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. Descriptive statistics methods used to organize, display explain and describe a set of data by means of tables, graphs and summary. 2. There are 2 types : (a). Measures of Central Tendency. Mode= most frequently occurred value. Median= middle value of ascending data. Mean= average value (b). Measures of Dispersion or Variability. Range= max value min value. Variance = average of deviation from the mean (square unit). Standard deviation (S.D.) = square root of variance. Example 1 An English teacher has administered a test to a group of 40 Year 10 students from Maktab Sains. He wants to get a Descriptive statistics from the 40 scores consisting of Mean, Median, Mode, S.D, Variance, Range, Minimum and maximum. The [Variable View] and [Data View] are shown below.

2 1. Select [Analyze] then [Descriptive Statistics] then [Frequencies..] to open the dialogue box.

Move [scores] into this box then click on [Statistics] to open the sub-dialogue box below

Select the statistics you need then click [Continue] then [OK].

How to show that your sample data came from normally distributed population?

Why you need this? 1. In most cases of your research, you need to fulfill the assumption that your sample data is drawn from a normally distributed population before you can carry out your statistical analysis. 2. Three ways to determine that the sample is normally distributed. (a). To get the measures of central tendency (mean, mode , median), variability (range, SD , variance) and measures of distribution {(skewness for normal =0, range from -1 to +1, skewed to right = +vely skewed, skewed to left = -vely skewed) and (kurtosis- display the spread of data for normal, kurtosis=0, the range from -1 to +1. Platykurtic- large SD wide spread, Leptokurtic small spread with small SD) } from these you get to know how your data is distributed.(For interval e.g. exam marks and ratio measurements e.g. height in metre or weight in Kg only).

Normal distribution +vely skewed

-vely skewed

Platykurtic

Leptokurtic

(b). Graphical measures (histogram, stem-and-leaf plot, normal Q-Q plot, detrended normal Q-Q plot, box-plot. (c). Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) normality test.

4 Example 2 An English teacher has administered a test to a group of 40 Year 10 students from Maktab Sains. He wants to determine that H 0 = the sample population is normally distributed. ( H1 = the sample population is not normally distributed at =0.05)

Method 1 1. Select [Analyze] then [Descriptive Statistics] then [Frequencies] to open the dialogue box. Move [Scores] into [Variables] box and click on [Statistics] to open the subdialogue box.

Select the statistics as in the [Frequencies statistics] box: Mean, Median, Mode, SD, Variance, Range, Skewness and Kurtosis. and [Continue] then [OK]

Mean = Median = Mode almost equal indicating Normality of sample The Skewness = 0.16 almost equal to 0, indicates Normal distribution

6 Method 2 and 3 1. Select [Analyze] then [Descriptive Statistics] and [Explore..] to open the dialogue box. Move [Scores] into here, then click on [Plots] to open the sub-dialogue box

Select [Factor levels..], [Stem-andleaf], [Histogram] and [Normality plots..] click [Continue]

This is not significant as p > 0.05. The sample is not significantly different from the population. There is not enough evidence to reject the claims that the sampled population is normally distributed. You can conclude that the data came from normally distributed population.

Most of the data fall on the normality line showing the data came from normal population distribution

The data fall between the upper(+ve) and lower (-ve) and are quite close to 0 indicating the data is normally distributed.

The Box-plot also shows the data fall between the upper and lower section from the 0 line indicating normality of the data.

COURSEWORK

10 COURSEWORK 1 A Malay language teacher has administered a test (max score is 130) to a group of 50 Year 11 students from a school. You are to get a Descriptive statistics from the 50 scores consisting of Mean, Median, Mode, S.D, Variance, Range, Minimum and maximum. (Here 1= Female and 2=Male)

COURSEWORK 2 A Malay language teacher has administered a test to a group of 50 Year 10 students from a school. You are to determine that H 0 = the sample population is normally distributed using Method 1, 2 and 3. ( H1 = the sample population is not normally distributed at =0.05)

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