Tafseer of verse 284 - 285 From Suratul Baqarah by Allamah as-Shaykh ibn Sa’adi

‫ﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ ﹶﺃﻭ‬‫ﻲ ﹶﺃ‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﻭﺍ ﻣ‬ ‫ﺗﺒ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻭﹺﺇﻥ‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﺍﺕ ﻭﻣ‬‫ﺎﻭ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﻟ ﱠﻪ ﻣ‬ }  ‫ﹸ ِﹸ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹺ‬   ‫ﺴ‬ ‫ﻠ‬ ‫ﺎﺀ‬‫ﻳﺸ‬ ‫ﻳﻌ ﱢﺏ ﻣﻦ‬‫ﺎﺀ ﻭ‬‫ﻳﺸ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺎﺳﺒﻜﻢ ﹺﺑﻪ ﺍﻟﱠﻪ ﻓﻴﻐﻔﺮ‬‫ﻳﺤ‬ ‫ﺗﺨ ﹸﻮﻩ‬ ُ    ‫ﺬ‬  ُ      ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﻠ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫ﻔ‬ { ‫ﻳﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻛ ﱢ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻗﺪ‬‫ﻭ‬  ‫ ٍ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹸﻞ‬  ‫ﻠ‬

“ To Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and whether you disclose what is in your ownselves or conceal it, Allâh will call you to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And Allâh is Able to do all things.”
[Verse : 285]

The Tafseer :

This is information from Allaah ; that , Everything that is in the heavens and on the earth : belongs to Him. He created all of them , and sustained them , and guided them to that which is beneficial to them – in the worldly affairs and the religion. So they are all His slaves , and are part of His dominion. They don’t control over themselves anything , not in harming or in benefitting , not in causing death or giving life , nor in resurrection.

He is their Lord , and Their King ; who controls them with His Perfect wisdom and His Perfect Justice and His Perfect Bounty. And He has commanded them , and forbade them : and He will take them to account to that which they committed openly and secretly.

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{ ‫ﺎﺀ‬‫ﻳﺸ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻦ‬ ‫} ﻓﻴﻐﻔﺮ‬ ُ      ‫ﹶ‬
“…Then He forgives whom He wills…”

And it is those who achieve the reasons of getting forgiveness .

And He and punishes whom He wills ; for what they have committed of sins . Those who did not attain , what would be an expiation of these sins. { like seeking forgiveness }

{ ‫ﻳﺮ‬‫ﺍﻟ ﱠﻪ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﻛ ﱢ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻗﺪ‬‫} ﻭ‬  ‫ ٍ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹸﻞ‬  ‫ﻠ‬
“…And Allâh is Able to do all things.”

There is nothing that is hard for Him . In fact all the creations are submissive to His subjugation, and His will , and His Decree , and His reward.

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‫ﺋﻜﺘﻪ‬‫ﻼ‬‫ﻮﻥ ﻛﻞ ﺁﻣﻦ ﺑﹺﺎﻟﱠﻪ ﻭﻣ‬‫ﺍﹾﻟﻤﺆﻣ‬‫ﻪ ﻭ‬‫ﻧﺰﻝ ﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻪ ﻣﻦ ﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﹸﺃ‬‫ﻮﻝ ﹺﺑﻤ‬  ‫} ﺁﻣﻦ ﺍﻟ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﻠ‬  ‫ﻨ ﹶ ﹸ ﱞ‬    ‫ﺑ‬     ‫ﹺ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﺮﺳ ﹸ‬  ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﻭﹶﺃﻃﻌﻨ‬‫ﺑﻴﻦ ﹶﺃﺣﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻭﻗﹶﺎﹸﻮﺍ ﺳﻤﻌﻨ‬ ‫ﻕ‬ ‫ﻧﻔ‬ ‫ﻭﻛﺘﺒﻪ ﻭﺭﺳﻠﻪ ﻻ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬    ‫ ﻟ‬            ‫ ﹶﺮ‬      ‫ﹺ‬‫ ﹸ‬ { ‫ﺎ ﻭﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﺼﲑ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻧﻚ ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﻏﻔﺮ‬       ‫ﺑ‬  ‫ﹸ ﹾ‬

The Messenger (Muhammad SallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, "We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers" - and they say, "We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)."
[Verse : 285]

The Tafseer :

Allaah informs of the belief of the Messengers and The believers with them : and their submission , and their obedience . And on top of that , their seeking of forgiveness.

So Allaah informs that they believe in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers : and this encompasses having belief in all that Allaah has said about Himself , and what His Messenger has informed [described] about Him : in His Perfect attributes , and His Majestic Descriptions. In a manner of : - Perfection and detail (clear) - And removing Him far from having any similitude , - Knowing that ; He is far removed from having any deficient or evil attributes - And keeping away from denying any of the attributes .

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And this [belief mentioned in the verse] also carries the belief in Angels , as provided in the Shariah – in detail and in specific. And this [belief mentioned in the verse] also carries the belief in all the Messengers and Books . Meaning : believing in all that which the Messengers informed , and what is comprised in the Books : from the commands and the prohibitions. And that they [ the believers ] don’t distinguish between any of the Messengers , rather they believe in all of them. This is because they [the Messengers] are the medium between Allaah and His slaves . So denying any of them , is denying all of them. In fact it is disbelieving in Allaah.

{ ‫ﺎ‬‫} ﻭﻗﹶﺎﹸﻮﺍ ﺳﻤﻌﻨ‬  ‫ ﻟ‬
“…and they say : " We hear,

What You have commanded us with , and what You have prohibited us from

{ ‫ﺎ‬‫} ﻭﹶﺃﻃﻌﻨ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬
“..and we obey.”

[and we obey] You [Allaah] in all that. And [thus] they were not from those who said , “ we hear and disobey. ” {these are the disbelievers} .

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And because the slave , falls short in observing and fulfilling the rights of Allaah The Exalted ; and is always in dire need of His forgiveness . They said :

{ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﻧﻚ ﺭ‬‫ﺍ‬‫} ﻏﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺑ‬  ‫ﹸ ﹾ‬
“…(We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord,

Meaning : we seek your forgiveness ; because of what we have committed of falling short and doing sins. And [we seek You to ] wipe out for us , of what we carry of deficiencies .

{ ‫} ﻭﹺﺇﹶﻟﻴﻚ ﺍﹾﻟﻤﺼﲑ‬     
“..and to You is the return (of all)

meaning : the return of all the creatures . And You shall then , reward them for what they did ; of the good acts and the bad acts.

Taken from : Tayseer Al Kareem Ar-Rahmaan fee Tafseer Kalaam Al Mannaan. Authored by : Allamah as-Shaykh Abdurrahmaan ibn Sa’adi (rahimahullaah) Translated by Aboo Waheeda as-salafee

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Tafseer of verse 286 From Suratul Baqarah by Allamah as-Shaykh ibn Sa’adi

‫ﺎ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺒﺖ ﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﻣ‬‫ﺎ ﻛﺴﺒﺖ ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻬ‬‫ﺎ ﻣ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﻟﻬ‬‫ﺎ ﺇﹺﻻ ﻭﺳﻌﻬ‬‫ﻧﻔﺴ‬ ‫ﻳﻜ ﱢﻒ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻪ‬ ‫} ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑ‬   ‫ﹾ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬    ‫ﹶ‬   ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﻠ‬ ‫ﹶﻠ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ‬‫ﺍ ﻛﻤ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﺻﺮ‬‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻭ ﹶﺃﺧﻄﺄﻧ‬‫ﻧﺴِﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﺧﺬﻧ‬‫ﺗﺆ‬ ‫ﻻ‬   ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ﺑ‬ ‫ ﹶ ﹾ‬  ‫ﹾ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﻏﻔﺮ ﹶﻟﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻋﻒ ﻋ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺑﻪ ﻭ‬‫ﺎ ﻻ ﻃﹶﺎﻗﺔ ﹶﻟﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﻣ‬‫ﻠﻨ‬ ‫ﺗﺤ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭﻻ‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﺭ‬‫ﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻨ‬‫ﺍﱠﺬ‬   ‫ﻨ ﹾ‬    ‫ﹶ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹾ‬  ‫ﺑ‬   ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ﻟ‬ . { ‫ﺎ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﹾﻟﻘﻮﻡ ﺍﹾﻟﻜﹶﺎﻓﺮﹺﻳﻦ‬‫ﻧﺼﺮﻧ‬‫ﺎ ﻓﹶﺎ‬‫ﻻﻧ‬‫ﻧﺖ ﻣﻮ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃ‬‫ﺍﺭﺣﻤﻨ‬‫ﻭ‬   ‫ﹺ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬    
“ Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. "Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Supporter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people."
[ Verse : 286 ]

The Tafseer :

When the statement of Allaah :

{ ‫ﺎﺳﺒﻜﻢ ﹺﺑﻪ ﺍﻟ ﱠﻪ‬‫ﻳﺤ‬ ‫ﺗﺨ ﹸﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻜﻢ ﹶﺃﻭ‬‫ﻲ ﹶﺃ‬‫ﺎ ﻓ‬‫ﻭﺍ ﻣ‬ ‫ﺗﺒ‬ ‫} ﻭﹺﺇﻥ‬  ‫ ﻠ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬   ‫ﻔ‬   ‫ﹸ ِ ﹸ‬ ‫ﺪ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬
“..and whether you disclose what is in your ownselves or conceal it, Allâh will call you to account for it.” [Verse : 284]

When this was revealed . This became hard on the Muslims. almuflihoon.com ©

Due to it being disclosed that ; whatever occurs in the heart from the inevitable matters or the repetitive conjectures , and everything else : that they will be accounted for this ,

Thus Allaah [thereafter] in this verse , informed them that

{ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﺇﹺﻻ ﻭﺳﻌﻬ‬‫ﻧﻔﺴ‬ ‫ﻳﻜ ﱢﻒ ﺍﻟﱠﻪ‬ ‫} ﻻ‬   ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﻠ‬ ‫ﹶﻠ‬
Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. Meaning ; a matter which is beyond the person’s ability to bear . And that He does not over burden or put the souls into hardship.

Just as The Exalted said :

{ ‫ﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﺣﺮﺝ‬ ‫ﻲ ﺍﻟ‬‫ﺎ ﺟﻌﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻜﻢ ﻓ‬‫} ﻭﻣ‬ ‫ ﹴ‬   ‫ﺪ ﹺ‬  ‫ ﹸ‬‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬  
“...and has not laid upon you in religion any hardship,”

Hence , the essence of the commands and prohibitions ; is that they are not from the matters which are difficult on the souls. Rather they are the nourishment of the souls , and the cure of the bodies , and the protection against harm. Surely Allaah commanded the slaves , to what He commanded them ; out of Mercy and Beneficence.

Thus we see that when some things seem to have become difficult in some situations : there is an attainment of easiness and reduction. Either by the obligation being dropped on the person , or by the person being excused from some part of the obligation. Like the reduction and easiness on the sick person , and the traveler , and others.

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Then , The Exalted informs that ; every person will get reward for that (good) which he has earned, and will be punished for that (evil) which he has earned. Therefore no soul shall carry the burden of another. And the good deeds of a person , will not be accounted for someone else other than him.

And in use of the word

 ‫ﹶ‬ " ‫" ﻛﺴ ﺐ‬

[which means gaining/acquisition] , in context of

the good deeds : shows that a person achieves the reward of the good deed by just doing a little of it . Rather even by just having the intention in the heart. And in context of the word

" ‫" ﺍﻛﺘﺴﺐ‬   ‫ﹾ‬

regarding the evil deeds : came to show that

the evil deeds are not written down for a person , until he actually enters into these deeds and does them.

And when The Exalted informed about : the Eeman (belief) of the Prophets and the believers with them , and that every doer shall be rewarded according to what he does. And that mankind are bound to falling short , forgetfulness and falling into error . And He also informed that we are not accountable except for what we say and what we act upon : [after informing all this] He tells of the supplication which the believers said concerning this matter . * And the prophet (sallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam) informed that , Allaah said : “I have done so.” In reply to this supplication. *

{ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺎ ﹶﺃﻭ ﹶﺃﺧﻄﺄﻧ‬‫ﻧﺴِﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﻥ‬‫ﺍﺧﺬﻧ‬‫ﺗﺆ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻻ‬‫ﻨ‬‫} ﺭ‬ ‫ ﹶﹾ‬  ‫ﹾ ﹾ‬ ‫ﺑ‬
“ Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error,”

And the difference between them is that :

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‫ﺍﻟﻨﺴﻴﺎﻥ‬  ‫ﹺ‬

Is the absentmindedness / distraction of the heart from what it is

commanded to act upon , thus he leaves it forgetfully.

‫ﺍﳋﻄﹶﺄ‬ ‫َﹾ‬

Is to intend to do something which is permissible , but then he falls into

something which is not permissible to do. So Allaah has pardoned these two things on this Ummah (nation) whenever they occur ; As a Mercy and Beneficence to them (the people) .

Therefore due to this ; whoever prays in a constrained tight cloth , or a cloth which has impurity , or forgot that he has impurity on his body , or he forgetfully talks in his prayer, or he does one of the things which breaks the fast of a fasting person – forgetfully , or if he forgetfully does any of the things which are prohibited for a person in a state of Ihram (in hajj or Umrah) without being destructive : then this person [in all these situations] is pardoned. And also whoever forgetfully does a thing which he took an oath not to do ; then this does not break this vow , and also whoever falls into error and harms a person or causes destruction to property /wealth ; then there is no sin on him , he will only be liable for that which he spoilt. And also in the occasions where it is legislated to say the tasmeeya (Bismillaah) , if a person leaves doing this –forgetfully- then this will not harm him.

{ ‫ﺍ‬‫ﺎ ﹺﺇﺻﺮ‬‫ﺗﺤﻤﻞ ﻋﻠﻴﻨ‬ ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﻨ‬‫} ﺭ‬  ‫ ﹶ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ﺑ‬
“..our Lord! Lay not on us a burden…”

That is : the responsibilities which are hard

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{ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻳﻦ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻠﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﺣﻤﻠﺘﻪ ﻋﻠﹶﻰ ﺍﱠﺬ‬‫} ﻛﻤ‬   ‫ ﹶ‬   ‫ ﻟ‬  ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ﹶ‬
“…like that which You did lay on those before us..”

And indeed , The Exalted has done so. *

Verily Allaah has made easy on this Ummah (nation) -regarding the matters of twahaarah (ritual purity) , and the modes of Ibaada (worship) - in a way which He did not do so on other nations .

{ ‫ﺎ ﹺﺑﻪ‬‫ﺎ ﻻ ﻃﹶﺎﻗﺔ ﹶﻟﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﻣ‬‫ﻠﻨ‬ ‫ﺗﺤ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻭﻻ‬‫ﻨ‬‫} ﺭ‬  ‫ﹶﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹾ‬  ‫ﺑ‬
“..our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear.”

And He surely did so . And to Him belongs the Perfect Praise.

{ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺍﺭﺣﻤﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻏﻔﺮ ﹶﻟﻨ‬‫ﺎ ﻭ‬‫ﺍﻋﻒ ﻋ‬‫} ﻭ‬    ‫ﻨ ﹾ‬  
“ Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us.”

Pardon and Forgiving : achieve the repelling of harm and detested things. And Mercy : through it , is the achievement of the correctness and success of things.

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{ ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻻﻧ‬‫ﻧﺖ ﻣﻮ‬‫} ﹶﺃ‬ 
“ You are our Maulâ..”

Meaning : Our God, Our King , Our Lord , The One whose Sovereignty never ceases to be on us –since You created and decreed us . Verily Your Grace encompasses us and is continuous at all times.

Then , You granted us a great Grace and Favour , and an immense bounty and benefaction : and that is , the benefaction of Islaam. Of which , all the other favours came after it.

So we ask You , O’ Our Lord and Protector, Your complete favours ; that you make us victorious over the disbelieving people - those who have disbelieved in You and Your prophets , and have stood against the people of Your religion , and they have denied Your command - [we ask You] to give us victory over them through proofs , clear evidences , the sword and the spear. Such that You establish us on the earth , and to humiliate them.

And [we ask You] to grant us Eeman (belief) , and actions ; which will necessitate and achieve victory.

And All Perfect Praise is for The Lord of all the worlds.

Taken from : Tayseer Al Kareem Ar-Rahmaan fee Tafseer Kalaam Al Mannaan. Authored by : Allamah as-Shaykh Abdurrahmaan ibn Sa’adi (rahimahullaah) Translated by Aboo Waheeda as-salafee

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* Abu Hurayrah (radhiyaAllaahu) narrated that : when it was revealed to the Messenger of Allah (sallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam): “ To Allâh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and whether you disclose what is in your ownselves or conceal it, Allâh will call you to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And Allâh is Able to do all things.” [Verse : 284] The Companions of the Messenger of Allah (sallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam) felt it difficult on themselves and they went to the Messenger of Allah (sallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam) and sat down on their knees and said : “ O , Messenger of Allaah, we were assigned some duties which were within our power to perform, such as prayer, fasting, jihad (in the cause of Allah), charity. Then this (the above-mentioned) verse was revealed to us and we find it difficult upon us.”

The Messenger of Allah (sallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam) said: “ Do you intend to say what the people of the books (Jews and Christians) said before you: " We hear and disobey? " You should rather say: " We hear and we obey, (we seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord ! and to You is the return."

Thus they (the companions) said: " We hear and we obey, (we seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord ! and to You is the return." When the people recited it and it smoothly flowed on their tongues, then Allah revealed immediately afterwards :

The Messenger (Muhammad SallahAllaahu alayhi wasallam) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allâh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, "We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers" - and they say, "We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)." [Verse : 285] When they heard and obeyed , Allaah revealed an alleviation , and The Great The Majestic revealed :

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“ Allâh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. "Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, He (Allaah) said : “ Yes “

“ our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us ; He (Allaah) said : “ Yes “

“ our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. He (Allaah) said : “ Yes “

“ Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulâ (Patron, Supporter and Protector, etc) and give us victory over the disbelieving people." [ Verse : 286 ]

He (Allaah) said : “ Yes “ (and in the narration of Ibn Abbaas , Allaah said : “ Indeed I have done so.”

Saheeh Muslim , kitaabu - tafseer.

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