallelism in this scheme where each processor is running a Prim’s like algorithm on each vertex. It will be useful to formally prove that in case of Prim’s algorithm we do not need a cycle test and still no cycles will be formed. however we consider all edges incident on a vertex inside a bucket then we do need to be worried about the formation of a cycle. if. 2. In case of Kruskal’s algorithm either we are growing a minimum spanning tree (by inserting edges starting from low cost ones) or we are cutting edges starting from high weight edges. 4.6. If all edge weights in a graph are unique then we do not need a cycle test in Boruvka’s algorithm. In case of Prim’s algorithm we need not be worried about the formation of a cycle.Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 175 on the Boruvka’s algorithm) is shown in action (on the same weighted graph) in the bottom diagrams of Fig. Prim’s algorithm terminates when all vertices come inside the bucket. The algorithm terminates when all edges have been considered. the way we move forward makes sure that no cycle is formed. It is interesting to note the following about the three minimum spanning tree ﬁnding algorithms: 1. 3. But we do need a cycle test in case the edge weights are not unique. In case of Boruvka’s algorithm.

We can make a small change in one of the Minimum Spanning Tree Algorithms in order to convert it into a Maximum Spanning Tree Algorithm as follows. 5. We shall address these and other related issues in a problem set.1. Problem Set 5. Algorithm 19: Find Maximum Spanning Tree of a graph G input : A weighted Graph G output: A Maximum Spanning Tree (MaxST) of Graph G 1 2 3 4 Put any vertex x of Graph G in a Bucket B. Problem 5. Apply the above algorithm to the following graph G consisting of positive as well as negative edge weights. 5. select one with maximum weight connecting u in B to v not in B. A curious reader may have realized by now that positive or negative edge weights in a weighted graph does not create any problem while evaluating the minimum or maximum spanning tree of a graph. and ﬁnd the maximum spanning tree while showing the contents of the Bucket B after each step. We shall repeat this problem while ﬁnding the shortest path (or the longest path) in a graph having negative edge weights. Problem 5. Put v in B.1.6. We shall discuss that the shortest path problem becomes complicated if all edge weights are not positive.6. Do we face a similar problem while ﬁnding a minimum spanning tree of a graph having negative edge weights? . put this edge in M axST .2.1.4 The Maximum Spanning Tree Problem All the minimum spanning tree algorithms described here can easily be modiﬁed in order to ﬁnd the maximum spanning tree of a weighted graph G. Do you think there will be any complication in ﬁnding a maximum spanning tree if the edge weights are negative (or if they are positive).1.7. A small change in the algorithm can do the job.176 Basics of Graph Algorithms be interesting to prove that in case of Boruvka’s algorithm no cycles will be formed even if we do not make a cycle test provided all edge weights are unique. Apply this algorithm to the graph shown in Fig. while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B do Out of all the edges coming out of B.

Finding a Minimum Spanning Tree of a Weighted Graph 177 Figure 5.11: A Graph G having negative edge weights for problem set. .

Students should experience this confusion and the resultant backtracking. the remaining graph would be a “straight forward” path between the two vertices in the given graph (Fig. What would be the worst-case time complexity of this algorithm? Note that we have used a similar technique to ﬁnd a spanning tree of a graph. we would eventually reach the root without any confusion (Fig. Suppose we apply the Bucket Algorithm starting with the given vertex: the spanning tree thus formed would originate from the given vertex since the given vertex would be the root. We also keep a record of the parent of every vertex in the spanning tree.1 Cutting Edges If we remove all redundant edges from a given graph and just keep the edges essential to keep the two vertices connected.7. to the destination vertex? The answer is still “no” because a parent may have multiple children. and thus there still exist many diversions. 5.2).7 Finding a Path in a Graph It is possible to ﬁnd a path between two vertices provided the graph is connected. With this additional information would it be easier to ﬁnd a path from the given vertex.178 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5.1). If we keep moving along the edges connecting one vertex to another within the graph.7.7. 5. .2 Selecting Edges Does the problem become simpler if we ﬁrst ﬁnd the spanning tree of the given graph? Now if we start moving from the given vertex to the destination vertex. Now instead of checking whether the graph is connected or not. since we might have to do a lot of backtracking.7. What is wrong with this approach? If there are cycles in the graph it is possible that we never reach our destination. 5. a time would come when we would reach our destination. However if we start from the destination vertex and keep selecting the parent vertex. but again we may start our journey in the wrong direction and would have to backtrack. would it be less confusing? Perhaps. 5. now the root. It would be useful to pinpoint the similarities as well as the diﬀerences. What if there are no cycles in the graph – what if we ﬁrst make a spanning tree of the graph? Even now it would be diﬃcult to ﬁnd a path. we better check if the two given vertices belong to a single connected component.

12: Pictures of the graph after cutting edges in order to ﬁnd a path between vertex a and vertex c.Finding a Path in a Graph 179 j g h i k g j i h k g j i h k f d e a b c f d e a b c f d e a b c j g h i k g j i h k g h i k f d e a b c f d a b c f d a b c Figure 5. .

180 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g h i k a d e j g h i k a d e a f g h i j k c j e d b g h i k c b e c f d g b e j c f d g j i h k a b c f i h k a b c f a f d e b Figure 5.13: Various stages in ﬁnding a path from every vertex to vertex a in a graph. .

5. would the path. would the problem become simpler? What if we ﬁrst ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree of a graph and then move backwards from the destination to the source vertex in order to ﬁnd shortest paths as described earlier? It is obvious from Figure 5.2). There is indeed a delicate diﬀerence between the two – this diﬀerence should make us understand why minimum spanning tree algorithm fails to ﬁnd a shortest path spanning tree and why a shortest path spanning tree algorithm fails to ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree of a weighted graph G. The step by step working of the two algorithms is shown in the ﬁgure below (Fig.The Shortest Path Problem 181 5.8. Now assume that the edge weights are diﬀerent. Do we need a diﬀerent algorithm from the one used to ﬁnd a shortest path in a graph with uniform edge weights? Why? If somehow we remove edges of higher weights from the graph without disconnecting the two given vertices. 5.8. We shall come back to this problem after discussing graph traversal techniques in a later section. It should also be kept in mind that the minimum spanning tree can easily be modiﬁed to ﬁnd a maximum spanning tree of a graph while it is not possible to do so in case of ﬁnding a longest path in a graph G (with positive edge weights). it will become obvious that the two algorithms are derived from a common ancestor – the Bucket Algorithm.8. be a shortest path? If not then what should be done to achieve our objective? Note that it is easier to ﬁnd a shortest path in a graph with uniform edge weights.1. We assume that we are ﬁnding shortest paths from a single vertex to all other vertices. found using the algorithms of the previous section.8 The Shortest Path Problem If all edges in the graph were to have the same weight. It is obvious that initially the two algorithms produce similar results but then they depart ultimately producing diﬀerent results. . that a minimum spanning tree of a weighted graph does not always provide shortest distances from a given vertex. so ﬁrst we should solve this problem (which is simpler) before attacking a more complex one. It will still be interesting to investigate how a shortest path algorithm resembles and at the same time diﬀers from a minimum spanning tree algorithm.1 Dijkstra’s (like) Algorithm We produce both the algorithms side by side.

The weight of the minimum spanning tree is also diﬀerent from that of the shortest path spanning tree.182 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 f 2 e 1 3 a 4 h 17 j 3 i 6 9 2 3 k 5 c 4 7 f 2 6 1 e 3 d 5 11 g 2 4 h 13 a 0 3 3 6 20 i 3 k 9 2 b 2 2 5 3 c 4 23 15 j 7 g 2 4 f 2 6 e 3 d 1 5 4 h 9 a 0 3 3 i 6 12 3 k 9 2 b 2 2 5 c 4 9 d 3 b 2 Minimum Spanning Tree Weight of the tree = 26 Shortest Path Spanning Tree Weight of the tree = 31 Figure 5. . The right diagram shows a shortest path spanning tree (SST) of the same graph. The shortest distances (as shown in red color) from vertex a provided by the two spanning trees are diﬀerent as indicated in these diagrams.14: The middle diagram shows a minimum spanning tree (MST) of a weighted graph G shown in the left diagram.

Initialize Dist(x) = 0. v) is minimum where vertex u is in B and vertex v is outside the Bucket B. while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B do Out of all the edges coming out of B. . and Dist(i) of every other vertex i equal to ∞ . Put edge (u. v) in SST . select one with minimum weight connecting u in B to v not in B. select the edge for which Dist(u) + w(u. Algorithm 21: Find shortest distance of every vertex from a given vertex x in G & also the shortest path spanning tree of G from x input : A weighted Graph G. Put vertex v in B and edge (u. while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B do Out of all the edges coming out of B.The Shortest Path Problem 183 Algorithm 20: Find Minimum Spanning Tree of a graph G input : A weighted Graph G output: A Minimum Spanning Tree M ST 1 2 3 4 5 Put any vertex x of Graph G in a Bucket B. Put vertex v in B. Dist(v) = Dist(u) + w(u. a vertex x output: Shortest Distance Dist(i) of every vertex i from x 1 2 3 4 Put vertex x in Bucket B. v) in M ST . v).

In the ﬁrst iteration of the while loop. Out of all these vertices (some of which are at a distance of one edge and some at a distance of two edges).8. be violated if some edge weights in G are negative. In order to assert that Dijkstra’s like algorithm is able to ﬁnd correct results let us ﬁrst present a scenario where the above mentioned algorithm fails to ﬁnd shortest paths. i) goes in the shortest path spanning tree. In the second iteration of the while loop.184 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5. Out of all such vertices (at a distance of one edge from x).8. The cost of this action is equivalent to making p − 2 comparisons. . however. we consider vertices which are directly connected to x. Again this action means that we have found a shortest path of vertex j from vertex x.3 where some edge weights are negative. This action is tantamount to a claim that we have found a shortest path from vertex x to vertex i. It is obvious from this ﬁgure that Dijsktra’s algorithm fails to produce correct results. But before we do that let us discuss some of the salient features of this algorithm. Remember vertex i is the last vertex which went into the Bucket B. Remember that this algorithm works on a greedy strategy – it makes decisions on the basis of local conditions – but produces optimal results on a global basis provided all edge weights in a graph are positive. we select a vertex j which is at a shortest distance from vertex x. we consider vertices at a distance of one edge.2 Discussion on Dijkstra’s (like) Algorithm It was interesting to compare the described shortest path algorithm with the corresponding minimum spanning tree algorithm – but at the same time it will be a learning experience if we look into the working of the shortest path algorithm under conditions when it fails to provide optimal results. The cost of this action is equivalent to making p − 2 + p − 3 = 2p − 5 steps. the edge (x. The vertex j goes in the Bucket B and the corresponding edge goes in shortest path spanning tree. 2. 1. and which are indirectly connected to x through vertex i. We show a directed graph in the Figure 5. we select a vertex i which is at a shortest distance from x. and put it in Bucket B. If all edge weights are positive then this claim will be right – it will.

.15: Pictures of the Bucket B while ﬁnding a Minimum Spanning Tree (left diagrams) as compared to the pictures while ﬁnding a Shortest Path Spanning Tree (right) from vertex a.The Shortest Path Problem 185 Figure 5.

186 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 f 2 e -5 3 a -4 h 3 i 6 9 2 3 k 3 c f 2 e -5 4 3 g 2 -4 j 3 i 6 0 a 2 9 3 k 3 c b 2 2 e 3 f 2 -5 4 3 g 2 j -4 h 3 i 6 0 a 2 9 3 k 3 c b 2 2 h d -4 b 2 d d -4 -4 Vertex a at a shortest distance of zero edge Vertex b at a shortest distance of one edge Vertex f at a shortest distance of (at most) two edges 5 j g 2 4 3 f 2 e -5 3 -4 h 0 a 2 d -4 b 2 2 e 6 9 3 i 3 k 3 c 4 3 f 2 -5 d 3 5 -4 4 0 a 2 b 2 2 0 e 9 g 2 -4 h 6 j 3 i 3 k 3 c 3 f 4 2 -5 d 3 5 -4 4 j 7 g 2 9 -4 h 0 a 2 b 2 2 6 9 3 i 8 3 k 7 3 c 4 Vertex c at a shortest distance of (at most) three edges Vertex d at a shortest distance of (at most) four edges The (incorrect) Shortest Path Spanning Tree Figure 5. The ﬁnal answer as shown in the bottom right diagram is incorrect. .16: Pictures of the Bucket B while ﬁnding a shortest path spanning tree using a Dijsktra’s like algorithm.

We show another weighted graph in the right diagram of this ﬁgure. 2.4). A k-edge shortest path (between two given vertices) requires that the path should be shortest but it should not consist of more than k edges.5. In the graph shown in the right diagram (Fig. The above observation is true for the left or the middle graph in the ﬁgure below (Fig. This graph is diﬀerent from the one shown in the left (and middle) diagram in the following ways: 1. Such one edge paths are shown in the top left diagram in Figure 5.8. The weighted adjacency matrix of the given directed graph provides all one edge paths from vertex x.4) the above observations are not true.3 The Shortest Path Problem Redeﬁned: The kedge Shortest Path Problem In order to overcome the above mentioned complication we redeﬁne the shortest path problem as follows.8. 5. Instead of ﬁnding the shortest path between two vertices we intend to ﬁnd k-edge shortest paths from a given vertex to every other vertex in a directed graph containing negative edges – the graph may even contain negative weight cycles.8. In other words the shortest distance between any two vertices does not reduce if we move in a cyclic path. If there are no parallel edges in the graph then these paths will also be the shortest paths from vertex x to every vertex adjacent to x. 5. Once we have the 1-edge shortest paths – we can convert them into 2-edge shortest paths and then into 3-edge shortest paths according to the algorithm described below. 5.8. 5. The magnitude of this shortest path is ﬁnite. It is evident from the . The shortest distances of the red vertices keep on decreasing if we move in a cyclic path as shown in red color with the result that the shortest distance of such vertices ultimately approaches minus inﬁnity. The shortest distance path from vertex a to any other vertex is a simple path – no edge or vertex is repeated in this path.4.8.The Shortest Path Problem 187 The same weighted graph and its (correct) shortest path spanning tree is shown in Fig. Please note that there are negative weight edges in this graph but no negative weight cycles: a negative weight cycle is a cycle in a graph where the net sum of the weight of the edges in the cycle is less than zero. This happens in any graph where there are negative weight cycles.

The right diagram shows a graph where shortest distances of red vertices from vertex a keep on decreasing if we move in a cyclic path as shown in red. The middle diagram shows the correct shortest path spanning tree for the same graph.17: The left diagram shows an (incorrect) shortest path spanning tree produced by a Dijkstra’s like algorithm.188 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5 j 7 g 2 4 3 f 2 0 e -5 d 9 3 5 -4 -4 h 0 a 2 b 2 2 0 e 6 9 3 i j 8 3 k 7 3 c 4 3 f 2 3 7 4 g 2 9 5 3 i 6 0 a 2 9 8 3 k 6 4 3 c 3 2 1 e f 2 -5 g 2 -12 j 3 i 6 0 a 9 2 -4 b 2 3 k 3 c -4 h h 3 d d -5 5 -4 b Dijkstra’s shortest path spanning tree (incorrect) (Correct) shortest path spanning tree Shortest distances keep on decreasing in a negative weight cycle Figure 5. .

k-edge shortest distance of every vertex i from vertex x denoted by Distk (i) output: (k + 1)-edge Shortest distance of vertex i from vertex x. input : A weighted directed Graph G. Thus k keeps increasing and the distances keep going down. we claim that we have found the shortest paths. .8. w(i.6 where we ﬁnd diﬀerent edge path from vertex x. Please note that the resulting shortest paths will be simple paths. When k increases the shortest path distances go down. if no improvement takes place in any path then we stop. It means that k would be less than or equal to p − 1 in case there are no negative weight cycles in the graph. j) + Distk (j)}.8. This graph is reproduced in Fig. 5.4. For the graph shown in the Fig. a vertex x. it is denoted by Distk+1 (i) 1 2 3 for i = 1 to p do for j = 1 to p do Distk+1 (i) = min{Distk (i). now if we increase k to 6 there is no improvement in any shortest distance. no edge or vertex is repeated in these paths. Algorithm 22: Find (k+1)-edge shortest distance of every vertex from a given vertex x in a weighted directed graph G.8. This situation never becomes stable because of the presence of a negative weight cycle comprising three vertices shown in red color. 5. As soon as all the k-edge shortest paths become stable with increase in k. now we claim that we have found the shortest distance of every vertex from x. this happens when k = 5. An Important Conclusion If there are no negative weight cycles in a directed graph consisting of some negative weight edges then we can use our k-edge shortest path technique to ﬁnd shortest paths.5. The shortest distances of the rest of the vertices become stable as soon as k approaches 5.The Shortest Path Problem 189 ﬁgure below – as we move from k-edge to (k + 1)-edge shortest paths there is some improvement in the length of a shortest path. 5. Let us explore the consequences of the presence of negative weight cycles in a graph like the one shown in the right diagram of Fig.

190 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 3 f 2 e -5 3 0 a -4 h j 3 i 6 9 2 3 k 9 3 c b 2 2 e 3 f 2 d -5 5 7 4 3 0 a g 2 -4 h 3 i 12 6 9 3 k 9 3 c 4 b 2 2 0 e 3 f 2 -5 3 d 5 7 4 g 2 9 -4 j 3 i 6 0 a 2 -4 b 12 3 k 9 7 3 c 4 2 1 h 2 -4 d -4 Vertices at one edge shortest distances 5 3 i 6 0 a 3 2 0 -5 e Vertices at (at most) four edge shortest distances: Not Stable 2 d 5 -4 b 2 1 0 e 9 Vertices at (at most) two edge shortest distances: Not Stable j 5 3 i 6 0 a 3 2 -5 2 d 5 -4 b 2 1 0 e 9 8 3 k 6 3 c 3 7 4 3 f 2 Vertices at (at most) three edge shortest distances: Not Stable j g 2 9 5 3 i 6 0 a 3 2 d 5 -4 b 2 1 -5 9 8 3 k 6 3 c 3 j 7 4 3 f g 2 9 -4 h 10 3 k 7 4 3 c 3 3 f 7 g 2 9 -4 h -4 h Vertices at (at most) five edge shortest distances: Not Stable Vertices at (at most) six edge shortest distances: STABLE Figure 5.18: We show k-edge shortest paths from vertex a to every vertex in graph G. But when k increases beyond 5 then there is no change in shortest paths. When k changes from 1 to 5. shortest path distances of some vertices change. .

and this situation never becomes stable.The Shortest Path Problem j g 2 4 3 f 2 e -5 3 0 a 2 d -4 b 2 2 e 9 -12 h 6 j 3 i 3 k 9 3 c 3 f 2 d -5 5 7 4 3 0 a 2 -4 b 2 2 0 e Vertices at (at most) three edge shortest distances 9 g 2 -12 h 6 j i 12 3 k 9 3 c 4 3 f 2 -5 3 d 5 7 4 g 2 9 -12 h 0 a 2 -4 b 6 9 3 i 191 3 12 3 k 7 3 c 4 2 1 Vertices at one edge shortest distances -3 3 -12 2 9 3 2 0 -5 e Vertices at (at most) four edge shortest distances 2 d 5 -4 b 2 1 0 e h 0 a 6 9 i Vertices at (at most) two edge shortest distances -3 3 i 6 0 a 3 2 -5 2 d 5 -4 b 2 1 9 0 3 k 6 3 c 3 3 f 7 4 j 7 4 3 f g j 10 3 k 7 4 3 c 3 3 f 7 g 2 9 j -3 g 2 6 0 a 3 2 0 -5 e -12 h -12 h 3 i 6 0 3 k 9 6 3 c 3 2 d 5 -4 b 2 1 Vertices at (at most) five edge shortest distances Vertices at (at most) six edge shortest distances: Still Not Stable j -6 7 4 3 f 2 0 -5 e g 2 6 0 a 3 -12 h 3 i 6 j -6 0 3 k 9 6 4 3 c 3 b 2 1 3 f 2 0 -5 e 3 7 g 2 6 0 a -12 h 3 i 6 j -3 3 k 9 6 4 3 c 3 b 2 1 3 f 2 0 -5 e 3 7 g 2 -12 -∞ 3 6 0 a 2 i -∞ 3 k 9 6 3 c 3 b 2 1 -∞ h 2 d 5 -4 2 d 5 -4 d 5 -4 Vertices at (at most) seven edge shortest distances: Still Not Stable Vertices at (at most) eight edge shortest distances: Still Not Stable Vertices at (at most) infinite edge shortest distances Figure 5. the shortest paths of some vertices change. When k changes from 1 to 6.19: We show k-edge shortest paths from vertex a to every other vertex in graph G. . But when k goes beyond six then we are caught in a negative cycle – the shortest path of three vertices (belonging to a negative weight cycle and shown in red color) keeps going down.

.192 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 3 f 2 e -5 3 0 a -12 h j 3 i 6 9 2 3 k 9 3 c b 2 2 e 3 f 2 d -5 5 7 4 3 0 a g 2 -12 h 3 i 12 6 9 3 k 9 3 c 4 b 2 2 0 e 3 f 2 -5 3 d 5 7 4 g 2 18 -12 j 3 i 6 0 a 2 -4 b 12 3 k 9 9 3 c 4 2 2 h 2 -4 d -4 One edge longest paths Two edge (at most) longest paths 6 j Three edge (at most) longest paths 3 i 6 0 a 2 -4 b 7 4 3 f g 2 -12 h 18 3 12 3 k 9 9 3 c 4 2 2 0 e 3 f 2 -5 7 4 g 2 6 j -12 h 18 3 d 5 3 i 6 0 a 2 -4 b 12 3 k 9 9 3 c 4 2 2 2 -5 0 e d 5 Four edge (at most) longest paths Not Stable Five edge (at most) longest paths Stable Figure 5. the situation becomes stable and we claim that we have found longest paths in this graph.20: We show k-edge longest paths from vertex a to every other vertex in graph G. When k changes from 1 to 5 the longest path of some vertices improves. But when k goes beyond four then the longest distance of any vertex does not change.

Find k-edge shortest distances of all vertices with respect to vertex a. Remember if we increase k beyond 5 while ﬁnding k-edge shortest paths then no (shortest) distance (with respect to vertex a) changes with k.1.6. Find the value of k at which the shortest distances become stable. We show another weighted graph as shown in the right diagram of Figure 5.8. i.2.2. As we increase k the longest path of certain vertices increases. .8. 5. Find how and at what value of k.4.4 The k-edge Longest Path Problem The k-edge longest path problem is quite similar to the k-edge shortest path problem. vary k from 1 to 11.8. the shortest distances become stable at a ﬁnite value of k? Why? What do you think are necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the shortest distances to become stable for a ﬁnite value of k in a weighted graph? Problem 5. there are positive weight cycles in the graph then we shall be caught in an inﬁnite loop and the longest distances (of at least some vertices) will keep increasing with increase in k. Please note that there is a big negative weight equal to -40 associated with the edge (d. 5. it may become stable after some time as shown in Fig. however. We need to explore if shortest distances of all vertices with respect to vertex a become stable when k increases while ﬁnding k-edge shortest paths. 5. the shortest paths becomes stable.7 where we operate on the same graph of Fig.2. Problem Set 5..8.8.3.8.e. Problem 5. If. We now change the magnitude of the weight associated with the edge (f. This is quite expected in view of our prior experience: if there are negative weight cycles in a graph then the shortest path (of certain vertices) keep increasing with k. it is just like maximum spanning tree versus minimum spanning tree problem. 5.8. Find k-edge shortest paths with respect to vertex a while k changes from 1 to 10.8. 5. g) from 4 to 40 as shown in the middle diagram of this ﬁgure. Please recall the weighted graph of Fig. In spite of a large negative weight in the graph shown in the right diagram of Fig.2.2.The Shortest Path Problem 193 5. Problem 5. Problem 5.8.5. b). Describe an eﬃcient algorithm (based on ﬁnding k-edge shortest distances) to ﬁnd if a directed graph contains negative weight cycles.8. if we further increase k then there is no change in the shortest distance of any vertex with respect to vertex a.2. the same weighted graph is reproduced below in the left diagram of Fig.

194 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g 2 4 f 2 d e -5 -4 3 0 a -4 h 3 i 6 9 2 b 2 2 e 3 k 3 c f 2 -5 40 3 g 2 -4 j 3 i g 3 k 0 a 2 9 3 c b 2 e f 2 d -5 4 3 2 -4 6 j 3 i 6 0 a 2 9 3 k 3 c b 2 h h d -4 -40 Figure 5.21: A weighted graph G for a problem set .

The undirected graph is converted into a directed graph as shown in the right diagram of this ﬁgure.8.8.8.8.2.9. 5. we have created a two-edge negative weight cycle in the directed graph.2.8.5. 5. Problem 5. Find if the longest paths become stable with increasing value of k. When we apply our k-edge shortest path algorithm to the directed graph (shown in the right diagram of Fig. We show an undirected graph in left diagram of Fig. The working of the k-edge shortest path technique on this graph is shown in Fig. What do you think are necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the longest distances to become stable for a ﬁnite value of k in a weighted graph? Problem 5.8.6. and we get incorrect answers for shortest distances. Problem 5.2.The Shortest Path Problem 195 Problem 5. 5.8.8. With negative edge weights (but no negative weight cycles) we expect that our kedge shortest path technique will work with the hope that the k-edge shortest paths will stabilize for a ﬁnite value of k and we shall get the optimal answer.2.9) we run into a complication. Comment on the claim that the longest path problem is a hard problem while the shortest path problem is a solvable problem.2. 5. The . Find k-edge longest paths for each vertex with respect to vertex a in the graph shown in the left diagram of Fig.10. Repeat the above problem for the graph shown in the right diagram of Fig.5 The Shortest Path Problem in Undirected Graphs with Negative Weights We consider the shortest path problem in undirected graphs with negative edge weights but no negative weight cycles. Remember that the so called technique was designed for directed graphs and in order to apply it to undirected graphs we have to ﬁrst convert the undirected graph into a directed one.9. 5. We already know that if there are no negative weights then a simple greedy strategy (like that of Dijskrta’s Algorithm) will solve the shortest path problem in undirected graphs. It is quite evident that k-edge shortest distances do not stabilize in this graph with increase in k. Is it possible to use the above algorithm to ﬁnd if an undirected graph contains negative weight cycles? Problem 5. 5.8. The correct shortest paths & distances with respect to vertex a are indicated in the middle diagram.7.

Out of the remaining paths we claim that Distk+1 (i) = min{Distk (i). challenge is how to handle this complication? Please understand that we are limiting our focus on a directed graph which is derived from an undirected graph as shown in Fig.9. input : A weighted directed Graph G. . 5. w(i. Algorithm 23: Find (k + 1)-edge shortest path & distance of every vertex from a given vertex x in a weighted directed graph G. it is denoted by SP athk+1 (i).196 0 0 5 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5 a 5 6 -3 6 -3 2 2 c b a 5 b a 5 b 6 d -3 6 -3 2 c d 4 2 c 2 d Figure 5. j) + Distk (j)} . output: (k + 1)-edge Shortest path of vertex i from vertex x. k-edge shortest path of every vertex j from vertex x denoted by SP athk (j).22: We show an undirected graph with negative edge weights but no negative weight cycles in the left diagram. Now we are in a position to ﬁnd (k + 1)-edge shortest path of a vertex i from vertex x in a graph using the following algorithm. Its weight is represented by Distk (j). Each such shortest path starts from vertex x and terminates at vertex j. Let us represent a k-edge shortest path of any vertex j from vertex x by SP athk (j). The shortest distances with respect to vertex a are indicated in the middle diagram. a vertex x. The last vertex in a shortest path SP athk (j) is vertex yj before terminating at j. its weight is equal to Distk+1 (i) 1 We need to ﬁnd SP athk+1 (i): We consider k-edge shortest path for every vertex j in the graph except for j where yj = i.8. assume that the last vertex in this shortest path is yj before terminating at j. The undirected graph is converted into a directed graph as shown in the right diagram.

The Shortest Path Problem 197 0 5 5 0 5 5 0 5 -1 a 5 6 -3 b 6 a 5 -3 b 6 a 5 -3 -3 b 6 3 2 2 6 6 -3 2 2 d 6 c ∞ d 6 2 2 c 2 d 4 c 2 One edge shortest paths Two edge (at most) shortest paths Three edge (at most) shortest paths 0 5 -1 5 5 -7 a 6 b -3 6 a 5 b -3 6 -3 2 2 6 -3 2 2 d 4 c -4 d -2 c -4 Four edge (at most) shortest paths Five edge (at most) shortest paths Figure 5. . The shortest distances do not become stable for any ﬁnite value of k.23: Shows k-edge shortest paths & distances with respect to vertex a with k changing from one to ﬁve.

While introducing this algorithm we purposely did not disclose the implementation details ignoring the underlying data structure required to program the algorithm. Please note that this graph contains negative weight cycles.11 for values of k in the range from 1 to 8. Will it be possible to provide a warning that the given graph contains negative weight cycles? What modiﬁcations are needed in our existing algorithms to solve this problem? 5. 5.198 Problem Set 5.1.9 Graph Traversal Techniques It is possible to traverse a graph in a haphazard manner. Problem 5. 5. Basics of Graph Algorithms Problem 5. The objective was to highlight the basic idea and initially suppress the programming details. Apply the above Algorithm to the graph shown in Fig.1).9 and verify that it provides correct results for values of k in the range of 1 to 5.8. You might have noticed that the Bucket-Algorithm is essentially a graph traversal algorithm. 5. The Bucket Algorithm is simple because it is more abstract and ﬂexible.1 Traditional Techniques & the Bucket-Algorithm It is interesting to note that the Breadth as well as Depth First Searches are two diﬀerent implementations of the Bucket-Algorithm (Fig. Consider an undirected graph containing negative weight cycles. 5.3. Baase [2] uses JAVA to describe algorithms and this may be one reason why the book is relatively diﬃcult to read even if students have prior knowledge of the language. . Problem 5. Compare your results with the correct shortest paths given in the middle diagram of Fig.3. Cormen [17] and Skiena [16] use a pseudo programming language and operate at a slightly higher level. We must make every move in a systematic manner to ensure that we do not miss out any vertex belonging to the same connected component [3].8. 5. However.9. Apply the above Algorithm to the graph shown in Fig.9. you would only ﬁnd some very speciﬁc techniques like the Breadth and Depth First Search traversal algorithms – more specialized and less ﬂexible than our Bucket Algorithm. Check if k-edge shortest paths stabilize for a ﬁnite value of k. in most of the current textbooks. Eﬃciency demands that we do not visit the same vertex again and again.3.3.3.8.9.2.

Graph Traversal Techniques 199 a b a b d c d c Figure 5. .24: We show an un-directed graph (left diagram) with a negative weight cycle. The undirected graph is converted into a directed graph as shown in the right diagram.

25: Pictures of the Bucket B while performing a BFS (DFS) traversal in a graph starting from a vertex a shown in the top (bottom) diagram. .200 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g h i k a d e BFS S DF j g h i k a d e BFS j g h i k a d e b c f c b f c b f j g h i k a d e b c DFS j g h i k a d e b e c f d g j i h k a b c f f Figure 5.

2 The Underlying Data Structure We know that we use a cross edge to discover a new vertex in the BucketAlgorithm (step 3). all vertices at a distance of one edge from the starting vertex are selected (or goes in the Bucket). In the ﬁrst iteration of the BFS traversal.10. in the k th iteration of the BFS traversal.9. Some of these cross edges come from vertices that entered the bucket earlier. others from vertices that are new comers in the bucket.1. . The non spanning tree edges are shown in pink color by thin lines.26: A Graph G shown in the left diagram. Using a Last in First Out (LIFO or a stack) or a First In First Out (FIFO or a queue) data structure to store the already discovered vertices would make all the diﬀerence: a stack implementation would convert the Bucket-Algorithm into a Depth First Search while a queue would transform it into a Breadth First Search. its BFS spanning tree is shown in the middle while a DFS spanning tree of this graph is shown in the right diagram.10 Some Graph Theoretic Claims We make the following claims about the BFS traversal in an un-directed and connected graph G: Claim 5.1 below. Please see the Figure 5.10. all vertices at a distance of exactly k edges from the starting vertex will be discovered. The way we decide which vertex to choose would convert the BucketAlgorithm into a Breadth First Search. Depth First Search. 5. j g h i k a d e b e c f d g h j i k a b e c f d g h j i k a b c f Figure 5.Some Graph Theoretic Claims 201 5. or a combination of the two.

The bottom left diagram shows that in the ﬁrst iteration of the BFS algorithm.202 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g h i k a d e b e c f d g j i h k a b e c f d g j i h k a b c f a 0 a 0 f 1 a 0 f 1 k 1 g 2 2 b 1 k 1 f 1 b 1 b 1 k 1 g 2 2 d e 3 c 2 i 2 d c 2 i 2 3 3 j h Figure 5. The distance of each vertex with respect to vertex a is indicated in red color along with each vertex in the bottom diagrams. vertices at a distance of one edge from vertex a goes in the bucket. and so on. the middle diagram shows that vertices at a distance of two edges moves in the bucket in the 2nd iteration. .27: Pictures of the Bucket B while performing a BFS traversal in a graph starting from a vertex a shown in the top diagrams.

5. If every edge of G connects a vertex x to vertex y in the BFS spanning tree of G such that Dist(x)−Dist(y) is exactly equal to 1 then graph G is a bipartite graph. Claim 5. Please see Fig.10. (Remember Dist(x) is the distance of vertex x from the starting vertex in the BFS spanning tree). 5.2.2.10.30 below.10. . If there is an edge in G other than the ones in the BFS spanning tree of G connecting vertex x and vertex y in the BFS spanning tree such that Dist(x) − Dist(y) is one then there will be an even cycle in graph G.10.6.29 below. Claim 5. If there is no edge in G other than the ones in the BFS spanning tree of G then G is a tree provided G is a connected graph.10.10.4.10. Claim 5. Claim 5. BFS spanning tree of a graph G is a minimum distance spanning tree in terms of number of edges between the starting vertex and any other vertex in graph G.10.7. Similarly if there is an edge of G connecting vertex x to vertex y in the BFS spanning tree of G such that Dist(x) − Dist(y) is exactly equal to 0 then graph G is not a bipartite graph. If a graph G is a tree then there will be a unique path between every pair of vertices of G. 5.9. Similarly if there is a unique path between every pair if vertices in a connected graph G then G is a tree.Some Graph Theoretic Claims 203 Claim 5.5. Please see Fig. If there is an edge in G other than the ones in the BFS spanning tree of G connecting vertex x and vertex y in the BFS spanning tree such that Dist(x) − Dist(y) is zero then there will be an odd cycle in graph G.10. Claim 5. (Remember Dist(x) is the distance of vertex x from the starting vertex in the BFS spanning tree). A graph G is bipartite if and only if it does not contain any odd cycles. If there is an edge in G other than the ones in the BFS spanning tree of G then this edge will connect two vertices x and y in the BF S spanning tree such that Dist(x) − Dist(y) is either zero or one whereas Dist(x) is the distance of vertex x from the starting vertex in the BFS spanning tree. Please see the Fig. Claim 5.2 Claim 5.10.8.3. 5. Please see Fig.

As we know the distance of vertex h from vertex a. these two paths along with edge j. we also know a path between vertex h and vertex a as shown in green color in the top right diagram. h makes a cycle. It will be an odd cycle as vertices h and j are at the same distance from vertex a. We also know a path between vertex j and vertex a. .28: BFS spanning tree of a graph G is shown. The edge between vertex h and vertex j creates an odd cycle in the graph as both these vertices are at the same distance from vertex a.204 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g h k f d e a b h c g 2 2 3 a 0 i f 1 b 1 k 1 d e 3 c 2 i 2 3 j Figure 5.

Some Graph Theoretic Claims 205 j g h k f d e a b 3 0 a i f 1 b 1 k 1 c g 2 2 d e 3 c 2 i 2 3 j h Figure 5. .29: BFS spanning tree of a graph G. The edge between vertex h and vertex i creates an even cycle in the graph G as vertex h is at a distance one larger than the distance of i from a.

30: BFS spanning tree of a graph G which is a bipartite graph is shown in the top diagrams. BFS spanning tree of another graph G which is a not bipartite is shown in the bottom diagrams.206 Basics of Graph Algorithms j g h k f d e a b 3 a 0 i f 1 b 1 f a k 1 d c 2 i 2 g c 3 j b k e h c g 2 2 d e 3 h i j f a 0 j g h k f d e a b h c g 2 2 3 i f 1 b 1 a k 1 d g c e 3 3 j b k e h d c 2 i 2 i j Figure 5. .

5.Some Graph Theoretic Claims 207 Claim 5. the given vertex goes in the bucket ﬁrst.31: We show the contents of the Bucket at diﬀerent times while we make a BFS traversal of a graph. one more vertex and an edge go in Bucket. In the ﬁrst iteration of this algorithm. When we grow a BFS spanning tree in a Bucket starting from a given vertex. we discover a new vertex because of an edge going out of the Bucket. Initially there will be only one vertex and no spanning edge as shown in the top left corner. Finally there will be 10 spanning edges and 11 vertices in the Bucket. At any point in time there will be k vertices and k − 1 edges in the Bucket. j g h k f a b e No spanning edge & One vertex in the Bucket j i g h k f a b e One spanning edge & Two vertices in the Bucket j i g h k f a b i c c c d e d d Two spanning edges & 3 vertices in the Bucket j g h k f a b e f c d i g j i h k a b e 4 spanning edges & five vertices in the Bucket j g h k f a b i c c d e d 3 spanning edges & four vertices in the Bucket 10 spanning edges & 11 vertices in the Bucket Figure 5. Please see the Fig.10.10.31. .

. This is about single source shortest path algorithms assuming that all edge weights are positive in the given weighted graph. Finding k-edge shortest or longest paths in a weighted graph. 2. 3.10. The interesting thing about this style of design is that we shall be using a single building block (sometimes the Bucket Algorithm and some times a 2-edge Shortest path Algorithm) to design or describe an algorithm. If G is a connected graph and if the number of edges is one less than the number of vertices in G then G is a tree. We shall further modify the Bucket algorithm to achieve our objectives. Here we assume that there may be negative edge weights in the given weighted directed graph. Design of a shortest path algorithm for directed acyclic graphs with negative as well positive edge weights.12.11. 2. 1.11 Shortest Path Algorithms We have already done the following in earlier sections of this chapter. Modifying the Bucket algorithm to ﬁnd a shortest path spanning tree (SST) or shortest distances in a weighted graph from a given vertex. If G is acyclic & number of edges in G is one less than the number of vertices then G is a tree. 3. Claim 5. 5. Modifying the Bucket algorithm to ﬁnd a minimum spanning tree (MST). Analyze the existing minimum spanning tree & shortest path ﬁnding algorithms and improve their eﬃciency as far as possible.10. We shall again modify the Bucket algorithm to achieve our objective. On the basis of that precious prior knowledge we can design interesting shortest path algorithms.208 Basics of Graph Algorithms Claim 5. We also assume that the directed graph may have cycles. Design of single source shortest path algorithms based on our prior knowledge of ﬁnding k-edge shortest paths from a given vertex. We intend to do the following in this section: 1.

5. Algorithm 24: (Crude-Dijkstra): Find shortest distance of every vertex from a given vertex a in G & also the shortest path spanning tree (SST ) of G from vertex a input : A weighted Graph G. We apply the shortest path algorithm and ﬁnd the shortest distances from vertex a in this graph where a = 1 also shown in Fig. 5.Shortest Path Algorithms 209 4. Design of all pair shortest path algorithms including the slow all pair. 5. Put vertex k in B. That is why the shortest paths found by the crude Dijkstra’s algorithm are not correct. k). Food for thought: The graph shown in Fig. and Dist(k) of every other vertex k from vertex a equal to ∞.32.it is ﬁxed and ﬁnalized.32 has negative edge weights. a vertex a output: Shortest distance Dist(k) of every vertex k from vertex a 1 2 3 4 5 Put vertex a in Bucket B.11. Dist(k) = Dist(j) + w(j. faster all pair.32. Floyd-Warshall and Johnsons shortest path algorithms. We have already witenessed that this algorithm does not always provide correct . Initialize Dist(a) = 0. The visual tool demonstrates at what stage and when a vertex enters the Bucket while the shortest path algorithm moves forward. 5. We shall study this algorithm using diﬀerent tools before improving its time complexity. Put edge (j. The shortest distances from vertex 1 as found by this algorithm are also indicated in the bottom diagram. k) in SST . while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B do Select the edge for which Dist(j) + w(j. As soon as a vertex enters the bucket its color changes from blue to orange and then its distance from the start vertex cannot change . We introduce a visual tool known as ”opening up the graph” as shown in Fig. k) is minimum where vertex j is in B and vertex k is outside the Bucket.1 Single Source Shortest Path Algorithms with positive edge weights We copy here the modiﬁed Bucket algorithm designed in the last section to ﬁnd shortest paths from a given start vertex.

32: We use a new tool ”Opening up the graph” as shown here. As soon as a vertex enters the bucket its color changes from blue to orange and then its distance from the start vertex cannot change . .210 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5.it is ﬁxed and ﬁnalized. It also shows how and when the distance of a vertex changes from the start vertex. It shows at what stage (edge distance) a vertex enters the Bucket while executing crude shortest path algorithm.

Although it provides correct results for positive edge weights. But we also know that this very algorithm provides correct results when all edge weights are positive. In fact there are two complications with this algorithm: 1.3. The issue of negative edge weights will be handled in the next sub-section.Shortest Path Algorithms 211 results for graphs with negative weight edges. What we essentially do is to change the graph itself at each step as shown in Fig.this will automatically cut down the time complexity of this single source shortest path algorithm to p2 . The number of edges coming out of the Bucket B at any time is proportional to p2 as illustrated in Fig.11. Its time complexity is too high. Figure 5. The outcome .33. 5. Surprisingly this can be done with a slight modiﬁcation in the crude algorithm as shown below. Somehow we should reduce the number of relevant edges coming out of the Bucket to as small as p . We shall reduce the time complexity in the following reﬁned version of shortest path algorithm. 2. 5. It does not provide correct results for negative edge weights. As this loop runs as many times as p so the overall time complexity will be p3 of this algorithm. This requires as many comparison steps to move forward in the while loop. Now we consider the edges coming out of the Bucket from (only) vertex a instead of edges coming out of the Bucket from all vertices in the Bucket.33: The number of edges coming out of the Bucket B at any time will be proportional to p2 under worst case conditions.

You can yourself make suitable modiﬁcations in the algorithm according to these modiﬁcations. . k) of this step is that the number of edges (which really matters) coming out of the bucket B from vertex a is limited by p and not p2 . a vertex a output: Modiﬁed adjacency matrix of graph G in which the row corresponding to vertex a gives shortest distances of every vertex from vertex a. j) + w(j. It is interesting to note how the shortest distances are provided in the output in this new algorithm. 1 2 3 4 5 Put vertex a in Bucket B while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B from vertex a do Select the edge for which w(a. Again it will be interesting to understand that this algorithm will provide the weight of the minimum spanning tree of a weighted graph . k). 5. We have provided a hint in the same ﬁgure. We can recover shortest paths by adding a parent table as shown in Fig. Put vertex j in B for every edge coming out of B from vertex j do assign min{w(a. w(a. If we can recover shortest paths then we should also be able to recover a minimum spanning tree using the reﬁned minimum spanning tree algorithm. k)} to w(a.38 determining the actual shortest paths in a directed graph is an interesting problem.not the minimum spanning tree itself as shown in the diagrams below. It is important to note that we may be able to make similar modiﬁcations in the crude minimum spanning tree algorithm to make it more eﬃcient.212 Basics of Graph Algorithms Algorithm 25: (Reﬁned-Dijkstra):Find shortest distance of every vertex from a given vertex a in weighted graph G input : A weighted Graph G. The reﬁned version of that algorithm is given below . however. Food for thought: Given a parent table and shortest distances as shown in Fig. could not be found without an extra eﬀort using this reﬁned algorithm.its time complexity also reduces from O(p3 ) to O(p2 ). See how by increasing memory or space requirements we can reduce the time complexity of an algorithm. j) is minimum where vertex j is outside the Bucket B. The shortest paths.38.37 & 5. 5.

Put vertex j in B.k) = min{w(a. j) is minimum where vertex j is outside the Bucket B. w(j. k)} to w(a.34: We modify the graph as we move forward in the shortest path algorithm. k) . w(a. j)+w(j. for every edge coming out of B from vertex j do assign min{w(a.k)} j 3 g k 3 2 6 a f 2 d 1 e 5 3 1 3 5 2 2 b e 4 h 3 c 6 7 3 4 c f 2 d 1 5 3 1 i 3 k 3 6 3 5 a 2 2 b g 2 4 h 6 7 3 4 c j 3 i 3 k 4 2 b Figure 5. while there are edges coming out of the Bucket B from vertex a do Select the edge for which w(a. k).k).Shortest Path Algorithms 213 j 3 g 2 3 f 2 1 e 3 a 2 d 3 1 2 b e 4 h 6 9 i 3 k 3 c f 2 d 1 3 3 5 g 2 4 j 3 i 6 9 a 2 2 3 1 b e 4 3 k 3 c f 2 d 1 3 6 3 5 g 4 2 j 3 i 6 9 a 2 2 3 1 b 4 3 k 3 c h h t bu es nc ths ista st pa t d te r es o rt h o sh e s he of th d t ck fin ra We se t lo j 3 g 2 6 a f 2 d 1 e 5 3 1 3 5 2 4 h 3 6 7 i 3 w(a. Algorithm 26: Find weight of MST of a weighted graph G input : Adjacency matrix of a weighted Graph G output: Modiﬁed adjacency matrix of graph G in which the row corresponding to vertex a gives weight of MST 1 2 3 4 5 6 Put any vertex a in Bucket B.

We can ﬁnd shortest paths in such graphs in the presence of negative edge weights and we can also ﬁnd longest paths in the presence of positive edge weights.35: We modify the graph as we move forward in the minimum spanning tree algorithm.214 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5.2 Single Source Shortest Path Algorithms for Directed Acyclic Graphs We know that by deﬁnition a directed acyclic graph contains no cycles. The Bucket Algorithm (described earlier) can easily be modiﬁed to create an algorithm which can ﬁnd shortest paths from any given vertex in a very eﬃcient manner. We can even solve the Hamiltonian Path problem in this very restricted class of graphs. The crucial question is which will be the next vertex to go in the bucket and on what basis.11. The intuition of this algorithm comes from the observation that we can always arrange the vertices of a DAG such that all edges in the DAG move from left to right as shown in the ﬁgure below. If we need to ﬁnd shortest paths from a source vertex a then we should put that vertex in the bucket ﬁrst. An answer to this question will not . 5. This observation is explained in detail in Chapter 8 while discussing directed acyclic graphs.

Shortest distances with respect to vertex a are indicated in the bottom left graph. Weight of the minimum spanning tree is indicated in the bottom right graph. Please note that the shortest paths and minimum spanning tree are not easily available here.36: The original graph is shown in the top diagram. .Shortest Path Algorithms 215 Figure 5.

38: How to recover shortest paths with the help of a parent table? . Figure 5.216 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5.37: We need to add a parent table array in order to ﬁnd shortest paths in addition to shortest distances.

In the bottom diagram we arrange its vertices such that all edges move from left to right.11.it will also decide its time complexity. So coming back to the important question: which vertex (and on what basis) should enter the bucket after putting the start vertex in the bucket? The interesting observation is that after arranging vertices of a DAG (such that all edges move from left to right) the next vertex to enter the bucket has already been decided. Please see the concept map in Fig. We need no comparisons or extra steps to make this decision.39: A directed acyclic graph D shown in the top diagram. The numbers inside each vertex is the start time and ﬁnish times obtained during a depth ﬁrst search of the directed graph. Recall how we select the next candidate vertex which enters into the bucket in case of Dijkstra like algorithm or in case of Prim’s like algorithm. . 5. The corresponding algorithm is described below. Its working is shown in Fig. It is the next left vertex in the new arrangement of the vertices of the graph. 5. In both these algorithms we made certain comparisons to select the next entrant into the bucket.40.Shortest Path Algorithms 217 only determine the character of this algorithm .10. Figure 5. It will be an interesting challenge to derive the time complexity of this elegant shortest path algorithm.

w(a.40: A concept map depicting which vertex should next enter the bucket in diﬀerent algorithms. k). a vertex a output: Modiﬁed graph D in which the weighted edges coming out of vertex a provides shortest distances from this vertex. Algorithm 27: Find shortest distance of every vertex from a given vertex a in a directed acyclic graph D input : A directed acyclic and weighted Graph D. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Arrange vertices of the DAG such that all edges move from left to right Put given vertex a in Bucket B while there is an edge going out of the Bucket B do Select the next right vertex j. j) + w(j. k)} to w(a.218 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5. k) . Put vertex j in B for every edge coming out of B from vertex j do assign min{w(a.

11.10. How about if there are negative weight edges in the graph? Would this algorithm still provide correct results? 4. Can we use a similar algorithm to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Path in a directed acyclic graph provided it exists? . Can we still apply this algorithm without any modiﬁcation to ﬁnd shortest paths? How about if we need to ﬁnd shortest paths from a vertex other than the source vertex in a DAG? 3.Shortest Path Algorithms Food for Thought 219 1. Assume that we have a DAG with multiple source vertices. We need to ﬁnd shortest paths from vertex a in this graph. The graph is already drawn such that all edges are going from left to right. If we had applied Dijkstra’s algorithm to this graph then it would have selected vertex c (instead of vertex b) as the edge joining vertex a with vertex c having the minimum weight. How about if we need to ﬁnd longest paths instead of shortest paths from a given vertex in this or any other directed acyclic graph? Which vertex will next end up in the bucket? What changes are needed in this algorithm to ﬁnd longest paths? Please see ﬁgure 5. Do you think Dijkstra’s like algorithm will also ﬁnd correct shortest paths in a DAG? And at what cost? 2. Consider the directed acyclic graph shown in Fig. 5. The next vertex which goes in the bucket is vertex b in spite of the fact that the edge joining vertex a with vertex b is the heaviest edge in this graph.42.

. Weight of every edge not indicated in the diagram is equal to 1. The vertices of the DAG have been arranged such that all edges move from left to right.220 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5.41: We need to ﬁnd shortest distances from vertex a in this graph. Now the next vertex to move in the bucket will always be the next left vertex.

Shortest Path Algorithms 221 Figure 5. The vertices of the DAG have been arranged such that all edges move from left to right. Now the next vertex to move in the bucket will always be the next left vertex. .42: We need to ﬁnd longest distances from vertex a. Weight of every edge not indicated in the diagram is equal to 1.

k) + Disti (j)} A 2-edge shortest path algorithm Let us make this building block consistent with our earlier policy of modifying the graph as we move forward in the algorithm. i-edge shortest distance of every vertex k from vertex a denoted by Disti (k) output: (i + 1)-edge Shortest distance of vertex k from vertex a.11. Let us recall the (i + 1)-edge shortest path algorithm described earlier in this chapter.3 Single Source Shortest Path Algorithms for directed graphs with negative edge weights We have discussed directed acyclic graphs and the ease with which we can ﬁnd shortest paths in such graphs in the last section. it is denoted by Disti+1 (k) 1 2 3 for each (terminating) vertex k do for each (intermediate) vertex j do Disti+1 (k) = min{Disti (k). k) represents the initial one edge path of vertex k from . We shall follow this terminology throughout this section. a vertex a. Here w(a. Remember we have already reduced the time complexity of our modiﬁed shortest path algorithm from p3 to p2 . We assume that all distances are to be measured and minimized with respect to a start vertex a. In this building block we just convert the one edge distances into 2-edge shortest distances as given in the following algorithm. Now is the time to get rid of the bucket as it is hindering our way to handle negative edge weights. input : A weighted directed Graph G. That was Dijkstra’s like algorithm which can handle positive edge weights in a graph with cycles but does not provide us with correct results if there are negative edge weights in the graph. Then we need to revert back to algorithms discussed earlier. If a graph is cyclic then we cannot use the simplicity and elegance of this algorithm. w(j. It has been copied below. The terminating vertex is k and the intermediate vertex is indicated by vertex j.222 Basics of Graph Algorithms 5. This will make it friendlier to use as a building block. Algorithm 28: (Bellman-Ford Building Block-A): Find (i + 1)-edge shortest distance of every vertex k from a given vertex a in a weighted directed graph G.

1-edge shortest distance of every vertex k from vertex a provided by the row corresponding to vertex a in the adjacency matrix G output: Modiﬁed graph G in which row corresponding to vertex a provides 2-edge shortest distance of every vertex k from vertex a 1 2 3 for each (terminating) vertex k of graph G do for each (intermediate) vertex j of graph G do Find a 2-edge path from vertex a to k passing through j.1) w(a. w(a. k)} Algorithm 29: (Bellman-Ford Building Block-B): Find 2-edge shortest distance of every vertex k from a given vertex a in a weighted directed graph G. k). j) + w(j. a vertex a. input : A weighted directed Graph G. j) + w(j. k). and assign min{w(a. k)} to w(a. The 2-edge shortest distance w(a. k) = min{w(a. w(a.Shortest Path Algorithms 223 vertex a. k) from vertex a to vertex k will then be given by the following recursive equation: (5. k) .

k)} . Here a = 1. Edge weights not shown are equal to 1. We vary j and k for the entire vertex range and ﬁnd the 2-edge shortest distances of every vertex from vertex a. 5.11.w(a.12).224 0 1 ∞ 2 ∞ 3 ∞ 4 ∞ 5 ∞ 6 Basics of Graph Algorithms ∞ 7 0-edge apart 1-edge apart 1 2 1 3 4 5 1 6 7 1 2-edge apart 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 7 2 2 ∞ 1 1 3 1 1 0 2 0 2 2 7 1 6 4 3 6 3 2 4 3 5 4 Input Graph 4 5 ∞ 1 2-edge Shortest paths? Figure 5. Please see the accompanying ﬁgure (Fig.k)=min{w(a. The 2-edge shortest distances are indicated in the modiﬁed graph shown in the bottom right corner.k).j)+w(j. w(a.43: Execution of the 2-edge shortest path algorithm from start vertex a.

13). Please note that it is immaterial whether you execute the j-loop ﬁrst and the k-loop later or vice versa.44: We execute the k-loop ﬁrst and then the j-loop in the 2-edge shortest path algorithm. Here intermediate vertex j is ﬁxed at 4 and the destination vertex k is varied ﬁrst.11.Shortest Path Algorithms 225 Figure 5. 5. The end result remains the same.it also becomes a powerful tool for the algorithm designer (Fig. . This switching of two loops is an exciting idea in the development of shortest path algorithms .

As you can understand this 2-edge shortest path algorithm becomes a building block for so many shortest path algorithms. k). While vertex (13) in the top row of the recursion tree corresponds to the two edge shortest distance from vertex 1 to vertex 3 in the original graph. k)} is also shown in the bottom diagram. The number of edges in the recursion tree corresponds exactly to the number of steps performed by the two edge shortest distance algorithm. A vertex (13) in the bottom row of the recursion tree corresponds to one edge distance of vertex 3 from vertex 1 in original graph. 5. A recursion tree corresponding to the equation w(a. w(a. j)+ w(j.45.226 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5.45: Execution of the 2-edge shortest path algorithm is illustrated. Please note that the number of edges in the recursion tree is exactly equal to the number of steps performed by the algorithm. The Recursion Tree We illustrate the 2-edge shortest path algorithm by one additional tool known as the recursion tree (although strictly speaking it is a DAG) as shown in Fig. . k) = min{w(a.

The outer most loop in the Bellman-Ford Algorithm (known as Algorithm 30) is represented by blue color in Fig. 5. The other is the intermediate vertex j loop represented by orange color in the puzzle. k)} to w(a. Here we introduce another tool to study an algorithm. and assign min{w(a. k) := min{w(a. k) This algorithm resembles the so called Bellman-Ford algorithm with a time complexity of p3 as we have three nested for loops. See without this blue box the remaining two boxes (brown and orange) represents the 2-edge shortest path algorithm known as Algorithm 29. One is the terminating vertex k loop represented by brown color in the colored puzzle. Algorithm 30: (Bellman-Ford1): Find shortest distance of every vertex k from a given vertex a in G input : Adjacency matrix of weighted Graph G and a start vertex a output: Modiﬁed adjacency matrix G in which row corresponding to vertex a provides shortest distance of every vertex k from vertex a in G 1 2 3 4 for i=1 to p-1 do for each (intermediate) vertex j of graph G do for each (terminating) vertex k of graph G do Find a two edge path from vertex a to vertex k in G passing through an intermediate vertex j. w(a. k)}. k).Shortest Path Algorithms Bellman-Ford like Shortest Path Algorithm 227 In order to ﬁnd a shortest distance in a weighted graph with negative edge weights we just have to run the 2-edge shortest path building block suﬃcient number of times as shown in the following algorithm. w(a. The Colored Puzzle The colored puzzle highlights the fact that Algorithm 29 can be used to become a building block for Bellmam-Ford Algorithm. Please note that the nesting of f or loops in these algorithm can be nicely . This outer loop executes Algorithm 29 p − 1 number of times and minimizes the value of w(a. k) according the following equation: w(a. Algorithm 29 has two f or loops. j) + w(j. k). j) + w(j. Fig.46.

5.47 along with the corresponding colored puzzles. It is possible to run the intermediate vertex j-loop (orange color) ﬁrst and then the destination vertex k-loop (brown color) or vice versa. Other shortest path algorithms can also be represented by this puzzle with the addition of the start vertex a loop shown by green color in coming ﬁgures. It is interesting to note that each such algorithm appears in pairs . . cannot be changed without adversely aﬀecting the performance of the algorithm. The outer most loop in the algorithm is represented by blue color. for i =1 to p-1 for each vertex k for each vertex j for i =1 to p-1 for each vertex j for each vertex k Figure 5.46: A colored puzzle depicting the positioning of the diﬀerent for loops in the shortest distance ﬁnding algorithm.46. The positioning of the j and k loops in the Bellman-Ford Algorithm can be interchanged without aﬀecting the outcome of this algorithm as shown in Fig. however. 5. The position of the blue loop.thanks to the colored puzzle which provokes a learner to note this interesting property. The recursion tree corresponding to the Bellman-Ford Algorithm is shown in Fig.228 Basics of Graph Algorithms captured by nested colored boxes in the colored puzzle.

which is equal to p3 . Time Complexity of Bellman-Ford shortest path algorithm We have witnessed that the time complexity of Bellman-Ford1 shortest path algorithm is O(p3 ) with an adjacency matrix data structure. It is also possible to rephrase this algorithm so that we do not need any .47: The recursion tree corresponding to Bellman-Ford like algorithm. How about a sparse graph and if we represent it using an adjacency list representation? It may be a good idea to see if the time complexity can be reduced to at least O(pq) which will be less than O(p3 ) for a suﬃciently sparse graph. The colored puzzle corresponding to this algorithm is again shown in the bottom diagram.Shortest Path Algorithms 229 Figure 5. The complexity of algorithm is equal to the number of edges in this recursion tree .

Its working is explained in the ﬁgure below. k)} Dist(k) = min{ Dist(k). Algorithm 31: (Bellman-Ford2): Find shortest distance of every vertex k from a given vertex a in G input : Directed and weighted graph D. In this version of Bellman-Ford the time complexity will always be pq with an adjacency list data structure and without an extra intelligence in its implementation. k). k) in graph D do Dist(k) = min{Dist(k). k)} a Dist(k) Dist(j) j a Dist(k) = 6 Dist(j) = 4 w(j.48: How and when the (shortest) distance Dist(k). Dist(j) + w(j.k) = 3 k j w(j. Line 3 is the basic building block of this algorithm. with respect to vertex a changes when we consider the directed edge (j.k) = 1 k New Dist(k) = 6 New Dist(k) = 5 Figure 5. The rephrased algorithm is shown below. 1 2 3 for i=1 to p-1 do for every directed edge (j.230 Basics of Graph Algorithms extra intelligence (in its implementation) to make it a O(pq) algorithm. .k) k a Dist(k) = 6 Dist(j) = 4 j w(j. Distance Dist(a) of vertex a from itself is zero and from any other vertex it is inﬁnite. output: Distance array Dist(k) storing minimum distances of every vertex k from vertex a. Dist(j) + w(j.

11. They will all use a single building block which is the 2-edge shortest path algorithm described earlier. k) The Faster All Pair shortest Path Algorithm It is interesting to note that if we switch the blue p-loop with the green a-loop in the colored puzzle as shown in the diagram below then we end up with another all pair shortest path algorithm. k)} to w(a. The slow all pair shortest path algorithm has a O(p4 ) complexity. and assign min{w(a. The Slow All Pair shortest Path Algorithm The Bellman-Ford like algorithm ﬁnds shortest distances from a ﬁxed start vertex in a graph. w(a. k). Algorithm 32: Slow All Pair: Find shortest distance of every vertex from every vertex in G input : Adjacency matrix of weighted Graph G output: Shortest distance of every vertex from every vertex in G 1 2 3 4 5 for each (start) vertex a of graph G do for i=1 to p-1 do for each (intermediate) vertex j of graph G do for each (terminating) vertex k of graph G do Find a two edge path from vertex a to vertex k in G passing through an intermediate vertex j. j) + w(j. faster all pair shortest path algorithm has a O(p3 log2 p) complexity while Floyd-Warshall all pair shortest path algorithm has O(p3 ) time complexity under worst case conditions. The working of this algorithm is shown in the diagram below.Shortest Path Algorithms 231 5. It will be interesting to derive its time complexity and compare it with that of slow all pair shortest path algorithm. This algorithm is depicted pictorially by the colored puzzle shown in the left diagram of the ﬁgure below. known as faster all pair shortest path algorithm.4 All Pair Shortest Path Algorithms We shall describe now three all pair shortest path algorithms. . If we run this algorithm for every vertex in the graph then we end up with the so called slow all pair shortest path algorithm with a time complexity of O(p4 ).

k) . w(a. w(a. The left diagram depicts the slow all pair shortest path algorithm while the right diagram represents the faster all pair shortest path algorithm.232 Basics of Graph Algorithms for each vertex a for i =1 to p-1 for each vertex j for each vertex k for i =1 to p-1 for each vertex a for each vertex j for each vertex k w(a. Algorithm 33: Faster All Pair: Find shortest distance of every vertex from every vertex in G input : Adjacency matrix of weighted Graph G output: Shortest distance of every vertex from every vertex in G 1 2 3 4 5 for i=1 to p-1 do for each (start) vertex a of graph G do for each (intermediate) vertex j of graph G do for each (terminating) vertex k of graph G do Find a two edge path from vertex a to vertex k in G passing through an intermediate vertex j.k) = min{w(a. There is another p-loop . and assign min{w(a.49: The start vertex loop is represented by green color. k). j)+w(j.k).it is represented by blue color. k)} to w(a. k)} Figure 5. j) + w(j. The diagram shows the eﬀect of switching between the blue and the green loops. The intermediate vertex j loop is represented by orange color and the terminating vertex k loop is represented by brown color.

50: Working of the faster all pair shortest path algorithm is shown. .Shortest Path Algorithms 233 Figure 5. Please note that from two edge all pair shortest distances we jump to 4-edge and then to 8-edge shortest distances.

51: The recursion tree and the colored puzzle corresponding to faster all pair shortest path algorithm. Here it is also obvious that from 2-edge shortest distances we directly jump to 4-edge shortest distances.234 Basics of Graph Algorithms Figure 5. .

52. Is the time complexity of this algorithm any better than that of slow all pair shortest path algorithm? If yes then why? 2.51. Please note that now we have only three loops and there is in fact no need to have the fourth loop . . 3. Its time complexity is as good (or as bad) as that of Bellman-Ford algorithm (which is a single source shortest path algorithm) for non sparse graphs. 5.Shortest Path Algorithms Food for thought 235 1. We know it can be represented by the colored puzzle as shown in Fig.53 & 5. In the slow all pair shortest path algorithm the blue loop should run from 1 to p and not from 1 to log2 p? Why? All Pair (Floyd-Warshall) Shortest Path Algorithm Consider the faster all pair shortest path algorithm. 5.54. You may have noticed that in this algorithm (FAster All Pair) the number of edges in shortest paths jumps in the powers of 2 as shown in Figure 5.53. If the intermediate vertex j loop (also known as the orange loop in the colored puzzle) becomes the outermost loop while the source vertex a loop (green) and destination vertex k loop (brown) are inner loops (in any order) then (surprisingly) we end up with one of the most eﬃcient all pair shortest path algorithms as shown in Fig. There are essentially four for loops in this algorithm represented by four nested rectangles in the multi colored puzzle. See Fig. 5. The basic building block of this algorithm is the same recursive equation that we used in other algorithms.the so called blue loop in the colored puzzle. The time complexity will now be O(p3 ) as there are only three loops. The recursive equation used as a building block is also indicated in this ﬁgure. What does that mean? The outer most loop (the blue colored loop in the colored puzzle) should run from 1 to p or from 1 to log2 p? How will it aﬀect the time complexity of this so called faster all pair shortest path algorithm.

w(a.k). j)+w(j.52: The colored puzzles corresponding to faster all pair shortest path algorithm. k)} to w(a. k). j) + w(j. Algorithm 34: (Floyd-Warshall): Find shortest distance of every vertex from every vertex in G input : Adjacency matrix of weighted Graph G output: Shortest distance of every vertex from every vertex in G 1 2 3 4 for each (intermediate) vertex j of graph G do for each (start) vertex a of graph G do for each (terminating) vertex k of graph G do Find a two edge path from vertex a to vertex k in G passing through an intermediate vertex j.k) = min{w(a. k) . w(a. and assign min{w(a. k)} for i =1 to log2p for each vertex a for each vertex j for each vertex k for i =1 to log2p for each vertex a for each vertex k for each vertex j Figure 5.236 Basics of Graph Algorithms w(a.

Please appreciate the fact that for the entire galaxy of such algorithms we use a single building block .54. In this subsection we shall study another all pair shortest path algorithm which works faster than O(p3 ) for graphs which are suﬃciently sparse. Note that the Bucket algorithm is the ancestor of most of these algorithms.Shortest Path Algorithms for i =1 to for each vertex j p-1 for each vertex k for each vertex a for each vertex j for each vertex a for each vertex k 237 Figure 5.55. Food for Thought: What is the trick or intuition behind this algorithm? Is this not surprising that without a fourth loop we can design an all pair shortest path algorithm? A spectrum of single source and all pair shortest path algorithms We show a spectrum of shortest path algorithms in Fig.the 2-edge shortest path algorithm. 5. Required Prior Knowledge: First we shall talk about the prior knowledge required to understand this . Once the j-loop becomes the outer most loop then it does not matter if the order of the green loop and that of the brown loop is interchanged. This is the best performance seen so far for an all pair shortest path algorithm.5 Johnson’s all Pair Shortest Path Algorithm We have studied in the last section that all pair shortest path algorithm (Floyd-Warshall) has a worst case time complexity of O(p3 ). We also show connections or links between diﬀerent algorithms.53: We show the possibility of having the intermediate vertex j loop become the outer most loop.11. 5. There is no fourth loop in this diagram and surprisingly there is no need for it. 5. This panorama of shortest path algorithms is also depicted by the colored puzzle shown in Fig.

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Figure 5.54: The recursion tree corresponding to Floyd-Warshall all pair shortest path algorithm. The number of edges in the recursion tree is equal to the number of steps performed by the said algorithm - and this is equal to O(p3 ).

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Figure 5.55: We show a concept map of various single source and all pair shortest path algorithms.

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w(a,k) = min{w(a,k), w(a, j)+w(j, k)}

2-edge shortest path algorithm

Bellman-Ford (single source)

Slow All Pair

Faster All Pair

Floyd-Warshall (all pair)

Figure 5.56: We show the galaxy of single pair and all pair shortest path algorithms. Each algorithm can be represented by a diﬀerent color arrangement in the rectangular puzzle. It is interesting to note that each shortest path algorithm has at least one dual with the same performance and output.

Figure 5.57: It will be interesting to see if any of these colored arrangements represents one of the already discussed shortest path algorithms.

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algorithm. If that becomes clear then it is almost trivial to appreciate the innovation behind this algorithm. It is interesting to note that this is not entirely a new algorithm - it innovatively combines two shortest path algorithms (Dijkstra + Bellman-Ford) and creates an all pair shortest path algorithm such that the overall time complexity becomes better than that of best known shortest path algorithm - Floyd-Warshall (p3 ) under certain conditions. 1. We know that Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm ﬁnds correct shortest paths from a single vertex provided all edge weights are positive. We also know that its time complexity is O(p2 ) if we use an adjacency matrix as a data structure. Its time complexity can be improved with an adjacency list data structure provided we use a minimum heap to locate the next vertex which goes in the bucket. The improved time complexity is O(qlogp). This can further be improved to O(plogp + q) if we use a Fibonacci heap to implement the minimum priority queue. If all edge weights are positive then we can apply Dijkstra’s algorithm p times to ﬁnd all pair shortest paths in O(p2 logp + pq). This time complexity is better than O(p3 ) (Floyd-Warshall) in suﬃciently spare graphs. But if there are negative edge weights then we shall get incorrect results. 2. We know that Bellman-Ford algorithm can ﬁnd shortest paths from a single source vertex in time O(p3 ) even if there are negative edge weights in a directed graph. The time complexity of this algorithm is O(pq) provided we use an adjacency list as a data structure to represent the input graph. Again this is an improvement over O(p3 ) provided we have a suﬃciently sparse graph. If we convert this O(pq) Bellman-Ford algorithm into an all pair shortest path algorithm then its time complexity would become O(p2 q) which is worse than O(p3 ) for Floyd-Warshall. So we need to do something more? Something very innovative? Johnsons’Algorithm = Bellman-Ford + Innovation + Dijkstra Johnson’s algorithm ﬁrst uses Bellman-Ford to check if there are any negative weight cycles. If there are no negative cycles then this algorithm somehow uses results of Bellman-Ford algorithm to convert negative edge weights into positive without disturbing the relative path lengths. This requires time proportional to pq. Once all edge weights are made positive we can use

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the improved Dijkstra’s algorithm to ﬁnd all pair shortest paths in time O(p2 logp + pq). Consider the Bellman-Ford algorithm described earlier and reproduced here. It was already discussed that its worst case time complexity will be O(pq). All distances are measured with respect to vertex a. We initialize Dist(a) = 0 and set Dist(x) of every other vertex x from vertex a equal to inﬁnity. Algorithm 35: Find shortest distances of every vertex k from vertex a in D input : Directed and weighted graph D. Distance Dist(a) of vertex a from itself is zero. output: Distance array Dist(k) storing minimum distances of every vertex k from vertex a.

1 2 3

for i = 1 to p − 1 do for every directed edge (j, k) in the graph D do Dist(k) = min{Dist(k), Dist(j) + w(j, k)};

Checking Negative Weight Cycles in a directed graph: The above algorithm ﬁnds shortest paths correctly in case there are no negative weight cycles in the directed graph. If there are negative weight cycles then complications arise as already discussed. Under such conditions this algorithm should at least inform us that in the given graph there are negative weight cycles. What modiﬁcation is needed in this algorithm for this extra intelligence? The required modiﬁcation is simple and elegant? We run the outer most loop p − 1 times and store distance of each vertex x from the start vertex a. We then run this loop one more time to check if any distance changes. If it does then it means we have negative weight cycles in the directed graph reachable from vertex a as shown in the ﬁgure below. If it does not then there are no negative cycles reachable from vertex a in the directed graph. Please see the ﬁgure below. Food for Thought 1. How about if the distance of no vertex changes after an initial iteration i when i < p − 1. Does that mean there are no negative weight cycles and should we stop without further iterating? See Fig. 5.59.

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Figure 5.58: If we ﬁnd i-edge distances in this graph from vertex a then we observe that some distances will change when i goes from 4 to 5. This does not conﬁrm that there is a negative weight cycle. But when a distance of a vertex from vertex a changes when i goes from 5 to 6 then that is a conﬁrmation that there is indeed a negative weight cycle in this graph. 2. How about if we apply Bellman-Ford at a vertex which is not reachable to a negative cycle. See Fig. 5.60. Does that mean we have to apply Bellman-Ford algorithm at each vertex to ﬁnd if there are any negative weight cycles in the graph? But that will be very costly?

Figure 5.59: After ﬁnding 3-edge shortest paths in this graph from vertex a there will be no change in distance calculations. Does that mean that we should stop here and declare that there are no negative weight cycles in this graph? Applying Bellman-Ford Algorithm once to determine Negative Weight Cycles The problem is how can we apply Bellman-Ford algorithm just once from a (special) vertex and check if there are any negative weight cycles in the

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Figure 5.60: If we apply Bellman-Ford algorithm in this graph to ﬁnd shortest distances from vertex e then we should never be able to conﬁrm that there will be negative weight cycles in this graph. If, however, we apply this algorithm from vertex a then it is possible to verify that indeed there are negative weight cycles in this graph. directed graph? The answer to this problem is given in elegant transformation shown in Fig. 5.61. The application of Bellman-Ford algorithm in the transformed graph just once (from the newly added vertex x) provides us the following information: 1. Whether there are any negative weight cycles in the graph. If there are any negative weight cycle then the algorithm should not move forward and should terminate. 2. If there are no negative weight cycles then what are the shortest distances of each vertex from the newly added vertex x. This information will further be used to convert negative edge weights into positive edge weights. If the graph does not contain any negative weight cycles but contains negative weight edges then we should somehow try to make the negative weight edges positive and then apply Dijsksta’s algorithm from each vertex as already planned. How about adding a big positive number in each edge weight such that every (edge) weight becomes positive? See what complication would arise if we do so as shown in Fig. 5.62. Thus we cannot add an arbitrary positive number in each edge weight as it will disturb the relative path lengths in the new graph as shown in the following ﬁgure. Converting negative weight edges into positive weight edges Please note that we need to simultaneously fulﬁll the following two objectives:

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Figure 5.61: The transformation in this diagram allows us to apply BellmanFord algorithm just once and verify if there are any negative weight cycles in the graph. All edges coming from vertex x have a zero weight. We apply Bellman-Ford algorithm to this transformed graph and ﬁnd shortest distances from vertex x.

Figure 5.62: We can always convert negative edge weights by adding a positive number in each weight so that we can apply a more eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd shortest paths in a graph with positive edge weights. But adding a constant in each edge weight disturbs the relative weights of diﬀerent paths and leads to a wrong answer.

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1. All negative edge weights should be converted into positive weights. 2. All relative distances between two vertices should remain the same in the modiﬁed graph with positive edge weights. First we shall devise a simple scheme to alter edge weights such that relative distances between any two vertices do not change in the given graph. Then we shall modify this scheme so as to convert all negative edge weights into positive edge weights thus fulﬁlling both the above objectives. Consider a directed edge (j, k) with a weight equal to w. How about associating any arbitrary number Label(j) with a vertex j and another arbitrary number Label(k) with vertex k. Now the edge weight w(j, k) is changed according to a formula where wnew = wold +Label(j)−Label(k). If we associate an arbitrary number with each vertex of the graph and change edge weights according to the formula described then we claim that relative path lengths between any two vertices will be the same in the new graph as compared to the old graph. See ﬁgure 5.63. In fact the new path length from a vertex a to a vertex b will be the old path length plus Label(a) − Label(b). Putting arbitrary labels solves only one problem, namely the relative distances between two vertices remain the same in the new graph as compared to the old graph. The other problem (converting all negative edge weights into positive) remains to be solved. It requires that vertices should not be labeled arbitrariliy but with some intelligence as described below. So now the problem is reduced to ﬁnding an appropriate number Label(j) to be associated with a vertex j and another number Label(k) to be associated with vertex k (assuming that there is an edge from j to k with a weight w(j, k)) such that if w(j, k)old is negative then w(j, k)new = w(j, k)old + Label(j) − Label(k) becomes positive.This would require that wjk (old) + Label(j)−Label(k) is greater than or equal to zero. It means that wjk (old)+ Label(j) is not less than Label)k). In other words Label(k) should be at least equal or more negative than wjk (old)+Label(j) assuming that wjk (old), Label(j), and Label(k) are all negative. Before ﬁnding a systematic scheme of providing labels to each vertex let us try to work out a simple example. What numbers are desirable and should be associated with two adjacent vertices j and k are indicated in Fig. 5.64. Here vertex x is a vertex added to the given directed graph just like the one shown in Fig. 5.61. In the top diagram we try to initially label k such that

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b

11 11-6=5 -6

a

-2 -2+3-4+7=4

c

7 -4

-3

d

3

e

f

0 11

b

-6 11-6=5 -4

a

-3 -2 -2+3-4+7=4

c

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0 11+0+3 11-6+0+4=9 -6-3+4

7 -4

d

-4 -1

3

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-2

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-5

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c

7-5+4

-2+3-4+7+0+4=8

d

-1

3-1+2

e

-2

-4-2+5

f

-5

Figure 5.63: How relative distances remain the same if we associate an arbitrary number with a vertex and then add a number in the edge weight of each edge according to a ﬁxed formula.

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weight of edge (j1 , k) becomes positive. In the bottom diagram we intend to re-label k such that weight of edge (j2 , k) also becomes positive. Please note that the new label of k (equal to -80) will make sure that all edges incident to vertex k have positive edge weights. Now coming back to the general question: What systematic scheme should be applied which guarantee the allocation of desirable numbers to vertices of a graph such that all edge weights become positive while relative distances between any two vertices remain the same? After looking at the last ﬁgure you must have some idea of what is going on or what should be done. If you are still undecided then read the following paragraphs and look at the coming ﬁgure.

Figure 5.64: We assume that vertices j1 , j2 , and j3 are already labelled while we need to label k so as to make edge weights positive. In the top diagram we try to initially label k such that weight of edge (j1 , k) becomes positive. In the bottom diagram we intend to re-label k such that weight of edge (j2 , k) also becomes positive. Please note that the new label of k (equal to -80) will make sure that all edges incident to vertex k have positive edge weights.

k)} x Dist(k) Dist(j) j x Dist(k) = -10 Dist(j) = -20 w(j. Dist(k) = min{ Dist(k).65 for a demonstration of this updating. .65: While executing Bellman-Ford algorithm we use a basic building block as shown above. Please see once again Fig. 5.Shortest Path Algorithms 249 Let us recall the basic building block of Bellman-Ford algorithm and how the shortest distance of a vertex k from a source vertex x is updated.65 where the shortest distance of vertex j is updated.k) k x Dist(k) = -70 j w = -40 k New Dist(k) = -60 j Dist(j) = -20 w = -40 k New Dist(k) = -70 Figure 5. Dist(j) + w(j. The bottom diagrams show how and when the shortest distance of vertex k from a source vertex x is updated.66. Summary So now we are in a position to describe Johnson’s algorithm in the following meaningful manner as applied on a directed graph D. k) will eventually become positive if it was initially negative. 5. 5. The interesting thing is that we need not spend extra time in ﬁnding these labels as they have already been found while checking if the given graph has negative weight cycles. See Fig. It should become quite evident now that if Label(j) is the shortest distance of vertex j from vertex x and Label(k) is the shortest distance of vertex k from vertex x then the required inequality would be satisﬁed and the edge weight for edge (j. 5.64 where the label of a vertex is updated and now loook at Fig. See Fig.

66: How to determine which labels to associate with each vertex.250 x Transform Basics of Graph Algorithms 0 b 8 -2 -4 -4 1 -2 2 b 0 -2 a -2+2 8-2 1+0 2+4 -4+4 a c -4 c d 0 3 e 0 d 0 3+0 e 0 Figure 5. If there are no negative weight cycles in graph D then move to step 2 otherwise terminate. 5. 5. Check if there are any negative weight cycles in the graph D using Bellman-Ford algorithm applied to the graph after inserting a source vertex x as shown in Fig. According to Polya [10]: If the student is left alone with his problem without any help or with insuﬃcient help.66. If the teacher helps too much. That shortest distance Dist(k) become Label(k) of vertex k. All negative edges become positive as shown in Fig. 3. nothing is left to the students.66. Now draw another copy of graph D with all edge weights modiﬁed. he may make no progress at all. 2. The teacher should help. but not too much and not .12 Discussion The most important task of a teacher should enable the students to discover and acquire experience of independent work. 5. Now apply Dijksta’s shortest path algorithm at every vertex in the modiﬁed graph (with positive edge weights) to ﬁnd all pair shortest distances and paths. 1. In step 1 we have already found shortest distance Dist(k) of each vertex k from newly inserted vertex x.

H. S. Mian. The theory of NP-Completeness connects all problems that are NP-Complete: it is also possible to ﬁnd a useful relationship among solvable problems and this is what we have attempted to do in this chapter. We have also shown that making comparisons between various techniques and solutions provides a deep insight which itself is very useful in solving otherwise diﬃcult problems [8]. At times it is almost impossible to solve a given problem while it is easy to solve a related problem (the shortest path problem is solvable while the longest path problem is unsolvable). To learn means to cause your mind to function in a diﬀerent way: new memories are created and/or new connections are forged.” These relationships provide the algorithm designer a perspective that proves invaluable when solving new problems and analyzing old one’s. Maud. Skiena. T. According to Hale [5]: “There are diﬀerent kinds of learning. J. We wish to specially thank R. Baase. A. Khan for providing motivation as well as inspiration for this project. starting with something seemingly simplistic yet capable of being transformed into a number of powerful algorithms with minor modiﬁcations. Similarly it is diﬃcult to solve a problem in its original form while it is easier to solve it while placing certain restrictions (the graph isomorphism problem is solvable for trees but is diﬃcult to solve in general). Alvi. Lahore University of Management Sciences for providing support for this research. .Discussion 251 too little. Mahkari. Ikram. Jadoon for their help and encouragement. It is extremely useful to ﬁnd why a certain technique works under certain conditions and why it fails in others (greedy methods provide optimal solutions in ﬁnding the shortest path but fail to ﬁnd the longest path). We also wish to thank S. S. K. In this paper we have demonstrated how a teacher can help students discover a number of graph algorithms with some initial help. Fahd. M. Acknowledgement We are thankful to the Department of Computer Science. so that the student shall have a reasonable share of the work. We have shown that by asking thought provoking questions it becomes possible for the teacher to guide the students while solving complex problems. but I refer here to the intellectual kind.

252 Basics of Graph Algorithms .

3 6.1 6.Chapter 6 Network Flows.7 6. Connectivity and Matching Problems 6. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited Network Flows The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem .8 6.2 6.9 Introduction Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge Konig’s Theorem. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Menger’s Theorem Konig’s Theorem.6 6.4 6.5 6.

Our intention (and desire) in this chapter.2 Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge Set Cover: Given a set of subsets S of a Universal Set U . where the maximum degree of each vertex is one. no edge has a common end point. i. What is the smallest subset of vertices of the graph that covers all edges? Independent (Vertex) Set: What is the largest subset S of vertices of a graph such that no pair of vertices in S has an edge in between? Is there a connection between the vertex cover and the independent set problem? Matching (Independent Edge Set): A sub-graph of G. 6.e. the maximum ﬂow at minimum cost problem. Speciﬁcally we shall be describing Menger’s Theorem which relates maximum number of vertex-disjoint (or edge-disjoint) paths with minimum number of vertices (or edges). That is why we ﬁrst provide a uniﬁed picture and then go deeper in order to analyze each area in detail. and last but not the least the Circulation problem. we shall be designing algorithms to solve a number of related problems. Vertex Cover: The Universal set U is the set of all edges in a graph. We shall also discuss Konig’s Theorem which relates the size of the vertex cover to the size of maximum matching in a bipartite graph. In addition to making formal proofs for a number of theorems. We shall also discuss the matching problem in bipartite graphs. We shall also be discussing the network ﬂow problem. Connectivity and Matching Problems 6. We use a single building block in this entire chapter for designing almost every algorithm. We have already witnessed the subset sum problem (in previous courses) in which we have to select integers (out of a set of integers) such that the sum of the selected integers is equal to a given constant. . The Marriage (Hall’s) theorem provides necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a bipartite graph to have a perfect matching. what is the smallest subset T of S such that the union of all these sub sets in T covers all elements of U . which if removed will disconnect a special node from another special node in a graph.1 Introduction We shall ﬁrst address the problem of vertex or edge connectivity in general graphs. will be to integrate concepts so that the enabled learner is able to appreciate the bigger picture where one relationship implies another and one theorem can be used to prove the other.254 Network Flows.

Note that every non leaf vertex is a cut vertex and every edge is a cut edge or a bridge in a tree graph. while any vertex cover will include non leaf vertex v.Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge 255 v u Figure 6. Every edge connecting a leaf vertex u and a non leaf vertex v will always be part of the edge cover. .1: A perect binary tree graph is shown. Any independent set will include leaf vertex u.

no two edges in the set share a common vertex. A Perfect Binary Tree: We know that a tree is a connected graph where each edge is a bridge edge. A perfect binary tree (shown in Fig.1. every vertex of the graph is incident to exactly one edge of the matching. Every perfect matching is both maximum and hence maximal.1 has 8 leaf vertices. In some literature. The root vertex is shown as the top most vertex in Fig. It has a single vertex with degree equal to 2. Maximum Matching: It is a matching in a graph with maximum possible size? How bad can a maximal matching become as compared to maximum matching? Edge Cover: The Universal set is the set of all vertices in a graph. 6. It has exactly 2h leaf vertices. that is. . 2. It has exactly 2h+1 − 1 vertices where h is the path length (in terms of number of edges) between the root vertex and any leaf veretex in the perfect binary tree. It has exactly 2h − 1 non leaf vertices including the root vertex. Let us call it the root vertex. 6. As described before each leaf vertex in a perfect binary tree has a path length equal to h from the root vertex. the term complete matching is used for it. There are 7 non leaf vertices in tree shown in Fig.1) has the following features: 1. 6. Find a simple algorithm to ﬁnd a maximal matching in a line graph. The perfect binary tree shown in Fig. 4. which covers all vertices? How small (or big) can the size of the edge cover become. 3.1. Here we deﬁne a perfect binary tree. All non leaf vertices other than the root vertex has a degree exactly equal to 3.256 Network Flows. What is the smallest subset of edges. Connectivity and Matching Problems These edges are also known as independent edges.1. as compared to the number of vertices in a graph? A Perfect Matching is a matching which covers all vertices of the graph. Maximal Matching: This is a matching in which more edges cannot be added to increase the size of this matching. 6. The perfect binary tree shown in Fig. 6. A binary tree is a tree where the degree of each vertex is less than or equal to 3. Perhaps a more meaningful deﬁnition will be a set of non-adjacent edges. That is.

Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge 257 u Vertex Cover u Independent Set u u v u u u v u u Maximum Matching u Edge Cover u u v u u u v u Figure 6. The maximum matching in this graph is not a perfect matching. The rest of the vertices belong to the independent set in this diagram as shown in the top right corner. in brown bold. The bottom left diagram highlights. The bottom right diagram shows the edges belonging to the edge cover. as all vertices here are not matched as shown by black circled vertices. You may have noticed that the size of the maximum matching is equal to the size of the vertex cover in this graph. these edges are shown in bold in green. the maximum matching edges in the given tree. You may have also noticed some relationship between the size of the vertex cover and the size of the independent set? .2: The top left diagram shows the vertices belonging to the vertex cover highlighted by double circled vertices.

258 Network Flows.1. Edges belonging to the edge cover are shown in bold in the bottom right diagram of Fig.3. It may thus be possible to ﬁnd a maximum matching given a vertex cover in a tree graph.1. meaning a maximum matching in a perfect binary tree? Problem 6. How can we eﬃciently ﬁnd an edge cover in a perfect binary tree? Problem 6.1. How can we ﬁnd an independent (vertex) set in a perfect binary tree? Problem 6.1. Problem 6.1. Connectivity and Matching Problems Problem Set 6. 6. 6. We are given a perfect binary tree G (see Fig. In a perfect binary tree graph G. We know that in a tree every edge is a cut edge or bridge while every (non leaf) vertex is a cut vertex.2 shows a maximum matching in the perfect binary tree graph of Fig. How can we ﬁnd eﬃciently if a perfect matching exists in a perfect binary tree? .1) and we intend to solve a number of problems related to connectivity and matching. Using this logic all leaf vertices will be part of the independent set and will not be part of the vertex cover. How can we ﬁnd an independent (edge) set. Independent set and vertex cover vertices are shown in Fig. a leaf vertex u will always part of an independent set (why?). In a perfect binary tree graph an edge connecting a leaf vertex u with a non leaf vertex v (see Fig.1.2. Please note that a perfect binary tree graph is a fairly restricted structure and our existing prior knowledge of graph theory and algorithms is suﬃcient to solve these problems. 6. 6. How can we eﬃciently ﬁnd a vertex cover in a perfect binary tree? Problem 6.2 for the perfect binary tree graph of Fig.1. While a non leaf vertex v which is adjacent to a leaf vertex will always be part of a vertex cover (why?). 6.1.2.4. We shall observe later in this chapter that there is indeed a relationship between graph connectivity and number of paths in a graph (Menger’s Theorem). We shall observe later that in a bipartite graph (such as a tree) the size of a maximum matching is equal to the size of vertex cover (Konig’s Theorem). 6. We also know that there is always a unique path between every two vertices in a tree.5. 6. It also indicates matched and unmatched vertices and edges.1.1) will always be part of the edge cover. Based upon the above observations it is possible to design eﬃcient algorithms to solve the following problems in a tree graph. The bottom left diagram of Fig.

.1.Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge 259 Concept Map 6. A concept map showing a number of relevant concepts and a number of theorems which relate diﬀerent concepts.

6. If the two halves are not of the same size.8. The edge connectivity for a completely connected graph is of highest value.1. What are the necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a complete matching to exist in a tree graph? Problem 6. while a tree graph T has λ(T ) = 1. will disconnect it so that all paths between vertices s and t are destroyed. Show that a tree cannot have two diﬀerent perfect or maximum matching? Edge Connectivity λ(G) of a Graph G is the minimum number of edges which if removed will disconnect the graph G (see Disconnected Graph). that is it may be broken up into more connected . For a perfect matching to exist in a tree graph. Thus λ(s. A complete matching requires that all vertices belonging to the smaller half are matched to vertices in the larger half. Connectivity and Matching Problems Problem 6.1. 6. Similarly we deﬁne κ(s. t) as the minimum number vertices which if removed from G. Edge-disjoint paths do not share any edge. vertices s and t of G would now belong to diﬀerent connected components. Vertex Connectivity κ(G) of a Graph G is the minimum number of vertices which if removed will disconnect the graph G (see Disconnected Graph). Problem 6. while vertex-disjoint paths do not share any vertex except the terminal vertices. where both s and t belonged to G.2 to see if a complete matching exists in a given tree.1. then a perfect matching cannot exist. Sometimes we not only want the graph G to be disconnected but also want to make sure that a special vertex s is separated from another special vertex t. Check Fig. what conditions are necessary and which are suﬃcient? Problem 6. however a complete matching may exist.260 Network Flows. A disconnected graph G has λ(G) = 0.1. We know that a tree is a (restricted) bipartite graph consisting of two halves.9. t) is the minimum number of edges which if removed will destroy all paths between vertices s and t in G. So our new requirement is that when G is disconnected (by removing certain edges) then vertices s and t should belong to diﬀerent connected components of G. Vertex-disjoint paths are also edge-disjoint but it may not be true the other way round. A perfect matching may exist for the tree graph if the two halves have the same size.7. Disconnected Graph: A graph G may simply be disconnected into two or more connected components.

3: There are several paths between vertices s and t in this graph. By removing certain edges (vertices) it is possible to remove all these paths between the two vertices.Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge 261 Figure 6. . the resulting graph will be a disconnected graph.

4.4. then the graph G is disconnected but vertex s is still accessible to vertex t. We intend to explore diﬀerent paths between these two vertices and see how we can destroy these paths in G. There is no cut vertex in this graph. Four Edge and Six Edge Paths a g a g b s c e h t s b e h t f i s c f i d Ca l wn ra e d is? n b th ike j b c d d j e g h i i f j i f j t t t t t t t Figure 6.2. See Fig. Problem Set 6.1. Problem 6.2. Problem 6.2. . a}. There is only one bridge edge in this graph. 6.2. Draw all 4 edge paths between vertex s and t.4: Four edge and six edge paths from vertex s to vertex t in graph G. Draw all 5 and 6 edge paths between the two vertices. Connectivity and Matching Problems components or we may require that G would be disconnected such that two special vertices s and t of G should lie in separate connected components. We are given a graph G with two special vertices s and t as shown in Fig. 6. We have to remove a lot more than one vertex in order to disconnect G so as to destroy all paths between vertex s and t.262 Network Flows.3. See Fig. if we remove this edge {s. 6.

that other possible paths have disappeared? Why? What are its ramiﬁcations in designing an algorithm to ﬁnd all possible edge-disjoint paths in a graph? .2.2.Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge 263 Problem 6.2. Note that if we remove all edges in this 6 edge path. The left diagram of Fig. Draw a 4 edge path between the two vertices such that not more than one additional edge-disjoint path is possible between the two vertices.2. What is the maximum number of such paths? Problem 6.1 and Problem 6. Problem 6.2. What is the maximum number of such paths? s a g Can be drawn like this? b b s c f i e h t g e i h i c d f j i f j d j t t t t t t t Figure 6.7. Draw more than one edge-disjoint paths between the two vertices such that at least one path should be of 6 edge length.2 short list the ones that are edge-disjoint.6. Problem 6.2.1 and Problem 6.8.5: Some edge-disjoint paths.2 short list the ones that are vertex-disjoint. these paths are not vertex-disjoint? Problem 6. then all the paths between vertex s and t are destroyed.3.2. We know that there existed more than one path between the two vertices.2. but only because we have selected one wrong path initially.2. Out of all paths that you have listed in Problem 6.5. 6.7 shows a 6 edge path (shown in bold) between vertices s and t in the same graph.4. Problem 6. Draw a 6 edge path between the two vertices such that no additional edge-disjoint (or vertex-disjoint) path is possible between the two vertices.2. Out of all paths that you have listed in Problem 6.

264 Network Flows.6: A six edge path and a couple of four edge-disjoint paths. Connectivity and Matching Problems Figure 6. .

What is a minimal subset of these edges which will do the same job of destroying the connectivity between s and t? One such subset is shown in the right diagram of Fig. This subset consists of 4 edges unlike three in the last part? Problem 6. 6. Once these paths are selected. The left diagram of Fig.7 in order to destroy connectivity between s and t. The blue (green) cut cuts those edges which. Problem 6. A minimal subset of these edges shown by a cut is suﬃcient to do the job. In fact it is not essential to remove all edges in the single 6 edge path as shown in Fig. The right diagram shows a minimum sized subset of vertices which if removed will disconnect s and t from each other. t) for this graph? a A Cut g a A Cut g b e h b e h s c f i t s c f i t d j d j Figure 6.7: The left diagram shows a 6 edge path (shown in bold) between vertices s and t in the graph.10.2.7. This subset consists of .11. Can you ﬁnd another subset of three edges which when removed will disconnect s and t? What is λ(s. List down these edges.7 shows two 4 edge-disjoint paths (shown in bold) between vertex s and t. 6. if removed will disconnect s from t.Deﬁnitions & Prior Knowledge 265 Problem 6. which if removed will destroy the connectivity between vertices s and t. The right diagram of Fig.2.8 shows a minimum sized subset of edges. it will no longer possible to ﬁnd an extra edge-disjoint path between the two vertices. The right diagram shows two 4 edge-disjoint paths (shown in bold) between vertex s and t. Do these three edges corresponds to a minimum number of edges which if removed will destroy all paths between vertices s and t.2. 6.9. 6. You can remove all edges belonging to the paths and see for yourself that the connectivity between s and t is destroyed.

The right diagram shows a minimum sized subset of vertices (shown by double circles) which if removed will disconnect s and t from each other. if removed will destroy the connectivity between vertices s and t. .8: The left diagram shows a minimum sized subset of edges (shown in bold) which.266 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems a An Edge Cut g h a g e h b e f b s c d i j t s c d f A Vertex Cut t i j Figure 6.

6. It states that the maximum number of vertex-disjoint paths between vertex s and t are equal to minimum number of vertices which.9 shows the same bipartite graph with two dummy nodes designated as s and t. A relationship between (minimum) vertex cover and maximum matching in a bipartite graph (Konig’s Theorem) is transformed into a relationship be- . The vertex cover of this bipartite graph is indicated by double circled vertices. we shall ﬁrst provide a panoramic picture of how diﬀerent concepts are interrelated. if removed will destroy all paths between vertex s and t in the right diagram (why?). Does this mean that there will be three edge-disjoint paths in this graph? Find these three paths. in bold. 6. The left diagram of Fig. Similarly each matched edge (in the left diagram) will correspond to a vertex-disjoint path between vertex s and t in the right diagram (why?). it also shows a maximum matching with the maximum matching edges shown in bold. Now we need to ﬁnd three edge-disjoint paths between the same vertices. How one theorem implies another and can be derived from each other.Konig’s Theorem.3 Konig’s Theorem. 6. All vertices in the ﬁrst partite of the bipartite graph are connected to s while all vertices in the second partite are connected to the dummy vertex t as shown in the right diagram of Fig. Be careful as this is the same cut shown in the left diagram of Fig. The vertex cover in the bipartite graph (shown in the left diagram) becomes the minimum sized subset of vertices which. The right diagram of Fig. if removed from the graph will disconnect s and t (see Concept Map 6.9 shows a bipartite graph with partite A and partite B. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem 267 two vertices. and the above theorems in detail in subsequent sections. Konig’s theorem tells us that the cardinality of a maximum matching in a bipartite graph is equal to the (minimum) size of the vertex cover (see Concept Map 6.9. 6. two vertex-disjoint paths between s and t. 6.7 where there existed a single path of six edges (with no more room for additional paths).8 is an illustration of Menger’s Theorem. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Before discussing connectivity.1). matching. The right diagram of Fig. Is this a coincidence that the (maximum) number of vertex-disjoint paths is exactly equal to (minimum) number of vertices which if removed will disconnect s and t? The left diagram shows an edge cut of size three. e and f . the diagram also shows. 6.1).

b2 } N (a2 . a2 ) = {b1 . a4 ) = {b1 .4 Menger’s Theorem Connectivity of an un-directed graph is expressed in terms of minimum number of edges or minimum number of vertices which if removed will disconnect the graph G. a3 . Had a perfect matching existed then the size of the vertex cover would have been equal to the size of A (or B) partite. only three satisfy the condition that |N (S)| ≥ |S|. Menger’s Theorem relates the . Under such conditions the size of the maximum matching and that of the vertex cover will be equal to the size of remaining set A which is equal to three. What should be the size of the neighborhood N (S) for every subset S of A which will guarantee a perfect matching (or a vertex cover equal to the size of A) is the subject of Marriage (Hall’s) Theorem. (see Concept map 6. b4 } N (a1 . 6. You may have realized yourself that this necessary and suﬃcient condition (applicable to the bipartite graph shown on the left of Fig.268 Network Flows. 6. a3 ) = {b1 .9 (Menger’s Theorem). Connectivity and Matching Problems tween κ(s.1). b2 . In other words a perfect matching does not exist in this bipartite graph.9) implies that the (maximum) number of vertex-disjoint paths (and κ(s. b3 . a3 ) = {b2 } N (a2 .9. For a better understanding of the Marriage Theorem a few neighborhood subsets are indicated below for the bipartite graph of Fig. Note that all vertices in the A partite are not matched to all vertices in the B partite although the size of A partite is equal to size of B partite in the given bipartite graph. while in the remaining two the said condition is violated. 6. It is interesting to note that if we remove vertex a3 from A and vertex b3 from B then the condition |N (S)| ≥ |S| is true for every S ⊆ A. t) and (maximum) number of vertex-disjoint paths between vertex s and t in the right diagram of Fig. b3 . a2 . a4 ) = {b2 . N (a1 . a3 . 6.9 would be equal to the size of A (and B) partite in the graph. t)) in the graph shown on the right side of Fig. b2 } N (a1 . a2 . It states that a bipartite graph (of equal halves) have a perfect matching if and only if |N (S)| ≥ |S| for every S ⊆ A. 6. b4 } Out of the ﬁve neighborhood subsets N (S).

and vertices belonging to the vertex cover highlighted by orange circles.Menger’s Theorem 269 Every Matching Edge a1 a2 A a3 a4 b3 b4 b1 b2 B Corresponds A Path from s to t a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 b4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 s A a3 a4 a1 a2 t a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 Corresponds s A a3 a4 t Every Node of Vertex Cover Maximum Matching Minimum Vertex Cover Konig’s Theorem A Node of Vertex Cut Maximum Paths Transforms Minimum Vertex Cut Menger’s Theorem Figure 6. .9: The top left diagram shows a bipartite graph with maximum matching edges shown in bold. The top right diagram shows the same bipartite graph with two dummy vertices s and t.

Given a directed graph D how can we ﬁnd a minimum number of edges (vertices) which if removed will destroy all paths from vertex s to t in D? 3. the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t will be equal to λ(s. How about devising the following common sense algorithm to ﬁnd the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t in a directed graph D? Let us apply this simple algorithm to solve the problem in the graph of Fig. 6. . how can we eﬃciently ﬁnd the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to vertex t? Let U be the minimum sized subset of the edge set of D. We shall also address the following algorithmic problems: 1. the minimum number of edges (belonging to Edge Cutset) or minimum number of vertices (belonging to Vertex Cutset) which if removed will disconnect the graph into two or more connected components? The graph theoretic aspects of the above problems and a proof for Menger’s Theorem will be presented after a better appreciation of the issues involved. equivalent to ﬁnding a minimum sized edge set which if removed from D will disconnect t from s.4. t). Thus the problem of ﬁnding maximum number of paths from s to t is. we can ﬁnd a directed path P1 .1 Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths in Directed Graphs Given a directed graph D and two speciﬁc vertices s and t. Then according to Menger’s Theorem.10. Using any path ﬁnding algorithm. The size of U will obviously be designated by λ(s. Given a directed graph D containing two special vertices s and t. such that D − U does not contain any directed path from vertex s to t. We shall start this section with directed graphs and then generalize our results for un-directed graphs. in fact. Connectivity of a directed graph D also poses similar problems. t).270 Network Flows. Given an un-directed graph how can we ﬁnd its connectivity. Connectivity and Matching Problems maximum number of edge-disjoint (vertex-disjoint) paths between vertex s and t to minimum number of edges (vertices) which if removed will disconnect s from t. how can we ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint (vertex-disjoint) paths from s to t in a directed graph D? 2. 6.

1 2 Find a directed path P from vertex s to vertex t in D. Algorithm 36: Find Maximum edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D.Menger’s Theorem 271 Concept Map 6. . A concept map showing a number of concepts related to vertex connectivity and edge connectivity and some important relationships that we shall explore in this section.2. Remove all edges in the path P and. and vertices s & t. otherwise exit the algorithm. input : Directed graph D. If you are successful in ﬁnding a path then keep a record of this path. go to step 1 . output: (Maximum) edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D.

(s → b → d → t). If path P1 = s → a → d → t (as shown by bold lines in Fig. d) we can move from ‘a’ to ‘d’ but not from ‘d’ to ‘a’. or (s → d → t).and do something else with these edges. We are in dire need of some innovation? There are potentially two ways to ﬁx this problem: 1. It can not be (s → d → a → c → t) or (s → b → d → a → c → t) because on directed edge (a. 6. and the other (s → b → d → t or s → d → t). Algorithm 36 fails to ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint paths in a graph but still it ﬁnds maximal number of edge-disjoint paths in a graph? 2. (where an initial wrong choice will make things hard) a general phenomenon in almost all graphs or is this a problem in a certain class of graphs? 3. Is it possible to convert one class of graphs into another? If this is possible then after the conversion we can use our (stupid) Algorithm 36 to ﬁnd out maximum edge-disjoint paths in a graph? . If we are lucky. we can move forward in Algorithm 36.but this may not be an eﬃcient solution? Why? 2. But if we are unlucky. Let us look at what are diﬀerent possibilities for P1 ? It may be (s → a → c → t). But before ﬁnding another edge-disjoint path we should ﬁrst remove the edges of P1 (why?) and then ﬁnd another path P2 . we shall land in a diﬃcult situation as depicted in Fig. (s → a → d → t). Is this complication. Thus an initial wrong choice will make things hard for us. 6. Once we have selected an initial path P1 . Connectivity and Matching Problems from vertex s to t in D. Do not delete the edges of the chosen path . we shall be able to ﬁnd the two edge-disjoint paths. Is there a class of directed or un-directed graphs where an initial wrong selection would not create any complication? How the class of graphs (where an initial wrong selection really matters) structurally diﬀerent from the other class (where an initial wrong selection does not matter)? 4. What is that some thing else? Before we actually do an innovation consider the following: 1. one being (s → a → c → t).10. it has now become impossible to ﬁnd another path in this graph. Pick the initial path more intelligently .272 Network Flows.10) then we are blocked.

Menger’s Theorem 273 a c a c s b d t s b d t Figure 6.10: If we initially select a path as shown by bold red lines (left diagram) and remove it from the graph (right diagram) then it becomes impossible to ﬁnd another path in this graph. .

It is rule number 2. A directed edge (x.11 before arriving at a conclusion. given a set of pseudo edge-disjoint paths in a graph it is possible to ﬁnd an equal sized set of edge-disjoint paths in a graph. A directed edge (x. The status of such an edge when traversed by a single path from x to y will be “used”. Finding edge-disjoint paths in a general directed graph may be hard to ﬁnd. The in-degree is equal to the out-degree for every vertex i of D other than vertex s and t. in fact. We shall later show in this section that the number of pseudo edgedisjoint paths between two vertices in a graph is exactly equal to the number of edge-disjoint paths. The status of such an edge.274 Network Flows. Show that if you apply Algorithm 36 to this graph then you will be able to ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint paths without a complication? How about if the directed graph D is cyclic but the in-degree as well as the out-degree of every node are equal? You should consider both options: when vertices s and t are not part of any cycle and when they are also part of some cycles? See Fig. which is traversed by two paths in opposite directions will be “not used by any path” or “unused”. Please note that rule number 1 is common in pseudo edge-disjoint as well as edge-disjoint paths. y). already traversed by a path from x to y. We are given a directed acyclic graph D with a source vertex s and a sink vertex t. Connectivity and Matching Problems 5. y). Finding maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths is a problem which can be solved in class using the exciting process of discovery based learning. in case of pseudo edge-disjoint paths we follow the following rules of the game: 1. 2. let us try ourselves to solve a simpler problem (ﬁnding pseudo edge-disjoint paths) and then use our newly found experience and conﬁdence to solve the harder problem (ﬁnding edge-disjoint paths). which makes the two categories different. y) can not be shared by more than one path. In edge-disjoint paths an edge (x. So the current problem is how to maximize the number of pseudo edgedisjoint paths in D? Instead of deleting all edges in a (recently found) path . can be traversed by a new path from y to x and not from x to y. 6. not already in use by a path. can be traversed (or used) by a path from x to y and not from y to x. expecting an innovation to achieve this objective may be unrealistic.

Menger’s Theorem 275 a c a c s b d t s b d t Figure 6. This diagram is provided by Khawaja Fahd. .11: A directed graph D in which the in-degree of every vertex is equal to the out-degree of every vertex including vertices s and t.

Let us execute this simple four line algorithm on the graph of Fig. Connectivity and Matching Problems (as is done in step number 2 of Algorithm 36) we reverse the direction of each edge in the path. and then go back to step number 2. In this process (Algorithm 37) we convert graph D into F . 1 2 3 4 Copy Graph D into F . 6. Example 6. In step number 2 we ﬁnd a path from vertex s to t in D using any path ﬁnding algorithm.12. Graph F helps us identify the set P using Algorithm 38.4. If you are successful in ﬁnding a path P then keep a record of the number of paths found so far otherwise exit with graph F as output. input : Directed graph D. It also outputs the Status(e) of every edge e of D. Reverse the direction of edge e and then go back to step 2.1. for every edge e in path P do set Status(e) = used if initially it was unused otherwise set Status(e) = unused. Algorithm 37 is based on this innovative idea. In step number 4 (instead of removing every edge in the path as was done in Algorithm 36) we reverse the direction of every edge in the path found in step number 1. We apply the above algorithms on the graph D shown below. Using this set P we identify edges of D which belong to the minimum cut. Find a directed path P from vertex s to vertex t in F . Let us carefully look at this new algorithm which claims to ﬁnd maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths from s to t in a directed graph D. is not occupied by any path and thus the Status of every edge is unused. Note that Algorithm 37 (unlike Algorithm 36) allows an edge to be used by two diﬀerent edge-disjoint paths moving in opposite directions? Algorithm 37: Find Maximum pseudo edge-disjoint paths from s to t in directed graph D. The Paths P1 (green) and P2 (blue) that we have found during the execution .276 Network Flows. As soon as an unused edge is occupied by a path its Status is changed from unused to used in step number 4. Initially every edge of D. and vertices s & t. We ﬁrst ﬁnd maximum pseudo edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to vertex t in this graph. output: Maximum pseudo edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D and a Status(e) for every directed edge e of D. Status(e) = unused for every directed edge e in D.

and vertices s & t. 1 2 3 Convert D into F using Algorithm 37.12: Original Graph D . Minimum Cut will consist of edges (x. input : Directed graph D. output: Edges of D that belong to the Minimum Cut. Let P be the set of vertices (of F ) reachable from vertex s in F . y) of D Where x belongs to P and y belongs to V (D) − P . Figure 6.Menger’s Theorem 277 Algorithm 38: Find Minimum Cut in a graph D.

2. This Algorithm outputs maximum pseudo edge-disjoint paths and the Graph F . The diagram on the bottom right of Fig. this new graph has some very desirable properties? The Minimum Cut is found in Fig. a c a Used c Used s b Graph D d t s b t Used d Initial Graph F a c Used a Used c Used n U s b d t s Used t Used U se d b d a U n c a c s Un Used t d s b d t d se U b Un Used Final Graph F Graph D without Unused Edges Figure 6. 6.4.13: Graph D is the input to Algorithm 37. After deleting unused edges (from D) we end up with this new graph. Example 6.13). Connectivity and Matching Problems of this algorithm are not edge-disjoint paths (see Fig.278 Network Flows. We execute Algorithm 37 once again on a directed graph . 6. Before jumping to any conclusions and in order to gain more conﬁdence let us solve another example. 6.14. yet this algorithm tells us the maximum number of possible edge-disjoint paths in D (Why and how?).13 shows the original graph D with used edges only. The most useful result of this algorithm is the Status of every edge e in D after its termination.

Menger’s Theorem 279 a c a c s b Graph D d t s b Graph F d t a c a c s b Graph F d t s b d t Graph D Figure 6.14: The top left diagram shows the Original Graph D. the top right diagram shows the ﬁnal graph F with a couple of paths found and reversed. . The bottom left diagram shows the ﬁnal graph F where the Min Cut is found and then it is applied to the original graph D on the bottom right diagram.

4. TC = {a. Connectivity and Matching Problems D shown in Fig. The bottom left diagram shows the edges of the path P3 shown in bold. This is because in the Cut B the vertex ‘a’ belongs to SB while vertex d belonged to TB as shown in the bottom left diagram of Fig. The top right diagram shows the edges of another path P2 shown in bold.16. 6. TA ) = {(a. b. a. 6. 6. Let us also consider the graph D (of Example 6.2 The Concept of a Minimum Cut in Directed Graphs Let us deﬁne the concept of a cut more formally.280 Network Flows.15. For Cut A : SA = {s. Let S be the set of vertices of D containing s but not t and let the subset T = V (D) − S. t)} It is interesting to note that the edge (a.1) minus the unused edges as shown in the bottom of Fig. d) in the Cut C does not belong to the set (SC . 6. d)} For Cut C : SC = {s. d). (SA . Thus the edge (a.4. (SC . (b. (d. Out of many possible cuts we show only three cuts in the directed graph shown in the top diagram of Fig. TB = {c. (a. t}. Please note that it is the same directed graph for which we have found maximum number of edge-disjoint paths as shown in Fig. d. TA = {c. (a.15. (SB . Looking at this problem from a diﬀerent angle: . c).4. d}. T ) will be a subset of E(D) and is known as a cut in the graph D. d). T ) is a set of directed edges from a vertex in S to a vertex in T . Let us again consider graph D (of Example 6. TC ) = {(s. d}. Then (S. they both belong to a (desirable) class? You can apply (the very stupid) Algorithm 36 to this class of graphs and you will ﬁnd maximum sized subset of edge-disjoint paths without any complication.16. Again Algorithm 37 provides the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths present in this graph although the paths P1 . The original graph D is shown in the bottom right diagram with used edges shown in bold. 6. a). 6. a. While in the Cut C.16.15. d) is physically cut by Cut B as well as Cut C but it is only included in the Cut B and not in Cut C. t)} For Cut B : SB = {s.13. t}. vertex ‘a’ belongs to TC and vertex d belongs to SC . The set (S. c). t}. 6.2) minus the unused edges shown in Fig. P2 & P3 found by this algorithm are not edge-disjoint as shown in Fig. 6. Both these graphs share something in common. b.10. TC ) as shown in the bottom right diagram of Fig. b}. The top left diagram shows the directed graph D with a selected path P1 from vertex s to vertex t shown in bold. (d. c. TB ) = {(s. 6.

The original graph D is shown in the bottom right diagram with used edges shown in bold. The top right diagram shows the edges of another path P2 shown in bold. .15: The top left diagram shows a directed graph D with a selected path P1 from vertex s to vertex t shown in bold.Menger’s Theorem 281 a g e f h a g e f h b b s c d a i j g e f h t s c d a i j g e f h t b b s c d i j t s c d i j t Figure 6. The bottom left diagram shows the edges of the path P3 shown in bold.

d) is not contributing to a path from s to t in D and is therefore not required to be removed. . TA ) is equal to U (which is the minimum sized subset of edges which. the edge (a. Thus λ(s. (SA . According to Menger’s Theorem the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths in this graph will equal λ(s. How to ﬁnd the minimum cut systematically? We shall discuss it in a proof of Menger’s Theorem. By a little inspection in this graph it can easily be veriﬁed that the Cut A is indeed one of the minimum cuts. which is 2.16: We are given a directed graph D and we intend to ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint (directed) paths from vertex s to vertex t. The bottom left diagram shows the subset SB along with the Cut B edges shown in bold. While in the Cut C you have to remove only two edges present in this cut and the vertex s is disconnected from t. The bottom right diagram shows the subset SC along with the Cut C edges shown in bold. The size of Cut B is larger then the size of Cut A and that of Cut C. TA )| = 2. Connectivity and Matching Problems In Cut B you have to remove all four edges present in this cut in order to destroy all paths from vertex s to t in D. t) = |(SA . The top diagram also shows three cuts. t). if removed will destroy all paths from s to t in D). Cut C a c a c Cut A s b Cut B d t Cut A s SA t b d a c a Cut C c s SB Cut B d t s b SC d t b Figure 6.282 Network Flows.

16.Menger’s Theorem 283 6. T )|min where the minimum is taken over all cuts (S. 6.3. there can not be more than k pseudo edge-disjoint paths in D. .4. As we have seen before there may be diﬀerent cuts possible with diﬀerent sizes in the same graph as shown in Fig. i.3 A Proof of Menger’s Theorem and Finding the Minimum Cut in Directed Graphs We are given a directed graph D and two special nodes s and t.2. the minimum cut. Claim 6. The number of real (not pseudo) edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D can not exceed the number of (pseudo) edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D. Claim 6. The maximum number of the two paths will be exactly equal (given one. Algorithm 37 ﬁnds k pseudo edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D before it terminates.4.1.4. We intend to prove Menger’s Theorem in terms of edge connectivity of a directed graph.4. The maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t is equal to the minimum number of edges of D which if removed will destroy all paths from s to t in D. the minimum number of vertex-disjoint paths from s to t is equal to the cardinality of minimum sized vertex cut-set which will disconnect t from s in D. If we try to maximize the number of paths from s to t they will only be limited by the bottleneck in the graph which will be the minimum cut. TX ) where vertex s belongs to the subset SX while vertex t belongs to TX as deﬁned earlier in this section. We know that number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t in a graph can not exceed the size of a cut (SX .e. We shall provide a constructive proof. T ) in D. Menger’s Theorem tells us that the two quantities (maximum number of paths and size of the minimum cut) are exactly equal. using this proof one can also ﬁnd the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths as well as the minimum cut. We shall make the following claims here: Claim 6. we should be able to ﬁnd the other). This proof technique can easily be adapted for un-directed graphs and can also be used to prove the vertex form of Menger’s Theorem which states that.. That means the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D will not exceed |(S. The maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t is equal to the minimum number of edges of D which if removed will destroy all paths from s to t in D.

may consist of unused edges (not used by any path so far) or used edges (occupied by a previous path in the opposite direction) as shown in the top right corner of Fig.4.1 & 6. Although no (additional) path from vertex s to t exists anymore. It is obvious that if there is a (pseudo) path left (in addition to the one’s that are already found) then Algorithm 37 will ﬁnd it before its exits. what we need to show now is that there will actually be a cut whose size will be equal to the maximum number of paths from s to t in D.15. Please note that each (pseudo) path found in step number 2. Connectivity and Matching Problems Proof for Claim 6. it shows the number of vertices (enclosed in the shaded area) which are reachable from s in D after the termination of Algorithm 37. The bottom diagram shows the modiﬁed graph D with used edges shown in bold.14 is duplicated in the top left corner. and go back to step number 2 to ﬁnd a new path (see Fig. 6.4. We have seen that the maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths can not exceed the size of a minimum cut.284 Network Flows. 6.2: In step number 2 of Algorithm 37 we ﬁnd a path from vertex s to t in D using any path ﬁnding algorithm. 6.13). The maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths is shown in bold in the top right diagram.17: The bottom left diagram of Fig. We keep on doing this until we are no longer able to ﬁnd a path from s to t in D and then the algorithm terminates. Let us assume that while executing this algorithm we have reached a stage where we are no longer able to ﬁnd a new path and the Algorithm 37 terminates. but still it may be possible to reach a number of vertices in . a c 1 a 2 2 1 2 c 2 Pseudo Paths 1 s b P d t s b a c Edge-Disjoint Paths t Min Cut d s unused unused t b unused d Figure 6. We then reverse the direction of each edge of the path just found.

6. Q) is in fact the Minimum Cut equal to the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t in D. We deﬁne subset Q to be equal to V (D) − P . Q) consists of edges all of which are already occupied by existing paths as shown in the bottom right corner of Fig. 3. It is important to note that the vertex t will belong to Q otherwise it will be in P and then we can ﬁnd an extra path from vertex s to vertex t in D. Under such conditions vertex y will also be reachable from vertex s which contradicts our initial assumption. When Algorithm 37 is unable to ﬁnd an extra path it terminates as shown in the bottom left corner of Fig. The Cut (P. It will be a directed acyclic graph. Q) will consist of edges such that each edge which is part of this cut will be occupied by a unique path from vertex s to t in D. The Cut (P. Can the number of paths be smaller than the size of this cut? If the number of paths is smaller than the size of the cut then you can identify at least one edge (x.14. If we remove all edges of D which have a Status = unused from D then the resulting graph D would have the following properties: 1. In fact it is possible to ﬁnd the (real) edge-disjoint paths from the modiﬁed graph D (as shown in the bottom of Fig.14. The in-degree of every node other than vertex s and t will be equal to its out-degree. y) which is part of the cut but not part of any path from s to t in D.Menger’s Theorem 285 the modiﬁed graph D from the vertex s.3: We have seen that the Algorithm 37 not only provides maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths (see Fig. The above three properties guarantee that the modiﬁed graph D have as many (real) edge-disjoint paths from s to t as the number of pseudo edgedisjoint paths in the original graph D. The Cut (P.14.4. The number of paths can not be larger than the size of this cut as discussed before.15. Thus each edge of the Cut (P. The out-degree of s will be equal to the in-degree of t in D. Let P be a nonempty set (a subset of V (D)) containing vertex s and all other vertices which are reachable from s. .) but also the status of every edge is provided by it. 6. This situation is depicted in Fig.13) using the (very simple) Algorithm 36. The set of vertices which are reachable from s (known as P ) are shown shaded in this diagram. Proof for Claim 6. 6. 6. 2. 6. 6. Q) will be part of exactly one pseudo path from vertex s to t in D.13 & Fig.

Connectivity and Matching Problems 6. 6. An eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd maximum number of vertex-disjoint paths .18 shown below shows a directed graph H in the top left diagram. Please note that removal of certain vertices does not destroy all paths from vertex s to vertex t in this graph (see the top right and bottom left diagrams) while the removal of some other vertices does indeed destroy the s − t connectivity in this graph. It also shows how this graph would look like if we remove a number of vertices.4 Finding Maximum Vertex-Disjoint Paths & Minimum Vertex Cut in Directed Graphs We have shown earlier that the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths (from vertex s to vertex t) in a directed graph is equal to the minimum number of edges (which if removed will destroy all paths from vertex s to t). The vertex form of Menger’s Theorem equates maximum number of vertexdisjoint paths (from vertex s to vertex t) to minimum number of vertices which if removed will destroy all paths from vertex s to t in a directed graph.4. The Fig. a s b Graph H c t d s b c t d Graph H after removing vertex a c s d Graph H after removing vertex a & b c t s b Graph H after removing vertex a & d t Figure 6. There are basically two issues that we would like to tackle: 1.286 Network Flows.18: Various vertices are removed to show that the graph does not necessarily become disconnected by their removal and only speciﬁc ones make the graph disconnected.

19 using Algorithm 39. 6. the corresponding . We split each vertex x (excluding vertex s and t) of directed graph H into x1 and x2 in D. A proof that maximum number of vertex-disjoint paths (from vertex s to vertex t) is equal to the minimum number of vertices which if removed will destroy all paths from vertex s to t in a directed graph. 2. There is a path from vertex s to t in D corresponding to any path from s to t in H. Algorithm 39: Transform directed graph H into directed graph D. Thus for the new graph D we have V (D) = 2V (H) − 2 & E(D) = E(H) + V (H) − 2. Every path passing from vertex s to t in H has to pass through a number of k intermediate nodes (nodes other than s and t). For every edge (s. input : Directed graph H with special vertices s & t. Let us call these edges external edges. we call these edges internal edges. y1 ) in D. 287 2. Interestingly both these problems can be resolved using our prior experience provided we make a couple of transformations on a given directed graph H (left diagram) and convert it into another directed graph D (right diagram) as shown in Fig. y) in H is transformed into a directed edge (x2 . there will be a corresponding edge in D as shown in brown color in the right diagram of Fig. output: Directed graph D with internal & external edges marked 1 2 Convert H into D by splitting all the vertices (except s and t) as described. x2 ). Similarly for every edge (x. Once the directed graph H is transformed into D it has now become possible to appreciate the following: 1. The corresponding path in D passes through external as well as internal edges as shown in Fig. Thus for every edge in H. We insert an extra edge between x1 and x2 in D for every vertex x in H except for s and t as shown here. 6.Menger’s Theorem from vertex s to t and a minimum cut in terms of vertex cut-set. 6.19. Identify internal and external edges of the graph D. t) in H insert a directed edge from x2 to t in D.20 (top left corner). x) in H insert a directed edge from s to x1 in D. In addition to these edges we have edges of the form (x1 . each directed edge (x.

the working of this approach on the directed graph D of Fig. If it passes through (some of the) external edges then the minimum cut will not correspond to a minimum vertex cut. 6. A Minimum (edge) Cut in graph D will correspond to a Minimum (vertex) Cut in graph H provided the Minimum (edge) Cut in D passes through internal edges only. It is important to appreciate that the minimum cut should (be forced to) pass through internal edges only. 3. the Minimum Cut as found by the original Algorithm 37.19: Each vertex of the directed graph of shown in the left diagram is split up into two vertices. and thus any number of edge-disjoint paths in D will correspond to the same number of vertexdisjoint paths in the directed graph H. In order to do so we make a one line modiﬁcation in our earlier approach in terms of Algorithm 40 as described . 6. We can construct (an almost) similar constructive proof that the maximum number of vertex-disjoint paths from s to t in H is exactly equal to the minimum number of vertices which if removed from H will destroy all paths from s to t in H.20. External edges are shown in brown color while internal edges are shown in bold orange color. We can use Algorithm 39 to convert graph H into graph D and then use Algorithm 37 without any change to ﬁnd the maximum edge-disjoint paths and the Minimum Cut. as shown in the right diagram.19 is shown in Fig.288 Network Flows. There is just one problem to be resolved. may pass through some of the external edges as shown in the middle right diagram in Fig. Connectivity and Matching Problems a c a1 a2 c1 c2 s b Graph H d t s b1 b2 Graph D t d1 d2 Figure 6. The above observations provide us enough insight to ﬁnd maximum edgedisjoint paths in the directed graph D which will correspond to maximum vertex-disjoint paths in H. 6.20. path in D will pass through k internal edges.

y) of D Where x belongs to P and y belongs to V (D) − P . 6.4. The path between s and t in G (Fig. input : Directed graph D with special vertices s & t and internal & external edges marked output: Internal Edges of D that belong to the Minimum Cut.5 Menger’s Theorem for Un-directed Graphs We shall consider Menger’s Theorem in terms of edge connectivity (Menger’s Theorem in terms of vertex connectivity can also be derived from in a similar fashion). 6. We can in fact use Algorithm 37 without any changes to ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from s to t as shown in Fig. 6. An un-directed graph G is shown in Fig. We ﬁrst add the external edges of graph D in graph F and then ﬁnd the appropriate cut as shown in the bottom diagrams of Fig. 6. 6.21) is also shown in bold in the top left diagram of Fig. The maximum number of directed edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D will be equal to the maximum number of un-directed edge-disjoint paths between s and t in G. Minimum Cut will consist of edges (x. It states that the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths between two speciﬁc nodes in an un-directed graph G is equal to minimum number of edges needed to destroy all paths between the two speciﬁc vertices. x) but not both. x) in D.20 (thereby forcing the entire cut to pass through internal edges alone). Each un-directed edge {x. For every un-directed path between vertex s and t in G there is a corresponding directed path from s to t (or from t to s) in D. The un-directed graph G of Fig.22. y} of G is thus transformed into two directed edges (x. 6.21 is transformed into a directed graph D as shown in Fig. Add all the external edges of Graph D to F . Algorithm 40: Find a Minimum Cut in a directed graph D passing through internal edges only. The minimum cut corresponding to minimum number of edges required for destroying all . y) or (y.22. y) and (y.Menger’s Theorem 289 below. 6. 1 2 3 4 Convert D into F using Algorithm 37.22.21 along with two vertices s and t and a path from s to t shown by bold lines. Let P be the set of vertices (of F ) reachable from vertex s in F . 6. It is reasonable to assume that any directed path from s to t in D will consume either (x.

Now when we reverse selected edges of this path then it is no longer possible to ﬁnd a path from vertex s to t as shown in the middle right diagram. We again ﬁnd a path (blue) as shown in the middle left diagram. . The top right diagram Graph H shows selected edges of the path P1 reversed. This is the ﬁnal Graph F . to which we add the external edges of Graph D and ﬁnd the Minimum Cut.20: The top left diagram shows a directed graph with a selected c a path P1 from vertex s to vertex t shown in pink. Connectivity and Matching Problems a1 a2 c1 c2 a1 a2 c1 c2 s t s t b1 b2 d1 d2 b1 b2 d1 d2 Graph D and initial Graph F Graph F a1 a2 c1 c2 a1 a2 c1 c2 s t s t b1 b2 d1 d2 b1 b2 d1 d2 Final Graph F: Cut passing through an external edge a1 a2 c1 c2 a1 a2 c1 c2 s t s t b1 b2 d1 d2 b1 b2 d1 d2 Graph F plus External Edges of D: Cut passing through internal edges only Graph D Figure 6. The minimum (vertex) cut is indicated by a bold line. The reason for the step in the bottom right diagram is to ensure the Minimum Cut passes through internal edges only.290 Network Flows.

4. for every vertex x there is a corresponding two vertices {x1 . Vertex Connectivity κ(G) of a Graph G is the minimum number of vertices which if removed will disconnect graph G. .22.25 show two un-directed graphs. 6. x) in D. 6. Thus the total number of vertices and edges are almost doubled.23.23 and reverse the edges.23. Thus each un-directed edge {x.6 Edge Connectivity and Vertex Connectivity for Un-directed Graphs Edge Connectivity λ(G) of an un-directed graph G is the minimum number of edges which if removed will disconnect graph G. This way in the bottom-left diagram of Fig. 6. y) and (y. An un-directed graph G is shown at the top of Fig. x2 }. y} of G is transformed into two directed edges (x. 6.Menger’s Theorem 291 paths between s and t can also be found using similar techniques as shown in the bottom left diagram of Fig. 6. 6. The only diﬀerence from the previous procedure is that we apply Algorithm 39 to ﬁnd the Minimum Cut for vertexdisjoint paths.23 is transformed into a directed graph D as shown in the middle diagram of Fig. 6. The top graph shows its edge connectivity. The diagrams in Fig.23 along with two vertices s and t. The un-directed graph G of Fig. 6. We then apply the standard algorithm for ﬁnding edgedisjoint paths from vertex s to vertex t as shown in the top-right diagram of Fig.23 are added where they do not exist in graph F (not shown in the Figure) and the minimum cut is found and applied to Graph G. 6. Then all the vertices except for s and t are split into two as shown in the bottom diagram of Fig. 6. V (D) = 2V (G) − 2 and E(D) = 2E(G). The bottom diagram shows the vertex connectivity of the bottom graph. Menger’s Theorem states that the maximum number of vertex-disjoint paths between two speciﬁc nodes in an un-directed graph G is equal to minimum number of vertices needed to destroy all paths between the two speciﬁc vertices. Maximum Vertex-disjoint Paths & Minimum Vertex Cut in un-directed graphs Now considering Menger’s Theorem in terms of vertex connectivity of a graph where s and t are already given. The problem is to eﬃciently ﬁnd both edge connectivity and the vertex connectivity of an un-directed graph G.24 the external edges of Graph D of Fig.

.292 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems a c a c s b d t s b d t Figure 6. if we initially select a path as shown by bold red lines and then remove its edges from G then it becomes impossible to ﬁnd another path in the remaining un-directed graph (right diagram).21: This is Graph G (left diagram).

Now when we reverse the edges of this path then it is no longer possible to ﬁnd a path from vertex s to t as shown in the middle right diagram.Menger’s Theorem 293 a c a c s b Graph D d t s b d t Initial Graph F a c a c Min Cut s b d t s b d t a c a c s b d t s b Graph D d t Final Graph F Figure 6. The top right diagram shows the edges of the path P1 reversed.22: The top left diagram shows an un-directed graph with a selected path P1 from vertex s to vertex t shown in bold. . We again ﬁnd a path as shown in the middle left diagram. The minimum cut is indicated by a shaded region in the bottom diagrams.

23: The top diagram is an undirected graph G. Each edge of this graph (is split to indicate directed edges going both ways) is replaced by two directed edges as shown in the middle diagram.294 a Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems c s b d t Un-directed Graph H a1 a a2 Directed Graph D before vertex splitting s1 c1 c c2 s s2 t1 b1 b b2 d1 d d2 t t2 a1 a2 c1 c2 s1 s s2 t1 t t2 Directed Graph D after vertex splitting b1 b2 d1 d2 Figure 6. Then each vertex other than vertex s and t is split and the graph G is transformed into a directed graph D shown in the bottom diagram. .

23. Hence we apply Algorithm 39 and ﬁnd the minimum cut for the vertex-disjoint paths in the bottom-left diagram and that cut is applied to original Graph G of Fig. .Menger’s Theorem 295 a1 a2 c1 c2 a1 a2 c1 c2 s1 s2 t1 t2 s1 s2 t1 t2 b1 b2 d1 d2 b1 b2 d1 d2 Graph F a1 a2 c1 c2 a1 a2 c1 c2 s1 s2 t1 t2 s1 s2 t1 t2 b1 b2 d1 d2 b1 b2 d1 d2 Final Graph F a1 a2 c1 c2 a s1 s2 t1 t2 c s b Graph H t d b1 b2 d1 d2 Final Graph F with External Edges Figure 6. as can be seen no more paths can be found. The middle diagram shows another path P2 (blue) found and its edges are reversed in the middle-right diagram. where path P1 (pink) is found and the edges of the path are reversed as shown in the topright diagram.24: The top-left diagram shows the initial graph F . 6.

296 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems Edge Connectivity a p b f g i m c e h j n d Vertex Connectivity k Figure 6. .25: The top diagram shows the edge connectivity of the top graph and the bottom one shows the vertex connectivity of the bottom graph.

t) is equal to the edge connectivity of graph G. 6. t) and claim that λ(s.Menger’s Theorem 297 Our prior knowledge & expertise tells us that given an un-directed graph G and two already selected special vertices s and t we can eﬃciently ﬁnd λ(s. t) (because of O(p2 ) distinct pairs of s − t vertices) we select the one with minimum value and that will be the edge connectivity λ(G) of the graph.27. t). The next logical step should be to ﬁnd ways to reduce the complexity. Is it possible to arbitrarily select s and t in the graphs below. 6. t) pairs in the graph G? As the graph G consists of p nodes. What is then the way out? Perhaps you should consider all possible (s. only O(p) pairs will be suﬃcient for calculating edge connectivity as shown in Fig. We know that the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths is equal to λ(s. For each such pair (we call it an s − t pair) we ﬁnd the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to vertex t in the un-directed graph G. Out of all the O(p2 ) values for λ(s. The problem of eﬃciently ﬁnding vertex connectivity is slightly more complex as we shall explain in the coming section. You may have realized that there is no need to consider all O(p2 ) distinct pairs of vertices. There is a possibility that a wrong choice for vertex s and vertex t may give you an incorrect result as shown in these diagrams. 8 8 8 t t 2 1 7 6 2 7 6 2 7 6 3 4 5 1 3 4 5 s 1 4 3 5 s The Min-Cut from s to t is 2 s t The Min-Cut from s to t is 2 The Min-Cut from s to t is 1 Figure 6. t) which is equal to minimum number of edges which if removed will disconnect s from vertex t in G. that it is λ(G)? The problem may not be that simple as it is evident from the diagram below (Fig. ﬁnd λ(s. It will be a useful experience to derive the overall time complexity of this simple algorithm. .26).26: Various Min-cuts in the same graph. there could be O(p2 ) distinct pairs of vertices. (We actually do it by ﬁnding maximum number of edgedisjoint paths from vertex s to t in a graph G).

298 Network Flows. t) for every diﬀerent value of t in the un-directed graph as shown in the ﬁgure below. We select a vertex s and keep it ﬁxed throughout the working of the algorithm. Out of all results we select the minimum. we may ﬁx s arbitrarily but then compute λ(s.27: When vertex s moves from one place to another? Edge Connectivity of an un-directed Graph We have already hinted before that in order to eﬃciently compute edge connectivity of an un-directed graph.3.7. The total time complexity will thus be O(p2 q).7.28.3. Connectivity and Matching Problems 2 3 4 5 6 8 7 Edge Connectivity 1 8 8 s 6 2 7 8 7 6 2 7 6 s 1 2 3 4 5 1 3 4 5 1 4 3 5 s If s is fixed at 2 then t=5. This intelligent observation will certainly cut down the time complexity of our earlier technique as described in the algorithm given below. or 8 will provide the optimal answer If s is fixed at 1 then t=5.6. Problem Set 6. 6. We select a diﬀerent vertex t in each of the p − 1 graphs and in each such graph ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to vertex t in time equal to O(pq). We repeat this process as many number of times as the number of graphs.2. or 8 will provide the optimal answer If s is fixed at 8 then t=1. . We thus have to apply the maximum edge-disjoint paths ﬁnding algorithm for all possible p − 1 pairs where s is ﬁxed while t has every possible value as shown in Fig.6. or 4 will provide the optimal answer Figure 6.

In every copy of graph G select vertex 1 as s. 1 2 3 4 Construct p − 1 copies of graph G numbered from 2 to p.Menger’s Theorem 299 Algorithm 41: Find edge connectivity of an un-directed graph G. input : Un-directed Graph G with vertices numbered from 1 to p. output: Edge Connectivity of graph G. In the j th copy of graph G select vertex j as t where 2 ≤ j ≤ p. The minimum value of all Max-Paths will be the answer. 8 8 8 t t 2 1 7 6 2 7 6 2 7 6 3 4 5 1 3 4 5 s 1 4 3 5 s No. of Max-Paths from s to t is 2 s t No. of Max-Paths from s to t is 2 No.28: When vertex s is ﬁxed and vertex t changes its position? . of Max-Paths from s to t is 1 Figure 6. Find Maximum Number (Max-Paths) of edge-disjoint paths from s to t in each copy of graph G.

How about ﬁnding actual edges belonging to minimum sized set of edges which if removed will disconnect graph G? Problem 6. In the j th copy of graph G we select vertex j as t where 2 ≤ j ≤ p. In every copy of graph G we select vertex 1 as s. Assume that instead of ﬁnding edge connectivity (which is an optimization problem) we intend to solve the corresponding decision problem: Is the edge connectivity of graph G is less than or equal to k where k is an arbitrary number and is always less than p (why?)? Of course you can use the edge-connectivity ﬁnding algorithm to solve this problem but then it will be overkill.3. Please try to derive the time complexity of this algorithm.300 Network Flows. The modiﬁed Algorithm 43 is described below.3. We now know how to ﬁnd the magnitude of λ(G). Algorithm 42: Find if the edge connectivity λ(G) of a graph G less than or equal to k? input : An un-directed graph G output: Yes/No 1 ? Let us now try to make the previous algorithm more eﬃcient. We make p − 1 copies of graph D numbered 2 to p and then ﬁx vertex s and t in each copy. In fact the problem becomes a search problem in a ﬁnite search space.1.2. Now instead of ﬁnding Max-Paths or the Min-Cut in each graph we ﬁnd k edge-disjoint paths in each copy of graph G starting from k equal to 1. If we can ﬁnd k edge-disjoint paths in all copies then we move forward otherwise we exit out with the edge connectivity of the graph G. . So let us design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve this problem. Once we have solved the decision problem it becomes almost trivial to solve the corresponding optimization problem of ﬁnding the (minimum) edge connectivity of a graph. You have the option of making a linear search or a more eﬃcient binary search in order to ﬁnd the edge connectivity of a graph. Please try to derive the time complexity of this algorithm. Connectivity and Matching Problems Problem 6.

.29: We make p − 1 copies of graph D numbered 2 to p and then ﬁx vertex s and t in each copy. Now instead of ﬁnding Max-Paths or the Min-Cut in each graph we ﬁnd k edge-disjoint paths in each copy of graph G starting from k equal to 1.Menger’s Theorem 301 8 8 8 7 2 1 6 2 7 6 2 7 6 t t 3 5 1 3 4 5 s 1 4 3 5 s 4 s t Copies of graph G with s fixed at 1 and a different t 8 8 8 6 t 7 2 1 6 2 7 6 2 7 t 3 5 1 3 4 5 s 1 4 3 5 s 4 s t Find only One (Edge-Disjoint) Path from s to t in each graph 8 8 8 6 t 7 2 1 6 2 7 6 2 7 t 3 5 1 3 4 5 s 1 4 3 5 s 4 s t Find another (Edge-Disjoint) Path from s to t in each graph (if possible) Figure 6. If we can ﬁnd k edge-disjoint paths in all copies then we move forward otherwise we exit out with the edge connectivity of the graph G.

How about if we use the same complexity cutting strategy used in ﬁnding the edge connectivity. If we ﬁnd a κ(s. Assume that the above algorithm is applied to the graph shown below. Vertex Connectivity of an un-directed Graph We know how to ﬁnd κ(s. 6. In every copy of graph G select vertex 1 as s. Find κ(s. The outcome of the above algorithm when applied to this graph (Fig.302 Network Flows. we shall get the vertex connectivity κ(G) for graph G. output: Edge Connectivity λ(G) of graph G. t) for every possible pair of vertices in the graph G and then select the minimum (out of all O(p2 ) possible values). that is minimum number of vertices which if removed will destroy all paths between vertex s and t in a given un-directed graph G. The minimum value of all κ(s. If you can not ﬁnd k edge-disjoint paths in any one of p − 1 graphs then exit with edge connectivity λ(G) = k − 1. input : Un-directed Graph G with vertices numbered from 1 to p. In the j th copy of graph G select vertex j as t where 2 ≤ j ≤ p. Connectivity and Matching Problems Algorithm 43: Find edge connectivity λ(G) of graph G. t). In the j th copy of graph G select vertex j as t where 2 ≤ j ≤ p.31. 1 2 3 4 Construct p − 1 copies of graph G numbered from 2 to p. In every copy of graph G select vertex 1 as s. 6. Find k edge-disjoint path from vertex s to vertex t in each of the p − 1 graphs. input : Un-directed Graph G with vertices numbered from 1 to p.30) is shown in Fig. select s arbitrarily but allow t to have all possible values? Please concentrate on the algorithm described below: Algorithm 44: Find vertex connectivity κ(G) of graph G. t) in every graph. t)’s will be the answer. Let k = 1. output: Vertex Connectivity κ(G) of graph G? 1 2 3 Construct p − 1 copies of graph G numbered from 2 to p. Increment k and go to step 3. . The vertex connectivity κ(G) of this graph is also indicated here.

Menger’s Theorem 303 a p b f g s i m e h s j n d k Figure 6.30: Original Graph G .

That means we should change s and again apply this algorithm but we need not do this repetition more than the latest output of our algorithm. . if we select s among vertices which belong to the minimum sized vertex set (which if removed will disconnect graph G) then our algorithm will provide an incorrect estimate for vertex connectivity. Connectivity and Matching Problems The ﬁgure shows that if s is initially selected as g (or h) in this graph then the output of this algorithm will be 3 which is a wrong answer for vertex connectivity. Any other choice for vertex s will always provide us the correct answer in this graph. You can easily generalize these observations. How this intelligent strategy cuts down the time complexity will be interesting to explore.304 Network Flows. The output of the above algorithm will not be equal to the vertex connectivity of the given graph but it will still give us an upper bound on vertex connectivity.

b.t) will provide the Optimal answer a m n k b c d If s = g and t = e then κ(s.31: The arbitrary pair s and t are used to ﬁnd the Min Cut for vertex-disjoint Paths between each pair of s and t and then the minimum value of those p cuts is chosen to ﬁnd Vertex Connectivity of the Graph as a whole.d. or f then κ(s.Menger’s Theorem 305 a Min-Cut p g h i j t k m n b c a f e Min-Cut p s g h i j k m n s b c d f e t d If s is fixed at a.m.m.t) will not provide the Optimal answer f e p t b c d s g s h i j k s g t h i j k m n If s = g and t = b then κ(s. or f and t = i. .t) will not provide the Optimal answer p If s is fixed at i.k.d.b.j.e.t) will provide the Optimal answer a b c f e d If s = g and t = c then κ(s.k.c.j.t) will not provide the Optimal answer Figure 6.n or p and t = a.n or p then κ(s.e.t) will not provide the Optimal answer f e p s g s h i j s g s h i j k m n t t a p f e a m n b c d If s = g and t = h then κ(s.c.

We shall. refer to these paths as paths only and not vertex-disjoint or edgedisjoint paths. The minimum cut in terms of number of edges will be equal to the minimum cut in terms of minimum number of vertices. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited We have earlier proved Menger’s Theorem which states that the maximum number of edge-disjoint (vertex-disjoint) paths from vertex s to t in a directed graph D is equal to the minimum number of edges (vertices) of G which need to be removed in order to disconnect vertex t from s. The directed graph D with maximum number of edge-disjoint paths is transformed into a directed graph F after the direction of each path in D is reversed as shown in the top left diagram of Fig. 6. Every edge-disjoint path from vertex s to t in the graph D is in fact a vertex-disjoint path between the same two vertices. . Connectivity and Matching Problems 6. Thus maximizing number of paths in D is equivalent to ﬁnding maximum matching in B. 6. Thus the maximum number of paths between vertex s and t in G will be equal to the size of the maximum matching in the bipartite graph. namely Konig’s and Hall’s Theorem. therefore. Each path from vertex s to vertex t in this diagram corresponds to a matching edge in the bipartite graph B as shown in the top right diagram of this ﬁgure. This theorem is applicable to any graph while the other two theorems (Hall’s Theorem and Konig’s Theorem) are applicable to bipartite graphs only.5 Konig’s Theorem. Let us now start with a (un-directed) bipartite graph B we transform this graph into a directed graph D after adding vertices s and t as shown in the left diagrams in Fig. 3. We ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths from s to t in the graph D as shown in the bottom right diagram of this ﬁgure.32. If you can not ﬁnd an additional path from vertex s to vertex t in graph D then it means that you can not improve the size of the existing matching in the bipartite graph. 2.306 Network Flows. 1.33. The following observations will help us in proving the remaining two theorems. There will be a path between vertex s and t in D corresponding to every matching edge in the bipartite graph B.

We ﬁnd maximum number of edgedisjoint (or vertex-disjoint) paths in graph D as shown in the bottom right diagram.32: The top left diagram shows a bipartite graph B. Maximizing number of paths in D is equivalent to ﬁnding maximum matching in B.Konig’s Theorem. The Bipartite graph is transformed into a directed graph D with additional vertices s and t as shown in the bottom left diagram. there is a matching edge in the bipartite graph as shown in the top right diagram. . Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited 307 a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 A a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 Bipartite Graph B Transforms Maximum Matching in Graph B Transforms Directed Graph D with nodes s & t Maximum Paths in Graph D a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 Find Max-Paths a1 a2 b1 b2 s A a3 a4 t s A a3 a4 b3 b4 t b4 Figure 6. Corresponding to each edge-disjoint path from vertex s to vertex t in the directed graph D.

. The set X contains those vertices which are common in the set P and the partite A. The set Y is in fact the vertex cover in the bipartite graph shown in the bottom right diagram. However it is still possible to reach some vertices from s. Connectivity and Matching Problems P a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 b4 a1 a2 b1 b2 s A a3 a4 t s a3 A a4 b4 b3 t Graph F: Nodes Reachable from s are in P Partition P in Graph D P a1 X N(X) b1 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2 a2 s a3 A a4 b4 Set X: Vertices common in A & P t b3 s a3 Min-Cut A-X t b3 b4 a4 Neighborhood of X & the Min-Cut a1 X Y b1 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 b4 a2 s a3 a4 b3 b4 t A a3 a4 Set Y= Minimum Vertex Cut in D Set Y= Minimum Vertex Cover in B Figure 6. these vertices form the set P .33: The top left diagram shows directed graph D where it is no longer possible to ﬁnd an additional path from vertex s to t.308 Network Flows. The middle right diagram shows the minimum cut. The bottom left diagram shows the set Y containing (minimum number of) vertices which if removed will destroy all paths from vertex s to t in the directed graph.

The Fig. the resulting directed graph F is shown in the in the top right diagram of this ﬁgure. Obviously P will not contain t (why?). The minimum cut in terms of vertex-disconnecting set will be A − X + N (X).4. The neighborhood N (X) of X is shown in the middle right diagram of this ﬁgure. 6. The minimum cut in terms of edge-disconnecting set will be edges from s to A − X and from N (X) to t as shown in the middle right diagram of Fig. If the set P does not contain any vertex of A then it implies that the number of paths from s to t is equal to the degree of node s in the graph. The size of the minimum cut will thus be equal to the size of A − X and N (X). 6.34.4. The minimum sized vertex-disconnecting set in the graph D will correspond to the vertex cover in the bipartite graph B. The same set Y is in fact the vertex cover in the bipartite graph in the bottom right diagram. There are two major cases to consider as shown in Fig. 7. It is ﬁrst transformed into a directed graph D as described before.33. Under such conditions the size of the maximum matching will be (at least one) less than the size of partite A. 6. Let P represent the vertices which are reachable from vertex s once we have found maximum number of paths and it is no longer possible to ﬁnd an additional path from s to t in D as shown in the top left diagram of Fig. 8. If the set P contains a vertex x belonging to the partite A then obviously vertex x is not matched to a vertex in the B partite in the maximum matching of the bipartite graph. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited 309 4. 9. This set is denoted by Y in the bottom left diagram of Fig.33.35 below shows a bipartite graph B in the top left diagram. 5.1.33. Problem Set 6. 6.Konig’s Theorem. Problem 6. 6. Each matching edge in the bipartite graph corresponds to . Let X represents vertices which are common between P and the partite A as shown in the middle ledt diagram of the same ﬁgure. we ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths in D. It also implies that every vertex belonging to partite A is matched to a vertex in the B partite in the corresponding bipartite graph. then reverse the direction of each path. 6.

310 Network Flows.34: Hints for a proof of Hall’s Theorem . Connectivity and Matching Problems All vertices of A not matched in the Bipartite graph Implies Number of Paths less than size of A a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 a1 a2 b1 b2 B b3 b4 s A a3 a4 t Case 1: From s you can reach a vertex of A Partite but not to a vertex of B Partite in the graph F a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 a1 a2 P b1 b2 B s A a3 a4 b3 b4 t Case 2: From s you can reach a vertex of A Partite as well to a vertex of B Partite in graph F Figure 6.

Problem 6. 6. Find the sets X. N (X). The ﬁgure shown below (Fig. X. It is interesting to note that all vertices belonging to P . The corresponding graph F showing reversed paths is shown on the right side of each bipartite graph. 6. It is quite evident from these diagrams that for diﬀerent maximum matching’s in the same bipartite graph we get the same set P . Under such conditions vertex s will be part of a directed cycle. A − X. For each bipartite graph (with a maximum matching indicated) draw the corresponding graph F .2. Also ﬁnd the minimum cut in terms of vertices as well as edges. Problem 6. there is a directed path from vertex t to vertex s corresponding to each matching edge in B. and A − X in the graph F . You know that in graph F . Prove or give a counter example.5.4. It further implies that we have found the maximum matching in the bipartite graph B. It is obvious that the maximum matching in this bipartite graph is not a perfect matching – all vertices of partite A are not matched.36 shows a bipartite graph with maximum matching edges indicated in diﬀerent colors.4. The right diagram shows the same bipartite graph with two extra vertices s and t added . We show a bipartite graph with two diﬀerent maximum matching’s in Fig. It is quite obvious that now it is no longer possible to ﬁnd an additional path in the graph F . The set of vertices reachable from vertex s. such that the number of vertices of partite A in the cycle will always be one larger than the number of vertices of partite B belonging to the same cycle.Konig’s Theorem.4. known as the set P is also indicated in each graph F .38) shows a bipartite graph B with maximum matching edges shown in diﬀerent colors. Problem 6. are part of a directed cycle containing vertex s.35) shows two diﬀerent maximum matching’s of the same bipartite graph B in the bottom diagrams. 6. and N (X). Can we prove this observation in general or is this localized to this graph only? What are the implications of this observation? Is this something to do with the proof of Hall’s Theorem? Problem 6.4. Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited 311 a directed path from vertex t to s in F . The left diagram of Fig. The ﬁgure shown above (Fig.37. All vertices which are still reachable from vertex s belong to the set P which is also indicated in the right diagram. Find the set P.3.4. Is this a coincidence in this bipartite graph or will it always be true. Find the minimum Cut in terms of edges as well as vertices of F . 6.

35: .312 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 Transforms a1 P a2 b1 b2 s a3 a4 b3 b4 t a1 a2 A a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 A a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 B b3 b4 Figure 6.

Menger’s Theorem & Hall’s (Marriage) Theorem Revisited 313 a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2 s b3 b4 a3 a4 b3 b4 t Figure 6.36: .Konig’s Theorem.

Connectivity and Matching Problems a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2 s b3 b4 a3 a4 b3 b4 t a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2 s b3 b4 a3 a4 b3 b4 t Figure 6.37: .314 Network Flows.

It is obvious that corresponding to every matching edge in this bipartite graph.1 Network Flows Finding Maximum Edge-Disjoint Paths in MultiGraphs We consider here the problem of ﬁnding maximum number of edge-disjoint paths (and a minimum cut in terms of edges) from a vertex s to a vertex t in a directed multi-graph. We can use our earlier algorithms to solve this problem. We ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint (or vertexdisjoint) paths between vertex s and vertex t in graph G.Network Flows 315 to it. what will be the resulting time complexity would be interesting to ﬁnd? We can certainly make adjustments in order to increase the eﬃciency of our earlier approach. For example if P = (s → a → d → t) . Problem 6. We reproduce an earlier algorithm below for a ready reference. Assume that we convert a bipartite graph (any bipartite graph – not necessarily the one shown in Fig. 6. there is a path from between vertex s and vertex t in the graph G (Is this one to one correspondence between a matching edge in the bipartite graph and an edge-disjoint path in graph G a general phenomena or is it restricted to this bipartite graph – we shall address this issue in the next problem).4. Note that the bipartite graph B in this problem is transformed into an un-directed graph G instead of a directed graph D. Whenever we ﬁnd a path P from vertex s to a vertex t according to step number 2 of this algorithm we now have an idea of the vertices through which P passes. all paths parallel to P (that means passing through the same set of vertices) can be discovered right away. We designed this algorithm to ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths in a directed graph. 6. there will be a corresponding matching edge in the bipartite graph B? Either prove or give a counter example.6.6.38) into an un-directed graph G as shown in the ﬁgure above. Do you think that corresponding to every edge-disjoint path between vertex s and t in this undirected graph. We assume that there are no self loops but parallel edges are allowed in the directed multi-graph.6 6. This may be possible without damaging the original character of our algorithm. Find the minimum edge cut & minimum vertex cut in graph G and show that it is equal to the vertex cover in this bipartite graph B.

Connectivity and Matching Problems a1 a2 a3 a4 b1 b2 a1 a2 b1 b2 s b3 b4 a3 a4 Graph G t b3 b4 Bipartite Graph B Figure 6.316 Network Flows.38: .

It will be useful if we spend some time on the selection of a suitable data structure to represent a multi-graph. The left diagram of Fig.39 then we have not one but three edge-disjoint paths passing through the same vertices.39.40 reproduces the multi-directed graph of Fig. How can we exploit this data structure in order to use Algorithm 45 (eﬃciently) to solve the edge connectivity problem? When you derive the time complexity of Algorithm 45 (or its modiﬁed version) you may realize that the complexity expression may depend upon the graph edge weights in addition to the size . and vertices s & t. as shown in the top left diagram of Fig. The weight of each edge (x. Please note that it is an un-weighted graph. input : Directed graph D. Reverse the direction of edge e and then go back to step 2. 6. How this will cut down the time complexity of our modiﬁed approach? We have asked you to derive the time complexity of this algorithm (with or without modiﬁcation) when applied to Multi-graphs. y) in this weighted graph corresponds to the number of edges from vertex x to vertex y in the un-weighted multi-directed graph shown in the left diagram. for every edge e in path P do set Status(e) = used if initially it was unused otherwise set Status(e) = unused. Instead of ﬁnding these paths sequentially (strictly according to this algorithm) we should be able to do it in one go as shown in the same ﬁgure.Network Flows 317 Algorithm 45: Find Maximum pseudo edge-disjoint paths from s to t in directed graph D. Find a directed path P from vertex s to vertex t in F . Status(e) = unused for every directed edge e in D. and can conveniently be represented by a weighted adjacency list or adjacency matrix data structure. 6. The right diagram shows how it can be represented by a weighted graph. 1 2 3 4 Copy Graph D into F . output: Maximum pseudo edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D and a Status(e) for every directed edge e of D. If you are successful in ﬁnding a path P then keep a record of the number of paths found so far otherwise exit with graph F as output. 6. Note that this graph (shown in the right diagram) is a simple graph with no parallel edges.

The minimum cut is also indicated in the bottom diagrams. We then ﬁnd another path and reverse the direction of its edges. . The top right diagram shows the edges of these paths reversed.318 Network Flows.39: The top left diagram shows a multi-directed graph with three selected paths from vertex s to vertex t shown in bold. The bottom right diagram shows a stage when it is no longer possible to ﬁnd an additional path from s to t in this graph. Connectivity and Matching Problems a c a c s b Graph D a c d t s b d t Initial Graph F a c s b d t s b d t a c a c s b a d c t s b d t a c s b d t s b Graph D d t Final Graph F Figure 6.

If (u. v). There are a number of following related problems and issues with network ﬂows: 1. c(u. v) is a directed edge then the capacity of this edge is denoted by c(u. All vertices other than the source or the sink (known as intermediate vertices) can neither generate any ﬂow nor consume any ﬂow. 6. The network ﬂow problem is to ﬁnd the maximum ﬂow which can take place from the source vertex to the sink vertex such that the ﬂow f (u. v). We assume that ﬂow can originate from the source vertex and can be consumed by the sink vertex. v) taking place in any edge (u. the weight of each edge (x.6.2 The Maximum Flow & the Minimum Cut We are given a network which is essentially a weighted directed graph with two special vertices (a source vertex) s and (a sink vertex) t as shown in Fig. it implies that your algorithm is no longer an algorithm but a technique? Why has this happened? How can we over come this short coming? a c 3 4 a c 2 3 s b d t s 1 3 t d 4 b 1 Figure 6. that is. 6. That is in fact a more serious problem (than having a less eﬃcient algorithm). y) in this weighted graph corresponds to the number of edges from vertex x to vertex y in the un-weighted multi-directed shown in the left diagram. The right diagram shows how it can be represented by a simple weighted graph. Each directed edge is weighted with a positive integer.41.Network Flows 319 of the problem (that means number of vertices and edges). the weight of the edge is known as the capacity of the edge.40: The left diagram shows the un-weighted multi-directed graph of Fig.39. The network ﬂow f (N ) taking place in a network N is equal to the net ﬂow coming out of the source vertex or the net ﬂow consumed in the . 6. v) should not exceed the capacity of this edge.

6. 5. Connectivity and Matching Problems 2. The ﬂow f (N ) in the network is bounded by the expression: f (N ) ≤ min{c(S. the curious reader may have realized that the algorithm for ﬁnding maximum edge-disjoint paths for multi-graphs can be used to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow as well the minimum cut in the network. Network Flows. T ) in N . T ) and some ﬂow in the direction from t to s which is represented by f (T. There is however. 3. This relationship is described by the famous MinCut-MaxFlow Theorem. which means that whatever ﬂow goes into any vertex is equal to the ﬂow coming out of that vertex and no new ﬂow is generated by the vertex itself. Here we apply our earlier techniques of ﬁnding maximum edge-disjoint paths in a directed graph with just one important diﬀerence – whenever we ﬁnd a path from vertex s to vertex t. we use breadth ﬁrst search – thus ensuring that . If (S. S)). T )). and minimizing the ﬂow in the opposite direction (that is f (T. one serious problem regarding (the complexity of) this algorithm. 6. the network ﬂow f (N ) is the diﬀerence between the two. Hence every cut will have some ﬂow in the direction from s to t represented by f (S. T )−f (T. Whereas in the case of s and t the ﬂow going out of s is absorbed by the ﬂow going into t. The maximum ﬂow in a network is achieved through maximizing the ﬂow in one direction (that is f (S. T )} where the minimum is taken over all cuts (S. T ) is a cut in the network then the network ﬂow f (N ) is given by the equation: f (N ) = f (S. The Fig.3 Algorithmic Issues & Complexity Calculations Although we have not formally described an algorithm to ﬁnd a maximum ﬂow in a network in the last section. S). In every network the value of the maximum ﬂow is equal to the capacity of a minimum cut. The net ﬂow coming in or going out of a vertex other than s to t is zero. S). 4. 6.320 sink.42 shows a network graph with upper bounds on edge ﬂow. we have brieﬂy talked about this issue before and shall try to settle it now. Given a network it is possible to eﬃciently ﬁnd the maximum ﬂow and the minimum cut in the network? 6.

We ﬁnd another shortest path from s to 2 to t in the second step – again a ﬂow of 3 units is possible in this path.41: The left diagram shows a network ﬂow graph with the capacity of each directed edge shown. therefore rely on our earlier techniques. In the shortest path we move from vertex s to 1 and then to t – thus ensuring a network ﬂow of 3 units from the source to the sink as shown in the top right diagram of this ﬁgure. We reverse its edges and then take another path – this . Please note that if the upper bound on ﬂow in every edge is 3000 instead of 3 – even then we have to apply the same number of steps to ﬁnd the maximum ﬂow. 6. Fig. This time we take a longer path from vertex s to vertex t. In fact it can be proved that application of BFS (a minor change in our algorithm) ensures (something really big) that the time complexity of the resulting algorithm will not depend upon the magnitudes of the upper bounds on ﬂow – it will only depend upon the size of the problem. we ﬁnd a shortest path in terms of number of edges. Let us ﬁrst ﬁnd out what extra price we have to pay if we do not use BFS. In other words the time complexity does not depend upon the magnitude of the upper bound on ﬂow at least in this example. We apply our earlier technique of ﬁnding any path (not necessarily shortest) from vertex s to vertex t in this network. The Fig.43 below shows the same network graph.Network Flows 4 321 a 3 c 2 3 3/3 a 1/4 c 1/2 s 1 3 t d 4 s 1/1 1/3 2/3 t d 4/4 b 1 b 1/1 Figure 6. It also shows the maximum ﬂow and the minimum cut. The maximum ﬂow and the minimum cut are found after applying BFS twice in this graph. The path goes from s to 1 to 2 and then to t.43 shows various stages of the working of our algorithm while it is trying to ﬁnd a maximum ﬂow in the network. 6. Unfortunately the said proof and the resulting time complexity calculations are beyond the scope of this book – we. The right diagram shows the actual ﬂow taking place in an edge divided by the capacity of that edge.

Connectivity and Matching Problems 3 3 1 3/3 3/3 0/1 s 3 t 3 s 0/3 t 0/3 3/3 3/3 0/1 3/3 3/3 0/1 s 3/3 t 3/3 s 3/3 t 3/3 Figure 6. we show the resulting repercussions.322 Network Flows.42: While ﬁnding a path from vertex s to vertex t we do use BFS. .

Network Flows 323 time it goes from vertex s to 2 to 1 to t. Remember the (size of the) Min-Cut speciﬁes the maximum number of (edge-disjoint) paths where each edge is traversed at most once. every cut cuts a number of edges which if removed will destroy all paths from vertex s to vertex t. Please note that we have already described an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a Min-Cut or maximum edge-disjoint paths in a graph. The (size of the) Max-Cut speciﬁes the minimum number of paths from vertex s to t where each path passes through every edge of the graph at least once (see the right diagram of Fig. The intellectual exercise of reducing one problem into another is always an exciting venture – especially when the similarity between the two problems is not so obvious. The Max-Cut is indicated in the diagram above and is replicated again in Fig. 6. The algorithm ﬁnally converges and we get the correct answer but after passing through a number of iterations proportional to k where k is an upper bound on ﬂow in the network. Instead of devising an entirely new algorithm let us explore if we can solve the problem using existing or modiﬁed algorithms. We also show a number of cuts in this graph. The size of the Min-Cut in this graph is only two and thus there are only two edge-disjoint paths in this graph which are also indicated in the right diagram shown below.45. Here the time complexity has become dependent not only on the size of the problem but the magnitude of the numbers involved. 6. where each edge is traversed at least once. The Min-Cut passes through minimum number of edges while the Max-Cut passes through maximum number of edges.6. We now address the problem of how to ﬁnd Max-Cut and minimum number of paths between vertex s and vertex t in a given directed acyclic graph. As it is clear from its name Max-Cut passes through maximum number of edges which if removed will destroy all paths between vertex s and t in the graph.45).44 below. We have earlier discussed the network ﬂow problem where each edge has an upper bound on the amount of the ﬂow that can take place.4 Lower Bounds on Edge Flows and the Max-Cut We show a directed graph with two special vertices known as s and t in the Fig. The size of the MinCut speciﬁes the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths between s and t in a graph (according to Menger’s Theorem). 6. and we need to maximize the total ﬂow taking place in the . 6. Interestingly the Max-Cut in a graph has also an important signiﬁcance.

Connectivity and Matching Problems 1 3 3 1 2 1 3 s 3 t 3 s 3 1 t 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 s 1 t s 1 t 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 2 s 2 1 t 2 s 2 1 t 3 2 2 3 1 3 3/3 1 3/3 s 1 t 3 s 0/1 t 3 2 Min-Cut 3/3 2 3/3 Figure 6. it shows the resulting repercussions.324 Network Flows.43: While ﬁnding a path from vertex s to vertex t we do not use BFS. .

44: The left diagram shows various cuts which disconnect graph and the right diagram shows the Min-Cut for this graph.Network Flows 325 Min-Cut Figure 6. .

.45: The left diagram shows the Max-Cut for the graph and the right diagram shows the minimum number of paths where each path passes through every edge of the graph at least once. Connectivity and Matching Problems Max-Cut Max-Cut Figure 6.326 Network Flows.

Network Flows 327 entire network. The minimum ﬂow and the corresponding maximum cut are indicated in the right diagram of Fig. After we have found an acceptable ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t in the network graph D. 6. A zero ﬂow through every edge is a possible answer. Instead of minimizing this . 6. Algorithm 46 ﬁnds an acceptable ﬂow through the network D.48 is not a minimum ﬂow taking place from vertex s to t in the network. 6.47. Please note that an acceptable (or legal ﬂow) shown in the right diagram of Fig. In other words we need to ﬁnd the maximum cut in the network graph D that will disconnect vertex t from vertex s in D. Now when we have lower bounds on ﬂow that can take place through any edge then we should start with a large acceptable ﬂow – large enough that the lower bound (or limit) on ﬂow through any edge is not violated. Remember when we have (only) an upper bound on ﬂow that can take place through any edge in a network then we start with a small acceptable ﬂow – so small that it can take place through every edge without violating any bounds. It requires that the total ﬂow coming towards a vertex should be exactly equal to the total ﬂow going out of that vertex (except for vertices s and t in the network).46 shows a network graph D with the maximum capacity of each edge indicated. Then we try to increase and maximize the ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t in the network. The Fig. 6.47 except that each weight associated with an edge in this network graph signiﬁes not the upper bound but a lower bound on the ﬂow that can take place through that edge. We should be careful about one thing – the conservation of the ﬂow taking place in the network. we assume that the lower bound on ﬂow through each edge is equal to 1. 6. The input as well as the output networks of this algorithm is shown in Fig.48. It may have become obvious now that if we can solve the problem of ﬁnding a Max-Cut and Min-Flow in a network graph with lower bounds on edge capacities then we can also solve the problem of ﬁnding minimum number of paths between vertex s and vertex t in a given directed graph where each edge is traversed at least once. The problem is to ﬁnd a minimum ﬂow in this graph such that the ﬂow taking place through any edge does not go below the lower bound of that edge. We show the same network graph with the same edge capacities in Fig. now we need to minimize it. The maximum ﬂow and the corresponding minimum cut are shown in the right diagram of the same ﬁgure.

328 Network Flows.46: The left diagram shows the capacity of each edge and the right diagram shows the corresponding Maximum Flow and Min-Cut for the graph. . Connectivity and Matching Problems 4 3 2 3 1 1 3/3 1/4 1/2 Min-Cut 1/1 1/3 1/1 Size of the Maximum Flow and Minimum Cut in the Network = 5 2/3 4/4 s 3 t 4 s t A Network Graph D with Upper Bounds on Edge Flow Figure 6.

.Network Flows 329 4 3 2 3 1 1 A Network Flow Graph D with Lower Bounds on Edge Flow 4 7/3 4/4 4/2 Max-Cut 3/3 1/1 3/1 Size of the Minimum Flow and Maximum Cut in the Network = 11 s 3 t s 3/3 7/4 t Figure 6.47: The left diagram shows the lower bound for the capacity of each edge and the right diagram shows the Minimum Flow and Max-Cut for the same graph.

The weight of each edge signiﬁes an actual and acceptable ﬂow taking place through that edge. Connectivity and Matching Problems Algorithm 46: Find an acceptable (not necessarily minimum) ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t in a given network graph D. input : A weighted directed network graph D with vertices s and t. output: A weighted network graph D.330 Network Flows. y) for every edge (a. y) 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 s 1 1 1 1 t 1 s 2 2 t 5 Given Directed Graph D with Lower Bounds on Edge Flow An Acceptable Flow: the weight w of an edge shows how much actual flow is taking place Figure 6. . 1 2 3 4 for every directed edge (x. The weight of any edge signiﬁes the lower bound of ﬂow that can take place through that edge. b) in path P do Push an additional ﬂow in the entire path P equal to the lower bound on edge (x. y) in graph D do Find a path P from vertex s to vertex t in graph D passing through edge (x.48: The left diagram shows the input graph to Algorithm 46 and the right diagram shows one of the possible output for the algorithm.

49. the size of the two cuts are however diﬀerent as is evident from Fig. The maximum ﬂow taking place through any edge (y. y) − m(y. For every edge (x. The weight of each edge in this diagram shows how much actual ﬂow is taking place in this network without violating any lower bound on ﬂow taking place in any edge. x) in this graph is represented by m(y. y) is the lower bound on ﬂow that can take place in the edge (x. there is an additional directed edge (y. 6.49.49 below. The Max-Cut in the graph D from vertex s to vertex t is shown in the bottom right diagram. The network graph D is converted into a directed graph F as follows: 1. . 6. 6. y) is equal to w(x. We copy graph D into graph F without any edge weights. The Min-Cut in graph F from vertex t to vertex s is shown in the middle right diagram. The corresponding minimum ﬂow in the graph D is shown in the bottom left diagram. Please note that the Max-Cut in D from s to t cuts the same edges as the Min-Cut in graph F from vertex t to vertex s.Network Flows 331 ﬂow directly we do so indirectly – by pushing an opposite ﬂow taking place from vertex t to vertex s in D as shown in the Fig. We ﬁnd the maximum ﬂow in graph F taking place from vertex t to vertex s as shown in the middle left diagram. where c(x. 2. 6. x). It means that all vertices as well as directed edges of D are copied in directed graph F .49. Here the weight of an edge (x. y). We start with an acceptable ﬂow in the network graph D as shown in the top left diagram of Fig. x). x) in graph F with a weight equal to w −c(x. y) in the graph D. y) in D with a weight equal to w. The resulting graph F is shown in the top right diagram of Fig.

. Connectivity and Matching Problems x 3 2 y 2 2 x 1 y 1 s 2 2 2 1 5 t s 1 1 0 4 1 t An Acceptable Flow in D: the weight w of an edge shows how much actual flow is taking place through this edge Directed Graph F: the weight of a black edge shows an upper bound on edge flow x 1/2 1/1 y 1/1 1/2 1/1 1/1 Min-Cut s 1/1 1/1 0 2/4 1/1 t s 1/1 1/ 1 0 2/4 1/1 t Maximum Flow from t to s in Directed Graph F = 3: Size of the Min-Cut from t to s in Graph F = 3 x 2 1 y 1 Max-Cut s 1 1 1 t 3 s t 1 The weight of an edge is equal to the Acceptable Flow in D minus the Maximum Flow in F in that edge. Minimum Flow from s to t in D = 4 Size of the Max-Cut from s to t in Graph D = 4 Figure 6.49: The diagram shows the entire process of ﬁnding the Max-Cut for the graph by minimizing the ﬂow(middle left diagram) after the acceptable ﬂow (left-right diagram) which eventually leads to ﬁnding the Max-Cut for the graph (in the bottom-right diagram).332 Network Flows.

We need to ﬁnd minimum number of paths from vertex s to vertex t such that each vertex of D is traversed at least once by any of the s − t paths.5. prove that this algorithm always ﬁnds the correct result or ﬁnd a counter example.5. 1. Either prove that Musharraf is right or ﬁnd a counter example.4. We are given a directed network graph D with special vertices s and t. Problem 6.5.6. yes in case an acceptable ﬂow is possible and no in case it is not possible? A special case of this problem is when the ﬁxed ﬂow through every edge is exactly one. We are given a network graph D with special vertices s and t as in Fig.5. Such graphs (where an acceptable ﬂow) is possible have a special structure as we shall study in coming chapters.1.Network Flows Problem Set 6.2.How about if the lower bound is a positive number (it may be diﬀerent for diﬀerent edges) while the upper bound on ﬂow is the same for all edges? Repeat (1) for this problem. Problem 6.5. 333 Problem 6. Once we ﬁnd an acceptable ﬂow – it can always be maximized or minimized. We need to make sure that a same ﬁxed amount of ﬂow should take place through every directed edge in that graph.50. 2. (b) An acceptable ﬂow exists if and only if the ﬂow through any edge does not exceed its upper bound.5. How can you design an eﬃcient algorithm which will output either yes or no.5. We are given a network graph D with special vertices s and t. . (c) If an acceptable ﬂow is possible then ﬁnd a minimum ﬂow in this network. Each edge in this network has a lower as well as an upper bound on edge ﬂow. Musharraf designed the following intelligent algorithm to ﬁnd an acceptable ﬂow provided it exists in the network graph of the above problem: (a) Initially ignore the upper bound on each edge and ﬁnd a minimum ﬂow in the network (from vertex s to vertex t) keeping into account the lower bounds on ﬂow through each edge. Now Musharraf insists that his algorithm will ﬁnd an optimal answer for Problem No. we assume that the lower bound as well as upper bound is the same for each edge although the two bounds may be diﬀerent from each other. Problem 6. (b) If an acceptable ﬂow is possible and is provided to you then ﬁnd a maximum ﬂow in this network. Problem 6. Problem 6. 6.5. Kashif ﬁnds the following counter example for the above problem as shown in the ﬁgure below.3. (a) Design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd if an acceptable ﬂow is possible in this network.

shown in red color. We apply Algorithm 45 on this graph. Please recall the directed graph D shown in top left diagram of Fig. We are given a network graph D with special vertices s and t. 6. Connectivity and Matching Problems 6/6 6 6/1 7 s 6/4 t 4 6/1 3 Figure 6.5. 6.5. We need to ﬁnd if there is a feasible ﬂow in this network graph? Can we design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve this problem? If the in-degree of any node (other than vertex s and t) is more than two times the out-degree of that node in this graph then it will not be possible to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow in the graph (why?). The lower limit for ﬂow is 1 while the upper limit is 2 for each edge of this graph.51). however. classify used and unused edges and then redraw the directed graph .8.15 (also shown below Fig.50: Upper/Lower limit for ﬂow in each edge is shown. this condition is false in a network graph (that means the in-degree is at most two times the out-degree of any vertex other than vertex s and t) then a feasible ﬂow will exist in the network graph? Can you counter this argument? Can you now design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow in the graph? a g e f h a g e f h b b s c d i j t s c d i j t Graph D with Used and Unused edges Graph D without Unused edges Figure 6. Problem 6. The ﬂow.334 Network Flows. If.51: Problem 6.7. violates the upper limit.

9.The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 335 D without the unused edges.10. Here we shall address the matching problem in un-weighted and then weighted .7 The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs We have already talked about the Matching problem in diﬀerent contexts. Can you think of a directed graph where property (a) is applicable but (b) is not? Can you think of a graph where (b) is applicable but (a) is not? Problem 6. We claim that in any network graph D without the unused edges. it is possible to push a ﬂow of exactly one unit in every directed edge. either prove this or give a counter example.5.5. A directed network graph D without unused edges has two important properties: (a) every edge is part of a directed path from vertex s to vertex t in D.52: 6. (a) Is it possible to push a ﬂow of exactly one unit through every directed edge in this graph? (b) If it is possible then does it mean that every edge in this graph will be part of a directed path from vertex s to vertex t in this graph? (c) If (a) is possible then can we ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths from s to t in this graph using the stupid Algorithm 36? Vertex 1 is s and 7 is t Any vertex is s and also t Figure 6. Problem 6. The two graphs are reproduced in the ﬁgure below for ready reference. & (b) We can use (the so called stupid) Algorithm 36 to ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths in this graph. Consider a directed graph D where the in-degree of every vertex (other than s and t) is equal to the corresponding out-degree.

1 Maximum Matching in Un-weighted bipartite graphs Given a maximal matching. We shall devise eﬃcient algorithms to ﬁnd maximum matching in un-weighted bipartite graphs and weighted maximum matching in a weighted bipartite graph. in fact any two matched edges in the bipartite graph will correspond to two edge-disjoint directed paths from vertex s to vertex t in the corresponding directed graph. 6. As explained before each matched edge in the bipartite graph (top left corner) corresponds to a path in the directed graph (top right corner).53) we can ﬁnd the corresponding matched edges in the bipartite graph as shown in the bottom right diagram of the same ﬁgure. Unfortunately it is diﬃcult to adapt this algorithm to ﬁnd a maximum weighted matching in a weighted bipartite graph. Once we ﬁnd the maximum number of paths in the directed graph (see the bottom left diagram of Fig.53. The algorithm described above works well for ﬁnding a maximum matching in an un-weighted bipartite graph. We are given a bipartite graph having a B partite (consisting of a number of boys) and a G partite (consisting of a number of girls). 6. Connectivity and Matching Problems bipartite graphs. present (in the coming sub-section) a slightly diﬀerent version of this algorithm to ﬁnd maximum matching in an un-weighted bipartite graph? Problem Set 6. The matching problem is converted into a connectivity problem by adding two dummy vertices s and t as shown in the top right corner of Fig. An edge between a boy and a girl shows a degree of compatibility. please note that the direction of each such edge is from the partite A to partite B. it can . We add directed edges from vertex s to every vertex in partite A.7.53. this completes the transformation from a bipartite graph of the top left corner into the directed graph shown in the top right diagram.336 Network Flows. We need to ﬁnd maximum pairs of boys and girls such that the boy and girl in every pair are compatible. We.6. therefore. 6. This problem is also known as the Marriage Problem. We also add directed edges from every vertex of the partite B to vertex t. 6. The problem of ﬁnding maximum matching in a bipartite graph is thus transformed into the problem of ﬁnding maximum number of edge-disjoint (or vertex-disjoint) paths in the directed graph. We convert un-directed edges of the bipartite graph (top left diagram) into directed edges as shown in the top right corner. how can we ﬁnd a maximum matching in a bipartite graph? A maximal matching in a bipartite graph is shown by bold lines in the top left corner of Fig.

. This diagram is converted into the middle left diagram by reversing every edge in each path. The bottom left diagram shows maximum number of edge-disjoint paths in the directed graph while the bottom right diagram shows the corresponding maximum matching in the bipartite graph.53: The top left diagram shows a maximal matching in a bipartite graph. The middle right diagram shows maximum number of pseudo edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to t.The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 337 a1 a2 A a3 b1 b2 B b3 a1 s a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 t Directed Graph F a1 s a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 a1 t s a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 t a1 s a2 a3 b1 b2 b3 a1 t A a3 a2 b1 b2 B b3 Figure 6. The top right diagram shows a path from vertex s to vertex t corresponding to each matching edge in the bipartite graph.

2 3 Figure 6.4. each girl can marry a single boy.338 Network Flows. Assume that a boy can marry four girls.1. Connectivity and Matching Problems be modeled by an un-weighted bipartite graph as shown below (Fig.54: A bipartite graph showing a B partite consisting of a set of boys.6. each boy can marry a single girl. Compatibility between a boy and a girl is indicated by an edge between the corresponding vertices.6. a set of girls. we intend to maximize the number of marriages taking place. Problem 6.2. Assume that we intend to solve the decision problem in which we intend to ﬁnd a yes/no answer corresponding to the question: Is it possible to marry all boys? (Or is it possible to marry all girls?) Problem 6. How will you model this problem in terms of a known graph problem? Under what conditions it will be possible? Problem 6. 6. How will you model this .3.6.6. How will you model this problem in terms of a known graph problem? Under what conditions it will be possible? Problem 6. Assume that we are required to solve the marriage problem: namely we intend to marry maximum number of girls. a G Partite showing.54). The problem can be solved by techniques similar to the ones that we have just studied. Assume that we are required to solve the marriage problem: namely we intend to marry maximum number of boy.

Here we shall describe another algorithm to ﬁnd the maximum mathing - .The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 339 problem in terms of a known graph problem? Under what conditions will it be possible? Problem 6. How will you model this problem in terms of a known graph problem? Under what conditions will it be possible? Problem 6. We are given a bipartite graph with edge weights equal to either zero or one. How about if we remove all directions from the directed graph D. Problem 6. Discuss how you will solve this problem eﬃciently using similar techniques.5. Problem 6.7. Can we still claim that the maximum matching in the bipartite graph is equal to the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths between vertex s and vertex t in the un-directed graph D.7. Discuss with the help of an example. We need to ﬁnd maximum weighted matching in this weighted bipartite graph. 6. We intend to maximize the number of married boys and girls subject to the condition that a boy can marry four girls.6.2.7. In other words the problem of ﬁnding maximum matching in a bipartite graph is transformed into the problem of ﬁnding maximum number of edge-disjoint (or vertex-disjoint) paths in a directed graph D. Assume that a boy can marry four girls. It can be found using our expertise gained in the last section.7. thus converting it into an undirected graph.6. Problem Set 6.6. 6.6.2 Maximum Matching in Complete (Binary) Weighted Bipartite Graphs We are given an un-weighted balanced bipartite graph as shown in left diagram of Fig. A maximum matching in this graph is also shown in this diagram. How will you model this problem in terms of a known graph problem? Under what conditions will it be possible? Problem 6.55.1. Assume that a boy can marry four girls. we intend to maximize the number of girls who are married. The maximum matching in a bipartite graph is equal to the maximum number of edge-disjoint paths in a directed graph D. we intend to maximize the number of boys who are married.7.

We start with a complete weighted bipartite graph G of size k (it means there will be k vertices in the A partite as well as k vertices in the B partite).340 Network Flows. A maximum weighted matching in the right graph of this ﬁgure will be a maximum matching in the original bipartite graph. We now describe a (not very eﬃcient but useful algorithm) which works on the directed graph D and outputs the maximum weighted matching in the bipartite graph. An edge in the original bipartite graph has a weight of 1 in the complete bipartite graph while every other edge has a weight equal to zero. The bipartite graph is converted into a completely connected binary weighted bipartite graph as shown in the right diagram. The results of this algorithms can be used to ﬁnd maximum matching in a bipartite graph. We describe in the following paragraphs a useful algorithm to solve the maximum weighted matching problem in a complete bipartite graph with binary weights. As shown in Fig. . 6.55 we convert this bipartite graph into a complete weighted bipartite graph .see the right diagram of this ﬁgure. Thus the complete bipartite graph has binary weights. a1 a2 A a3 b3 b1 a1 1 1 b1 1 b2 B Convert into completely connected bipartite graph a2 A a3 1 b2 B b3 1 Weight of Maximum Matching = 3 Weight of existing edge is 1 and weight of new edge is 0 Figure 6. Connectivity and Matching Problems this new algorithm may not be as eﬃcient as the one described before but it has the added advantage of being ﬂexible. It can handle (with or without minor modiﬁcation) the more general problem of ﬁnding maximum weighted matching in a bipartite graph. The algorithm can also be used to ﬁnd maximum weighted in a complete bipartite graph with non binary weights as described in the next section. We convert the bipartite graph into a weighted directed graph D after adding vertices s and t according to the rules described previously.55: A balanced bipartite graph G with maximum matching of size 3 is shown in the left diagram. Edge weights not shown in the right diagram are equal to zero.

.56: We convert a bipartite graph into a maximum edge-disjoint path problem.The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 341 a1 1 b1 1 a1 1 b1 1 a2 A a3 1 b2 B b3 s a2 a3 1 b2 b3 t 1 1 Directed Graph F a1 1 b1 1 a1 1 b1 -1 s a2 a3 1 b2 b3 t s a2 a3 1 b2 b3 t 1 1 Weight of the Longest Path = +1 a1 1 b1 -1 a1 1 b1 1 s a2 a3 1 b2 b3 t s a2 a3 -1 b2 b3 t 1 -1 Weight of the Longest Path = +1-1+1=+1 a1 1 b1 1 a1 1 b1 1 s a2 a3 -1 b2 b3 t A a2 a3 1 b2 B b3 -1 1 Weight of the Longest Path = 0 Figure 6. we then ﬁnd the longest path in terms of weight and reverse the edges of that path. by adding dummy vertices s and t and add zero weight edges from s to A partite and B partite to t.

If you can not ﬁnd such a path then terminate. the modiﬁcations should be such that the maximum matching in the new bipartite is equal to the maximum matching in the original graph D.1. Problem 6. y) of path P in graph D do Reverse the direction of edge (x. input : A complete balanced (binary) weighted bipartite graph.8. for each edge (x. Problem 6. . Whereas in the case of Algorithm 47 for a complete weighted bipartite graph. Connectivity and Matching Problems Algorithm 47: Find a maximum weighted matching in a complete balanced bipartite graph G. y) with a negative sign and go back to Step 2 Problem Set 6. 1 2 3 4 5 Transform the bipartite graph G into a directed graph D after adding vertices s and t to G according to the rules already deﬁned. also it is applied p (no of vertices) times on the graph until all the paths have been found. What is the time complexity of Algorithm 47 and the previous algorithm described for un-weighted graphs in the last section? Note that we are applying a simple path ﬁnding algorithm for un-weighted edges in the previous algorithm of the last section and its time complexity was O(p + q).2. Find a longest path P from vertex s to t with a weight equal to or larger than zero.8. y) Multiply the weight of edge (x. Would we be able to get the maximum matching in a bipartite graph if the graph is neither complete nor balanced by applying Algorithm 47? Problem 6. How is Algorithm 47 applicable to ﬁnd maximum matching in a general weighted graph D with weights greater than 1? Discuss the possible modiﬁcation that need to made to the general graph D before we can use it as input for the Algorithm.8. output: A maximum weighted matching in G. the Bellman-Ford algorithm is applied and its time complexity is O(p3 ) and again it is applied p number of times on the given network graph.342 Network Flows.8.3.

The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 343 6. 1. while vertices in the B partite are numbered as b1 .57. Input: A weighted complete & balanced bipartite graph G with positive edge weights. it will be interesting to make a comparison between the two. . assume that vertices in the A partite are numbered as a1 .3 Maximum Weighted Matching in Complete Weighted Bipartite Graphs Problem: We need to ﬁnd a maximum. weighted. a3 . See Fig. 6. b3 . a2 . We deﬁne layers in the graph G: layer 1 contains a1 and b1 . . b2 . . and all edges between these vertices as shown in Fig. perfect matching in a weighted complete and balanced bipartite graph G. Algorithm 49: Find maximum weighted matching in a complete bipartite graph G input : A weighted complete bipartite graph G output: maximum weighted matching 1 2 for x = 1 to k do Find maximum weighted matching of size x in bipartite graph G. bk . All edge weights are positive. layer x contains vertices ax and bx . . The graph consisting of ﬁrst x layers contains ﬁrst x vertices from both the partitions A & B. . Output: A maximum weighted perfect matching. Algorithm 48: Find maximum weighted matching in a complete bipartite graph G input : A weighted complete bipartite graph G output: maximum weighted matching 1 2 for x = 1 to k do Find maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x layers of bipartite graph G. A Comparison of Two Algorithms: We shall describe two algorithms to solve the above problem. that we describe. The algorithms.7. ak . are similar in some respects and diﬀerent in others.

344 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems Graph consisting of First 2 Layers a1 6 13 15 b1 B a1 6 13 15 b1 A a2 10 4 8 16 17 9 b2 a2 10 4 8 17 b2 16 a3 b3 a3 9 b3 Weight of Maximum Matching is 15+16+8 = 39 Graph consisting of first two layers is shown in circle Figure 6. . The ﬁrst two layers of bipartite graph G are shown in the right diagram. The weight of the maximum matching is equal to 15 + 8 + 16 = 39. The A partite as well as the B partite is indicated in the left diagram.57: A complete balanced bipartite graph G is shown with positive edge weights. Maximum weighted matching is shown in red color.

48 requires us to ﬁnd the maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x layers. Similarly in order to implement Algorithm No. Before discussing the details of the two procedures we ﬁrst need to transform the weighted bipartite un-directed graph G into a directed graph D with additional vertices s and t according to the following rules as shown in the diagram below. It is obvious from these diagrams that the intermediate results may be diﬀerent but the end results are same for the two algorithms. 1. . Do not move forward before understanding Fig. b) in bipartite graph G add a direction going from vertex b to a in the directed graph D. Note that vertex a belongs to A partite while b belongs to the partite B of the bipartite graph G.The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 345 The working of the two algorithms is shown in Fig. Now add another vertex t such that there is a directed edge from every unmatched vertex in the B partite to vertex t with a weight equal to 0. 1 & 2. 2. 4. All other edge weights retain their original signs in D as there are in G. 1: Given a maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x layers of G it ﬁnds the maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x + 1 layers of G. Add vertex s to G such that in the resulting graph D there is a directed edge from vertex s to every unmatched vertex in the A partite with a weight equal to 0. 3. Algorithm No. For every unmatched edge (a. In order to implement this algorithm eﬃciently we need to design an eﬃcient procedure which performs the following function: Procedure No. The sign of every weight w for every matched edge in G is changed to a minus sign in the directed graph D. 6. 49 eﬃciently we need to design an eﬃcient procedure which performs the following function: Procedure No. 6.58. We shall now discuss the details of Procedure No. For every matched edge (a.58. b) in G add a direction going from vertex a to b in the directed graph D. 2: Given a maximum weighted matching of size x in G it ﬁnds the maximum weighted matching of size x + 1 in G.

58: The left diagrams show the working of Algorithm No. Please note that intermediate results may be diﬀerent but the end result is the same for the two algorithms. The right diagrams show the working of Algorithm No. 48 when applied to a bipartite graph G. Connectivity and Matching Problems Maximum Matching in the first layer: Value = 13 Maximum Matching of size one: Value = 17 a1 6 13 15 b1 Different a1 6 13 15 b1 a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 a3 b3 a3 b3 Maximum Matching in the first two layers: Value = 6+15 = 23 Maximum Matching of size 2: Value = 15+16=31 a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 Different a2 8 4 b2 16 a3 b3 a3 9 17 b3 Maximum Matching in all layers: Value = 8+16+15 = 39 Maximum Matching of size 3: Value = 8+15+16=39 a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 Same a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 a3 b3 a3 b3 Figure 6. . 49 when applied to the same bipartite graph G.346 Network Flows.

The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 347 Maximum Matching in First 2 layers a1 6 Transform -10 5 b1 -4 8 17 a1 6 10 5 b1 4 8 17 a2 s 16 b2 10 t b3 a2 16 b2 10 a3 9 a3 9 b3 a4 b4 a1 6 -10 5 b1 -4 8 17 a4 b4 a2 s 16 b2 10 25 t b3 a3 a1 6 10 5 9 b1 a4 a1 b2 10 17 -6 10 5 b4 a2 16 4 8 b1 4 8 a3 a2 b3 s -16 b2 10 9 t 25 a3 a4 b4 Transform -17 9 b3 Maximum Matching in First 3 layers a4 b4 Figure 6. . Maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst two layers in a bipartite graph G is converted into a maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst three layers of the same bipartite graph. 1.59: The diagrams show the working of Procedure No.

Find a longest path from vertex s to t in D and now reverse the edges in this path. .348 Network Flows. Find a longest path from vertex s to t passing through the ﬁrst x + 1 layers of D and now reverse the edges in this path. Every directed edge from B partite to A partite in D corresponds to a maximum weighted matching of size x + 1 in G. Algorithm 51: Procedure 2: Transform maximum weighted matching of size x into a maximum weighted matching of size x + 1 in a bipartite graph input : Maximum weighted matching of size x in bipartite graph G output: Maximum weighted matching of size x + 1 in bipartite graph G 1 2 3 Transform the weighted bipartite graph into a directed graph D. Connectivity and Matching Problems Algorithm 50: Procedure 1: Transform maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x layers into a maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x+1 layers in a bipartite graph input : Maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x layers of bipartite G output: Maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x + 1 layers of bipartite G 1 2 3 Transform the weighted bipartite graph into a directed graph D. Every directed edge from B partite to A partite in D corresponds to a maximum weighted matching in the ﬁrst x + 1 layers of G.

The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 349 Maximum Matching of size One a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 s a2 10 4 8 16 -17 9 b2 t a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 Transform a3 b3 b3 a1 6 13 15 a3 b1 14 Convert s a2 10 4 8 16 9 -17 b2 t a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 13 6 Transform -15 a3 b1 b3 Find Longest path a2 8 4 b2 16 a3 9 17 s a2 10 4 8 -16 17 9 b2 t b3 a3 Maximum Matching of size Two b3 Reverse Longest path Figure 6. . 2. Maximum weighted matching of size 1 in a bipartite graph G is converted into a maximum weighted matching of size 2 in the same bipartite graph.60: The diagrams show the working of Procedure No.

61: The diagrams illustrates that every path from s to t in the directed graph D passing through the ﬁrst three layers corresponds to a matching in the ﬁrst three layers of the bipartite graph G. .350 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems a1 6 10 5 b1 a2 l= tia Ini 14 4 8 17 b2 10 16 a3 6 9 b3 b4 a1 6 -10 5 b1 16 a4 8 17 -4 8 a1 6 10 5 b1 4 8 17 4 a2 16 b2 10 s 0 t 9 Increase by 9 a2 16 b2 10 a3 9 b3 a3 a4 6 9 b3 b4 -10 6 5 a1 b1 -4 8 17 16 a1 8 10 6 5 b1 4 8 17 a2 16 b2 10 12 s 0 t 21 Increase by 21 a2 16 b2 10 a3 9 b3 a3 a4 6 9 b3 b4 -10 6 5 a1 b1 16 -4 8 17 12 a1 6 10 5 b1 4 8 17 8 a2 16 b2 10 a2 t Increase by 25 16 b2 10 s 0 25 a3 9 b3 a3 a4 9 b3 b4 a4 b4 Figure 6. The longest path corresponds to a perfect matching of maximum weight.

6.1. Please comment. The weight of the longest path from vertex s to t in D is equal to the gain in the weight of maximum matching when the size of matching is increased from x to x + 1 in the bipartite graph G.1.61. 1) then we need to reverse edges belonging to Path 1. Claim 6.62. we need to ﬁnd a longest path from vertex s to vertex t.2.9.7. 6. If on the other hand we reverse edges in Path 2 then a cycle with a net positive value at most equal to y − z will be formed as shown in Fig. Assume that we are given a complete balanced weighted bipartite graph with positive edge weights. however.9. Describe an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a maximum matching in the very ﬁrst layer of the bipartite graph. Claim 6. The left diagram of Fig.7. . Please note that there are 2k + 2 vertices in this directed graph and your answer should be independent of edge weights in the graph. Some one thinks that the longest path problem is NP-Complete. Problem 6. 1 (& Procedure No. We shall never encounter a situation where there will be a positive weight cycle in D (provided we follow steps given in Procedure No. 6.1 or Procedure No. We need to ﬁnd what will be the maximum length (in terms of the number of edges) of the longest path passing through the ﬁrst two layers of the graph. 2). Negative weight cycles will. Then the reversed edges of Path 1 plus edges belonging to Path 2 will form a cycle in the graph with a net negative value at most equal to y − z. Carefully derive the time complexity of this algorithm.The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 351 Claim 6. Problem 6.7. we now need to extend this maximum matching in the ﬁrst x+1 layers of G as shown in Fig.2. 2). Assume that we have already found a maximum matching in the ﬁrst x layers of graph G. We transform the bipartite graph into a directed graph also shown in Fig.3. Problem Set 6.65 shows a directed graph in which there is only one edge going from a vertex b to a vertex a.9.3. If we select Path 1 (as dictated by Procedure No. Suppose we have found two paths (one longest and one relatively shorter) from vertex s to vertex t. 6. Path 1 is the longest path and has a weight equal to y and Path 2 is a relatively shorter path and has a weight equal to z. Problem 6. In Procedure No.61. be present in the directed graph D.9.

If we reverse edges of the shorter path then a cycle of net positive value will be formed. Connectivity and Matching Problems 6 a1 6 -10 5 b1 16 -4 8 17 12 6 a1 6 -10 5 b1 16 -4 8 17 8 8 a2 16 b2 10 4 a2 16 b2 10 s 0 t 25 s 0 t 9 a3 9 b3 a3 9 b3 a4 b4 a1 6 -10 5 a4 b1 -4 8 17 b4 a2 s 16 b2 10 t b3 e rs ve Re Ed s ge a3 -9 a4 b4 Figure 6.62: The top left diagram shows the longest path from s to t in D while the right diagram shows a relatively shorter path.352 Network Flows. .

63: The diagrams show the working of Algorithm No. . 48 on a bipartite graph which is already been transformed into a directed graph D.The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 353 Finding Maximum Matching in the First layer a1 0 6 10 5 b1 4 8 17 10 a2 s 16 b2 10 t b3 a1 10 a3 9 b1 a4 b4 a1 6 Finding Maximum Matching in First 2 layers 10 5 b1 4 -5 a2 a1 6 0 -10 5 0 b1 4 8 17 5 -5 b2 a1 6 -10 5 b1 4 8 17 5 a2 s 16 b2 10 4 a2 t s 16 b2 10 4 t b3 a1 6 10 5 b1 4 8 17 a3 9 b3 a3 9 a2 a4 b4 a4 b4 16 b2 10 a3 9 b3 6 a1 6 -10 5 b1 16 -4 8 17 8 Finding Maximum Matching in the First 3 layers 6 a1 6 -10 5 b1 16 -4 8 17 12 4 a2 16 b2 10 6 a1 6 -10 5 b1 -4 8 17 16 8 a2 16 b2 10 s 0 t 9 8 s a2 16 0 t 25 a3 9 b3 s b2 12 10 0 a3 t 9 b3 a4 b4 a3 9 21 b3 a4 b4 a4 b4 Figure 6.

64: The diagrams show the working of Algorithm No.354 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems Finding Maximum Matching of size one a1 6 13 15 b1 15 a1 6 13 15 b1 s a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 8 t a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 a1 6 13 15 17 a3 b3 a3 b3 b1 a2 Finding Maximum Matching of size 2 8 13 6 8 15 4 b2 16 0 a1 6 13 15 b1 13 0 a1 b1 8 14 a3 9 17 b3 s -1 a2 10 4 8 16 9 -17 b2 16 t s -1 a2 10 4 8 16 9 -17 b2 16 t a1 6 13 15 b1 0 a3 b3 0 a3 b3 a2 10 4 8 16 9 17 b2 a3 Finding Maximum Matching of size 3 b3 -7 a1 6 13 -15 b1 10 -4 a1 6 13 -15 b1 10 s -5 a2 10 4 8 17 b2 8 t a1 -4 6 13 -15 b1 10 s -5 a2 10 4 8 17 b2 8 t -16 9 9 -16 12 9 a3 b3 s a2 -5 10 4 8 17 b2 8 t a3 b3 -16 12 9 a3 b3 Figure 6. 49 on a bipartite graph which is already been transformed into a directed graph D. .

9. Problem 6. Carefully derive the time complexity of Procedure No.9. .The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 355 Problem 6.5. 6.9. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve this problem.6. Is it possible to use an existing text book algorithm (without any modiﬁcation) in order to solve the previous problem? Discuss brieﬂy. Problem 6. We are working under the assumption that there are no positive weight cycles in the directed graph D. Only 1 edge is reversed a1 6 -10 5 b1 4 8 17 First layer Only x edges are reversed a1 6 -10 5 b1 First x Layers 8 17 -4 a2 s 16 b2 10 a2 t s 16 b2 10 t b3 a3 9 b3 a3 9 ak bk ak bk Figure 6. The right diagram shows another directed graph D where there are x edges going from a vertex b to a vertex a.65: The left diagram shows a directed graph D in which there is only one edge going from a vertex b to a vertex a. 1 and then the time complexity of Algorithm No.9.63).65 shows a directed graph in which there are x edges going from a b vertex to an a vertex. The right diagram of Fig. 48 (see Fig. Problem 6. Now we need to ﬁnd a 5-edge longest path from s to t in the same graph consisting of ﬁrst x + 1 layers of graph D. Carefully derive the time complexity of this algorithm in terms of the size of the problem. Discuss brieﬂy if your algorithm is a greedy algorithm or does it use dynamic programming. Assume that we have found a 3-edge longest path from vertex s to vertex t in a directed graph consisting of the ﬁrst x + 1 layers of graph D (see right diagram of Fig.4. We need to ﬁnd what will be the maximum length (in terms of number of edges) of the longest path passing through the ﬁrst x + 1 layers of the graph. 6. 6.65). Please note that there are 2k + 2 vertices in this directed graph and your answer should be independent of edge weights in the graph.7.

9. Find the actual longest path in each of the directed graphs shown in Fig. Assume that the time complexity of Procedure No.13. .12. 6.356 Network Flows.11. Carefully derive the time complexity of this algorithm.10. 1 is bounded by O(x · k 2 ).64).9.9. Now derive the time complexity of Algorithm No.9. Problem 6. 2 and then the time complexity of Algorithm No.9. 2. Problem 6. 48. Although the worst case time complexity of Algorithm No. What would be the maximum value of the length (in terms of number of edges) of the longest path from vertex s to vertex t in D? Discuss brieﬂy. Discuss brieﬂy. Problem 6.48 & 49 may be the same in terms of the Big O notation yet one algorithm is considerably faster than the other. Problem 6. Consider the working of Procedure No. Connectivity and Matching Problems Problem 6. 49 (see Fig.66. Describe an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a maximum matching of size 1 in this bipartite graph.9.8. 6. Problem 6.9. a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 15 s a2 10 4 8 16 -17 9 b2 t s a2 10 -17 8 16 4 9 b2 8 t ak bk ak bk a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 s a2 10 -4 8 16 17 9 b2 t s a2 10 -4 8 16 17 -9 b2 t ak bk ak bk Figure 6.66: We need to ﬁnd longest path from vertex s to t in the directed graphs shown here. Carefully derive the time complexity of Procedure No. Assume that we are given a complete balanced weighted bipartite graph with positive edge weights.

9. .The Matching Problem in Bipartite Graphs 357 Problem 6. Problem 6. Suppose we need to ﬁnd a best possible matching of size x in a given complete balanced weighted bipartite graph G of size k and x is much smaller than k. Suppose we need to ﬁnd a best possible matching for the ﬁrst x members of partite B in a given complete balanced weighted bipartite graph G. Problem 6. Discuss how you will solve this problem and carefully derive the time complexity of your algorithm in terms of x and k. 48 or 49 to solve this problem? How can you design a better algorithm to solve this problem? Discuss brieﬂy.14.9.16. Discuss if we can use Algorithm No.15. 48 or 49 to solve this problem? How can you design a better algorithm to solve this problem? Discuss brieﬂy.9. Discuss if we can use Algorithm No. Suppose we need to ﬁnd a best possible matching for the ﬁrst x members of partite A in a given complete balanced weighted bipartite graph G.

and also remind ourselves of some of the powerful techniques which will be useful in solving this problem. We also need to make sure that the maximum ﬂow is taking place at minimum cost. 1/8 2/8 2/8 a 2/0 b 1/4 3/5 8/2 1/0 2/0 a 1/4 6/9 1/4 1/5 3/5 b 8/2 1/0 1/2 2/0 s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 s 2/0 t c 1/9 d c 1/9 d The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem (Category 1) Maximum Flow (3 units) at Minimum Cost (8+5+4+2) Figure 6. We need to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow coming out of vertex s and being absorbed by vertex t.8. The maximum ﬂow at minimum cost is indicated by colored lines in the right diagram. We need to push a maximum ﬂow in this network graph (starting from vertex s and ending at vertex t) at minimum cost. A possible solution of this network graph is shown in the right diagram of the same ﬁgure. 6. It is interesting to note .8. we are pushing a maximum ﬂow of 3 units at a total cost of 19. We assume that the capacity as well cost per unit ﬂow through every edge is a positive integer.67: We show a directed graph D (left diagram) having two special vertices s and t. 6. it is indicated with each edge in the ﬁgure below.8 6.1 The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem Introduction We consider the Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost problem in a network graph as shown in Fig. The capacity/cost of an edge is shown along with each edge.358 Network Flows.2 Finding a Maximum Flow or Finding a Shortest Path? Before answering the above question it is important to revise the relevant prior knowledge. The problem is to eﬃciently ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in a given network graph.67. Connectivity and Matching Problems 6.

If we start minimizing the cost by ﬁnding shortest paths. We need to minimize the cost of (unit) ﬂow starting from vertex s and ending at vertex t. 6. So let us list down the general problem (once again) and its special cases: Category 1: Given a network ﬂow graph as shown in Fig. ﬁnding shortest paths without considering capacities will create complications. We need to maximize the ﬂow and we already know how to do it (but we should also remember our short comings and limitations).67 how can we ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost from a source vertex s to a sink vertex t? We assume that edge capacities are integers while per unit cost of ﬂow through any edge may be a real number. then how will we be able to tackle the problem of maximizing ﬂow? Diﬀerent edges have diﬀerent capacities. 2. Please note that this problem is equivalent to ﬁnding maximum edge-disjoint paths from vertex s to vertex t at minimum cost. Category 2: Given a network ﬂow graph as shown in Fig. Category 3: The network ﬂow graph is derived from a complete balanced and weighted bipartite graph. Here we add a source vertex s to the A partite .e. Before we solve this general problem we shall try to reﬂect what similar problems we have already solved and what are some of the special cases of this general problem which can be resolved using our prior knowledge? We shall then extend or modify specialized solutions to solve this general problem. 6. and this somehow looks like ﬁnding a shortest path from vertex s to t (we are aware of a number of simple and eﬃcient algorithms to solve shortest path problems). We know how to solve the above two problems in isolation but how to fulﬁll the two requirements simultaneously? If we start ﬁnding ﬂows without looking at costs then we may end up with a maximum ﬂow but at higher cost. i. It is certainly a very exciting mixture of two important problems.The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 359 that this challenging problem (which we call a Category 1 problem) has two requirements: 1. the sum of edge costs in all edge-disjoint (shortest) paths should be as small as possible.68 how can we ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost from a source vertex s to a sink vertex t? We assume that capacity of each edge is exactly 1 while per unit cost of ﬂow through any edge may be a real number.

68: A Category 2 problem is equivalent to ﬁnding maximum edgedisjoint paths at minimum cost as shown in the top diagram. A special case of this category is shown in the bottom diagram An i nt p r o er es t bl e i n g m t Reduced to . Connectivity and Matching Problems a 1/0 1/9 b 1/0 1/5 1/2 s 1/0 1/4 1/9 t 1/0 Equivalent to c 1/3 d The Problem of finding Max edge-disjoint paths at Min Cost Category 2 The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem Binary Costs a 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/0 1/1 b 1/0 1/1 1/0 1/1 s c 1/0 d Special case of Category 2 The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem When costs are binary Figure 6.360 Network Flows.

69 we were essentially solving the maximum ﬂow at maximum cost problem as shown in a network ﬂow graph in Fig.8. Both problems have their applications in graph theory and elsewhere. All edge capacities are 1. 6. We assume that the capacity of each edge is one in the network ﬂow graph. Here the problem is to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in the network ﬂow graph shown in the right diagram. 6. It is possible to recognize that ﬁnding maximum ﬂow (or maximum edge-disjoint paths) at minimum cost in the right diagram is equivalent to ﬁnding a minimum cost perfect matching in the bipartite graph shown in the left diagram.70.69: In a Category 3 problem a network ﬂow graph is derived from a weighted bipartite graph by inserting a source vertex and a sink vertex.69. 6. A related problem in a bipartite graph would be to ﬁnd a maximum cost perfect matching .that would require us to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow (or maximum edge-disjoint paths) at maximum cost. a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 a2 4 8 16 17 9 b2 s B a2 10 4 8 16 17 9 b2 t A 10 a3 b3 a3 b3 A Bipartite graph with a weight or cost on each edge. We need to recall our expertise of ﬁnding maximum cost perfect matching in a weighted bipartite graph discussed in earlier sections. Figure 6.The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 361 and a sink vertex t to the B partite as shown in Fig.3 Category 3 network ﬂow Problems We shall now try attacking these problems starting from Category 3. costs not shown are equal to 1 Category 3: The network flow graph is derived from a bipartite graph. Similarly while we were solving the minimum weighted perfect matching . A curious reader might have noticed that while solving the maximum cost perfect matching problem in the bipartite graph shown in Fig. All edge weights associated with source vertex s and sink vertex t are zero 6.

We have in fact solved the Category 3 network ﬂow problem without explicitly saying so as our primary objective was to ﬁnd a perfect matching of maximum (or minimum) cost. 6. 6.362 Network Flows. The algorithm terminates when it is no longer possible to ﬁnd a path from the source to the sink as shown in the bottom right diagram of Fig. Connectivity and Matching Problems a1 6 13 15 b1 a1 6 13 15 b1 a2 4 8 16 9 17 b2 s B a2 10 8 4 16 b2 t A 10 a3 17 9 b3 a3 b3 Maximum Weighted Perfect Matching in a Bipartite Graph Category 3: Maximum Flow at Maximum Cost Figure 6. problem in a bipartite graph we are essentially solving the minimum cost maximum ﬂow problem. As we shall show later this algorithm is powerful enough to handle Category 2 and 1 network ﬂow problems.71.69. 6. Maximum Flow at Maximum Cost in Category 3 problems Please recall Algorithm 47 which was designed to ﬁnd a maximum weighted matching in a complete bipartite graph. We reverse the direction of each edge in path P and also multiply weight of each edge in the path by minus 1. The step by step working of this algorithm is shown in Fig. The problem is how to recover maximum ﬂow at minimum cost from this (ﬁnal) graph F ? . It is slightly modiﬁed as shown below (Algorithm 52). What we essentially do here is to ﬁnd a longest path P from vertex s to vertex t in the given graph. We apply this algorithm to the network ﬂow graph shown in the right diagram of Fig.70: A maximum weighted perfect matching in bipartite graph (left diagram) corresponds to a maximum ﬂow at maximum cost in the right diagram.71. We then again ﬁnd a longest path from the source vertex to the sink vertex in the modiﬁed graph.

6. y) with a negative sign and go back to Step 2 The solution to this problem is again consistent to our earlier approach of deleting unused edges from the network ﬂow graph. We intend to solve the maximum ﬂow at minimum cost problem using multiple algorithms in order to provide a better insight to the problem and its possible solutions. Find a ﬂow of one unit through a longest path P (in terms of edge costs) from vertex s to t in F . y) Multiply the weight of edge (x. If you are successful in ﬁnding a ﬂow then keep a record of the path found otherwise exit with graph F as output. But in order to do that we need .The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 363 Algorithm 52: Find a Maximum Flow at maximum cost from vertex s to vertex t in a directed network graph D belonging to Category 3 input : Directed & Weighted graph D. Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost in Category 3 Problems The above algorithm can easily be adopted to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost or in other words maximum edge-disjoint paths at minimum cost in a Category 3 network ﬂow graph. output: Maximum Flow at minimum cost from s to t in D 1 2 3 4 5 Copy Graph D into F .72. and vertices s & t.4 Category 2 (and 1) network ﬂow Problems Here we shall consider Category 2 (and Category 1) network ﬂow problems. for each edge (x. We shall ﬁrst show that Algorithm 53 can be used solve these problems without any modiﬁcation.72. 6.8.70. The only change that we need to do is to replace longest path in line 2 of this algorithm by shortest path as shown in the following algorithm (Algorithm 53). 6. The unused edges in ﬁnal graph F are those which have positive weights as shown in Fig. By deleting these edges it is possible to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at maximum cost in a Category 3 problem as shown in Fig. One would like to compare this answer with the one obtained while ﬁnding a maximum weighted perfect matching in a bipartite graph shown in Fig. y) of path P in graph F do Reverse the direction of edge (x. 6.

6.364 Network Flows.69. Connectivity and Matching Problems Find a longest path from s to t a1 6 13 15 Reverse the edges of the longest path a1 6 13 15 b1 b1 s a2 10 4 8 16 17 9 b2 t s a2 10 4 8 16 9 -17 b2 t a3 b3 a3 b3 Find another longest path from s to t a1 6 13 15 Reverse the edges of the longest path a1 6 13 -15 b1 b1 s a2 10 4 8 16 -17 9 b2 t s a2 10 4 8 17 9 b2 -16 t a3 b3 a3 b3 Find another longest path from s to t a1 6 13 -15 Reverse the edges of the longest path a1 6 13 -15 b1 b1 s a2 8 10 4 b2 -16 t s a2 10 -8 4 b2 -16 t a3 17 9 b3 a3 17 9 b3 Final graph F: No more paths left from the source to the sink vertex Figure 6. The ﬁnal graph F is shown in the bottom right corner.71: The step by step working of Algorithm 52 is shown here on the network graph of Fig. . Please note that in this graph it is no longer possible to ﬁnd another path from the source vertex to the sink vertex.

output: Maximum Flow at minimum cost from source vertex s to sink vertex t in D 1 2 3 4 5 Copy Graph D into F . We can recover maximum ﬂow at maximum cost by removing edges with positive weights in this ﬁnal graph F .The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem a1 6 13 -15 365 a1 -15 b1 b1 s a2 10 -8 4 b2 -16 t Remove +ive edges from graph F s a2 -16 b2 t a3 17 9 -8 b3 a3 b3 Final graph F: No more paths left from the source to the sink vertex Maximum Flow at Maximum Cost in the apposite direction Re gra mov ph e +i F f ve rom ed gra ges i ph n D a1 15 b1 s a2 8 16 b2 t a3 b3 Maximum Flow at Maximum Cost in the normal direction Figure 6. y) of path P in graph F do Reverse the direction of edge (x. Find a ﬂow of one unit through a shortest path P (in terms of edge costs) from vertex s to t in F . for each edge (x.72: Final graph F taken from the last ﬁgure is shown in the top left diagram. y) Multiply the weight of edge (x. and vertices s & t. If you are successful in ﬁnding a ﬂow then keep a record of the path found otherwise exit with graph F as output. Algorithm 53: Find a Maximum Flow at minimum cost from vertex s to vertex t in a directed network graph D belonging to Category 3 input : Directed & Weighted graph D. y) with a negative sign and go back to Step 2 .

We are given a directed & weighted graph D. Negative Weight Cycles & Improvement in Cost of Flow We show a ﬂow of one unit in the network D shown in the top left diagram of Fig. If on the other hand there are no negative weight cycles then it is not possible to reduce the cost of existing ﬂow. Connectivity and Matching Problems to do some serious graph theoretic work in terms of claims and some hints for their proofs. We now reverse the direction of each edge in path P in graph F . Please note that this ﬂow of one unit is not taking place on a shortest path from vertex s to vertex t. The value of net weight in this cycle is -2. Claim 6. Now we claim that as directed graph D does not contain any negative weight cycle then graph F will also not contain any negative weight cycle. Now we claim that as directed graph D does not contain any negative edges then graph F will not contain any negative weight cycle.8. It contains a source vertex s and a sink vertex t. Claim 6. We ﬁnd a ﬂow of one unit from vertex s to vertex t. By redirecting the ﬂow in the negative weight cycle it is possible to reduce the cost of ﬂow by an amount exactly equal to 2 as shown in the bottom diagram of this ﬁgure. If there is a negative weight cycle in graph F with a net weight equal to -k (graph F is derived from a network graph D after reversing the edges in the direction of the ﬂow and multiplying the costs in . We then ﬁnd a negative weight cycle in this new graph F highlighted by orange color.8. We copy this graph in graph F . We also multiply the weight of each edge in path P by minus one in graph F . We also multiply the weight of each edge in path P by minus one in graph F . 6. Given a network ﬂow graph D.2. We are given a directed & weighted graph D with no negative weight cycles but it may contain negative weight edges.73. It contains a source vertex s and a sink vertex t. We now reverse the direction of each edge in path P in graph F .74. We ﬁnd a shortest path P from source vertex s to the sink vertex t in directed graph F . The graph D may contain cycles but it does not contain any negative weight edge.8. Such a scenario is shown in Fig. We copy this graph in graph F .1.3. We ﬁnd a shortest path P from source vertex s to the sink vertex t in directed graph F . We reverse the direction of the edges used by the ﬂow and multiply the cost of these edges by minus 1 as shown in graph F (see top right diagram). Claim 6. 6.366 Network Flows.

The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 367 2/8 a 2/0 b 1/0 2/0 1/4 3/5 8/2 2/8 a 3/5 6/9 1/0 1/4 b 1/0 8/2 s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 s t 1/0 c 1/9 d c 1/-9 d One edge-disjoint path or a flow of 1 unit in a Category 1 Problem An Improvement is possible as there is a negative cycle 2/8 Reverse the edges in the path shown earlier There is a negative cycle of value = -2 a 2/0 b 1/0 1/4 3/5 8/2 s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 c 1/9 d Cost can be improved by 2 units by redirecting the flow in the direction of negative cycle Figure 6. .73: We show a ﬂow of one unit in the network shown in the top left diagram. If there is a negative weight cycle (after reversing the edges in the direction of the ﬂow) then the cost of ﬂow can be further reduced.

368 Network Flows. we keep a record of the length of each such path and call these paths existing paths in D. If there is no negative weight cycle in graph F (derived from a network graph D after reversing the edges in the direction of the ﬂow and multiplying the costs in these edges by minus 1) then it is not possible to reduce the cost of the existing ﬂow by re-adjusting the ﬂow in any direction. . Connectivity and Matching Problems these edges by minus 1) then it is possible to reduce the cost of the existing ﬂow by k by re-adjusting the ﬂow in the direction of the negative cycle. Claim 6.8. We know the path taken by each unit of ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t in D.8.75. Claim 6. If (after reversing the edges in the direction of the ﬂow) there are no negative weight cycles then the cost of ﬂow can not be further reduced. 6.4. Given a graph D and a ﬁnite ﬂow taking place from vertex s to vertex t. Please see Fig. 2/8 2/8 a 2/0 b 1/0 1/4 3/5 8/2 1/0 1/0 a 6/9 1/-4 1/-5 2/5 b 8/2 1/0 s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 s 1/0 t 2/0 c 1/9 d c 1/9 d A flow of 2 units in a Category 1 Problem Reverse the edges in the paths shown earlier 2/8 1/0 1/0 2/8 a 6/9 1/-4 1/-5 2/5 b 8/2 1/0 1/0 1/0 a 1/-5 6/9 1/-4 2/5 b 8/2 1/0 s 1/0 t s 1/0 t 1/0 c 1/9 d The cycle is of net positive weight nt a me o r o v e i bl e f i t s 1/0 pr s n o Imis pos 2 u N t of s ow Co l i n xed f i f c 1/9 d The cycle is of net positive weight Figure 6. If there is no improvement possible in the cost of existing ﬂow then there will be no negative weight cycle in graph F (derived from a network graph D after reversing the edges in the direction of the ﬂow and multiplying the costs in these edges by minus 1).74: We show a ﬂow of two units in the network shown in the top left diagram.5.

75: We show two existing paths from s to t in graph D (top left diagram). . the green path has length equal to 5 Graph F: we have reversed the edges in the direction of the flow in graph D and have multiplied the edge costs by -1 If there are no improvement possible in existing flow in graph D then there will be no negative cycles in F Figure 6. The paths are reversed in graph F as shown in the top right diagram.The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 369 2/8 2/8 a 2/0 b 1/0 1/4 3/5 8/2 1/0 1/0 a 6/9 1/-4 1/-5 2/5 b 8/2 1/0 s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 s 1/0 t 2/0 c 1/9 d Convert c 1/9 d A flow of 2 units in graph D The red path has length equal to 4.

and vertices s & t.70.370 Network Flows. Reverse the edges in the path of every ﬂow. Problem 6.76. Our last three claims support the argument that the following algorithm would be able to correctly solve maximum ﬂow at minimum cost problem in Category 1 network ﬂow graphs. but it may give rise to another negative weight cycle. If you ﬁnd one then go to step 4 else output the maximum ﬂow at minimum cost and exit. First we ﬁnd maximum ﬂow. .1. output: Maximum Flow from s to t in D at Minimum Cost 1 2 3 4 Copy graph D into a graph F . We now describe an alternate algorithm (Algorithm 54) to ﬁnd a maximum ﬂow at minimum cost for Category 1 problems. multiply the costs corresponding to these edges with minus 1. If there are any negative weight cycles in the graph then we have to remove every negative weight cycle. now go to step 3. The process of ﬁnding maximum ﬂow at minimum cost may be accelerated if we some how ﬁnd a negative weight cycle of higher value and remove it as shown in Fig. Find if there is a negative weight cycle in graph F.10. multiply the cost of these edges with minus one. Find Maximum Flow from vertex s to t in F (ignoring costs). 6. we then reverse the edges in the direction of the ﬂow. Connectivity and Matching Problems Finding Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost In view of the above claims it is obvious that Algorithm 53 can be used to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in Category 2 as well as Category 1 network ﬂow problems. Algorithm 54: Find Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost from s to t in a directed graph D in a Category 1 problem input : Directed & Weighted graph D. 6. We have demonstrated the working of an algorithm (to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in Category 3 problems) in Fig. Remove the negative weight cycle by adjusting the ﬂow accordingly. It will be interesting to derive the time complexity of that algorithm for both these categories.10.77. The process is repeated until there are no more negative weight cycles left in the graph. the removal of a negative weight cycle will certainly reduce the cost of ﬂow by at least one unit. The step by step detailed working of the above algorithm on a Category 1 problem is shown in Fig. 6. Problem Set 6.

76: We show diﬀerent steps in ﬁnding maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in a Category 1 problem. We ﬁrst ﬁnd maximum ﬂow ignoring costs (cost comes out to be = 27).The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 371 2/8 2/ a 2/0 b 1/0 1/4 3/5 8/2 2/ a 6/ 1/ 3/ b 8/ 1/ s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 s 1/ t 2/ c 1/9 d c 1/ d Integer Capacity Integer Cost in graph D 2 2 2/ Forget the Costs in D for the time being 2 2/ a 6/ 1/ 3/ b 8/ 2 1/ 2/0 2/8 a 6/ 1/4 3/5 b 8/2 1/0 s 1/ t 2/ s 1/0 t 2/0 c 1/ d c 1/9 d Find the Max Flow in D 2 0/ 2 0/ Find the Cost of Max flow 2×8+2×1+9×1=27 2/-8 0/8 a 6/ 1/ 3/ b 7/ 0/ 0/0 a 1/4 6/9 3/5 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 s 0/ t 0/ s 0/0 t c 0/ d c 0/9 1/-9 d Reverse the Flow in graph F 2/-8 0/8 Reverse the Costs also in F 2/-8 0/8 0/0 a 1/4 3/5 6/9 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 0/0 a 3/5 6/9 1/4 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 s 0/0 t s 0/0 t c 1/-9 0/9 d c 1/-9 0/9 d There is a negative cost cycle of value = -8 in F There is a negative cost cycle of value = -6 in F Figure 6. . We then remove negative weight cycles and subsequently reduce cost.

372 2/-8 Network Flows. . A maximum ﬂow of 3 units can pushed in this network at an optimal cost of 8+4+5+2 = 19. The cost is thus reduced from 27 to 19 for the same amount of ﬂow.77: We show diﬀerent steps in ﬁnding maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in a Category 1 problem. Connectivity and Matching Problems 0/8 2/-8 0/8 0/0 a 3/5 6/9 1/4 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 0/0 a 3/5 6/9 1/4 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 s 0/0 t s 0/0 t c 1/-9 0/9 d c 1/-9 0/9 d There is a negative cost cycle of value = 6 in F 2/-8 0/8 Circulate a unit flow in the direction of the negative cycle and the cost will decrease by 6 1/-8 1/8 0/0 1/-2 0/0 0/0 0/0 a 3/5 6/9 1/4 b 7/2 a 0/4 6/9 1/-4 3/5 b 8/2 0/0 s 0/0 t s 0/0 t 0/0 c 1/-9 0/9 d c 0/9 1/-9 d Reverse the direction of the edges in the Cycle in graph F 1/-8 1/8 0/0 Make corresponding adjustments in graph F 1/-8 1/8 a 0/4 6/9 1/-4 3/5 b 8/2 0/0 0/0 a 0/4 6/9 1/-4 3/5 b 8/2 0/0 s 0/0 t 0/0 s 0/0 t 0/0 c 1/-9 0/9 d c 0/9 1/-9 d A newly formed negative cycle Circulate a unit flow in this cycle 1/-8 1/8 0/0 Reverse the direction of the edges in the Cycle in graph F 1/8 2/8 a 0/4 6/9 1/-4 1/-5 2/5 b 0/0 2/0 a 1/4 6/9 1/4 1/5 3/5 b 8/2 1/0 1/2 2/0 s 0/0 7/2 1/-2 0/0 t s 1/0 t c 1/9 d c 1/9 d Make adjustments in graph F Now No more Negative Cycles Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost (8+5+4+2) in the original Graph D Figure 6.

78: Removing a negative weight cycle of a relatively higher value may speed up the process of ﬁnding a maximum ﬂow at minimum cost. .The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 373 2/-8 0/8 2/-8 0/8 0/0 a 1/4 3/5 6/9 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 0/0 a 1/4 3/5 6/9 b 7/2 0/0 1/-2 0/0 s 0/0 t s 0/0 t c 1/-9 0/9 d c 1/-9 0/9 d There is a negative cost cycle of value = 8 in F Circulate a flow of 1 unit 1/-8 1/8 0/0 Reverse the direction of the edges in the cycle 1/8 2/8 a 0/4 6/9 1/-4 1/-5 2/5 b 0/0 2/0 a 1/4 6/9 1/4 1/5 3/5 b 8/2 1/0 1/2 2/0 s 0/0 7/2 1/-2 0/0 t s 2/0 t c d 1/9 c 1/9 d Make corresponding adjustments in graph F Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost in the original Graph G Figure 6.

374 Network Flows.79: We show diﬀerent steps in ﬁnding maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in a Category 2 problem by removing negative weight cycles. Please note that in this category all edge capacities are equal to one . Connectivity and Matching Problems a 1/0 1/2 b 1/0 1/8 a b 1/9 s 1/0 1/7 t 1/0 s t c d c 1/5 d Category 2 Category 2: Forget Capacities & ignore Costs a b 0 a 2 b 0 -8 -9 -7 s d t c s 0 t 0 c 5 d Find max edge-disjoint paths Reverse the edges in the paths and multiply edge costs in the paths by -1 a 0 2 b 0 0 a -2 b 0 -9 9 -8 s 0 -7 0 t s 0 8 7 0 t c 5 There are -ive cost cycles d 2 c -5 Reverse the edges in the cycles d a 0 Max Edge-Disjoint Paths at Min Cost b 0 8 9 7 s 0 t 0 c 5 d Figure 6.

. Carefully derive the time complexity of this algorithm. The capacity of every edge in the D − s − t graph is inﬁnite while the cost is a positive integer indicated in the diagram. Algorithm 54 can be used to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in Category 1 problems.80: We show a special network graph D. In this special category of graphs the sum of capacities of all edges coming out of s is equal to the sum of capacities of all edges going into vertex t.The Max-Flow Min-Cost Problem 375 Describe this algorithm (known as Algorithm 53) in your own words and carefully derive its time complexity. Is it possible to solve problems belonging to this category using Algorithm 53 even if the cost of a unit ﬂow in an edge is a real number? Discuss brieﬂy. You may design a better algorithm if you want and if you can? a 4/0 ∞/8 ∞/3 ∞/7 b 5/0 s 3/0 t d 2/0 c ∞/6 Figure 6. Discuss brieﬂy. Find if you can use any earlier techniques (Algorithm 53) to solve this interesting problem. The cost of every edge coming out of s and going into t is zero. The sum of capacities of all edges coming out of source s is exactly equal to the sum of capacities of edges going in sink t while the costs of these edges are zero.10. The step by step working of this algorithm is demonstrated in Fig.10. Is this possible to use this technique (without any appreciable change) to ﬁnd the minimum cost for a ﬁxed ﬂowthe amount of ﬁxed ﬂow may not be the maximum ﬂow in the network. Problem 6.2. 6.80. Problem 6. Here edge capacities in graph D − s − t are all inﬁnite.3.76. 6. We show an interesting special case of Category 4 in Fig. We need to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost using an eﬃcient algorithm.

In this category all edge capacities are equal to 1. 6. a1 1/0 1/7 b1 1/4 1/5 1/0 s 1/0 t b2 1/0 Source/sink edge costs are integers a1 1/3 1/7 b1 1/4 1/5 1/4 s 1/2 t b2 1/7 a2 1/3 a2 1/3 Equivalent Category 3 The Max flow Min-Cost Problem Category 3 The Max flow Min-Cost Problem Figure 6.72.376 Network Flows.8.78. . 6. this special case is shown in the bottom diagram of Fig.81: We show that a Category 3 problem (where edges adjacent to s and t have non-zero cost) is as diﬃcult (or as easy) to solve as a Category 3 problem where the s and t edges have zero costs (top diagram). On the other extreme Category 2 & 3 problems can be solved using very eﬃcient algorithms. Design a (very) eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in this special category. 6.72. Some of these problems were addressed in the last problem set. The bottom diagram shows an interesting variation of Category 3 problem where we need to minimize cost not for a maximum ﬂow but for a ﬁxed ﬂow in the network. We have not yet devised an exact algorithm to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow (even if we ignore costs) in such problems.5 A Panoramic Picture of Similar Problems & Solutions (once again) Please note that Category 1 problems are the most general. Describe an eﬃcient algorithm to handle Category 2 problems. In between these two extremes there is an exciting range of problems to be explored. 6. Because of its restricted nature. Connectivity and Matching Problems Problem 6. we expect to solve it using a simple and a very eﬃcient algorithm. thus maximum ﬂow here corresponds to maximum edge-disjoint paths as shown in Fig.4. Now consider a special case of this category where costs are expressed by binary numbers. We have applied Algorithm 54 to solve a Category 2 problem as shown in Fig.10. applying Algorithm 54 seems to be overkill.

Understanding of these transformations is a must for appreciating the new knowledge described here. how can we ﬁnd a maximum ﬂow from a source vertex to a sink vertex? The maximum ﬂow as well as the minimum cut is indicated in the graph shown below. maximum ﬂow at minimum cost. a ﬁnite upper .82: Left diagram shows a network ﬂow graph with upper bound on ﬂow in each edge. 6. a 3 4 c 2 3 3/3 a 4/1 c 2/1 s 1 3 t d 4 s 1/1 3/1 3/2 t d 4/4 b 1 b 1/1 Figure 6. We are given a network ﬂow graph with zero lower bound. It is interesting to note that this section relies on old concepts like network ﬂows. We start this section with the required prior knowledge which is essential to understand the theory and the practice described here.9.9 Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem We shall discuss the Circulation Problem and the related problems of ﬁnding feasible ﬂow in network ﬂow graphs. We shall also list down the speciﬁc problems that we shall address here. 2. These theorems as well as algorithms depend upon a number of powerful transformations. Given a network ﬂow graph with zero lower bound and a ﬁnite upper bound on ﬂow in each edge. etc. maximum ﬂow and minimum cut. The lower bound on ﬂow through every edge is zero. Please note that the ﬂow is conserved at every vertex except the source and the sink vertex.1 Prior knowledge: 1. The right diagram shows the maximum ﬂow and the minimum cut in the network shown in the left diagram. We shall introduce one new concept and that is of a Circulation Graph? We provide a systematic and step by step treatment of a number of theorems and algorithms.Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 377 6.

2/8 a 2/0 b 1/4 3/5 8/2 1/0 s 1/0 6/9 t 2/0 c 1/9 d Figure 6. Please note that the ﬂow is conserved at every vertex except the source and the sink vertex. Connectivity and Matching Problems bound on ﬂow in each edge. The lower bound on ﬂow through every edge is zero. 3.83: A network ﬂow graph with upper bound on ﬂow in each edge as well as per unit cost of ﬂow through that edge. With the above two problems solved we should also be able to solve a slightly diﬀerent problem in which we can ﬁnd in terms of yes or no if a ﬁxed ﬂow of k units can be pushed in a network ﬂow graph from a source vertex and taken back into a sink vertex from the network. The problem is to ﬁnd maximum ﬂow at minimum cost. 6. We are also given a cost per unit ﬂow in each edge of the network graph.that means the actual ﬂow entering a vertex is equal to the actual ﬂow coming out of it.9. In a network ﬂow graph. the source vertex has the capability to produce an inﬁnite ﬂow while the sink vertex has the capability to sink an inﬁnite ﬂow.2 New concepts In a network ﬂow graph we assume that there is a single source vertex and a single sink vertex.378 Network Flows. Every edge in a circulation graph may have a . Thus in a circulation graph there is no source and no sink vertex. and now we need to ﬁnd a maximum (or a ﬁxed) ﬂow at minimum cost from a source vertex to a sink vertex in the network. In a Circulation Graph the law of conservation of ﬂow should hold for every vertex. For example in the following network ﬂow graph the minimum cost of a ﬂow of one unit from the source to the sink vertex is 4. in contrast. For the rest of the vertices the law of conservation of ﬂow holds .

and perunit cost on ﬂow through that edge. 6. We need to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow in a network graph with a source and a sink vertex.9.84: A Circulation graph with lower as well as upper bound on ﬂow in each edge. Every edge has a lower bound as well as an upper bound on ﬂow (see diagram below).Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 379 nonzero lower bound and an upper bound on ﬂow through this edge. Please see the solution of the Circulation problem in the following diagram. Please note that if the lower bound on ﬂow in each edge is zero then a zero ﬂow will always be a feasible ﬂow from the source to the sink. 2.7 a 5 3.9 s 4. Every edge has an associated lower bound. We need to ﬁnd a minimum cost feasible ﬂow in a Circulation graph. the lower bound on ﬂow in . A feasible ﬂow in the graph is also indicated.7 b Figure 6. We need to know how to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow in a Circulation Graph where every edge has a lower bound as well as an upper bound on ﬂow. 3. For example a feasible ﬂow of 5 is possible in the circulation graph shown below. Please note that the ﬂow is conserved at every vertex without any exception. If. an upper bound. There may also be per-unit cost associated with each edge.3 New Problems 1. Usually this problem is known as the minimum cost Circulation Problem or the Circulation Problem. however. 2.5 t 5.

Please see the solution of this problem in the diagram below. We need to ﬁnd a maximum or a ﬁxed ﬂow at minimum cost in a network graph with a source and a sink vertex. A minimum cost feasible ﬂow is indicated in the right diagram. any edge is nonzero then ﬁnding a feasible ﬂow is not a trivial problem as the zero ﬂow is not a correct answer. . A feasible ﬂow in the circulation graph is indicated in the middle diagram. 4.380 Network Flows. and per unit cost on ﬂow through this edge. The cost of a unit ﬂow through every edge is equal to one in this graph. an upper bound. Please note that the ﬂow is conserved at every vertex without any exception.85: A Circulation graph (left diagram) with lower bound equal to 1 and upper bound equal to ﬁve on ﬂow in each edge. Connectivity and Matching Problems 2 a e d b 4 a 2 b e 3 3 a 2 b e 2 c d 3 c d 2 c Figure 6. Every edge has an associated lower bound.

an upper bound. Also note that the feasible ﬂow taking place may not be a maximum ﬂow (or a minimum ﬂow) from the source to the sink vertex. per unit cost on ﬂow.4.6/3 t Figure 6.2. Please note that the ﬂow is conserved at every vertex except the source and the sink vertex.9/2 2.5/5 3.15/1 s 2.4. .87: Left graph is a network ﬂow with a ﬂow of 4 units taking place from the source to the sink vertex.5/2 a 1. and actual ﬂow in each edge is indicated in the respective order. and actual ﬂow taking place in that edge. Each edge has an associated lower bound.8/2 z Figure 6.86: A network ﬂow graph with lower bound. upper bound.7/3 x 3. The right diagram shows the same amount of ﬂow .Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 381 w 1.6/4 y 2. 1.4/2 t 2.that is 4 units .3.15/2 1.6/2 t s 2.2.5/3 s 0. A ﬂow of 4 units is a feasible ﬂow but it is taking place at a higher cost in the left diagram.taking place at minimum cost.3.5/3 a 1.

Here all edges except one have a lower bound equal to zero. Connectivity and Matching Problems Before ﬁnding feasible ﬂow in a Network graph and in a Circulation graph we should again note that in a Circulation graph the ﬂow is conserved at every vertex while in a network ﬂow graph it is not conserved at the source as well as the sink vertex. Right graph is a circulation graph. We transform the left circulation graph into the right network ﬂow graph and then claim that a feasible ﬂow exists in the circulation graph if and only if we can push a speciﬁed ﬂow (equal to 2 in this case) from the source vertex x and pull the same amount of ﬂow from vertex y in the network ﬂow graph.2 a 2 0. Obviously a feasible ﬂow does not exist in this example because of obvious reasons. It will be interesting to formally prove this claim. .1 s 0.2 a No Feasible Flow 0. 2.88: Left graph is a network ﬂow graph with a source and sink vertex.5 t 0. The edge (s.382 Network Flows. a) has a lower bound equal to the upper bound on ﬂow and they are both equal to 2.9.4 Finding a feasible ﬂow in a Circulation graph with one special edge Consider the graph shown in the left diagram. here a feasible ﬂow does not exist because of obvious reasons.1 b Figure 6. Thus it may be possible that a feasible ﬂow does not exist in a Circulation graph (see the right diagram) while a feasible ﬂow exists in the same graph having a source and sink vertex as shown below in the left diagram. here a feasible ﬂow exists.9 s 0. 6.5 t b 0 0.9 2.

6.9.89: Left graph is a Circulation graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge.9 s 0.90).2 a 0. 6. The edge (s. Here the source vertex x is trying to push a ﬂow of 2 units in the network graph while the sink vertex y is trying to pull 2 units from the network graph.5 Finding a feasible ﬂow in a network ﬂow graph with one special edge Consider the network ﬂow graph shown in the left diagram with a designated source and a sink vertex (Fig.1 t b 0. Please note that except for one edge all edges have lower bounds equal to zero. The Circulation graph is converted into a network ﬂow graph shown in the right diagram.9 y 2 a s 0. We claim that a feasible ﬂow exists in the network ﬂow graph (left diagram) if and only if a feasible ﬂow exists in the circulation graph shown in the middle. It will be interesting to formally prove this claim.1 Figure 6.5 0. a) has a lower bound equal to upper bound equal to 2. .91. 6. Once this relationship is established then we can use earlier results to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow provided it exists as shown in Fig.Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 383 x 2 2.5 t b 0. We transform this network ﬂow graph into a circulation graph as shown in the middle diagram.

1 0.5 t b 0.5 t b 0. We ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow in the Circulation graph and then convert it into a feasible ﬂow in the original network ﬂow graph shown in the bottom diagram.∞ b 0.1 2.∞ b 0.90: Left diagram is a network ﬂow graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge.384 Network Flows.1 t Figure 6.1 Figure 6.9 s 0. First it is converted into a Circulation graph (top right diagram).2 a 0.9 y t 2 a s 0.1 t b 0.9 2.2 a 0. .1 0.5 2 b 0.1 s 0.5 0.2 a 0.9 s 0 0.1 0. First it is converted into a Circulation graph (middle diagram) and then we ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow in the circulation graph.9 s 0.9 y t 2 a s 0.2 a 2 0. Connectivity and Matching Problems x 2 2. x 2 2.∞ 0.91: Top left diagram is a network ﬂow graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge.

9 a 0.9 0. a) has a lower bound equal to 2 and an upper bound equal to 7.Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 385 6.7 t b 0.7 x 2.but now the upper bound is higher than a non zero lower bound on ﬂow through this edge.5 t b 0. We transform this circulation graph (left diagram) into another circulation graph shown in the middle diagram and claim that a feasible ﬂow in the left circulation graph exists if and only if a feasible ﬂow exists in the middle circulation graph.5 a 0.9 s 0.7 s 0. Here the source vertex x is trying to push a ﬂow of 2 units in the network graph while the sink vertex y is trying to pull 2 units from the network graph. It will be interesting to formally prove this claim.92: Left graph is a Circulation graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge. The edge (s. 2 2.7 s 0. Please note that except for one edge all edges have lower bounds equal to zero.2 0.5 2 b 0. .6 When upper bound is higher than a non zero lower bound We again consider a circulation graph (shown in the left diagram) where every edge has a lower bound equal to zero except for one special edge .5 y a 0. 6.9.9 2.7 t Figure 6. This edge is split into two edges as shown in the middle graph.92. Once this relationship is established then we can use earlier results to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow provided it exists as shown in Fig. The Circulation graph is converted into a network ﬂow graph shown in the right diagram.5 2 b 0.7 a 0.5 t s 0.

386 Network Flows.5 t b 5.2 4 5 x 2 3 2 1 x Figure 6. The Circulation graph is converted into a network ﬂow graph shown in the middle diagram. Connectivity and Matching Problems Finding feasible ﬂow in a general Circulation graph? Here we consider a circulation graph where each edge may have a nonzero lower bound and a diﬀerent upper bound on ﬂow through this edge.2 s 0. Here the source vertex x is trying to push a ﬂow of number of units in the network graph while the sink vertex y is trying to pull the same amount of units from the network graph.7 s 0.5 s 4.6 2 a 3.93: Left graph is a Circulation graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge.1 t b 0.7 y 5 0. y 2 2.1 t b 0.5 3 a 4 0. We claim that a feasible ﬂow in the circulation graph exists if and only if we can push a speciﬁed amount of ﬂow from vertex x in the middle or the right diagram.6 1 a 0.9 0. The middle network ﬂow diagram is in turn transformed into another simpliﬁed network ﬂow diagram shown in the right diagram. Using earlier transformations we convert the circulation graph shown in the left diagram into a network ﬂow graph shown in the middle diagram. .

1/1 0.7 387 2 2.in this example it is equal to 1.5 t b 5+0 5. How to solve the minimum cost Circulation Problem? Consider the following circulation problem where the lower bound for each edge is 1 while the upper bound on ﬂow through each edge is 3. The middle diagram shows an intermediate stage.7 s 0.6/2 a 2+3 3. .9 3+2 s 4. This is per unit ﬂow cost for each edge .Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem y 1 2.2/0 t b s 4+1 4. In addition to lower and upper bounds we have a cost associated with each edge.7 2 1 x Figure 6.5 t b 5.7 a 3.5/3 0.9 a 0. We need to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow of minimum cost in this circulation. The right diagram shows a feasible ﬂow in the circulation graph.94: Left graph is a Circulation graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge.

Here the source vertex x is trying to push a ﬂow of 2 units in the network graph while the sink vertex y is trying to pull the same amount of units from the network graph.96. But we know that this feasible ﬂow may not be the minimum cost feasible ﬂow.388 Network Flows. We try to push 2 units of ﬂow from vertex x.95: The left diagram is a Circulation graph with associated lower bound and upper bound on ﬂow in each edge. 6. If we just want to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow (not the minimum cost feasible ﬂow) then we know what to do? We convert the circulation (left diagram) into a network ﬂow graph as shown in the right diagram. . The Circulation graph is converted into a network ﬂow graph shown in the right diagram. Such a feasible ﬂow is shown in the left diagram of Fig. Connectivity and Matching Problems x Find a Feasible Flow 1 1 Push 2 units of Flow -1 +1 -1 +1 1 Upper Bound is 3 while Lower bound is 1 Upper Bound is 2 while Lower bound is 0 for black edges 1 y Figure 6. The cost of per-unit ﬂow through each edge is equal to 1. If we are successful then it means that a feasible ﬂow exists in the circulation.

. 6. we should push 2 units of ﬂow from vertex x at a minimum cost as shown in the right diagram of Fig.96: The left diagram shows that it is possible to push 2 units of ﬂow from the source vertex x at some cost.96. This provides us a solution to the (minimum cost) Circulation Problem. The right diagram shows that it is possible to push the same amount of ﬂow from vertex x at a lower cost in fact at a minimum cost.95.Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 389 x 1 1 Push 2 units of Flow at any Cost x 1 1 Push 2 units of Flow at Minimum Cost -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 1 Upper Bound is 2 while Lower bound is 0 for black edges 1 Upper Bound is 2 while Lower bound is 0 for black edges 1 +1 1 y y Figure 6. 6. In order to ﬁnd a feasible ﬂow at minimum cost in the circulation graph of Fig. 6.97. This ﬂow of 2 units at minimum cost is then translated into a feasible ﬂow at minimum cost as shown in the right diagram of Fig.

97: The left diagram shows the source vertex x pushing two units of ﬂow at minimum cost. Connectivity and Matching Problems x 1 1 Push 2 units of Flow at Minimum Cost Minimum Cost Feasible Flow -1 +1 -1 +1 1 Upper Bound is 2 while Lower bound is 0 for black edges 1 y Upper Bound is 3 while Lower bound is 1 Figure 6. We call this Problem 1. Here the ﬂow in each edge is 1 except for the red bold edges where the ﬂow is 2 units.390 Network Flows.7 How to solve the Circulation Problem for undirected graphs? We need to ﬁnd a (or size of) maximum cut in an undirected network ﬂow graph having vertices s and t. We know that minimum ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t is equal to max cut in a network . 6. Our Strategy of Solving the Circulation & other related problems Our strategy of solving the Circulation and other related problems are summarized in the following four ﬁgures which are self explainatory.9. The cut should separate vertex s from vertex t. The right diagram shows the resulting solution of the minimum cost Circulation Problem. But we know that this problem is a hard problem? Assume that we need to ﬁnd minimum ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t in a network ﬂow graph which is un-directed. We call this Problem 2.

98: Finding a feasible ﬂow in a Circulation with non zero lower bounds. Find Feasible Flow at Min Cost Circulation Problem? (non zero lower bounds) Network Flow at Min Cost (Zero lower bounds) Figure 6.100: Finding feasible ﬂow in a network with non zero lower bounds.99: Finding a minimum cost feasible ﬂow in a Circulation. Find Feasible Flow Network Flow Problem? (non zero lower bounds) Find Feasible Flow Circulation Problem? (non zero lower bounds) Network Flow Problem (Zero lower bounds) Figure 6. .Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 391 Find Feasible Flow Circulation Problem? (non zero lower bounds) Network Flow Problem (Zero lower bounds) Figure 6.

3 s 0.6 0.3 w t 2.9 2.5 1. . The minimum ﬂow is 5 and thus the max cut will also have same size.but instead a negative result.4 s 0.9 2.392 Network Flows. The top ﬁgure shows that if we need to ﬁnd max cut in this directed graph (Problem 1) then we should ﬁnd the min ﬂow from vertex s to vertex t (Problem 2).8 z Find Maximum Flow at Minimum Cost The Circulation Problem Figure 6.4 t 2.7 x 3.8 z y 2.101: The network ﬂow problem is ﬁrst converted into a circulation problem.∞ y 2.3 1.that will give us a minimum ﬂow from s to t in the network ﬂow graph as shown below. Thus we moved in the following fashion to ﬁnd the max cut in a network ﬂow graph? In case of un-directed graphs we have the same sort of strategy .5 1.7 x 3.3 5. In order to ﬁnd minimum ﬂow we need to make it a circulation as shown above and then ﬁnd a minimum cost circulation (Problem 3) in this graph . Connectivity and Matching Problems ﬂow graph? Suppose we can solve the circulation problem (Problem 3) at minimum cost in an un-directed graph? Then we can use the solution of Problem 3 in order to solve Problem 2? We can then use this solution to ﬁnd a solution to Problem 1? w 1.6 5.

102: Finding minimum ﬂow at minimum cost in a network ﬂow problem. The maximum cut can now be found.8/4 z Figure 6.3/2 x 3.3/3 1.5/3 s 0. It essentially means that we cannot ﬁnd a minimum cost circulation in an un-directed graph while we can solve this problem in a directed graph? .4/2 t 2.6/2 y 2.Network ﬂows with lower & upper bounds on ﬂow and the Circulation Problem 393 5.7/5 w 1.9/2 2.103: Solving one problem solves another. Solve Problem 3 Solve Problem 2 Solve Problem 1 Figure 6.

394 Network Flows. Connectivity and Matching Problems .

4 7.2 7.5 A Special Class of Graphs Eulerian Circuits and Graphs Eulerian Trails and Related Problems Eulerian Walk and the Chinese Postman Problem The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs .3 7.Chapter 7 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem 7.1 7.

If you are successful in ﬁnding a path then keep a record of this path otherwise exit the algorithm. and vertices s & t. Thus we start with a panoramic picture. the in-degree is equal . Eulerian graphs belong to one of these categories which we discuss in detail. Remove all edges in the path P and go to step 1. for the rest of the vertices of D. We end this chapter with a detailed study of the Chinese Postman problem for both directed as well as un-directed graphs. Exploiting our prior knowledge about this category we deﬁne a number of new categories of graphs which are to some extent similar and at the same time diﬀerent from it.396 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem Introduction We shall start with a special category of graphs which was earlier discovered in the last chapter. Algorithm 55: Find Maximum edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D input : Directed graph D. Consider the directed graph D shown in Fig. for a directed graph we shall assume that the underlying un-directed graph is connected. We come back to our categories of graphs and look at these in the light of our newly acquired experience about Eulerian graphs. and then come back to the panoramic picture with new tools and techniques. We have claimed earlier that there is a class of graphs where even an unintelligent algorithm (like Algorithm 36) can eﬃciently ﬁnd the maximum edge-disjoint paths. 7.1 A Special Class of Graphs We have studied the problem of ﬁnding maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from a source vertex to a sink vertex in a graph in the last chapter. We make a number of inter-related claims about such graphs and then show how the proof of one claim can lead to the proof of another. We shall study this and similar classes of graphs in detail in this chapter. We shall consider connected un-directed graphs. output: (Maximum) edge-disjoint paths from s to t in D 1 2 Find a directed path P from vertex s to vertex t in D. 7. Please recall Algorithm 36 which is again reproduced below. move in depth with one category.1) In this graph vertex a is a source vertex having only out-degree while the vertex d is a sink vertex having only in-degree.

3.2. There is. the in-degree of every vertex is equal to the corresponding out-degree. Every edge of the graph is covered by one of the edge-disjoint trails (or paths) from the source vertex to the sink vertex. We also assume that vertex a has an out-degree larger than the in-degree. All directed graphs fulﬁlling the above properties are known as Class A graphs. Please note that each edge of this graph is covered either by the trail or by the path as shown in this diagram. however. etc) in order to execute the ﬁrst step of this algorithm. How is the class B diﬀerent from class A and in what respect they are similar? Try to answer this question before moving forward. The maximum (number of) edge-disjoint paths in the directed graph D are shown in the left diagram of Fig. The maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from the source vertex to the sink vertex can be found by Algorithm 55. For the rest of the vertices in D the in-degree is equal to the respective out-degree. Depth First Search. while the vertex d has an in-degree larger than the out-degree. We can use Algorithm 55 to ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from vertex a to d in this graph (there is no need to use the more sophisticated Algorithm 37).A Special Class of Graphs 397 to the corresponding out-degree. Let us now deﬁne a Class B category of graphs: In this category of directed graphs we again have two special nodes a and d. Again we shall discuss the proofs later. The right diagram shows the same graph with one trail and one path from vertex a to vertex d in the given graph. Class . an important diﬀerence this time: Vertex a has an out-degree but also an indegree while the vertex d has an in-degree but also an out-degree. In fact all class A directed graphs possesses the following properties: 1. In this special class of graphs the in-degree of vertex d is always equal to the out-degree of vertex a (why?). 7. Class C deals with directed graphs in which there are no special vertices. Please note that we can use any traversal algorithm (Breadth First Search. We shall prove these properties later in this chapter. 2. Thus the vertex a resembles a source vertex while vertex d resembles a sink vertex. The maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from the source vertex to the sink vertex is equal to the out-degree of the source vertex or the in-degree of the sink vertex.

We can ﬁnd maximum edge-disjoint paths from vertex a to d in this class of directed graphs using Algorithm 55.1: A directed graph D with two special nodes a and d.398 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem z e f y d a b x c Figure 7. . The indegree is equal to the out-degree for every node in this graph except a and d.

There are two edge-disjoint trails in this graph such that each edge of the graph is covered exactly once by either of the two trails as shown in the right diagram. Concept Map 7. A concept map showing various classes of some special graphs.1. For every other node in this graph the in-degree is equal to the corresponding out-degree. .A Special Class of Graphs z 399 z e f y d e f y d a b x c a b x c Figure 7. There are two edgedisjoint paths from vertex a to vertex d in the graph D as shown in the left diagram.2: We show a directed graph of Class A: Vertex a has only outdegree while vertex d has only in-degree.

One such property is shown in Fig. We shall now make a number of simple claims and it is quite possible for you to prove them yourself: . We can also ﬁnd trails in this graph such that each edge of this graph is covered exactly once by one of the trails? We show a Class C directed graph in the left diagram of Fig.400 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem C may also include un-directed graphs where the degree of every vertex is even. How other properties of a graph change (or do not change) after such a transformation is interesting to explore. Class E deals with un-directed graphs where the degree of every vertex is even except for two special vertices a and d where the degree is an odd number. the in-degree is equal to the corresponding out-degree.3. 7. If however we remove (all edges in) a path from any vertex x to a vertex y in a Class C graph then the new graph will not be a Class C graph any more. it will become a Class A or Class B graph. 7.4. Both the graphs shown in this diagram can be partitioned into edge disjoint cycles (or circuits) shown in diﬀerent colors. the rest of the p − 2k vertices have an even degree.4. Remember the number of vertices having odd degree in a graph can not be odd (why?). There is no special vertex in this graph. the two paths are shown in Fig. the out-degree of vertex x is 1 while its in-degree is equal to 3. the in-degree of every vertex is equal to the corresponding out-degree. Class F deals with a more general category of un-directed graphs in which every graph G (having p vertices) have 2k nodes with an odd degree. The out-degree of vertex f is 3 while the in-degree is equal to 1. 7. if we now remove edges of this cycle from the original graph then the new graph will also belong to the same class (why?). We can use any traversal algorithm to ﬁnd a cycle in such graphs. We can use Algorithm 55 to ﬁnd the two edge-disjoint paths from vertex f to vertex x in D. As you should discover yourself Class C directed and un-directed graphs have some special and exciting properties.3. It is interesting to note that a directed graph (where the in-degree of each node is equal to the corresponding outdegree) belongs to the same class as an un-directed graph where the degree of each vertex is even (why?). for the rest of the nodes. An un-directed graph belonging to the same category is shown in the left diagram of this ﬁgure. We show a Class B directed graph in Fig. The degree of each node in this un-directed graph is even. Similarly if we add a path between vertex a and d (these are the only two vertices having an odd degree) in a Class E graph then it will be transformed into a Class C category. 7.

For every other node in this graph the in-degree is equal to the corresponding out-degree. .3: A directed graph of Class B: The out-degree of node f is larger than the in-degree while the in-degree of x is larger than its out-degree.A Special Class of Graphs 401 Figure 7.

2 Eulerian Circuits and Graphs A graph G is Eulerian provided it contains an Eulerian circuit. What are necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a (connected) graph to be cyclic? 2. What about if each vertex in a graph have a degree at least equal to two? Remember we are considering connected graphs only as mentioned earlier in this section. The edge set of these graphs can be partitioned into edge-disjoint cycles (shown by diﬀerent colors) which if combined together will create a circuit consisting of all edges of the graph. Can we make the above claim if the degree of every vertex is even? 5. Can we claim that in such a graph every vertex will lie on some cycle? 4. a circuit which contains every edge of G.402 z Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem z e f y d e f y d a b x c a b x c Figure 7. Try to visualize such a graph. 7. please remember that in a circuit it is possible to visit a vertex several times but we are allowed to traverse an edge only once. What can you say about other properties of this special graph? 3. Let us consider a special case of Class C graphs where the degree of each vertex is not only even it is exactly two. 1. An un-directed graph where the degree of each vertex is even is shown in the right diagram. . Both these graphs belong to our Class C category.4: Every node in the directed graph has an in-degree equal to the corresponding out-degree as shown in the left diagram.

If this circuit is a cycle then the proof is complete otherwise it will consist of several cycles. then we should be able to prove that the degree of each vertex of G is even (you should be able to do it easily). A graph G is Eulerian if and only if the edge set of G can be decomposed into edge-disjoint cycles. If the graph is Eulerian then there will be an Eulerian Circuit inside that graph as shown in left diagram of Fig. so the graph will be Eulerian. Thus the cycles forming the Eulerian circuit will be edge-disjoint as shown in the left diagram of Fig. Let us do it now. The degree of each vertex in a graph G is even if and only if the edge set of G can be decomposed into edge-disjoint cycles. Assume that a graph G can be decomposed into edge-disjoint cycles. 2. We shall start with proving Claim Number 4 and then work backwards in order to prove earlier claims. A graph G is Eulerian if and only if the degree of each vertex is even. Remember in a circuit a vertex may be repeated but an edge can not be repeated. 4.5. This part of the proof is done and let us attempt the other part: if a graph is Eulerian then (we shall be able to prove that) it can be partitioned into edge-disjoint cycles. If the edge set of a graph can be partitioned into edge-disjoint cycles then we can always combine these cycles to create a circuit which will cover every edge of the graph exactly once. A graph G is Eulerian if and only if every edge of G lies on an odd number of cycles. As the degree of each vertex in G is even thus we can ﬁnd a cycle C in G using any traversal algorithm. Let us now tackle Claim Number 3. If we remove all edges belonging to C from G then in the resulting graph the degree of each vertex will again be even (why?) but this new graph will have fewer edges as compared to the original graph G. 3. So we assume that the degree of each vertex is even and now we should be able to prove that the graph G can be decomposed into edge-disjoint cycles. 7. 7.Eulerian Circuits and Graphs 403 Now we make a number of claims (it will become evident from these claims that an Eulerian graph belongs to our Class C category): 1.5. It is possible to build logic on this observation in order to design a formal proof. .

5: An Eulerian graph containing an Eulerian circuit is shown in the left diagram. 7. Now assume that the graph G is Eulerian. Please remember that in a trail we may repeat vertices but we can not repeat edges while in a path neither vertices nor edges can be repeated. We start from a (in Fig.6. The circuit can be decomposed into edge-disjoint cycles as shown in the right diagram.404 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem z z e f y d e f y d a b x c a b x c Figure 7. This may not be very obvious so we shall prove this after ﬁrst ﬁnding the number of distinct trails between the two vertices. It means that the degree of node a as well as that of b will be even. thus G will be an Eulerian graph. . in fact there will always an odd number of ways out (why?).6) and arrive at the adjacent vertex e. as the degree of every vertex in G is even so if you can enter a vertex then you can leave it also. Proving that edge ab will be part of an odd number of cycles is equivalent to proving that there are an odd number of paths between vertex a and vertex b (why?). First assume that every edge ab in graph G is part of an odd number of cycles. In Claim Number 3 we have proved that a graph G is Eulerian if and only if the edge set of G can be decomposed into edge-disjoint cycles. we have to prove that every edge ab in G will be part of an odd number of cycles as shown in Fig. 7. We have earlier proved in Claim Number 4 that a graph can be partitioned into edge-disjoint cycles if and only if the degree of each vertex in the graph is even. Combining the two we can prove that a Graph is Eulerian if and only if the degree of each node in the graph is even. Let us now concentrate on Claim Number 1. As the graph G is Eulerian thus the degree of each node will be even. thus the degree of node a as well as that of node b will be even. Proving that there is an odd number of paths between vertex a and vertex b is in fact equivalent to proving that there is an odd number of trails from vertex a to vertex b.

Consider vertex a which is adjacent to vertex b in this graph. Please note that if there is a counter clockwise cycle from vertex f to vertex y to vertex z and back to f then there is clockwise cycle from vertex f to z to y and back to vertex f .6: An Eulerian graph is shown.Eulerian Circuits and Graphs 405 Figure 7. . We intend to prove that the edge ab is part of an odd number of cycles in this graph.

We show here (middle diagram) all possible trails starting from vertex a and ending at vertex b.406 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem z z e f y d e a b z f x c f y d a y d a b z x c e e f z b y e f y d a b x c a b x c y b z x b x f b f b d c b d c b b c x b d x b c x b d x b z e f y d a b x c Figure 7. We show all possible paths between vertex a and vertex b in the bottom diagram. .6. 7.7: Consider the Eulerian graph shown in Fig.

There are a number of algorithmic issues apart from the above (theoretical) claims and their respective proofs: 1.Eulerian Circuits and Graphs 407 This means that if you draw a tree of all possible trails then the out-degree of every node in this tree will be an odd number as shown in Fig.6 will be equal to the number of leaf vertices in the tree of Fig. 7. How can you generalize the four claims that we have made for multigraphs. How can you eﬃciently ﬁnd edge-disjoint cycles in an Eulerian graph? There are a number exciting theoretical problems which you should attempt before moving forward: 1. in multi-graphs we allow parallel edges and self loops? (Hint: Can you convert a multi-graph into a simple graph?) 2.7 which will be an odd number (why?).7. 7. 7. Every cycle in the graph contributes to two trails as shown in Fig. The total number of trails in the graph of Fig.7. How can you generalize (or modify) the four claims in case of directed graphs? . How can you eﬃciently ﬁnd an Eulerian circuit in an Eulerian graph? 3. 7. Thus the total number of paths between vertex a and vertex b will be an odd number (why?). 7. How can you eﬃciently check if a graph G is Eulerian using diﬀerent (necessary & suﬃcient) conditions for a graph to be Eulerian? 2.6 and Fig.

6. Problem 7. Problem 7. Please read the following algorithm which is primarily designed to ﬁnd edge-disjoint cycles in a graph G where the degree of every vertex is even. Problem 7. Algorithm 56: Find Cycles in an un-directed graph G where degree of every vertex is even input : Un-directed graph G where degree of every vertex is even output: Edge-disjoint cycles in graph G 1 2 Find a Cycle C in graph G. Some one claims that the algorithm outputs maximal number of edge-disjoint cycles in a graph G. How the solution of earlier problems will change or not change? . Some one claims that the algorithm outputs maximum number of edge-disjoint cycles in a graph G.1.4. Problem 7. How the algorithm would behave in this type of graph? What will be the output of the algorithm? How the output will be diﬀerent in this case? Discuss brieﬂy. Apply the above algorithm on the graph G as shown in Fig. Problem 7.1. 7. and specify each cycle outputted by the algorithm. Assume that we apply the above algorithm to graph H which is diﬀerent from graph G (in what respect?).2. Some one claims that the algorithm outputs edge disjoint cycles? Discuss why or why not.1.8. It will be useful to design the following algorithms for an un-directed graph G.3. Prove or give counter example. Show or give counter example.1. Problem 7.1.7. How about if we have a directed graph in which the indegree of every vertex is equal to its out-degree. and keep a record of it.1.1.408 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem Problem Set 7.5. Remove all edges in the Cycle C from graph G. If some edges are still left in G then go to step 1 otherwise exit.1.1. Problem 7.

Eulerian Circuits and Graphs 409 e f y e f y a Graph G b x a b Graph H x c c Figure 7.8: .

We can use Algorithm 56 to ﬁnd out eﬃciently one such set of edge-disjoint cycles. Several sets of edge-disjoint cycles are shown here.9: A graph (with every vertex having even degree) can be split up into edge-disjoint cycles. . Note that every edge is part of an edge-disjoint cycle.410 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem e f y a b x e f y c e f y a b x a b x c e f y e c f y a b x a b x c c Figure 7. some having a larger size than others.

10: We have seen that if the degree of every vertex is even then the graph can be split into edge-disjoint cycles again shown in the top diagram. There will be an Eulerian circuit in the reconstructed graph. .Eulerian Circuits and Graphs 411 b x e f e f f y c f a y b a b b x x x c e f y a b x c Figure 7. On the other hand if a graph can be split into edge-disjoint cycles or if the edge-disjoint cycles of a graph are given then we can reconstruct the original graph as shown in the middle diagram. The original graph will have all nodes with even degree? The reconstruction algorithm will help you reconcile with this claim.

These graphs are reproduced in Fig. Such a graph is shown in the left diagram of Fig.11.11. 7.3. How can we prove this and how can we ﬁnd an Eulerian trail? Perhaps we can ﬁnd a constructive proof which will solve both the problems.2 and 7. 7. 7. Its counter part in directed graphs is shown in the right diagram of Fig.412 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem Algorithm 57: Find graph G given a set of edge-disjoint cycles of G input : Edge-disjoint cycles in an unknown graph G output: Un-directed graph G (degree of every vertex in G will be even) Algorithm 58: Find an Eulerian circuit in graph G given a set of edge-disjoint cycles of G input : Edge-disjoint cycles in an unknown graph G output: An Eulerian circuit in G 7. a trail in which every edge of the graph is covered (exactly once). for the rest of the vertices the in-degree is equal to the corresponding out-degree. 7.12 for comparison Algorithm 59: Find a set of edge-disjoint cycles of G given an Eulerian circuit in a graph G input : An Eulerian circuit in G output: Edge-disjoint cycles in an unknown graph G . here the outdegree of one special vertex is larger than its in-degree by one.3 Eulerian Trails and Related Problems Let us now consider Class E un-directed graphs where the degree of every vertex is even except for two special vertices f and x where the degree is an odd number (will the degree of the two odd vertices be the same? Why?). Again we should appreciate that we can use Algorithm 55 to ﬁnd maximum number of edge-disjoint paths from a source to a sink vertex? We have earlier presented a Class B and a Class A category directed graphs in Fig. while it is the other way round for the other special vertex. In both these graphs it is possible to ﬁnd an Eulerian trail from vertex f to vertex x.

z z e f y d e f y d a b x c a b x c Figure 7.13. the in-degree is equal to the out-degree for every node in this graph except f and x. the rest of the p − 2k vertices have an even degree. Such a graph is shown in the left diagram of Fig.13. This observation should lead you to design a formal proof for the above claim. this is a Class E un-directed graph. 7. We have made certain claims about Class A graphs earlier in this chapter. 7. A directed graph D with two special nodes f and x is shown in the right diagram. the out-degree of vertex f is one larger than its in-degree and it is the other way round for vertex x in this directed graph. This class comprises of un-directed graphs having 2k nodes with an odd degree.Eulerian Trails and Related Problems 413 with graphs in Fig.11.11: An un-directed graph shown in the left diagram. It will then become possible to ﬁnd an Eulerian circuit in the resulting graph which is also shown in the right diagram of Fig. The right diagram shows the same graph where we add an extra edge between two odd vertices converting this graph into a Class C category where the degree of each vertex is even. 7. with odd vertices shown in bold. The claim for such a graph G is that the edge set of G can be partitioned into k trails where each trail is connecting two odd vertices. . These claims can be generalized with some interesting modiﬁcations for Class B directed graphs and then proved using our newly acquired experience of Eulerian Graphs? We now present one last claim which is applicable to Class F un-directed graphs. the degree of vertex f and x is odd while the degree of every other vertex is even.

This problem is formally deﬁned as the Chinese Postman Problem: We need to ﬁnd a shortest closed walk in a graph G which passes through every edge of G at least once. it is the other way round for vertex x. the out degree of vertex f is three while its in-degree is 1. vertex a has only out-degree while vertex d has only in-degree. he would certainly like to traverse each lane at least once while making sure that the traversals of the same lane should be minimized. in a weighted graph.4 Eulerian Walk and the Chinese Postman Problem We know that if the degree of every vertex is even in an un-directed graph G then we can ﬁnd an Eulerian Circuit in G by traversing each edge exactly once. the degree of every vertex is not even then the problem is to traverse each edge at least once (not exactly once) and making sure that the number of edges. In the ﬁgure below. we need to minimize the total sum of edge weights in a closed walk which covers every edge of the graph at least once. 7. Such a walk (walk because some edges will be traversed more than once) is also known as an Eulerian walk in the graph G. A directed graph of Class A category is shown in the right diagram. This problem is faced by any post man delivering letters in houses along lanes or a sweeper who is sweeping roads. There are .12: A directed graph of Class B category is shown in the left diagram. however. In the left diagram of this ﬁgure we have an un-weighted graph while the right diagram shows a weighted graph. If. the in-degree is equal to the out-degree for every node in this graph except a and d. As you can well imagine. traversed more than once.414 z Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem z e f f y d e f y d a b x x c a b x c Figure 7. are minimized. we show graphs where there are two vertices of odd degree.

By adding two edges between odd vertices we can convert this graph into a Class C category where the degree of every vertex is even. .Eulerian Walk and the Chinese Postman Problem 415 z 3 3 4 z 4 e f y d e f y d 3 3 4 4 a b x c a b x c Degree of 4 vertices is odd Degrees of odd vertices is made even by inserting edges (shown in red color) between odd vertices z z e f y d e f y d a b x c a b x c We get an Eulerian Circuit We remove the dotted edges and get two trails Figure 7. b.13: An un-directed graph of Class F shown in the left diagram. y and x is odd while the degree of every other vertex is even. the degree of vertex f .

Each resulting Eulerian graph H will have diﬀerent number of edges. 1.16. We show a simple technique of converting a graph with odd vertices into a graph with all vertices even in Fig. . We show diﬀerent Eulerian graphs corresponding to a weighted graph G in Fig. 7. consists of more edges than the graph shown in the middle diagram. Please note that the degree of the two terminal odd vertices in the path will become even while the degree of an even vertex in the middle of the path will stay even. It is interesting to note that optimal graph. All these possible paths gives rise to diﬀerent number of duplicated edges required to convert a graph into an Eulerian graph. 7. In other words the Eulerian graph H should be of minimum size in terms of number of edges or in terms of sum of edge weights of H. Indeed there could be paths of diﬀerent edge lengths between the two odd vertices in a graph as shown in Fig. We ﬁnd a path from one odd vertex to another odd vertex and duplicate every edge encountered in that path. 2. 7. shown in the right diagram. We need to convert a given graph G into an Eulerian graph H by duplicating some existing edges of G. The resulting graph will be Eulerian as shown in the right diagram of this ﬁgure. We need to make sure that the Eulerian trail that we have created in the ﬁrst part is shortest in terms of number of edges involved or in terms of edge weights.15.17.416 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem basically two problems that we intend to solve simultaneously but ﬁrst we need an understanding of these problems in isolation. we need to select the one with the minimum number. The Chinese Postman Problem for an un-weighted graph can thus be rephrased: We need to convert a graph G (having some odd vertices) into an Eulerian graph H (having all vertices with even degree) by duplicating minimum number of existing edges of graph G. in graph G we shall be traversing an edge twice when in graph H we shall be traversing a duplicated edge. Now an Eulerian circuit in H will correspond to a closed Eulerian Walk in G. For a weighted graph we need to convert G into an Eulerian graph by duplicating certain edges such that the sum total of edge weighted corresponding to duplicated edges is minimized.

The right diagram shows a weighted graph. Both graphs have two vertices with an odd degree.14: An un-directed graph and un-weighted graph (left diagram).Eulerian Walk and the Chinese Postman Problem 417 Two vertices with odd degree (red color) in an unweighted graph Two vertices with odd degree (red color) in a weighted graph Figure 7. .

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Figure 7.17: It is possible to convert a graph having two odd vertices into diﬀerent Eulerian graphs with varying number of edges. The Eulerian circuit in each graph is also indicated. It is quite obvious now that a shortest path between the two odd vertices provides us an optimal solution to the Chinese Postman Problem provided a graph has only two odd vertices. What about if a graph G consists of more than 2 odd vertices as shown in Fig. 7.18? How about if we do the same trick of ﬁnding a shortest path between vertices belonging to diﬀerent pairs of odd vertices? (Remember the total number of odd vertices in any graph will always be even). Let us start with an arbitrary selection of vertices in the three pairs as shown in Fig. 7.19. The resulting Eulerian graph is shown in the right diagram of the same ﬁgure. The total number of edges duplicated is also indicated in this diagram. Finding

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shortest paths for a ﬁxed set of pairs of odd vertices is certainly helps to reduce the cost of making the degree of each vertex even - but a diﬀerent set of pair of odd vertices may help us in further reducing this cost as shown in Fig. 7.20. Thus the problem is reduced to ﬁnding the set of pairs of odd vertices which minimizes the cost of duplicating the edges. Do we have to enumerate all possible sets of pairs of odd vertices in the graph G? How to do that systematically and estimate what is the total number of possibilities? Can we use a brute force approach or have to become cleverer in order to eﬃciently solve this problem.

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Figure 7.20: We ﬁnd shortest paths between a diﬀerent set of odd vertices in graph G. The resulting Eulerian graph H is shown in the right diagram. Given 2k items (corresponding to 2k odd vertices) numbered from 1 to 2k; let us draw a completely connected graph consisting of 2k = 6 vertices (of G) as shown in Fig. 7.21. A perfect matching in this graph provides the desired set of all pairs of odd vertices. It is possible to put weights on edges of the completely connected graph as shown in Fig. 7.22. A minimum weight perfect matching in the completely connected weighted graph will provide an eﬃcient solution to our problem as shown in the following ﬁgures.

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Figure 7.21: A perfect matching in a completely connected graph K of odd vertices of graph G. An eﬃcient solution of the Chinese Postman Problem in an un-directed graph G is thus reduced to the following steps: 1. Identify odd vertices in graph G. 2. Create a completely connected graph K; every odd vertex of G is a vertex of this completely connected graph K. The weight of an edge between two vertices in graph K is equal to the weight of the shortest path between the corresponding odd vertices in graph G. 3. A minimum cost perfect matching in the completely connected graph K provides us the desired pairs of vertices (x, y) in graph K. For every such pair (x, y), we duplicate edges along the shortest path between vertex x and vertex y in G.

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Figure 7.24: The minimum weight perfect matching in a completely connected graph K among all odd vertices in G corresponds to minimum number of edges of G which if duplicated will convert graph G into an Eulerian graph H. Without enumerating all perfect matchings in a graph we can still ﬁnd eﬃciently the minimum cost perfect matching in a graph.

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The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs

We discuss here the Chinese Postman Problem for a directed graph. If a directed graph G have all vertices where the in-degree is equal to the corresponding out-degree then the graph G is Eulerian. If, however, some vertices have out-degree larger or smaller than the in-degree then we need to convert graph G into an Eulerian graph H by duplicating minimum number of existing edges of G. We show an un-directed graph G in the top left corner of Fig. 7.25. By putting directions on edges of G, this graph is converted into a directed graph as shown in the top right diagram of the same ﬁgure. The un-directed graph G has even as well as odd vertices - that is why graph G is not Eulerian. In contrast, the directed graph D has three types of vertices as described below. 1. The out-degree is equal to the corresponding in-degree. The diﬀerence ∆ (equal to out-degree minus in-degree) for any vertex is zero for such vertices. Two such vertices exist in the directed graph D and are shown in green color. 2. The out-degree is larger than the corresponding in-degree; hence ∆ is positive. There are three such vertices in graph D, all shown in red. 3. The out-degree is less than the corresponding in-degree; hence ∆ is negative. There are four such vertices in graph D, all shown in orange. If all vertices in a directed graph D have ∆ equal to zero then graph D is Eulerian. If, however there are vertices with +ive and/or -ive ∆ then we face the challenge of solving the Chinese Postman Problem. A solution to this problem for an un-directed graph G is not helpful even if the directed graph is derived from the same un-directed graph as shown in the bottom left and right diagrams of Fig. 7.25. We show a directed graph G where there is only one vertex with positive ∆ as shown in Fig. 7.26. Here the problem is simple: Finding a path from each of the three orange vertices to the only red vertex and duplicating edges in these paths will convert the graph G into an Eulerian graph. Finding shortest paths from each orange vertex (with ∆ negative) to the only red vertex (with ∆ positive) will provide us the optimal solution to

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We duplicate certain edges as shown in red color. The resulting multi-graph H has now become Eulerian.

Figure 7.25: We again show an un-directed graph G in the top left diagram. It is converted into a directed graph D as shown in the top right diagram. It is obvious that graph G is not Eulerian. After duplicating certain edges in graph G it is transformed into an Eulerian graph as shown in the bottom left diagram. An Eulerian walk in G is shown in the bottom right diagram. The Eulerian walk in G is not an Eulerian walk in the directed graph D.

. All other vertices have either out-degree equal to in-degree (shown in green) or less than in-degree (shown in orange).26: We show a directed graph G where there is only one vertex (shown in red) where the out-degree is larger than the in-degree.The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs 429 8 0 0 8 7 1- 9 9 7 1 0 3+ 4 6 0 1 4 6 2 1- 5 3 0 1- 2 3 5 The Difference ∆ between out-degree and In-degree is indicated with each vertex: There is only one vertex with positive ∆ shown in red in this graph G We find a shortest path from each orange vertex (where ∆ is negative) to a vertex with positive ∆ shown in red color 0 8 2 2 0 9 7 0 0 5 5 4 1 0 4 6 0 3 7 2 0 5 3 0 0 The lengths of different shortest paths between orange vertices and the red vertex in graph G Edges in each shortest path are duplicated: The resulting graph H has now become Eulerian Figure 7.

this will make the new directed graph Eulerian. 7. 7. The maximum ﬂow in this graph (as shown in the bottom diagram) will provide the required information. Please note that this will be a complete bipartite graph. An eﬃcient solution of the Chinese Postman Problem in a directed graph G is thus reduced to the following steps: . We create a bipartite graph B consisting of an A partite (consisting of all orange vertices) and a B partite (consisting of red vertices) as shown in the middle left diagram of Fig. duplicating edges on shortest paths ensures that the number of extra edges (added) is minimized. vertex 9 has ∆ equal to +2.28. Finding a maximum ﬂow eﬃciently (in polynomial time) in this (special) network graph N is by itself an interesting problem.27). Further adding vertices s and t and edge capacities (middle right diagram) the problem is converted into a ﬂow problem. This has been illustrated in Fig. 7. Similarly there are three vertices with ∆ positive. In order to make delta of every vertex zero (thus converting the graph G into an Eulerian graph) we should ﬁnd out which path originating from an orange vertex should terminate at which red vertex. the problem is to minimize the cost also? The solution is simple: we create a weighted bipartite graph B where the weight of an edge from an orange vertex x to a red vertex y in B signiﬁes the weight of the shortest path between the orange vertex x to red vertex y in graph G. all shown in red color. Vertex 4 has ∆ equal to −3 while vertex 10 has ∆ equal to −1. Similarly two paths should be terminating at vertex 9 to convert its delta from +2 to zero (please see Fig. Finding a maximum ﬂow with minimum cost in a network graph N will ensure that the graph becomes Eulerian and the number of edges (which are) duplicated are minimized at the same time.430 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem the Chinese Postman problem as shown in the same ﬁgure. Please note that all the three shortest paths originating from vertices with ∆ equal to minus 1 are terminating at a single vertex. there will be an edge from every orange vertex to every red vertex in B signifying that there will be a path from every orange vertex to every red vertex in graph G. Please note that there should be three paths coming out of vertex 4 in order to increase its delta from −3 to zero. There are two vertices (4 & 10) with ∆ negative shown in orange color. The graph G will become Eulerian but the cost in terms of number of edges of G that are duplicated may be high. We show a directed graph in the top diagram of Fig.27.27. that single vertex has ∆ exactly equal to 3. 7.

or 9) to make the graph Eulerian 10 ∞ ∞ ∞ 2 9 Figure 7.27: A maximum ﬂow in a network graph N (middle right diagram) helps us ﬁnd how to convert a directed graph into an Eulerian graph. 6. 6. .The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs 431 8 2+ 0 9 4 3- 7 0 1 1+ The Number of paths coming out of 4 & 10 should be exactly equal to the number of paths going in 1. & 9 6 10 2 0 1- 1+ 5 0 1 4 6 10 9 3 ∞ 3 0 1 ∞ 1 4 ∞ The path requirement can be fulfilled by finding maximum flow in this network graph: edge capacities are indicated with each edge s 1 6 10 ∞ ∞ ∞ 1 t 2 ∞ ∞ 3 1 1 9 4 ∞ s 1 6 1 t Maximum flow tells us which path coming from 4 &10 should terminate at which vertex (1.

The weight of an edge from an orange vertex x to a red vertex y in B signiﬁes the weight of the shortest path between the orange vertex x to red vertex y in graph G. Problem Set 7. Problem 7.29.432 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem 1. it means that there should be a path between every pair of vertices in graph D.2. while y belongs to partite B of red vertices). Problem 7.2. y) pair (x belongs to partite A consisting of orange vertices.2. The cost of any other edge in N will be the corresponding weight in the bipartite graph. A minimum cost maximum ﬂow in the network graph N will provide us the desired pairs of orange/red vertices in graph G. We show a directed graph in the top left diagram of Fig. Show that a necessary & suﬃcient condition for a directed graph D to have a solution to the Chinese Postman Problem is that graph D should be strongly connected.1. 2.2. The costs of these edges will be zero. Identify orange and red vertices in G. Problem 7. The examples of directed graphs that we have considered in this section have one thing in common: If we sum delta of all vertices in a graph it comes out to be zero.3. Corresponding to every such (x. duplicate edges in the shortest path from vertex x to vertex y in graph G. 3. Convert bipartite graph B into a network ﬂow graph after adding vertices s & t. 7. Is this a coincidence or every directed graph will possess this property? Discuss brieﬂy. the capacity of these edges will be inﬁnite. The capacity of an edge from a red vertex y to t will be equal to ∆(y). 4. It will be interesting to derive the time complexity of the above algorithm and compare it with that of the algorithm used to solve the Chinese Postman Problem for un-directed graphs.2. Create a weighted bipartite graph B consisting of orange vertices as an A partite and red vertices as the B partite. The capacity of an edge from s to an orange vertex x is equal to ∆(x). Here there are four vertices with ∆ negative (shown in orange color) while .

The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs 433 8 2+ of s t t hs C o t Pa nd s Fi orte Sh 0 9 4 3- 7 0 1 1+ 6 10 1- 1+ 1 3 2 0 5 0 4 5 3 3 6 1 6 4 Ma Mi ximu n im m um Flo Co w st 0 10 ∞/3 ∞/5 1 1/0 9 s 8 2+ 0 3/0 4 ∞/3 6 1/0 1/0 t 10 ∞/1 ∞/6 ∞/4 2/0 9 4 3- 7 0 9 1+ al tim ph Op Gr a An rian le Eu 1 1+ 6 10 1- 2 0 5 0 3 0 Figure 7. A maximum ﬂow at minimum cost in this network graph helps us ﬁnd how we can convert a directed graph into an Eulerian graph by duplicating minimum number of existing edges.28: We show capacity/cost associated with each edge in the middle network graph. .

Green vertices have out-degree equal to the in-degree.29: We show a directed graph G where there are three vertices. We describe how we can convert a directed graph G into an Eulerian graph H by duplicating minimum number of edges of G.434 8 1+ 1- Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem 9 4 7 1 16 2 7 7 4 3 5 3 2 2 1 3 4 2 6 3 3 1 1- 2+ 6 4 6 1- 7 4 4 2 0 5 0 8 9 3 1+ We find a shortest path from every vertex with negative ∆ to each vertex with a positive ∆. Vertices where the out-degree is larger than the in-degree are shown in red color. where the out-degree is less than the corresponding in-degree. shown in orange color. Note that vertex 4 is duplicated in the Bipartite graph? The Difference ∆ between outdegree and In-degree is indicated with each vertex for the graph G 0 1 6 2 7 7 4 3 5 3 2 2 1 3 4 2 6 3 3 0 8 9 4 0 7 0 6 4 0 1 4 0 6 0 7 4 8 9 2 0 5 3 0 We find a minimum cost perfect matching in the complete bipartite graph We have duplicated edges in each path corresponding to the minimum cost perfect matching: The ∆ for each vertex becomes 0: The new graph H has now become Eulerian Figure 7. .

We demonstrate an alternate scheme to solve the Chinese Postman problem.2. Describe an algorithm behind this demonstration and calculate the time complexity of this algorithm in comparison with that of the algorithm discussed in the text (based on minimum cost maximum ﬂow algorithm). Derive the time complexity of the algorithm (that we have described in the text) which can be used to solve the Chinese Postman prob- .4.2. Problem 7.30. We need to convert these graphs into Eulerian graphs by duplicating minimum number of existing edges of these graphs.30: We show two directed graphs which are not Eulerian.5. two vertices where in-degree is larger than out-degree 3 1 6 4 5 4 7 4 6 7 7 10 6 8 9 10 9 5 9 Figure 7.The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs 435 there are three red vertices with ∆ positive. Solve the Chinese Postman problem for both these graphs using an eﬃcient algorithm. 8 2+ 0 8 7 1+ 3+ 0 9 4 3- 9 4 3- 7 1+ 1 1+ 6 0 0 1 10 1- 6 0 10 2 0 1- 5 0 2 0 5 0 3 0 3 0 There are three vertices where out-degree is larger than in-degree. 7. two vertices where in-degree is larger than out-degree There are two vertices where out-degree is larger than in-degree. We show two directed graphs in Fig. Problem 7.

it is neither strongly connected yet it may be possible for the Chinese Postman to distribute mail in (only red) streets while traversing minimum number of extra graph edges. if that is not possible then we should allow him (the Chinese Postman) to traverse the red edges at least once and come back after traversing a minimum number of edges in this graph. 7. Please describe an eﬃcient algorithm to solve this problem.7.436 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem lem for directed graphs.2. Compare its value with the time complexity of the algorithm used for un-directed graphs. This graph is not Eulerian. The Chinese Postman is supposed to deliver mail in red streets only.31. Problem 7. The Chinese Postman is supposed to distribute mail on streets shown in red color only.31: We show two directed graphs.8.32. We need to ﬁnd an Eulerian circuit consisting of edges corresponding to red streets alone. 7. We show another directed graph in the right diagram of Fig. show the detailed working of this algorithm on this graph. Problem 7. thus the graph is Eulerian. The Chinese Postman is supposed to start delivering his mail from a speciﬁc .6.2.2. 7. Figure 7. Problem 7.31. We show a directed graph in the left diagram of Fig. the graph shown in the left diagram is Eulerian while the one shown in the right diagram is neither Eulerian nor it is strongly connected. We show a directed graph G in the left diagram of Fig. please note that the in-degree of every vertex in this diagram is exactly equal to its corresponding out-degree.

32 provide an optimal solution to our problem for the graph shown in the left diagram? Discuss brieﬂy? 5 7 4 1 End here 5 6 7 4 3 1 End here 6 3 10 10 2 8 Start here 9 2 8 Start here 9 Figure 7. the green vertices have out-degree equal to the corresponding out-degree. The postman is supposed to traverse every edge of this graph exactly once. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to eﬃciently solve the above problem.The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs 437 point and end his delivery job at another point as shown in the ﬁgure.32: We show a directed graph G in the left diagram. The right diagram of this ﬁgure shows a transformation of graph G into another graph where certain edges of G are duplicated. 7. . the red vertices have in-degree smaller than the corresponding out-degree while the orange vertices have in-degree larger than the out-degree. If this is not possible then he should traverse each edge at least once and also minimize the number of edges which are traversed more than once. The right diagram shows a transformation of graph G into another graph where it is possible to ﬁnd an Eulerian Path from vertex 8 to vertex 3. Show that an Euler trail is possible from vertex 8 to vertex 3 in this graph. Does the right diagram of Fig.

438 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem 8 2+ 0 8 7 0 2+ 0 9 4 3- 9 4 7 0 1 1+ 6 10 2 0 1- 1+ 3- 1 1+ 6 10 1- 1+ 5 0 0 2 3 0 5 0 3 0 0 8 2+ 9 7 4 30 0 1+ 1 s 0 6 0 1+ 10 1- 2 0 5 0 3 0 Figure 7.33: Eu An O ler p ian tim Gr a l ap h n Fi d M um im in o Fl w 0 t 0 .

34: 0 8 2+ 0 9 7 4 31+ 0 0 8 2+ 9 7 0 0 1+ 1 s 0 6 0 0 0 t 1+ 1 s 0 4 31+ 6 0 10 0 0 t 1- 2 0 10 1- 5 0 2 0 5 0 3 0 3 0 Figure 7.35: .The Chinese Postman Problem for Directed Graphs 439 a b a +1 b s t +2 s t -1 d c F Eu ind l e r Op ian tim Gr al ap h d c -2 ∞/3 2/0 a ∞/2 1/0 a +1 b c x 1/0 y t ∞/1 ∞/2 2/0 s +2 t -1 s a 2 s 1 1 d 1 c 1 3 b 1 d c -2 1 i M um n im ow Fl t Figure 7.

440 Eulerian Graphs & the Chinese Postman Problem .

Chapter 8 Hamiltonian Graphs 8.1 8.5 8.6 Introduction Prior Knowledge Hamiltonian Graphs Bipartite Hamiltonian Graphs Some Theoretical Claims A Categorization of Hamiltonian Graphs .4 8.2 8.3 8.

That means this (q ≥ p − 1) will be a necessary condition for a connected graph. Such a graph is known a tree where each vertex is a cut vertex and each edge is a bridge edge. But then there are graphs where the number of edges is more than this critical number but still these graphs are not connected.2 Necessary Conditions for a Hamiltonian Graph A graph can not be Hamiltonian unless it is connected. It is thus a necessary condition. there should be at least p − 1 edges otherwise the graph will be guaranteed to be disconnected. We shall also be considering certain conditions (necessary and then suﬃcient) for a graph to be Hamiltonian. This means that no vertex should be a cut vertex and no edge is a . One of the problems (of learning) is confusion about necessary and suﬃcient conditions. It will be interesting to ﬁnd suﬃcient conditions for a graph to be connected.1 Introduction We shall address the problem of ﬁnding a Hamiltonian cycle and a Hamiltonian Path in a graph.2 8. Thus a Hamiltonian graph should be more than a tree graph. It should be connected and there should be a cycle spanning all vertices. 8. A tree graph is connected but it can not be Hamiltonian as it has no cycles (it can. For a graph (with p vertices) to be connected. there are necessary and suﬃcient conditions. Having edges less than this limit will be a suﬃcient condition for a graph to be disconnected. but we shall discuss this issue later in this topic. 8. contain a Hamiltonian Path).1 Prior Knowledge Necessary Conditions for a Connected Graph Let us start with a familiar and simple example of a connected graph. In case of Hamiltonian Graphs we are unaware of such a characterization.2. In case of Eulerian Graphs where we have a neat classiﬁcation.2. although a loose necessary condition. We shall be using constructive proof techniques for certain suﬃcient conditions. however. we shall be talking about necessary and suﬃcient conditions separately. the same techniques can be used to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in a graph where a Hamiltonian Cycle is guaranteed (by the suﬃcient conditions) to exist.442 Hamiltonian Graphs 8.

1). We can certainly ﬁnd sharper necessary conditions as are explained in most of the text books.2. A tree graph is just connected and belongs to one side of the extreme of connected graphs. 8. It will be useful if a learner solves this problem by himself or herself. Any permutation of the vertices of this graph will give you a Hamiltonian Cycle (see Fig. let us solve a much familiar and also simpler problem of ﬁnding a suﬃcient condition for a graph to be connected. The other side of the spectrum is a completely connected graph where every vertex is connected to every other vertex. This loose suﬃcient condition will be used in later pages to derive sharper suﬃcient conditions. 8.3 A Loose Suﬃcient Condition for a Hamiltonian Graph Let us think of a familiar graph where a Hamiltonian Cycle is guaranteed to exist and we can ﬁnd this cycle using a trivial algorithm. On the other hand if a graph contains a bridge edge (or a cut vertex) then it is certainly not Hamiltonian.Prior Knowledge 443 bridge edge in a Hamiltonian graph.2. 8. It is interesting to note that complete connectedness is not a suﬃcient condition for a graph to be Eulerian.4 Suﬃcient Condition for a Connected Graph Before ﬁnding a tighter suﬃcient condition for a Hamiltonian graph. and Hamiltonian (see Concept Map .5 A Concept Map We show a concept map indicating some necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a graph to be connected. Thus the completely connected property is a suﬃcient condition for a graph to be Hamiltonian. 2 It can also be shown that if the maximum degree of any vertex in a graph is equal to (p−2) then you can always draw a disconnected graph (How?) which 2 implies that the condition (minimum degree ≥ (p−1) ) is certainly a sharp 2 condition for connectedness. The minimum degree of any vertex in a graph should be at least (p−1) for a graph to be connected. Again these will be necessary conditions as there are graphs which satisfy these conditions but are not Hamiltonian. 8. although it is perhaps an overkill and thus not a sharp suﬃcient condition. Eulerian.2. Obviously a completely connected condition would be just too loose for a graph to be just connected.

Summary It will be interesting to summarize of what is possible (or not possible) at what cost. A simple Breadth First Search (or any traversal algorithm) can solve this problem eﬃciently. each cycle corresponds to a diﬀerent permutation of vertices of the graph. Subsequently we can design eﬃcient algorithms to actually ﬁnd an Euler Cycle in a graph provided the graph satisﬁes the given conditions.1: A completely connected graph of 6 vertices. Two Hamiltonian Cycles are shown in the completely connected graph. If the number of edges is less than p − 1 then the graph will certainly be disconnected. We shall 2 . Interestingly a minimum degree equal to (p−1) is a suﬃcient condition for 2 graph to contain a Hamiltonian Path. And a minimum degree slightly larger than (p−1) is a suﬃcient condition for a graph to be Hamiltonian. In case of connected or Hamiltonian graphs it is not possible to ﬁnd necessary and suﬃcient conditions.444 Hamiltonian Graphs 1). In case of Eulerian graphs we can ﬁnd a nice characterization that is necessary and suﬃcient for a graph to be Eulerian. We can still draw a disconnected graph if the minimum degree of a node in the graph is less than or equal to (p−2) . Thus for a general graph which does not satisfy the suﬃcient conditions for a Hamiltonian Cycle it is extremely hard to design an algorithm which can ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle (provided such a cycle exists) or out puts in negative if a Hamiltonian Cycle does not exist. in fact we can draw a graph with the above property which is clearly not Hamiltonian. In case of connected property again it is not possible to devise necessary and suﬃcient conditions. however it is possible to design eﬃcient algorithms which can determine if a given graph is connected or not. u5 u4 u5 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 u1 u2 Figure 8. If the 2 minimum degree in a graph is equal to or more than (p−1) then certainly the 2 graph will be connected. The graph may still not be Hamiltonian.

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now provide constructive proof techniques to prove a number of suﬃcient conditions for a graph to be Hamiltonian.

8.3

Hamiltonian Graphs

We shall make a drastically diﬀerent start. Instead of teaching we shall make you solve a number of related but simple problems. You just need some prior knowledge in addition to some common sense. It is important for the learner to gain conﬁdence: You can discover and create new knowledge. We shall also encourage you to solve a puzzle; the experience that you will gain will provide you powerful tools that we shall use in this chapter in solving various problems. Deciding when a speciﬁc tool can be used and where it can not be used is certainly a valuable learning experience. Problem Set 8.1. Let us start with simpler problems. For each of the problem you are supposed to design a formal proof; Problem 8.1.1. Suppose G is a star graph then G2 has a Hamiltonian Cycle. Please note that the diameter of a star graph is equal to 2 irrespective of the order of the graph. Problem 8.1.2. Suppose G is a line graph then G2 has a Hamiltonian Cycle. Please note that the diameter of a line graph is p − 1, and as it is obvious it is a function of the order of the graph. No graph (other than a line graph) can have a diameter as large as p − 1. For each of the above two problems it will be useful if the learner actually draws such graphs and then discovers the answer himself or herself. The k th power Gk of a graph G is a graph with same number of vertices as in G in which two vertices are adjacent if and only if they are at most d distance apart from each other in G. If the diameter of a graph G is k then Gk will be a completely connected graph and that is why G2 of a star graph is Hamiltonian. The diameter of a line graph is proportional to the size of the graph but still G2 is Hamiltonian. It will be interesting to explore if this is a more general result: G2 of any tree is Hamiltonian? Either show it or ﬁnd a counter example. Let us now try to solve a problem which belongs to the so called critical activity section. You must solve this problem before moving forward. Please see Fig. 8.2 and Fig. 8.3.

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Concept Map 8.1. A concept map of certain necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a graph to be connected, Eulerian, and Hamiltonian.

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8.3.1

A Puzzle:

We are given a line graph with p nodes, the starting and end node of the line graph are designated as u1 and up respectively. The intermediate nodes are labeled as ui , where 2 ≥ i ≥ p − 1 as shown in Fig. 8.2. You are allowed to insert new edges between u1 and any of the intermediate nodes. Similarly you can insert edges between up and any of the intermediate nodes. While inserting edges you should keep the degree of u1 and up exactly the same. You can not insert an edge between the two terminal nodes otherwise a Hamiltonian Cycle will immediately be formed (we already have a Hamiltonian Path between the two terminal vertices). While inserting an edge from u1 to an intermediate vertex (and then an edge from up to again an intermediate vertex) try your best that a Hamiltonian Cycle is not formed. The problem is to ﬁnd out (by an actual trial and error drawing) the minimum degree of the two terminal vertices when it will be impossible to resist a Hamiltonian Cycle. That will be a suﬃcient condition for this graph to be Hamiltonian. If, instead of resisting a Hamiltonian Cycle, you are adamant to form one as soon as the ﬁrst opportunity arises then what will be the minimum degree of the two terminal vertices which will guarantee a Hamiltonian cycle? Now come back to the previous problem where we try to resist a Hamiltonian Cycle as far as possible. But let us relax the condition that the degree of the two terminal vertices should be the same. Now the degree of one terminal vertex will be larger and the other smaller. Again ﬁnd what will be the minimum sum of the two degrees (of the terminal vertices) when it will be impossible to resist a Hamiltonian Cycle. Again this will be a suﬃcient condition for the modiﬁed graph to be Hamiltonian. You may like to solve the puzzle for the graph shown in Fig. 8.3

8.3.2

Actually Finding a Hamiltonian Cycle in the Puzzle:

Let us look at the same problem from an algorithmic point of view: You are given a graph G which contains a Hamiltonian path between two non adjacent vertices u and v. Assume that the sum of the degrees of u and v is equal to or larger than p. Also assume that the Hamiltonian Path between u and v is already provided as an input. You are supposed to design an eﬃcient algorithm which will output the actual Hamiltonian Cycle in G.

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Figure 8.2: A line graph with six nodes. We should add extra edges in this graph but do our best to avoid a Hamiltonian Cycle.

Algorithm 60: Find a Hamiltonian Cycle in a graph G where deg(u)+ deg(v) ≥ p for a pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G input : A Graph G; A Hamiltonian Path between vertex u and v. output: A Hamiltonian Cycle in G

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Use the knowledge and expertise that you have gained while solving the puzzle;

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Figure 8.4: We are given three graphs where a Hamiltonian path exists between two special vertices. The Hamiltonian path between the two vertices is also indicated by shaded lines in each graph. In the top graph the degree sum of the two special vertices is equal to the number of nodes in the graph; in the bottom graphs the degree sum of the two special vertices is less than the number of nodes in the graph. Please note that a Hamiltonian Cycle exists in each of these graphs.

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Apply your algorithm on the graphs given in Fig. 8.4 in order to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in each graph; please note that each of the graphs does indeed contain a Hamiltonian Cycle (which can easily be found by hit and trial method). Let us see where and why your algorithm fails and where it does ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle. Is this not strange that a graph contains a Hamiltonian Cycle but your algorithm can not ﬁnd it? Let us now describe the details of the algorithm which solves the problem outlined above. The working of the algorithm is illustrated in Fig. 8.5. Algorithm 61: Find a Hamiltonian Cycle in an un-directed graph G where deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p for a pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G; a Hamiltonian path between u and v is also given. input : A Hamiltonian Path between vertices u and v where deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p in an un-directed graph G. output: A Hamiltonian Cycle in G

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Let us index the vertices of the Hamiltonian path like 1, 2, 3, . . . p. The index of u will be 1 while that of v will be p; Find a vertex x such that vertex 1 is adjacent to vertex x + 1 while vertex p is adjacent with vertex x in G; The Hamiltonian Cycle will be 1, 2, . . . x, p, p − 1, p − 2, . . . x + 1, 1;

It is interesting to note that our algorithm also has a serious short coming: a graph may have a Hamiltonian Cycle but we can not ﬁnd it (as shown in Fig. 8.6). Interestingly there may have graphs where the condition (that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p for a pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G) is not met yet our algorithm will be able to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle as shown in the same ﬁgure.

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Figure 8.5: Intermediate stages of how Algorithm 61 works to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in a graph G where the condition (that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p for a pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G) is met and where there is a Hamiltonian path between vertices u and v in G.

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Degree = 2

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A Hamiltonian Cycle exists as shown by blue lines yet our algorithm will not be able to find it

The Condition is not met yet our algorithm will be able to find the Hamiltonian Cycle shown in blue

Figure 8.6: A graph G shown (left diagram) where the condition (that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p for a pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G) is not met and the Algorithm 61 will NOT be able to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle; but a Hamiltonian Cycle exists in this graph as shown by blue lines. A graph G shown where the condition (that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p for a pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G) is not met yet the Algorithm 61 will be able to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle as shown in the right diagram.

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8.3.3

Basic Intuition

Let us carefully look at the ramiﬁcations of Algorithm 61. It provides a couple of very powerful theoretical results and useful algorithmic tools which can be used to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in a certain category of graphs. Assume that a graph G has two vertices where the degree sum of these two vertices is more than p as shown in the ﬁgure below. We insert an edge between these two vertices and assume that in the resulting graph there is a Hamiltonian Cycle as shown in the top left diagram of Fig. 8.7. This essentially means that there will be a Hamiltonian Path starting from vertex 1 and terminating at vertex p in the original graph G. Then, we claim, that there will be a Hamiltonian Cycle in graph G (without that extra edge) as shown in the right diagrams of the Fig. 8.7. Now assume that after inserting that extra edge between the two vertices the resulting graph does not have a Hamiltonian Cycle. Then, we claim, that there will not be a Hamiltonian Cycle in the graph G (without that extra edge) as shown in the left diagrams of the same ﬁgure. Consider a graph G where the degree sum of any pair of vertices in G is equal to or larger than p as shown in Fig. 8.8. Now visualize a hypothetical Hamiltonian Cycle in this graph starting from 1, passing through 2, 3, 4, . . . p and then going back to 1. If this hypothetical Hamiltonian Cycle does not pass through original graph edges then insert Extra edges as shown in (red) in this ﬁgure to create a cycle consisting of some graph and some Extra edges. You know that we can always delete Extra edges one by one (using the techniques that we have recently acquired) forcing the Hamiltonian Cycle to divert through only graph edges. This intuition provides a powerful technique which can be used in most of Hamiltonian ﬁnding algorithms in Hamiltonian graphs.

8.3.4

Bondy & Chvatal’s Theorem:

Now let us come back to a text book theorem which says that a graph G is Hamiltonian if and only if G + uv is Hamiltonian provided vertices u and v are non adjacent and deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p. Before attempting to prove this theorem let us look at the problem more closely and try to relate it to the previous knowledge that we have acquired. G+uv is Hamiltonian means that there is a Hamiltonian Cycle in the graph G+uv. There are two possibilities:

Hamiltonian Graphs

455

u1

up

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A graph G where the degree of u1 and up is equal to or more than p. We do not know if a HAM cycle exists in graph G

u1

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We insert a direct edge from u1 to up Assume that now a HAM Cycle does Not exist in the resulting graph Then Then

We insert a direct edge from u1 to up Assume that now a HAM Cycle does exist in the resulting graph

u1

up

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up

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u3

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Now we remove the direct edge from u1 to up A HAM Cycle will NOT exist in graph G?

Now we remove the direct edge from u1 to up A HAM Cycle will still exist in graph G?

Figure 8.7: We make a number of claims in this diagram: A graph G is Hamiltonian if and only if the graph G plus an edge between two non adjacent vertices of G is Hamiltonian provided certain conditions are met.

u1 up u1 up

u2

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Consider a graph where the degree sum of every pair of vertices is equal to or larger than p

We force a Hamiltonian Cycle in this graph: If there no graph edges available then we insert Extra edges as shown in red

Figure 8.8: We make a number of claims in this diagram: A graph G is Hamiltonian if and only if the graph G plus an edge between two non adjacent vertices of G is Hamiltonian provided certain conditions are met.

Under such conditions a Hamiltonian Path between u and v may not exist. that the graph G is not Hamiltonian while the graph G + uv is Hamiltonian. does not exist. Again notice the ﬁgure of eight in this diagram. If there is a graph G in which there are two adjacent nodes u and v such that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p then G is Hamiltonian if and only if G + uv is Hamiltonian.9. .5 Summary Let us look at what we have really understood so far. It will be instructive to actually draw such a graph. Such a possibility is indicated in the left diagram of Fig. 8.3. The edge uv does not make any diﬀerence. Then there will certainly be a Hamiltonian Path between the vertex u and vertex v. As the edge uv is not part of the Hamiltonian Cycle so it is possible to remove this edge and still a Hamiltonian Cycle will exist in G.3. 8.456 Hamiltonian Graphs 1. This means the possibility. The Hamiltonian Cycle does not pass through the edge uv.6 Closure of a Graph: A closure c(G) of a graph G of order p is a graph obtained from G by recursively joining pairs of non adjacent vertices u and v whose degree sum is more than or equal to p until no such pair remains in G. How about if we are supposed to design an algorithm to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in the graph G provided the above stated conditions are true. This also means that if we remove the edge uv even then there will be a Hamiltonian Cycle in G provided there was a Hamiltonian Cycle in G + uv. The Hamiltonian Cycle passes through the edge uv. 8.9. Again it will be interesting to relate this algorithmic problem with the last such problem that we have discussed. Such a possibility is shown in the right diagram of Fig. 8. 2. Under such conditions we can map this problem to the last problem that we have discussed except that the actual Hamiltonian Path between u and v is not provided here. It can now be proved that a graph G is Hamiltonian if and only if its closure c(G) is Hamiltonian. its inclusion does not convert a non Hamiltonian graph into Hamiltonian and its removal does not convert a Hamiltonian graph into a non Hamiltonian graph provided other conditions are also met.

8. 2. The right diagram shows a graph where the Hamiltonian Cycle does not pass through the edge between vertex u1 and u2 .Hamiltonian Graphs u5 u4 u5 u4 457 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 u1 u2 Figure 8. You can verify that a Hamiltonian path does not exist between these two vertices in the right diagram. We have also stated that for a completely connected graph. It can also be used constructively . Edges which were originally present in G. But it may also pass through some of the extra edges belonging to the second type. then the closure c(G) will be obviously be a completely connected graph. But remember the Hamiltonian Cycle that we have found belonged to the closure of G. ﬁnding a Hamiltonian Cycle is a trivial problem. The following algorithm can be used to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in graph G.3. These edges were not part of G. that means E(G). that is. We call these edges extra edges. The Hamiltonian Cycle in c(G) will pass through some of the original edges of the graph. We have already stated that complete connectedness is a very loose suﬃcient condition for a graph to be Hamiltonian.9: A graph containing a Hamiltonian Cycle which passes through the edge between vertex u1 and u2 is shown in the left diagram. How to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle which passes through E(G) alone is an interesting problem. degu + v ≥ p.7 Ore’s Theorem: The usefulness of the above result becomes obvious when in a graph G every pair of non adjacent vertices satisﬁes the above mentioned condition. the same Hamiltonian Cycle may not exist in the actual graph G? This is because of the fact that c(G) consists of two types of edges: 1. Extra edges inserted between very pair of non adjacent vertices u and v where deg(u) + (v) ≥ p.

We ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in graph H.2. and last but not the least discuss where Algorithm 62 have to be modiﬁed in order to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle.458 Hamiltonian Graphs to prove that if deg(u) + deg(u)v ≥ p for every non adjacent pair of vertices in a graph G then G is Hamiltonian.this closure is our starting graph H. input : An un-directed Graph G where deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p for very pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G. Draw three diﬀerent graphs. We know that deg(u) + deg(v) ≥ p. while there are extra edges in the Hamiltonian Cycle in graph H do Remove an extra edge uv from the cycle and from graph H thereby creating a Hamiltonian Path between two vertices u and v in the new graph H. . Also pinpoint the graph where it may not be easy to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle using the knowledge that we have acquired until now.1. in the ﬁrst graph G the degree sum of each pair of non adjacent vertices should be at least p. Problem 8. This is certainly a tighter suﬃcient condition for a graph G to be Hamiltonian as compared to the complete connectedness of a graph. In the third graph J. Problem Set 8. Algorithm 62: Find a Hamiltonian Cycle in a graph G where deg(u)+ deg(v) ≥ p for very pair of non adjacent vertices u & v in G. This cycle may pass through some of the graph G original edges and may also pass through some of the edges not present in G (but are present in H) known as extra edges. Discuss brieﬂy where it is possible to use Algorithm 62 without any modiﬁcation to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle. thus if there is a Hamiltonian Path between u and v in H then we can ﬁnd a new Hamiltonian cycle in H which does not pass through the edge uv (use Algorithm 61). the degree sum of each pair of non adjacent vertices is not equal to p. This suﬃcient condition was originally discovered by Ore. In the second graph H the degree sum of each pair of non adjacent vertices is not p but the closure of H is a completely connected graph. output: A Hamiltonian Cycle in G 1 2 3 4 We ﬁnd a closure of graph G known as c(G) .2.

The closure of this graph thus contains a Hamiltonian . The closure of this graph is a completely connected graph as shown in the right diagram of the same ﬁgure. Note that the closure is a completely connected graph containing a Hamiltonian Cycle also shown in the right diagram. a completely connected graph as shown in the top right diagram. 8. Note that the Hamiltonian Cycles passes entirely through extra edges.11.13. We remove extra edges one by one and each time ﬁnd a new Hamiltonian Cycle. Example 2: We show a graph G in the top left diagram of Fig. The closure of this graph is. The Hamiltonian Cycle is also indicated in this diagram. Why? The order will. 8. however. A formal proof of this theorem can easily be derived from the above discussion. become important in the next example. the degree of some of the nodes is also indicated in this diagram.10. the extra edges removed are indicated by dotted lines while a Hamiltonian Cycle is shown by bold lines in Fig. The closure of this graph is shown in the right diagram. the degree sum of a pair of non adjacent vertices is less than 6 in this graph. 8. interestingly the Hamiltonian Cycle passes entirely through extra edges.Hamiltonian Graphs 459 Dirac’s Theorem: A graph G where the degree of each node is more than or equal to p/2 is Hamiltonian. however.11. A constructive proof can also be designed on similar lines. Example 1: We show a graph G where the degree of each node is equal to p/2 in the left diagram of Fig. We apply Algorithm 62 to this graph and show a number of intermediate results in Fig.10: A graph G where the degree sum of each pair of non adjacent vertices is equal to p. 8. u5 u4 u5 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 u1 u2 Figure 8. the graph is shown in the left diagram. Please note that the order in which extra edges are removed is not very important in this example.

All extra edges which are removed are shown by dotted lines.460 Remove One of the Extra edges shown in orange Hamiltonian Graphs Find Hamiltonian cycle (blue color) in the remaining graph u5 u4 u5 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 w th e gr ap h ra u1 u2 u1 u4 R Remove One more Extra edge Find Hamiltonian cycle (blue color) in the remaining graph ed u1 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u5 u2 w th e gr ap h u5 ra u2 u4 u1 R Remove One more Extra edge Find Hamiltonian cycle (blue color) in the remaining graph ed u4 u1 u6 u3 u6 u3 u5 u2 u5 u2 u6 u4 R ed u3 u1 w th e gr ap Remove One more Extra edge ra Find Hamiltonian cycle (blue color) in the remaining graph h u3 u1 u6 u4 u5 u2 u5 u2 Figure 8. We repeat this process until all extra edges are removed.11: We start with the closure of the graph shown in the last ﬁgure. remove an extra edge and ﬁnd a new Hamiltonian Cycle. We apply Algorithm 62 to this graph. .

Initially the Hamiltonian Cycle passes through all the extra edges as shown in the top left diagram. passes through No Extra Edge Figure 8. .12: It is possible to remove more than one extra edge (in a single step) from the graph. Another Extra Edge can NOT be removed Redraw the graph and remove another Extra Edge Hamiltonian Cycle shown in blue.Hamiltonian Graphs 461 u5 u4 u5 u4 u1 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 u1 u2 u5 u2 Extra edges are shown in red. Another Extra Edge can be removed u3 u1 u3 u1 u5 u4 u6 u4 u6 u4 u6 u3 u5 u2 u5 u2 u1 u2 Redraw the graph and remove the last Extra Edge Hamiltonian Cycle. shown in blue. Another Extra Edge can be removed Redraw the graph and remove another Extra Edge u4 u1 u4 u1 u1 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u6 u3 u5 u2 u5 u2 u5 u2 Hamiltonian Cycle shown in blue. We remove one Extra Edge Hamiltonian Cycle shown in blue. At the end it passes through the graph edges as shown in the bottom right diagram.

one should be very careful about the order in which they are removed otherwise one may fall into a trap as shown in the bottom diagrams. remove other Extra Edges Figure 8. .13: While removing Extra edges.462 Hamiltonian Graphs 4 u5 u4 2 u5 u4 u5 u4 3 u6 u3 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 4 u1 u2 u1 u2 We start with a graph where degree sum of a few pairs of vertices is not p Add Extra Edges where the degree sum condition is satisfied. The closure is complete u5 u4 u5 u4 u5 u4 u6 u1 u6 u1 u6 u1 u3 u2 u3 u2 u3 u2 The Hamiltonian Cycle does not pass through any Extra Edge Find a Hamiltonian Cycle in the remaining graph as shown in blue color Delete an Extra Edge u5 u4 u5 u4 u6 ? u1 u2 u3 u6 u1 u3 u2 Redraw the graph and try to remove the last Extra Edge through which the Hamiltonian Cycle passes NOT Possible? Find a different Hamiltonian Cycle in the remaining graph as shown in blue color. It passes through one Extra Edge. This will increase the degree? Add Extra Edges where the degree sum condition is recently satisfied.

14: There is no need to make the closure of a graph complete.Hamiltonian Graphs 463 A given graph where degree sum condition for every pair of vertices is satisfied We add Extra Edges so that a Hamiltonian Cycle is formed. we can add just enough extra edges such that a Hamiltonian Cycle becomes possible in the graph. . the closure is not yet complete 1 6 2 1 6 2 5 4 1 6 3 5 4 3 2 It is possible to add just one Extra Edge so as to get a Hamiltonian Cycle 5 4 3 Figure 8.

10? It is essential for you to answer these questions before moving forward.13.15: The top left diagram shows a graph in which the degree sum of every pair of non adjacent vertices is not equal to (or larger than) the number of nodes in the graph. Let us solve puzzle No.4 Bipartite Hamiltonian Graphs We are now in a position to design or discover similar suﬃcient conditions for a bipartite graph to be Hamiltonian (It will also be exciting to discover some of the necessary conditions for a bipartite graph to be Hamiltonian).1 once again.3. an edge uv exists provided . 8. 8. 4 u5 u4 2 3 u5 u4 4 4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 4 u1 u2 u5 u4 u5 u4 u6 u3 u6 u3 u1 u2 u1 u2 Figure 8.464 Hamiltonian Graphs Cycle. Be careful this time. The bottom right diagram shows that a diﬃcult situation arises if we remove extra edges in the wrong order. Why this order has suddenly become important and why it was not important in the graph of Fig. The closure of this graph is still a completely connected graph as shown in the bottom left diagram. while inserting edges you should keep in mind that in a bipartite graph. If we now remove the extra edges in the wrong order then we may end up with a diﬃcult situation as depicted in the bottom right diagram of Fig. 8. 8.

If we insert an edge between the two end vertices then a Hamiltonian Cycle will immediately be formed. Fig.17 and Fig. You can not insert an edge between the two terminal nodes otherwise a Hamiltonian Cycle will immediately be formed (we already have a Hamiltonian Path between the two terminal vertices). 8. Please see Fig. The problem is to ﬁnd out (by an actual trial and error drawing) the minimum degree of the two terminal vertices when it will be impossible to resist a Hamiltonian Cycle.5 Some Theoretical Claims We shall describe a number of special Hamiltonian graphs and then present a number of graph theoretical claims. 8.16. .16: We show a bipartite graph consisting of eight vertices containing a Hamiltonian Path between two end vertices. You should also keep the degree of u1 and up exactly the same while inserting new edges. It is always Moorish Connected.Some Theoretical Claims 465 vertex u and vertex v belong to diﬀerent partites. 8. That will be a suﬃcient condition for this graph to be Hamiltonian. Hamiltonian Graphs: p-closure is complete in G: A Hamiltonian Cycle exists in G.18 u1 u2 u3 u4 u5 u6 u7 u8 Figure 8. While inserting an edge from u1 to an intermediate vertex (and then an edge from up to again an intermediate vertex) try your best that a Hamiltonian Cycle is not formed. Hamiltonian Connected: (p+1)-Closure is complete: A Hamiltonian Path passes through every pair of vertices. 8.

Notice the bi-colored vertices. Edges not allowed in a bipartite graph are indicated in both the diagrams in the form of dotted lines.16. In a bipartite graph. 8. similar color vertices belong to one partite while all the other color vertices are in the second partite. .466 Hamiltonian Graphs u1 up u2 u7 u3 u4 u5 u6 u1 up u2 u7 u3 u4 u5 u6 Figure 8. an edge uv exists provided u and v belong to diﬀerent partite.17: Here we show a Hamiltonian Path between two vertices in the bipartite graph shown in Fig.

.18: A bipartite graph of sizes 8. You can easily think of suﬃcient condition for a bipartite graph to be Hamiltonian. and 12. 10.Some Theoretical Claims 467 u v u v u v u v Figure 8.

. If the closure of G + x is complete then there will be a HAM cycle in G + x and a HAM path in G between vertex u and vertex v of G. Claim No. If vertex u and v are adjacent in graph G then there will be a HAM cycle in G passing through u and then v. 1: Given a graph G (having p vertices). we add a vertex x to G and connect it to vertex u and vertex v of G. Now if p + 1 closure of H (having p + 1 vertices) is complete then there will be a HAM path in G with end points u and v in G.468 Hamiltonian Graphs Moorish Connected: A Hamiltonian Path passes through every pair of adjacent vertices. k k G Degree of every vertex larger than or equal to k k k k u 2 k+1 k k k x k+1 v If p+1 closure is complete in graph G+x then there will be a HAM cycle in the graph G+x.19: We show a graph G. the new graph is known as graph H as shown in the ﬁgure below. u k k G k k Then there will be a HAM cycle passing through vertex u & v provided u and v are adjacent in G v k Figure 8. we add and connect a vertex x to vertices u and v of G as shown in the top diagrams. It may or may not be Hamiltonian Connected.

2: Assume that in a graph G. Such a graph G (where a HAM path exists between every pair of vertices in G) is known as Hamiltonian Connected. Degree sum of 4 and 5 becomes 6 Connect 4 & 5. 1: We show a graph G in Fig. we add and connect a vertex x to vertices 4 and 5 of G as shown in the top diagram. It is somewhat surprising to note that a p closure of graph G is not complete yet a p + 1 closure of graph G + x is complete. in fact it is more than that: every edge u. Degree sum of other pairs becomes 6 1 2 2 4 5 1 5 4 5 1 5 4 x 4 2 x 2 5 5 2 4 5 2 2 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 2 3 All vertices in graph G+x are now completely connected 3 All vertices in G are completely connected There is a HAM path between vertex 4 and 5 Figure 8. v of G. v will be part of some HAM cycle.20: We show a graph G. We are lucky in this example as we do ﬁnd a HAM path between the two given vertices. The closure of G + x is complete and there will be a HAM cycle in G + x and a HAM path in G between vertex 4 and 5 of G.20 and we need to check if our newly acquired knowledge can really conﬁrm if there is a HAM path between two vertices 4 & 5 in graph G. We know before hand that a HAM path exists between these vertices but we also know that there is a possibility that a HAM path exists in a graph but we are unable to conﬁrm or ﬁnd it. Claim No. the p + 1 closure is complete then there will be a HAM path between every pair u. . 8.Some Theoretical Claims 469 Example No. 3 4 5 1 2 4 2 1 4 2 1 3 4 x 2 5 3 2 2 x 2 5 4 x 2 5 5 4 4 4 3 3 2 3 2 3 Connect vertices where degree sum is equal to 6 Connect x to 4 and 5. It follows that such a graph G is Hamiltonian.

21.22 with end vertices 3 and 5. 3: Given a graph G (having p vertices). . now the p + 1 closure of G + x becomes complete as shown in the rest of the diagrams. 8. thus we can not conﬁrm that a HAM path exists between vertex 3 and 5 in G. If the closure of G + x is complete then there will be a HAM path in G. we add and connect a vertex x to every vertex of G as shown in the top diagrams.21: We show a graph G. 4: Assume that in a graph G. 2: We show a chain graph G in Fig. We add a vertex x and a vertex y to G such that vertex x is connected to vertices u and v of G. v. 8. Example No. the p − 1 closure is complete then there will be a HAM path in G. and w such that u is adjacent to v and v is adjacent to w. we add a new vertex x to G and connect it to every vertex of G. Now if p + 1 closure of H (having p + 1 vertices) is complete then there will be a HAM path in G. The p + 1 closure of graph G + x (having p + 1 vertices) is not complete. 5: Given a graph G (having p vertices) with three vertices u. k+1 k k+1 G Degree of every vertex larger than or equal to k k k p k+1 x k k+1 AH AM pat h in k k+1 G If p+1 closure of G+x is complete then there will be a HAM cycle in G+x Figure 8. thus conﬁrming that a HAM path do exist in this graph. Claim No. Then we connect vertex x to every vertex in G. We add a vertex x to G and connect it to vertex 3 and 5 as shown in the top left diagram.470 Hamiltonian Graphs Claim No. We know that a HAM path exists between vertex 3 and 5 in this graph. Claim No. the new graph is known as the graph H as shown in Fig.

The p + 1 closure of graph G + x is complete and thus a HAM path exists in the graph G as shown in the rest of the diagrams.Some Theoretical Claims 471 1 2 2 4 2 5 1 3 3 4 2 5 1 3 4 4 2 5 2 3 4 2 2 x 2 2 x 2 2 x 3 A HAM path exists between 3 and 5 but the 6 closure of this graph is not complete 3 We add vertex x to G but now connect x it to every vertex of graph G 3 We connect 2 and 4 as the degree sum is 6 1 5 5 4 5 5 1 3 5 4 3 5 5 5 2 5 x 2 3 x 3 The closure is a completely connected graph.22: The p + 1 closure of the graph G + x (having p + 1 vertices) is not complete as shown in the top left diagram. 3 Now we can connect 2 and 5 and 3 & 4 as the degree sum is 6 Figure 8. .

the new graph G + x + y is known as graph H as shown in the ﬁgure below. Claim No. 6: Assume that in a graph G. k v G k k k There will be a HAM cycle passing through u then v and then w in G provided u is adjacent to v and v is adjacent to w. Now if p + 2 closure of H (having p+2 vertices) is complete then there will be a HAM cycle in G which will be passing from vertex u to v and then to vertex w (see Fig.23: If the p + 2 closure of graph G + x + y (having p + 2 vertices) is complete then there will be a HAM cycle in G passing from vertex u to vertex v and then to vertex w of G. w Figure 8. 7: In a regular graph G where the degree of every vertex is p/2. a HAM path exists between vertex u and vertex v of G if and only if p + 1 . w} in G. 8. the p + 2 closure is complete then some HAM cycle will pass through every pair of adjacent edges {u. v} and {v.472 Hamiltonian Graphs and vertex y is connected to vertex v and w of G. Claim No. and so on. u k G Degree of every vertex larger than or equal to k k 2 k+1 x k k+2 k v k y k k 2 k+1 k w k u k If p+2 closure is complete in G+x+y then there will be a HAM cycle passing from u to x to v to y and then to w.23).

u p/2 p/2 u 2 p/2 p/2 G Degree of every vertex is exactly p/2 p/2 p/2 G v p/2 p/2 x p/2 v p/2 There will be a HAM path passing through vertex u & v in G If and only if p+1 closure is complete in graph G+x Figure 8. Problem 8.Some Theoretical Claims closure of G + x is complete (please see Fig. 8: In a regular graph G where the degree of each vertex is p/2. 8. We add a vertex x to G and connect x to vertex u and v in G as shown in the right diagram. v} will be part of a HAM cycle.24 in this regard). every edge {u. If some of the graphs do not satisfy suﬃcient conditions for Hamiltonian graphs then there is a possibility that a Hamiltonian Cycle exists but our expertise is not able to ﬁnd it. 9: A regular graph G. Problem Set 8. 8.3.25.24). How can you modify the algorithm (which was earlier used to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Cycle in a Hamiltonian graph) which makes sure that the resulting Hamiltonian Cycle passes through a given edge. Look at the graphs in Fig. .24: We show a regular graph G.2. 8. Problem 8. the degree of every vertex is p/2. You can use our past experience of ﬁnding a Hamiltonian cycle in these graphs. Claim No.3. where the degree of each vertex is p/2. 473 Claim No. is Hamiltonian Connected (that means there is a HAM Path between every pair of vertices in G) if and only if p + 1 closure of G + x is complete for every pair u and v of G (please see Fig.3.1.

Draw a graph which is not Hamiltonian (that means it does not satisfy the suﬃcient conditions) but in which there is a Hamiltonian path between every pair of vertices.474 Hamiltonian Graphs 1.6 A Categorization of Hamiltonian Graphs Category A: There is not a Hamiltonian path between every pair of non adjacent vertices in G and G is Hamiltonian (that means it satisﬁes the suﬃcient conditions). Problem 8. Draw a graph which is not Hamiltonian (that means it does not satisfy the suﬃcient conditions) but in which there is a Hamiltonian path between every pair of non adjacent vertices. Problem 8. Draw a graph which is Hamiltonian (that means it satisﬁes the suﬃcient conditions) but in which there is not a Hamiltonian path between every pair of non adjacent vertices. We call it category E graphs.7. Also consider the option when it is Hamiltonian Connected (B2). check if there is a Hamiltonian cycle and also check if our expertise can ﬁnd it or can not ﬁnd it. Draw a graph which is Hamiltonian (that means it satisﬁes the suﬃcient conditions) but in which there is a Hamiltonian path between every pair of vertices. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian path in these graphs between any two vertices. We call it category D graphs. Problem 8.3. . 3. Category B: There is a Hamiltonian path between every pair of non adjacent vertices in G and G is Hamiltonian (that means it satisﬁes the suﬃcient conditions) and it is not Hamiltonian Connected (B1).3.3.3. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian path in these graphs between two given (not any two but two special) vertices. We call it category B graphs. We call it category C graphs.3. 2. 8.3. Problem 8. Problem 8.6. 8.5.4. We call it category A graphs.25. For every graph in Fig. Draw a graph which is Hamiltonian (that means it satisﬁes the suﬃcient conditions) but in which there is a Hamiltonian path between every pair of non adjacent vertices.

25: You may ﬁnd some graphs here which you were supposed to draw in earlier problems. .A Categorization of Hamiltonian Graphs 475 Figure 8.

etc.476 Hamiltonian Graphs u5 u4 u6 u3 u1 u2 Figure 8.26: A panoramic hierarchy of graphs. some containing a Hamiltonian Path. . some containing a Hamiltonian Cycle.

12.15. v and w in G (see the bottom right diagram in Fig.27). You can relax this condition later and cater to the condition when the degree of every vertex may be larger than p/2. 8. Prove that G3 of a graph G is always Hamiltonian.13.10. Try to draw a graph G where G2 is not Hamiltonian while G3 is Hamiltonian Connected.27).3.14. Problem 8.11. Problem 8. 8. and the degree of every vertex is larger than or equal to p/2. We need to determine k such that a Hamiltonian Path (or a cycle) passes through every two vertices u and v in G (see the bottom left diagram in Fig.3.3. Problem 8. A graph G where the minimum degree is k is given as shown below.16. Problem 8.9. Problem 8.3. Initially you can assume that G is a regular graph and thus the degree of every vertex is the same.3.3. We need to determine conditions under which there will be a Hamiltonian Path in G (see the top diagrams in Fig.A Categorization of Hamiltonian Graphs 477 Category C: G is Hamiltonian (that means it satisﬁes the suﬃcient conditions) & Hamiltonian Connected (C1). Problem 8. Category D: There is a Hamiltonian path between every pair of non adjacent vertices in G and G is not Hamiltonian (that means it does not satisfy the suﬃcient conditions). Also consider the option when G is not Hamiltonian Connected (C2).3. Try to draw a connected graph G where G3 is not Hamiltonian Connected. We need to ﬁnd (that is design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve this .27). Try to draw a graph G where G2 is not Hamiltonian while G3 is not Hamiltonian Connected. We need to determine k such that a Hamiltonian Path (or a cycle) passes through three vertices u. Category E: G is Hamiltonian Connected but is not Hamiltonian. Assume that we are given a graph G with number of vertices equal to p where p is even. Problem 8. Problem 8.3. Try to draw a graph G where G2 is not Hamiltonian while G3 is Hamiltonian.8.3. Problem 8. 8.

27: Figures for the last problem set .478 Hamiltonian Graphs k k k k+1 k+1 G k k p k+1 x k+1 k+1 u 2 k+1 k k x 2 u k+1 k v k+1 x k+1 2 k y w v k+1 k Figure 8.

and (b) when they are not adjacent.A Categorization of Hamiltonian Graphs 479 problem) if there is a Hamiltonian path between two given vertices. .28 may provide some food for thought. If there is really a Hamiltonian path then our algorithm should be able to output this path (we should provide a proof for this). 8. Consider two options separately: (a) when the two given vertices are adjacent. The following graphs in Fig.

.28: We show here a number of regular graphs where the degree of each vertex is exactly p/2 and p is even.480 Hamiltonian Graphs Figure 8.

Properties & Actions Strongly Connected Directed Graphs Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) Strongly Connected Components Tournaments Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: .2 9.6 Concepts.5 9.Chapter 9 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 9.1 9.3 9.4 9.

When we make a transformation on a graph we create a graph with new properties. It will be interesting to examine how diﬀerent properties of a graph change (or do not change) if we transform a graph into a new directed graph using . unilaterally connected directed graphs and tournaments. and if not then what are its strongly connected components. directed graphs can also be classiﬁed into diﬀerent categories. As with un-directed graphs. We have also discussed a connected graph which was not a tree that means a graph which was cyclic. An undirected graph is known as strongly orient-able if it has the potential of becoming a strongly connected directed graph. and then we had a just barely connected graph known as a tree. and how they are connected. We shall discuss and prove (again using constructive proof strategies) necessary and suﬃcient conditions for an undirected graph to be strongly orient-able. Graphs are also judged by diﬀerent properties that they possess. We have also talked about certain actions on graphs like the square of a graph or the complement of a graph.482 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Introduction We shall talk about some speciﬁc features of directed graphs in this chapter.1 Concepts. This is how we shall study directed graphs in this chapter. directed acyclic graphs. A completely connected graph is always Hamiltonian. We shall be talking about strongly connected directed graphs. and a classiﬁcation of un-directed and directed graphs are shown in a concept map (see Concept map 1). We shall also describe eﬃcient algorithms to ﬁnd if a directed graph is strongly connected. some action items (or so called transformations). We have seen in the last chapter that if we take the square of a line graph or a star graph then the resulting graph is Hamiltonian. We had an un-directed graph which was not connected. On the other extreme we have seen the completely connected graph. Each category of directed graph possesses some speciﬁc properties. Some of the properties of graphs. We shall start with diﬀerent categories (shown as concepts in Concept map 1) of directed graphs. Properties & Actions We have earlier classiﬁed an un-directed graph on the basis of connectedness. For example a line graph which is acyclic and is not Hamiltonian. 9. These actions on a graph G transform G into another graph H.

1. . some action items or transformations. Please note that the action items are represented by elliptical objects while the properties are shown by square boxes. and a classiﬁcation of undirected and directed graphs. A concept map showing some of the properties of graphs.Concepts. Properties & Actions 483 Concept Map 9.

Completely connected un-directed graphs are both unilaterally orient-able and strongly orient-able. directed graphs can also be classiﬁed on the basis of connectedness. If we remove directions from a directed graph D then the resulting graph will become undirected and is known as the underlying undirected graph. A directed graph having no cycles is called an directed acyclic graph or a DAG. It is obvious that a tournament directed graph may be acyclic . Not all un-directed graphs can be converted into a strongly connected directed graph. A directed graph formed by putting arbitrary directions in a completely connected undirected graph has a special name that is a tournament.1 shows three diﬀerent directed graphs. there is a path from u to v or a path from v to u. One of these graphs is acyclic while the rest are cyclic. When we put directions in an un-directed (or bi-directed) graph G then it becomes a directed graph D. That means a strongly connected graph is always a unilaterally connected graph but not vise versa. Both strongly connected as well as unilaterally connected directed graphs are always weakly connected but again it may not be true the other way round. A directed graph D is unilaterally connected provided for every pair of vertices u and v. One of them is strongly connected. 9. Concepts As you can see in Concept map 1. If the underlying undirected graph of D is connected then D is known as a weekly connected directed graph. and is therefore not strongly connected. The third is neither unilaterally connected nor strongly connected. This means that if we intelligently put directions in a completely connected un-directed graph then the resulting directed graph will be strongly connected (or unilaterally connected).484 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments some of the action items shown in Concept map 1. The other is unilaterally connected but not strongly connected. Un-directed graphs which can be converted into a unilaterally connected directed graph are known as unilaterally orient-able undirected graphs. A directed graph where you can reach any vertex from any other vertex is known as a strongly connected graph. Fig. Please try to pinpoint which one is which. It is also possible to put directions in a completely connected graph in such a manner that the resulting directed graph is acyclic. In a strongly connected directed graph there is a path from u to v and a path from v to u. Those which can be converted into a strongly connected graph are known as strongly orient-able un-directed graphs.

Problem 9. Problem Set 9.1. or may contain a cycle.2. Only two edges in this graph are directed while the rest are left un-directed or bi-directed. A graph consisting of six vertices is shown in Fig.1.1. Properties & Actions 485 2 1 3 4 6 5 2 1 3 6 1 2 3 4 5 4 6 5 Figure 9.4. Problem 9.Concepts.1. in fact it may contain a Hamiltonian Cycle.1. You are supposed to put directions in these undirected edges in order to fulﬁll some objective as deﬁned below. Problem 9. The resulting graph should be acyclic and not unilaterally connected. One of them is strongly connected. as we shall discuss in detail in this chapter.1. Why? . After putting appropriate directions draw the directed graph D.1: Three diﬀerent directed graphs.3. The resulting graph should be acyclic and unilaterally connected. We have not asked you to draw a graph which should be acyclic and strongly connected. Problem 9. The resulting graph should be cyclic and not unilaterally connected. 9.2.

You are supposed to make it a directed graph by putting directions on un-directed edges in order to fulﬁll certain objectives Problem Set 9. Problem 9. Problem 9. Draw a directed graph D in order to fulﬁll the following objectives: Problem 9. The resulting graph should be unilaterally connected but not strongly connected.1. Problem 9. A directed graph in which every node lies on a directed cycle but the graph is not strongly connected. The directed graph should be weekly connected. and D is not strong. The resulting directed graph should be cyclic but not strongly connected.2.2.2. not strongly connected but cyclic. 3 4 .2: A graph in which only two edges are directed while the rest are left un-directed.2.7.1.6.2.1. The resulting directed graph should be cyclic and strongly connected.1.3.5.486 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Problem 9. A directed graph in which if there is a path from u to v then there is a path from v to u for every pair of vertices u and v in D.1. 2 1 6 5 Figure 9. Will the resulting graph always be unilaterally connected? Discuss brieﬂy. Problem 9. Problem 9. A directed graph in which every node lies on a directed cycle but the graph is not strongly connected.8. The directed graph may not be weekly connected. The resulting graph should be unilaterally connected.

or acyclic? Discuss brieﬂy.2. Properties A directed graph D is Hamiltonian provided there is a spanning cycle in the graph. Will the resulting graph be strongly connected. unilaterally connected. if there is a path from u to v then there is no path from v to u. The Reachable Relation graph of D can be represented by an adjacency matrix A in which A(u. An Eulerian Trail is a closed trail which spans all edges exactly once. A directed graph D is transitive if and only if there is an edge from u to v provided . Similarly the Reachable Relation matrix of a strongly connected directed graph will also contain all 1’s.Concepts. We know that a spanning cycle passes through every vertex exactly once. v) = 1 provided there is a directed path from u to v in D. A closed spanning walk in a directed graph D passes through every node of D and comes back from where it has started. This deﬁnition is almost the same as given in the last chapter for un-directed graphs. The Reachable Relation (or the transitive closure) of a directed graph D is another directed graph in which there is an edge from vertex u to vertex v provided v is reachable from u in D. A directed graph D is n − cyclic if it contains a directed cycle consisting of n nodes where n ≤ p.4. Action Items Let us now discuss some of the action items or so called transformations. The square of a graph D is another graph (known as) D2 in which there is an edge from vertex u to vertex v provided there is a two edge path from u to v or there is an edge (that is a one edge path) from u to v in D. and it is zero otherwise. The transpose of a directed graph D is another directed graph E in which there is an edge from u to v if and only if there is an edge from v to u in D. A weekly connected directed graph in which for every pair of vertices u and v. The Reachable Relation matrix of an undirected connected graph will contain all 1’s. As we know in a walk a node as well as an edge may be traversed several times. An Eulerian Trail may pass through a vertex several times but it should pass through every edge exactly once. If n = p then the graph D is Hamiltonian. We shall introduce more action items as the need arises. Properties & Actions 487 Problem 9. A Hamiltonian Path or a spanning path spans every vertex only once but is not closed so you can not come back from where you have started.

3. Draw D2 . . Problem Set 9. answer the following: 9.1. Find a closed spanning walk in this graph. Problem 9. Problem 9. Problem 9. For the directed graph D shown in Fig.3. Draw the transpose of the graph. Problem 9. Is this graph strongly connected? Why? Problem 9.3.3.3.3.3.4. try to Problem 9.3.3.7.2.3. Find a Reachable Relation Matrix for this graph.6.488 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments there is an edge from u to any vertex w and an edge from w to v for every pair of vertices u and v in D. Is the transpose also strongly connected? Why? Problem 9.3: A directed graph D for the problem set. Is D or D2 transitive? Discuss brieﬂy. 2 1 3 4 6 5 Figure 9. Problem 9.3. Is this graph Hamiltonian? Discuss brieﬂy.5. Is D2 Hamiltonian? Discuss brieﬂy.8.

Closed spanning walk 4. the Reachable Relationship of a directed graph. and thus such a graph will be strongly connected. When a graph is strongly connected then it is possible to reach every vertex from every vertex in that graph. Is it the other way round also. a trail passes through every edge exactly once but may pass through a vertex several times. Hamiltonian Cycle 2. this implies that every vertex is reachable on this cycle. Does it also imply that if the Reachable Relation matrix of a graph contains all 1’s then the graph is strongly connected? I think it is quite obvious that the answer is yes. that is every strongly connected graph is Hamiltonian? I think you should be able to ﬁnd a counter example quite easily.2 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs Let us focus on a strongly connected graph (we consider it as the current concept). These properties are: 1. Eulerian Trail 3. Let us now focus on Eulerian directed graphs. Please do it before moving forward.2). In such graphs it is possible to ﬁnd a Eulerian trail. Why it can not be an acyclic graph? Because otherwise it will not be possible to reach from v to u if it is possible to reach from u to v. n-cyclic 5. This directly implies that the Reachable Relation matrix of a strongly connected graph will contain all 1’s (see Concept map 9.Strongly Connected Directed Graphs 489 9. that is. Let me now pick one action item. Keep in mind a number of properties a directed graph can possess. Thus a strongly connected graph should never be acyclic. A directed graph which is Hamiltonian contains a Hamiltonian Cycle. As every vertex is visited at least once and we come back from where we have started thus every Eulerian graph . Again it is not the other way round that is every cyclic graph may not be strongly connected (we have already witnessed this in a problem set). Transitive. A strongly connected graph may not be Hamiltonian but it perhaps should always contain a cycle of length n where n < p.

We also know that in a strongly connected graph it is possible to move from any vertex to any other vertex. Let us call this a closed walk U . be not a closed spanning walk. When we merge U and W we shall get a closed spanning walk in the graph D. Let us summarize of what we have gained so far. We repeat this process until the closed walk becomes a closed spanning walk (see Fig. it means that you can always come back to a vertex from where you have started. Once we have the Reachable Relation we have some information about the nature of the directed graph. As U does not span all vertices thus there will be a vertex u in U which will be connected to a vertex v of D which is not part of U (why?). Algorithm 63 answers if a given directed graph is strongly connected (or not) in a polynomial time algorithm. that will in fact be a closed walk. 9. It uses the Reachable Relation of a graph as an intermediate or a so called bridging concept. We know that it is possible to traverse a node or even an edge several times in a walk. go to vertex v. .490 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments will be strongly connected but not vise versa. This will result in another closed walk W which when merged in U gives us a closed walk with more vertices that in U .4). it will still be possible to come back to vertex u. 1 2 7 1 2 u v 7 6 U 3 8 6 W 3 8 5 4 9 5 4 9 Figure 9. let us look at a relatively more general graph D which contains a closed spanning walk. We are now in a position to design algorithms to solve a number of related problems. Another closed walk W is also shown in the same directed graph. A graph D is strongly connected if and only if we can ﬁnd a closed spanning walk in D or D is strongly connected if and only if the Reachable Relationship of D contains all 1’s. it may. however. We can start from u.4: A closed walk U is indicated in a directed graph D. After looking at Hamiltonian or Eulerian graphs which are quite restrictive in nature.

Eulerian.2. It is interesting to note that the Reachable Relation graph of a Hamiltonian.Strongly Connected Directed Graphs 491 Algorithm 63: Check if directed graph D is strongly connected input : Directed graph D output: Graph D is Strongly Connected or not 1 Transform the Directed Graph D into a Reachable Relation graph by applying any traversal algorithm on every vertex of D. A map showing the concept of a strongly connected graph. If the Reachable Relation matrix contains all 1’s then the graph D is strongly connected otherwise not. . a couple of properties and an action item which is the Reachable Relation. Concept Map 9. and strongly connected directed graph is exactly the same.

Algorithm 64: Find a cycle in a directed graph D input : A directed graph D which is not acyclic output: A cycle in D 1 2 Find a closed walk u in D. Khawaja Fahd says that we should just check the diagonal boxes in the Reachable Matrix and there is no need to check any other box. We shall address this problem once we acquire the required knowledge. Algorithm 65: Find a closed spanning walk in a strong graph D input : A strongly connected directed graph D output: A closed spanning walk in D 1 2 Find a closed walk u in D. What do you think? It is interesting to note that it is possible to design a much more eﬃcient algorithm to solve the same problem but then we need some more concepts and a deeper insight into the problem. It will be interesting to derive the time complexity of this algorithm and to make it more eﬃcient if possible. Increase its size until it becomes a closed spanning walk as previously explained in this section. The given directed graph D may not be strongly connected but it should contain a cycle. Convert it into a cycle. Note that this algorithm is directly related to the (constructive) proof which proves that a directed graph D is strongly connected if and only if D contains . If D is strongly connected then it will certainly contain a cycle.492 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments If the relation matrix contains all 1’s then the graph D is strongly connected otherwise it is not. A closed walk can always be converted into a cycle. Algorithm 64 ﬁnds a cycle in a directed graph D. In this algorithm ﬁrst we ﬁnd a closed walk in graph D using any traversal algorithm.

We next consider a class of un-directed graphs (known as strongly orient-able) where if we put a direction intelligently on each edge then the resulting directed graph will be strongly connected.4). Is this also a necessary condition for a graph G to be strongly orient-able? The following algorithm converts an un-directed graph with no bridge edges into a strongly connected directed graph by putting appropriate direction on each edge (see Fig. The algorithm is quite similar to the algorithm . we have taken the transpose of D. that is. 9. Now assume that we reverse the direction of each edge in graph D. This implies that a graph G should not contain any bridge edge for G to be strongly orient-able. It is obvious that the un-directed G should be connected. Will it be still possible to reach any vertex from any vertex in this graph? If yes then the transpose of D will always be strongly connected provided D was strongly connected. every directed edge should be part of a directed cycle otherwise it will be impossible to ensure reach ability from any vertex to every other vertex. On the other hand there are un-directed graphs where it is impossible to convert them into strongly connected directed graphs. One of the necessary conditions for a graph to be Hamiltonian is that there should be no cut vertex. The proof was earlier presented informally in this section. Let us discuss strongly connected graphs in terms of one more property (transitive) and one more transformation (transpose). We should remember that the desired directed graph should not only be cyclic. It is interesting (or shocking) to note that the underlying un-directed graph of a strongly connected graph may not be strongly orient-able (why?).Strongly Connected Directed Graphs 493 a closed spanning walk. It should not be acyclic otherwise it will be impossible to create a directed cyclic graph out of it which is strongly connected. It will again be interesting to derive the time complexity of this algorithm and to make it more eﬃcient if possible. Strongly orient-able Un-directed Graphs We need to discover necessary and suﬃcient conditions for an undirected graph G to be transformed into a strongly connected graph. Is a strongly connected graph D transitive? Should it never be transitive? If it is transitive then will it be a special strongly connected graph? If a strongly connected graph D is not transitive then will D2 be transitive? Under what conditions D2 be transitive? We know that in a strongly connected graph D it is possible to reach any vertex from any vertex in D.

3 Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) In a strongly connected directed graph every vertex is reachable from every other vertex. that is. a DAG is quite the apposite. We have yet to prove that if there is a bridge edge in a graph G then it is impossible to convert G into a strongly connected graph D. Can a DAG be unilaterally connected? Can a DAG be not unilaterally connected? Should a DAG be always transitive or always not transitive? These are some of the questions . We have seen in the last chapter that G2 of a line graph is Hamiltonian and is therefore strongly orient-able.494 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments used to ﬁnd a closed spanning walk in a strongly connected directed graph. Algorithm 66: Convert an un-directed G into a strongly connected D input : An un-directed graph G output: A strongly connected directed graph D 1 2 3 Find a closed spanning walk u in G. Increase the size of the spanning walk until it becomes a closed spanning walk as previously explained. an n-Cycle. The algorithm can also be used as a constructive proof to prove that if there are no bridge edges in an un-directed graph G then it is possible to convert G into a strongly connected directed graph D. a vertex u is reachable from v and the vertex v is reachable from u for every vertex u and v in D. a Hamiltonian Cycle. here if a vertex v is reachable from u then the vertex u is not reachable from v for every pair of vertices u and v in a DAG. That will in fact complete the proof of a theorem which states that a connected graph G is strongly orient-able if and only if G contains no bridge edges. Thus a DAG can never be strongly connected. an Eulerian Trail. 9. As opposed to a strongly connected graph. We have also seen that G2 of a star graph is also Hamiltonian. It will be worthwhile to conjecture that if G is connected but not strongly orient-able then G2 is certainly strongly orient-able. or a closed walk can not exist in a DAG. In other words there is no cycle in a DAG and that is why the name: directed acyclic graph. You should either prove this conjecture or ﬁnd a counter example. Put appropriate directions. As it should be evident.

and a number of intermediate vertices. Try your luck and design an algorithm which can transform an un-directed completely connected graph into a DAG (see Fig.Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) 495 which should trouble your mind. Looking from the other way round you can start from any undirected graph G and put a direction on each edge such that the resulting directed graph becomes a DAG (in fact it can be converted into several diﬀerent DAG’s). There are certain nodes in a DAG which have some special features not noticed in other directed graphs. as this DAG is derived from a completely connected un-directed graph so it is known as a tournament DAG.10). Perhaps you may like to ﬁnd a non tournament DAG which is also transitive? Let us look at a DAG along with an action item. the direction of each edge is reversed only. a sink vertex.3. How about if we take the square of a DAG? Will the resulting graph also a DAG? How the roles of diﬀerent vertices change or remain the same in the square graph? Will the resulting graph be transitive? If we draw a Reachable Relation matrix A for a DAG. But then a DAG consists of a source vertex. What happens to these vertices when we take a transform of a DAG? A source node has no in-degree but when we reverse directions it will have no out-degree so it will be transformed into a sink as shown in Concept map 9. 9. For example every DAG will have at least one source node and at least one sink node in addition to other ordinary (sometimes called intermediate nodes). the transpose of a DAG. Will the transpose of a DAG always a DAG? Why? It will obviously contain the same number of vertices and exactly the same number of edges. We shall shortly provide an eﬃcient algorithm to solve this problem. An intermediate node has both in degree as well as out degree. A tournament DAG is always transitive (why?). how the matrix will tell us that it represents the reachable relation for a directed acyclic graph? . Similarly the sink of the original DAG will be transformed into a source in the transpose of the DAG. On the other hand if an un-directed graph is completely connected then we have to be careful in selecting the direction of an edge in order to transform G into a DAG. It is interesting to note that the underlying undirected graph of a DAG will be an undirected graph. A source node is deﬁned as a node with no in degree while a sink node has no out degree. Answer these questions before moving forward. If the undirected graph is a tree then we may put an arbitrary direction on each edge and the resulting directed graph will guaranteed to be a DAG.

We know that a directed graph is acyclic if and only if a DFS of the directed graph does not produce a back edge. and cross edges if any. you must have become familiar with Depth First Search of a graph while studying algorithms. In this so called topological sort.4. Perform a DFS from any vertex u in D. Cross edges 4. Back edges 5. We also know that if a directed graph is a DAG then the vertex with maximum ﬁnishing time will always be (one of) the source vertices of the DAG. Find the vertex of maximum ﬁnishing time. Start a DFS from a vertex other than u and again locate a vertex with the maximum ﬁnishing time. The source vertex will always be on the extreme left while the sink will be on the extreme right on the horizontal line (see Fig. the vertices of the DAG can be so arranged on a horizontal line such that all directed edges go from left to right.496 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments If we take the transpose of a DAG then obviously the Reachable Relation matrix for the transpose will be diﬀerent from that of the original graph.3. DFS spanning tree consisting of tree edges 2. back edges.1. 9.3). Problem 9.4. Finishing times of all vertices (please see Concept map 9. do the following: Problem 9. It is interesting to note that the vertices of a cyclic graph can not be so arranged on a horizontal line such that all edges go in only one direction. it should still tell us somehow that it represents a directed acyclic graph? Let us now introduce a new action item. The output of the DFS are: 1. Problem 9.2. . identify tree edges. This visualization of a DAG may encourage us in devising a scheme to convert an un-directed graph into an acyclic directed graph. Problem Set 9.6).4. 9. More importantly it is beneﬁcial to sort the vertices of the DAG on the basis of decreasing ﬁnishing times.5.4. the directed edges should always go only from left to right. forward edges. For the directed acyclic graph D shown in Fig. Forward edges 3.

A concept map showing the concept of a directed acyclic graph. .3.Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) 497 Concept Map 9. a couple of properties and two action items which are Reachable Relation and transpose of a DAG.

Find if a given directed graph is acyclic.5. Find if a given directed graph (not necessarily a DAG) has a node u such that you can reach every vertex from u. Problem 9. Discuss the outcome? 2 1 3 4 6 5 Figure 9.5.7.498 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Problem 9. Find the source and the sink node in a DAG.3.4.5.1. reverse the direction of the edge between vertex 2 and vertex 4.5: A directed graph D for Problem Set. Repeat the above three steps (1. & 3) on the same graph with one change. Convert a completely connected un-directed graph into a DAG. Convert a connected graph into a DAG. Problem 9. Find if a given DAG has a node u such that you can reach every other vertex of the DAG from u.6. Problem 9.4.5.2. Let us try to address the following problems: Problem Set 9. Problem 9.5.5. 2. Problem 9.5.5.4. . We are now in a position to address a number of algorithmic issues. Problem 9. Design an eﬃcient algorithm to solve the following: Problem 9.5. Find if a DAG has a node u such that you can reach u from every other vertex of the DAG.

Algorithm 67 used DFS as a bridge to solve a couple of problems.3 for further hints. input : A directed graph D output: Yes/No. if yes then the source and the sink vertices 1 2 3 Find a Reachable Relation R for the given graph D. ﬁnd the source and the sink. How about if instead of a DAG we have an ordinary directed graph which may contain cycles? There . The source vertex can be found directly by identifying the vertex with maximum ﬁnishing time. ﬁnd the source and the sink. Algorithm 67 can also be slightly modiﬁed to locate a vertex u in a special DAG from where it is possible to reach every other vertex. You should try to solve these problems yourself before moving forward. Algorithm 68: Check if D is a DAG. Source: Vertex with maximum reachability in R?. if yes then the source and the sink vertices 1 2 3 499 Apply DFS on graph D. If no back edge then D is a DAG. This is because the Reachable Relation Matrix R is expensive as compared to a single DFS. if all vertices of D are spanned by the BFS then the DAG possesses the desired characteristics (Does it mean that D is strongly connected?). Source vertex will be the one with maximum ﬁnishing time. Using a Reachable Relation Matrix we can easily ﬁnd if there is a node u in D from where it is possible to reach every vertex of D. But then the Reachable Relation provides much more information about a graph. It is not possible to ﬁnd the sink node directly. input : A directed graph D output: Yes/No. If all diagonal entries in R are zero then D is a DAG. Perhaps you should take the transpose of D and then again perform a DFS now on the transpose of D. Sink: Vertex with zero reachabiliy?. Look at Concept map 9.Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) Algorithm 67: Check if D is a DAG. In fact it can answer this question even if the graph D is not acyclic. this will be a source vertex. You might have noticed that Algorithm 68 is much more costly than Algorithm 67. First we can ﬁnd the vertex with maximum ﬁnishing time. Now we can start a new BFS from this very vertex. Sink vertex: You ﬁnd out.

Arrange the Hamiltonian Path as a Horizontal line. and if it does then the algorithm outputs the actual Hamiltonian Path. Perhaps in an ordinary graph.500 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments may still be a node u in D from where it is possible to reach every where. We can easily design an eﬃcient algorithm to check if such a path exists. now the vertices of the DAG can be so arranged on a horizontal line such that the source vertex will always be on the extreme left while the sink will be on the extreme right on the horizontal line (see Fig. Algorithm 69 can be used to put appropriate directions on a completely connected un-directed graph in order to convert it into a DAG (see Fig. we should ﬁrst put directions arbitrarily and then remove cycles by reversing back edges? Or put edge directions such that no cycle is created in the ﬁrst place? Or why not convert the given un-directed graph into a completely connected un-directed graph and then use Algorithm 69. Put back the remaining edges of G with directions going from left to right only. It is left as an exercise for the learner to design an algorithm in order to convert an ordinary connected graph into a DAG. For a Hamiltonian path to exist in this graph there should be a directed edge . This node u is not a conventional source vertex as it may have an in-degree. All edges of the graph will go from left to right in this arrangement otherwise it will not be a directed acyclic graph. Please note that if the undirected graph G is not completely connected then it will be hard to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian Path in G (as is done in Algorithm 69.6). 9. will the maximum ﬁnishing time be able to locate this u in D? It is important for you to verify or contradict this conjecture at this very stage before moving forward. Put directions on this line going from left to right only. The ﬁrst step should be to do a topological sort on the vertices of the given directed graph. But then we have to remove the extra edges that we have inserted into the original un-directed graph? So what? It is interesting to note that ﬁnding a Hamiltonian Path in a DAG is not a hard problem as it is in other graphs. How about if we perform a DFS in this directed graph. 9.10). Algorithm 69: Convert a completely connected graph into a DAG input : An undirected completely connected graph G output: A DAG D (with same number of nodes and edges) 1 2 3 4 Find a Hamiltonian Path in G.

A directed edge between two consecutive vertices (8/9 & 1/6) is missing. The vertices of D are topologically sorted on the basis of decreasing ﬁnishing times as shown in the bottom diagram.6 shows a directed acyclic graph D. thus it is not possible to ﬁnd a directed path passing through all the topologically sorted vertices. Algorithm 70: Find a Hamiltonian path in a DAG input : A directed acyclic graph D output: A Hamiltonian path in D provided it exists 1 2 Perform a topological sort on vertices of D.Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG’s) 501 (from left to right) between every two consecutive vertices. this observation conﬁrms that D is a directed acyclic graph. The resulting start / ﬁnishing times are indicated along with each vertex in this diagram.. 9. As one can see all edges of this graph are going from left to right. It implies that a Hamiltonian path does not exist in this directed acyclic graph. We start a Depth First Search in this graph starting from a vertex designated as a start vertex in the top diagram. A path passing through all topological sorted vertices means a Hamiltonian path exists otherwise not. a Hamiltonian path in D will essentially be a path between topological sorted vertices in D (in the topological sorted order). . Fig.

The directed graph D is acyclic thus all edges move from left to right in the bottom diagram. .6: A depth ﬁrst search is conducted on the directed acyclic graph D starting from a vertex labeled as start node as shown in the top diagram.502 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 3/4 8/9 2/5 7/10 1/6 Start Node 11/12 11/12 7/10 8/9 1/6 2/5 3/4 Figure 9. The start/ﬁnishing times of each vertex is also indicated here. Vertices of D are topologically sorted on the basis of decreasing ﬁnishing times as shown in the bottom diagram. A direct edge between two consecutive vertices is missing in the bottom diagram thus a Hamiltonian path is not possible in this graph.

v in D.4). the resulting graph is no longer independently connected.Strongly Connected Components 503 9. Thus if we start a BFS from any vertex belonging to any strongly connected component in an independently connected graph then the search is conﬁned to that strongly connected component. In the bottom diagram of Fig. & 2. it is in fact an eﬃcient way of determining vertices belonging to a strongly connected . An independently connected graph D which is not strongly connected is shown in the top of Fig. 9.4).7 and Concept map 9. It is important to appreciate that in an independently connected directed graph there are no edges among strongly connected components (see top diagram of Fig. we add an edge between component E and F . a vertex u is reachable to vertex v and the vertex v is reachable to vertex u for every pair of vertices u. Let us now consider a (related) class of directed graphs which we call independently connected directed graphs. In such a graph every vertex u in D may not be reachable to every vertex v in D but if u is reachable to v then v is reachable to u for every pair of vertices u.4 Strongly Connected Components We know that in a strongly connected graph D.7. it can not enter into another strongly connected component. 9. 9. The concept of independently connected graphs is introduced as it is much simpler to solve the above problem in such graphs. Nodes belonging to a strongly connected component. v in D. The two sub-graphs in Fig. 9. both of these sub-graphs are strongly connected while graph D as a whole is not strongly connected. It is quite evident from this ﬁgure that graph D consists of two sub-graphs E and F .7 are in fact two strongly connected components. An independently connected graph may not be strongly connected but a strongly connected directed graph is always independently connected (see Concept map 9.7. in the top diagram there is no edge between component E and F . The number of strongly connected components in a directed graph. It is now natural to deﬁne a new concept before moving forward: a strongly connected component in a directed graph D is a maximal set of vertices of a directed graph in which vertices u and v are reachable from each other for every pair of vertices u and v in that maximal set. The problem that we intend to address in this section is to understand how we can eﬃciently ﬁnd the following: 1.

9. In a directed graph which is neither strongly connected nor independently connected there are edges between diﬀerent strongly connected components. The question . 9. In the bottom diagram there is an edge from E to F and the graph D is neither strongly connected nor independently connected.7 If you start a BFS in this graph then the search may not be conﬁned to only one strongly connected component. it may also enter another strongly connected component.504 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 4 7 1 3 5 E 2 D F 6 4 7 1 3 5 E D 2 6 F Figure 9. If some how we can remove edges connecting diﬀerent strongly connected components in a directed graph (like the edge (3.7: Sub-graph E and sub-graph F are both strongly connected components. In the top diagram. 9. note the directed edge from component E to component F in the directed graph D shown in the bottom of Fig. component (it is as simple as determining nodes belonging to a connected component in an un-directed graph).7) thereby converting it into an independently connected graph then the problem of determining nodes belonging to a strongly connected component is much simpliﬁed. For example if you start a BFS from vertex 1 belonging to component E then the search will traverse vertices belonging to component E as well as F (see Fig.5) in D shown in the bottom of Fig.7) Thus the problem of determining nodes belonging to a strongly connected component becomes harder if a directed graph is neither strongly connected nor independently connected. there is no edge between the two components and graph D is independently connected.

9. The corresponding equivalence classes (that the relationship generates) are in fact the strongly connected components E and F of the independently connected graph D.7. symmetric as well as transitive. .7 is shown by the bold 1’s in any of the table shown in Fig. 9. If you carefully look at the resulting Reachable matrix you will notice that the relationship it depicts on this graph is reﬂexive. Once we have the Reachable matrix of an independently connected graph. 9.Strongly Connected Components is how to locate and then remove these edges? 505 It is important at this learning stage to apply the Reachable transformation to a number of independently connected directed graphs and draw the corresponding Reachable Matrices. We shall certainly encourage you to draw the Reachable matrix for the independently connected graph shown at the top of Fig.8. it is not reachable to vertices belonging to other strongly connected components. it is an equivalence relationship on the vertices of the independently connected graph. it becomes trivial to pinpoint vertices belonging to a strongly connected component. In simple words it means that in an independently connected graph a vertex is reachable only to vertices belonging to the same strongly connected component. The Reachable Relation Matrix for the independently connected graph of Fig.

The Reachable relation is not symmetric.8 is again equivalent to removing the edge (3. The reachability across strongly connected components is certainly aﬀected by taking the transpose of a directed graph. It is interesting to note that the graph D is diﬀerent from its transpose but the Reachable relation of the two graphs will be exactly the same as demonstrated by bold 1’s in the two tables of Table shown in Fig. It is thus no longer trivial to determine vertices in a strongly connected component in such directed graphs? If somehow we can convert it back into a symmetric relation without disturbing the connectivity inside any strongly connected component and without changing the number of strongly connected components then the problem will become much simpler? This means that some how we should be able to remove the small 1’s in the Reachable Relation Matrix A of table in Fig. It is quite obvious in the tables that the reachability within a strongly connected component is not aﬀected by the transpose transformation (see the bold 1’s in the two tables in Fig. this is indicated by the small 1’s in the two tables given in the ﬁgure. You might have noticed that removing those small ones in the table shown in Fig. 9. we take the transpose of a directed graph which is not independently connected then things will be diﬀerent. 9.5) in the bottom diagram of Fig.7.8. 9. . 9. For example if you draw the Reachable matrix of the graph shown in the bottom of Fig. however. 9. 9. The question is again how to do it? Let us again consider an independently connected directed D and assume that we take a transpose of D. A careful look at the two tables will provide the required answer.8). We show the same directed graph D as depicted in the bottom of Fig.7 as well as its transpose on the top of Table in Fig. although vertex 1 belongs to strongly connected component E (please see Reachable Relation Matrix A in the table shown in Fig. The Reachable Relation Matrix A of D and the Reachable Relation Matrix B of the transpose of D are also shown in this table. 9.7 thereby converting it again into an independently connected directed graph. 9. hence it is not an equivalence relationship.506 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments The picture is not so rosy for a directed graph which is not independently connected. 9.8.8. you will realize the inherent complication. 9. The problem of determining strongly connected components in a directed graph is thus reduced to recovering the bold 1’s (or throwing away the small 1’s) in the Reachable Relation Matrices of Fig.8). If. you can reach all vertices belonging to component E as well as component F from vertex 1.8.

9. Take AND of Matrix A & B. 9.Strongly Connected Components 507 A problem For each of the graphs shown in Fig. Algorithm 71: Find strongly connected components of graph D input : A directed graph D output: Strongly connected components of graph D 1 2 3 4 Find Reachable Relation Matrix A of D. Find Transpose T (D) of D. Graph I is the same as the transpose of D in Fig.8 except that the edge (3.8 except for one common edge. It uses two transformations: Reachable Relation as well as the Transpose as intermediate building blocks of this algorithm. 9. 9. Graph J is almost the same as graph D in Fig. Again it is quite diﬀerent from graph D in Fig. Algorithm 71 is a straight forward algorithm to ﬁnd all strongly connected components in a directed graph as already illustrated in the Table shown in Fig.5).3). 9.8 except that the edge (5. It may not be very eﬃcient (still a polynomial time algorithm) but certainly a good start for a new learner in this ﬁeld. Please note that: 1. We shall describe hints for designing a more eﬃcient algorithm to solve a similar problem in the coming . Find Reachable Relation Matrix B of T (D).6) in I is reversed in K thus creating a new cycle in the directed graph.8 except for one similar edge and that is (5. ﬁnd the Reachable Relation Matrix and compare this matrix with the ones given in Table in Fig.8 except the connectivity inside strongly connected component E in D is altered. Graph K is almost the same as graph I except that the edge (2. Graph H is the same as graph D in Fig. 3.8.9.5) in D is reversed. 9.8 (this comparison will certainly be a useful learning experience). 9. 2.3) is reversed and another edge (6. (please see Fig.2) is added. 9. 4.8). It is very diﬀerent from the transpose of D in Fig. that is (3. 9.

When you insert edges you will soon realize that in order to achieve the above mentioned objective you should be careful not to create a cycle otherwise all strongly connected components within that cycle will collapse into one strongly connected component and the above condition will be violated. .. Call BFS on T starting from u. 9. let us describe another algorithm (Algorithm 73) which will also output a strongly connected component of F . This further implies that there will be at least one source and one sink strongly connected component. We know there are no edges between strongly connected components in an independently connected graph. You are supposed to insert extra edges between the k strongly connected components such that the new directed graph should still have as many as k strongly connected components. Again consider an independently connected directed graph D consisting of K strongly connected components. This looks very similar but there are interesting diﬀerences between the two algorithms. Graph I has two strongly connected components in spite of the extra edges (2. Algorithm 72: Find a strongly connected components of graph D input : A directed graph D output: One Strongly Connected Component of D 1 2 3 4 Call DFS on D. the component E was a source while the component F was a sink. 9.8. Let us for the time being restrict ourselves to ﬁnd one strongly connected component of a directed graph. Please recall graph I & K in Fig. A comparison of the two will certainly be an exciting learning experience. Find Transpose T of D. This immediately suggests that strongly connected components in a directed graph are always connected in the form of a directed acyclic graph (see Concept map 9. component F was a source and E was a sink strongly connected component. Before discussing this algorithm (Algorithm 72). While in the top right diagram of the same ﬁgure.2).6) while Graph K is reduced into one strongly connected component because of a cycle created by the edge (6. ﬁnd vertex u of maximum ﬁnishing time.2). Output all vertices traversed by the BFS.9. In the top left diagram of Fig.508 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments paragraphs.

. It is interesting to note that the Reachable Relation graph of a Hamiltonian. Call BFS on D starting from u. Call DFS on T : ﬁnd vertex u of maximum ﬁnishing time. and strongly connected directed graph is exactly the same. A map showing the concept of a strongly connected graph.Strongly Connected Components 509 Concept Map 9. a couple of properties and an action item which is the Reachable Relation. Eulerian. Output all vertices traversed by the BFS.4. Algorithm 73: Find a strongly connected component of graph D input : A directed graph D output: One Strongly Connected component of D 1 2 3 4 Find Transpose T of D.

510 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments E 1 4 Graph D 5 7 4 Transpose of D 3 5 7 F 6 3 2 1 F 6 2 E 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 6 1 1 1 1 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 5 6 7 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Reachable Relation Matrix A of graph D Reachable Relation B of Transpose of graph D Figure 9.8: The Reachable Relation Matrix A for D is shown on the left. Reachability within a strongly connected component is shown by a bold 1’s. A similar matrix B for the Transpose of D is shown on the right. .

If we start a traversal from this node in the graph F then the traversal will not only traverse vertices belonging to the source strongly connected component. But how to determine if a directed graph possesses this property? How about if the sink strongly connected component consists of all vertices of the directed graph? We can determine this in O(p + q) instead of O(p3 ) .9: Directed graphs for the problem set As you may have noticed that Algorithm 72 locates a vertex u of maximum ﬁnishing time after doing a DFS on D. What does that mean in terms of our newly acquired knowledge of strongly connected components? A strongly connected graph is just one strongly connected component. The source strongly connected component in D will become a sink in the transpose of D. Algorithm 73 ﬁrst takes the transpose of D and then locates the vertex u of maximum ﬁnishing time. it will also enter and traverse vertices belonging to other strongly connected components. the output will thus be all vertices belonging to the source component in D as shown in Concept map 9.Strongly Connected Components Graph H 4 E 1 2 3 5 6 F 1 2 7 E 3 5 6 F 4 Graph I 511 7 4 E 1 2 3 Graph J 7 E 5 6 F 1 4 Graph K 7 3 2 5 6 F Figure 9. We therefore take the transpose of D and then start a traversal from vertex u.5. Vertex u will belong to the source strongly connected component of directed graph D. This vertex will belong to the source component of the transpose of D. this time a traversal will be contained in the sink component of the transpose of D.5)? Please recall the algorithm in which we have tried to solve the problem of determining if a given directed graph is strongly connected. The output of this algorithm will thus be the source or the sink strongly connected component of directed graph D (see Concept map 9.

A directed graph F consists of a DAG of its strongly connected components.512 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Concept Map 9. The source strongly connected component belonging to F is the same as the sink strongly connected component of the transpose of F . .5. Transpose of F also consists of a (diﬀerent) DAG of strongly connected components.

10 determine the corresponding strongly connected components and the underlying DAG connecting the strongly connected components. The bottom left diagram of this ﬁgure is one strongly connected directed graph or component.Strongly Connected Components 513 for Algorithm 63. For the two bottom graphs in Fig. . Fig.10: A completely connected undirected graph of ﬁve vertices is shown in the top diagram.10 (top) shows a completely connected undirected graph. 9. The bottom of this ﬁgure shows two directed graph derived from the top graph by putting a directions on edges of the un-directed complete graph (such a directed graph is known as a tournament). Please note that all edges in the bottom left diagram are not directed. 9. You may put any directions on these edges (indicated by thin lines).1. Directions are added in this undirected graph in order to convert it into an acyclic directed graph shown in the bottom right. Problem Set 9. Diﬀerent directions are added in the completely connected un-directed graph to convert it into a strongly connected graph shown in the bottom left. It is interesting to note that the directed graph (bottom right) is a directed acyclic graph as all edges are going from left to right (see Algorithm 69). Please solve the following: 5 1 2 3 4 1 5 5 1 2 3 4 1 5 1 2 5 3 4 1 5 1 Figure 9. if BFS traverses all vertices of the directed graph D then D is strongly connected.6. It should read. What we need to do is to slightly modify the last line of Algorithm 72 or 73. Problem 9.6. the graph still remains a strongly connected graph.

Group all tournaments which correspond to the same DAG.7. How many non-isomorphic DAG’s are possible corresponding to all possible tournaments of 5 vertices. please see Fig. 9. Is it possible to convert the top un-directed graph Fig. 9. Problem Set 9.4. Convert the completely connected un-directed graph in Fig.1. Is it possible to draw a tournament of 5 nodes which consists of 4 strongly connected components? Discuss brieﬂy.6. Draw all these DAGs.10 into a directed graph consisting of two strongly connected components such that one strongly connected component should consist of two nodes and the other will consist of the remaining three nodes? Discuss brieﬂy how this is possible or why it is not possible. Problem 9.7. . it shows two tournaments (top and middle) with the same DAG and one with a diﬀerent DAG (bottom).11.2. What are their respective sizes in terms of number of nodes? Please remember that each node in a DAG corresponds to a strongly connected component. Problem 9. 9. Problem 9. Find and draw all non isomorphic directed graphs derived from the completely connected un-directed graph shown in the ﬁgure.11 show three non-isomorphic directed graphs (tournaments) derived by putting directions on edges of the completely connected un-directed graph of Fig.6. Draw the corresponding DAG of strongly connected components for each of the tournament graph that you have drawn.7. 9. Problem 9. 9. The DAG of strongly connected components of the bottom graph is not isomorphic to any of the two. Problem 9.5.3. Note that the top two directed graphs are not isomorphic to each other yet the DAG’s of strongly connected components are isomorphic to each other.514 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Problem 9. Find its strongly connected components and determine the DAG connecting these components.10.6. Carefully examine each of non-isomorphic tournaments that you have drawn in the last problem set. The corresponding DAG of strongly connected components of each tournament graph is drawn in front of it.10 into a directed graph such that the resulting directed graph (which will be another tournament graph) is neither strongly connected nor acyclic. Fig.6. and the respective DAG of strongly connected components of each tournament.2.

Note that all edges are not directed as shown by thin lines in the bottom graph.4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1. 9. The corresponding DAG of strongly connected components of each tournament graph is drawn in front of it.3.11: We show here three non-isomorphic directed graphs derived by putting directions on each edge of a completely connected graph of Fig.10.4 5 5 Figure 9. .2 3.Strongly Connected Components 515 1 2 3 4 5 1 2. 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1. the strongly connected components and the corresponding DAG will still remain the same. you may put any directions on these edges.

3.4. Why? Only because it is a tournament? Recall how a tournament is constructed from a completely connected un-directed graph and also recall the deﬁnition of a unilaterally connected directed graph? 9. Assume that we have a tournament of p nodes and we have already found a path P of length k in this tournament. We know .1 Tournaments A Panoramic Picture and a Concept Map A directed graph obtained by putting directions on edges in a completely connected un-directed graph is known as a tournament (see Fig.2 A Hamiltonian Path in a Tournament Every tournament has a Hamiltonian path. we can design an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd that path.6). a tournament is always unilaterally connected.5.5. We shall study these and many other interesting properties of tournaments in this section. 9.5 9. Similarly a tournament is transitive if and only if it is acyclic (why?). Within these two extremes there is a lot of variety of possible tournaments consisting of various strongly connected components (see Concept map 9. 9. While playing with tournaments in previous problems.516 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Problem 9. 9. 9.7. The directed graphs that you have studied in Fig.12).12 are in fact all tournaments. Is it possible to draw a DAG of 4 strongly connected components corresponding to a tournament of size 4? Problem 9. 9.7. Derive an exact expression for the number of non isomorphic DAGs of strongly connected components of tournaments of size p.7. you might have noticed that a tournament can be strongly connected while another tournament may be a directed acyclic graph again shown in Fig. Is the DAG of strongly connected components of a tournament also a tournament? Why? Problem 9.12 . We can take any node u in T which is not part of P . Let us start with some very simple properties.5. There are several non-isomorphic tournaments possible which are not acyclic (Fig. The goal is to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian path in the tournament which will be a simple path of length p − 1.13) but there is always a unique acyclic tournament for a ﬁxed number of vertices (why?).

An un-directed and completely connected graph can be converted into a directed graph by putting directions on each edge in an arbitrary fashion. Such a directed graph is known as a Tournament.6. it possesses some very special properties as shown in this concept map.Tournaments 517 Concept Map 9. .

.518 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments We start with a completely connected un-directed graph Which is usually drawn in this fashion 1 5 2 Put directions on each edge 1 2 3 4 1 5 4 3 1 5 2 1 2 3 4 1 5 4 3 A directed acyclic tournament We get a Tournament: This is a directed acyclic graph 1 2 3 4 1 5 1 2 3 4 1 5 A strongly connected tournament A strongly connected tournament Figure 9.12: Diﬀerent Tournament graphs constructed from a completely connected un-directed graph.

.Tournaments 519 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 11 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 9.13: Diﬀerent Tournaments and the associared Strongly Connected Components.

The extended Hamiltonian path is shown in bold in the bottom diagrams.14: A directed path P of length k is shown in a tournament. Vertex u will be connected to every vertex in P. you are at liberty to put any directions in the top diagram you will always end up with an extended path P of length k+1.520 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 1 2 3 4 1 k u 1 2 3 4 1 k 1 1 2 1 3 4 1 k u u Figure 9. . Any exercise to put directions so that the path length does not increase will fail as shown in the bottom diagrams. Consider any vertex u in T which is not included in P.

How about if we use a similar approach used earlier for extending the path length. Using Algorithm 74 it is possible to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian path in a tournament.5. and a cycle C of length k in T output: A cycle of length k + 1 in T Before providing an answer to the above problem. 9.Tournaments 521 that u is connected to all nodes in T (why?) as shown in Fig. We will now show that T + u . Also assume that now we add another vertex u to T such that T +u is strongly connected and is also a tournament. 9.14 (bottom). Include u in P and output the new path P . thus it may not be strongly connected. Algorithm 75: Extend cycle length in T from k to k + 1 input : A strong Tournament T. it will not contain a Hamiltonian cycle. We now prove that if a tournament is strongly connected then it will always be Hamiltonian. Algorithm 74: Extend path length in P from k to k + 1 input : A Tournament T . you are bound to get an increase in the path length of P from k to k + 1. we ﬁrst prove a simpler hypothesis: if there is a cycle C of length k in a tournament then it is possible to ﬁnd a cycle of length k +1 in that tournament. See if you can ﬁnd the Basic Idea and Time Complexity of Algorithm 75 as shown below. and a simple path P of length k in T output: A simple path P of length k + 1 in T 1 2 Consider any node u in T not already in the path P .14 (top). you may put any directions on these edges. The algorithm also serves as a constructive proof that there is always a Hamiltonian path in any tournament. let us look at a related problem: Assume that we are given a Hamiltonian cycle in a tournament T of size k. 9.3 A Hamiltonian Cycle in a Strong Tournament We know that a tournament can be acyclic. It will be an interesting (but futile) exercise to put directions such that the path length does not increase by one as is demonstrated in Fig. Before proving that general result. Try your luck and check if it is possible.

it is possible that a tournament T is not strongly connected but T + u is a strongly connected tournament.15. It is thus always possible to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in T + u as shown in bold in the left diagram.15). How the above hypothesis will help us in ﬁnding a Hamiltonian cycle in a strongly connected tournament or in proving that a strongly connected tournament is Hamiltonian? How about ﬁnding a cycle of length 3 in a strong tournament. 9. It means that if T is Hamiltonian then T + u will also be Hamiltonian provided T + u is a strong tournament. This type of approach will be very similar to Algorithm 74 where we extend the path length incrementally and ﬁnally output the Hamiltonian path. 3 4 3 4 2 u 5 2 u 5 1 k 1 k Figure 9. 9. The vertex u will have at least one incoming edge and one outgoing edge (right). Thus it will always be possible to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in T + u as shown in Fig. the vertex u will have a ﬁnite in-degree and a ﬁnite out-degree as T + u is strongly connected (see Fig. 9. In fact this special case is simple to solve as there is only one way to convert a directed acyclic tournament graph (we already .16 before making up your mind.15: A Hamiltonian cycle in a tournament T of size k is shown. and so on until we ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle. that is certainly not a hard problem? Then we should locate a vertex u such that the cycle length increases from 3 to 4. As you can see there is a serious complication here. A new vertex u is added to T such that T + u is a tournament and is also strongly connected. As T + u is a tournament thus u will be connected to every vertex of T. Is it feasible or not? Carefully look at Fig.522 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments is Hamiltonian. how about if T is a directed acyclic tournament but T +u is a strongly connected. Then how can we show that T + u will be Hamiltonian? Let us look at the extreme.

A cycle of length 4 is shown in the bottom right. we have also considered the possibility when T is a directed acyclic graph. but there is a possibility when T is neither strongly connected nor acyclic. How to cater to that class of graph. Before proving this hypothesis let us look at its repercussions. Please note that vertex 4 has all incoming edges from vertices belonging to the cycle C while vertex 5 has all out going edges to vertices belonging to the cycle C. in fact it is more than that. both these vertices are outside the cycle C and are double circled. thus a strongly connected tournament is Hamiltonian. Let us come back to the problem of designing Algorithm 75 or proving that if a cycle C of length k exists in a strong tournament then a cycle of length k + 1 also exists in the strong tournament. it will be interesting for you to explore? 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 9. We have already considered the possibility when T is strongly connected. . this will certainly result in a Hamiltonian graph (why?). Consider vertices 4 and 5 in this ﬁgure.Tournaments 523 know that it will have a Hamiltonian path inside it) into a strongly connected graph is to insert the extra node u is to connect it with the source node of the DAG and then connect the sink with node u. If it is right then the tournament will have a cycle of every possible length until we have a Hamiltonian cycle. A cycle of length 5 is shown in bottom left diagram.16: A directed cycle C of length 3 is shown (enclosed in a dotted circle) in a strongly connected tournament of size 5 (top).

Now we intend to ﬁnd a cycle of length k + 1 in the same tournament. If you can not ﬁnd a vertex u with the above property then you will certainly ﬁnd a vertex u and a vertex v such that (a) all edges to u from every vertex of C are incoming towards u. You can ﬁnd a vertex u such that it has at least one incoming and one out going edge connecting u to vertices already in the given cycle C. 9. Now it is possible to ﬁnd a cycle of length k + 2 (see the bottom left of Fig.16. If (c) is not true then the tournament T will not be strongly connected. This scenario is depicted in Fig. it is possible to convert this cycle into a cycle of length k + 1 by a simple manipulation (see the bottom right of Fig. 9. The Concept of a Rip Vertex Let us deﬁne a new term before designing an alternate strategy to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in a strong tournament. 9. You are already familiar with the concept of a cut vertex in an un-directed graph (a vertex v in an undirected connected graph G is a cut vertex provided G − v is not connected). 2. Note that if (a) or (b) is not true then we shall end up with the ﬁrst possibility. 9. You can certainly ﬁnd a cycle of length K +1 in this situation by extending the cycle length of C from k to k + 1.16). Let us now come to the proof of the above hypothesis. and (c) there is an edge from u to v.15. This also provides an eﬃcient algorithm to ﬁnd a cycle from length 3 to all the way to a Hamiltonian cycle of length p − 1. (b) all edges from v to every vertex of the cycle C are out going. 1. There are essentially two possibilities. This possibility is quite similar to the one illustrated in Fig.16and also Fig.524 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments a cycle of length k is possible in a strongly connected tournament where k is equal to or more than 3. 9. Assume that we have found a cycle C of length k in a strongly connected tournament. This completes the constructive proof that you can extend the cycle length in a strong tournament of p nodes from 3 to p−1.17 ). Corresponding to a cut vertex in a connected un-directed graph there is a counter part concept in a (strongly) connected directed graph: a vertex v is a rip vertex (in a strongly connected directed graph D) provided D − v is not .

17: Extending a 3-cycle into a 5-cycle in a strongly connected tournament. . It can be extended into a 5-cycle directly 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 9.Tournaments 525 1 2 3 4 5 We find a 3-cycle in the graph The 3-cycle is extended into a 4-cycle 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 The 4-cycle is extended into a 5-cycle which is a HAM Cycle 1 2 3 4 5 We start with a different 3-cycle in the same graph This 3-cycle can not be extended into a 4-cycle.

8. In the earlier algorithm we grow a cycle within the original tournament from a small size to p. We can do this step of removing a non rip vertex recursively until the original tournament is reduced to such a small sized tournament where it will be trivial to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle. Problem 9. Draw a strong tournament in which no vertex is a rip vertex.2. Problem 9. Now we can start inserting back the removed vertices one by one in the last removed ﬁrst inserted order.8. How can you eﬃciently ﬁnd a non rip vertex in a strong tournament? . Now assume that we are given a strongly connected tournament T of size p.3. the Hamiltonian cycle will grow incrementally (with the graph) as shown in Fig.8. Problem Set 9.5. The resulting graph T − u will be a tournament (why?) and a strong tournament (because u was not a rip vertex) of size p − 1. In the later algorithm we remove non rip vertices from a tournament one by one until it is possible to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in the reduced size tournament. Problem 9. 9.8. Problem 9. Prove that there always exists at least one non rip vertex in a strong tournament. Problem 9. It will be a learning experience to compare the working of the two algorithms that we have described to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in a strong tournament. 9. It will be interesting to derive and compare the time complexities of the two algorithms. we then insert the removed vertices one by one and Hamiltonian cycle also increases incrementally with the size of the graph. It is important for you to answer the following in order to meaningfully understand the last algorithm that we have described to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in a strong tournament.8.8.19.4.526 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments (strongly) connected. until you ﬁnd the Hamiltonian cycle in the original tournament T . Draw a strong tournament in which there are at least 3 rip vertices in a tournament of size 5 or 6 .16. Indicate which vertices are rip vertices and which vertices are not rip vertices in Fig. On the basis of these ideas it is possible to construct an alternate algorithm to ﬁnd a Hamiltonian cycle in a strong tournament. We ﬁrst locate and then remove a non rip vertex u.1.

Tournaments 527 5 5 5 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 1 is a rip vertex 1 is a rip vertex Not a rip vertex Not a rip vertex 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 3 4 1 2 3 4 Not a rip vertex 2 is a rip vertex Not a rip vertex 2 is a rip vertex 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 5 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Not a rip vertex Not a rip vertex 3 is a rip vertex 3 is a rip vertex 5 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 4 is a rip vertex Not a rip vertex 4 is a rip vertex Not a rip vertex Figure 9.We show four diﬀerent tournaments in the top diagram.18: Finding a rip vertex in a Tournament. . In the other diagrams we check if a given vertex is a rip vertex any any of the top tournaments.

528 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 Identify 1 as a non-rip vertex Remove the non-rip vertex 2 3 4 5 2 4 5 Identify 3 as a non-rip vertex Remove the non-rip vertex 2 4 5 2 3 4 5 Find a 3 cycle in the last graph Insert back the last vertex removed 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Find a 4 cycle in the last graph Insert back the last vertex removed Find a 5 cycle in the graph which is the HAM Cycle 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 9.19: Extending a 3-cycle into a 5-cycle in a strongly connected tournament. .

A variety of non-isomorphic directed acyclic graphs are possible which will produce such a Reachable Relation matrix. Can you visualize a tournament graph where there is no rip vertex? Please see Fig. in fact it will be strongly connected.8. In a strongly connected directed graph there is a path from u to v and a path from v to u.6. If instead of one both A[i. Thus a directed graph D will be unilaterally connected if A[i. Each of the matrices. 9. We have also seen that a tournament graph is also unilaterally connected.21 corresponds to a unilaterally connected graph which is also directed acyclic (why?) assuming that all other entries in the matrix are equal to zero. That means a strongly connected graph is always a unilaterally connected graph but not vise versa. It is clear from the deﬁnition of such directed graphs that either A[i.7. This means that the Reachable Relation Matrix A for a unilaterally connected directed graph will have all 1’s either on upper side of the diagonal (or on the lower side of the diagonal) as shown in Table.Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: 529 Problem 9.20 9.8.8. j in D then D will be more than unilaterally connected. i] = 1 for every pair of vertices i. 9.8. j] = 1 or A[j.21. If instead of removing a non rip vertex in a strong tournament.8. What will be the overall time complexity of ﬁnding a Hamiltonian cycle in a strong tournament using the above algorithm.6 Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: A directed graph D is unilaterally connected provided for every pair of vertices u and v. i] are equal to 1 for every pair of vertices i. shown in Table 9. It will be useful at this stage to draw a couple of such .9. we remove a rip vertex then what will be the complication in reconstructing the Hamiltonian cycle in T ? Problem 9. j] = 1 for every pair of vertices i. Problem 9. In this section we shall discuss various properties of unilaterally connected directed graphs. j] and A[j. j in D if j > i. j in D. Let us ﬁrst address the problem of how a Reachable Relation Matrix A of a unilaterally connected graph would look like. Why we insist that a non rip vertex should be removed instead of a rip vertex? Problem 9. there is a path from u to v or a path from v to u.

20: The eﬀect of deleting a vertex in a Special Tournament .530 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 1 2 3 4 1 5 2 3 4 1 5 1 1 3 4 1 5 1 2 4 1 5 1 1 2 3 5 1 2 3 4 1 A tournament where the in-degree as well as out-degree of every vertex is equal Figure 9.

a couple of properties and an action item which is the Reachable Relation. A tree graph is unilaterally orient-able provided it is a path graph. .7.Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: 531 Concept Map 9. A map showing the concept of a unilaterally connected directed graph. An un-directed connected graph which can be converted into a unilaterally connected directed graph is known as a unilaterally orient-able graph.

532 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments Figure 9. . Both theses graphs are directed acyclic.22: A unilaterally connected directed graph D having minimum number of edges with all 1’s in the upper side of the diagonal and 0’s else where as shown in the left diagram.21: The Reachable Relation Matrix A for a unilaterally connected directed graph should have all 1’s either on the upper side of the diagonal (left) or on the lower side as shown in the right table. 5 1 1 5 3 1 4 5 2 3 4 1 5 2 Figure 9. The right diagram shows such a graph with maximum number of edges.

9. 9. Let us summarize our observations before making a number of formal proofs. such a unilaterally connected graphs. Under such conditions one would expect that the resulting directed graph will be unilateral. v} in D either u is reachable to v or v is reachable to u. We are dealing with a unilaterally connected directed graph D. This means there will be a direct edge between every two consecutive vertices (again from left to right). 9. thus if we do a topological sort on vertices of D then the ordering of the vertices of the graph D along a horizontal line is such that all directed edges will be going from left to right as shown in Fig. as well as cyclic containing a Hamiltonian path (as before) as shown in the middle diagram of Fig.23. this would imply a Hamiltonian path in D (it will . 9. In fact we shall prove that a directed graph is unilaterally connected if and only if it contains an open spanning walk. Assume that in addition to all 1’s on the upper side of the diagonal there are some additional 1’s as shown (in bold) in the top diagram of Fig. We have observed that a unilaterally connected graph contains a Hamiltonian path if it is acyclic (see Fig. We shall soon prove that a unilaterally connected directed acyclic graph D will always contain a Hamiltonian path inside D.Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: 533 graphs with the above property and the assumption that all other entries in the matrix are zero. assume that u is on the left of v in linear ordering then there must be a direct edge from u to v otherwise the condition stated above will be violated or there will be an edge going from right to left. What is quite unexpected is that the Hamiltonian path may disappear because of the extra 1’s that we have added in the Reachable Relation matrix as shown in the bottom diagram of Fig. If there are cycles in the unilaterally connected graph then there may or may not be a Hamiltonian path inside the graph (see Fig. What we have not observed until now is that whether a unilaterally connected directed graph contains a Hamiltonian path or not it will certainly contain an open spanning walk. 9.23. one having minimum number of edges (left) and the other having maximum number of edges as shown on the right of this diagram. But before that let us try to imagine what will happen if there are more 1’s then are absolutely essential for a graph to be unilaterally connected. There will not be any edge going from right to left because otherwise graph D will be cyclic.23. Let us ﬁrst ﬁnd a constructive proof that a unilaterally connected directed acyclic graph will always contain a Hamiltonian path inside it.22. we show in Fig. 9.22.22). 9. thus for every consecutive vertex pair {u. We are dealing with a directed acyclic graph D.23).

. The extra 1’s (shown in bold) will make the unilaterally connected directed graph cyclic but there is still a Hamiltonian path inside the graph as shown in the middle diagram. what is quite unexpected is that the Hamiltonian path may disappear from the resulting directed graph because of the extra 1’s as shown in the bottom diagram.534 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 4 5 1 2 3 1 4 5 Figure 9.23: A Reachable Relation matrix A for a unilaterally connected directed graph with some additional 1’s in the matrix (top).

We also know that there is a closed walk spanning all vertices inside each strongly connected component.Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: essentially be a path between topological sorted vertices in D). Let us ﬁrst handle the hypothesis that if D is unilaterally connected then there will be an open spanning walk inside D. however. now we claim that a directed graph D is unilaterally connected if and only if it contains an open spanning walk. 9.23) and so it may not have a Hamiltonian path. thus there will be (not only a spanning walk) but a spanning path inside D. We have already observed that if D is a unilaterally connected directed acyclic graph then there will be a Hamiltonian path inside D. If.24: A unilaterally connected directed graph D having 5 strongly connected components. 535 1 2 3 4 5 Figure 9. Let us now consider the possibility when a unilaterally connected directed graph is not directed acyclic (see Fig. D contains cycles then we can always ﬁnd strongly connected components of D and we know that the graph interconnecting its strongly connected components will be a directed acyclic graph. Also note that the directed acyclic graph connecting all strongly connecting components should be a line graph otherwise D will not be a unilaterally oriented directed graph. Thus there will be a Hamiltonian path passing through all strongly connected components of D as shown in Fig.24. We can again make a topological sort on strongly connected components of D and argue that there will be an edge going from left to right between every two consecutive strongly connected components of D. Note that inside each strongly connected component there is a closed walk. 9. thus there will be an open spanning .

We have already considered the ﬁrst possibility when G is a tree and every edge of G is a bridge edge. Every edge of G is a bridge edge. Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments 9. ??. 3. Every edge of G is a non-bridge edge. Let us consider the second possibility when every edge of G is a non bridge edge.6. We also know that a directed acyclic unilaterally connected graph D always contain a Hamiltonian path. Now we shall consider the third possibility when some edges of G are bridge edges while some other edges are non bridges as shown in Fig.1 Unilaterally orient-able Un-directed Graphs We know that if we put directions on edges in an un-directed acyclic connected graph G (that means a tree) then no matter what is our direction scheme the resulting graph D would be a directed acyclic graph. A tree of ordinary vertices can be unilaterally . If you recall this is a suﬃcient condition for a graph to be strongly orient-able. If the graph G contains K bridge edges and if we remove all these K edges then G will be decomposed into k + 1 connected components. Consider each connected component as a single (super) vertex. Now let us ﬁnd necessary and suﬃcient conditions for a general connected graph G (G is no longer restricted to be a tree and may contain cycles) to be unilaterally orient-able. Thus a tree graph is unilaterally orient-able if and only if it is a line graph (or a path graph). Some edges are non bridge edges while some are bridges. The only tree graph which contains a Hamiltonian path is in fact a line graph. If G is strongly orient-able then it will also be unilaterally orient-able. This would require that there should be an un-directed Hamiltonian path inside the tree graph G in the ﬁrst place otherwise it would have been impossible to convert G into D with a directed Hamiltonian path inside it. 2. There are essentially three possibilities: 1. Thus when we put directions on edges in a tree graph in order to make it unilaterally connected then the resulting directed graph should also have a Hamiltonian path inside it.536 walk inside D. If we put back the bridge edges then these (super) vertices will be connected in the form of a tree (why?).

25: An un-directed connected graph G with 4 bridge edges shown in bold in the top diagram.Unilaterally Connected Directed Graphs: 537 3 1 2 4 5 3 1 2 4 5 Figure 9. If we remove all bridge edges then the un-directed graph is disconnected into 5 connected components shown in shaded circles. The connected components are always connected in the form of a tree as shown in the bottom diagram. .

Thus each connected component is strongly orient-able (and will subsequently become a strongly connected component in the directed graph). This completes the proof that if a graph G is unilaterally orient-able then it will contain an open spanning walk.538 Strongly Connected Directed Graphs and Tournaments orient-able if and only if the tree is a line graph. A tree of super vertices can be unilaterally orient-able provided: (1) The tree is a line graph and (2) We can ﬁnd a closed spanning walk inside each connected component (why?). You may prove the converse as an exercise? . So once again concentrate on a single connected component. there will be a closed spanning walk inside each component. no edge inside the component will be a bridge edge (why?).

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