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COMPARISION BETWEEN TRADITIONAL CERAMIC PIGMENTS VS NEW ADVANCES IN CERAMIC PIGMENTS CREATION.

Kelly Zuluaga
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COMPARISION BETWEEN TRADITIONAL CERAMIC PIGMENTS VS NEW ADVANCES IN CERAMIC PIGMENTS CREATION Kelly Zuluaga A e-mail: kyzuluagaa@unal.edu.co

ABSTRACT: Currently all of the ceramic pigments used in ceramic industry of Colombia ploughs being imported thus increasing manufacturing costs of those products ace they plough used. This article shows different methods investigated and used in the manufactures of ceramic pigments, with emphasis on reducing the cooking temperature of the pigments, which is to fundamental economic factor. The methods ploughs compared, route manufactures of ceramic pigments the traditional high temperature and methods of the Sun - gel and polymeric method KEY WORDS: Ceramic pigment, temperature, the Sun - gel, polymerization, colorimetry, granulometry, properties crystallographic.

2 . CERAMIC PIGMENTS
A ceramic pigment is a solid, inorganic particle, in spite of coloring is able, employee to decorate ceramic products and whose nature physicist chemistry, on that his properties base colourings, can be: An ion chromosphere replaces atoms or occupies interstices in a crystalline structure. To be trmicamente stable To be insoluble in the glassy counterfoil Resistant to the assaults of alkalis, acids or abrasives homogeneous Granulometry The importance of a pigment depends on his optical, physical and chemical properties. These in turn depend directly on the crystalline structure of the pigment, on his physical characteristics as dtp; it forms of the particles, and degree of agglomeration. The most important is the capacity of the pigment to color or offer opaqueness to the counterfoil in which it disperses.1-3

1 INTRODUCTION
Given the thermal requirements and own chemistries of the manufacturing processes of ceramic products, the consumers of colorings used in ceramics have been displacing former products used in the decoration by others that are environmental and economically sustainable, expiring with the requirements imposed by the clients. And an important factor is the selection of the method to make the pigments of the temperature; the discharge investigates in the oven, modifications in color, bad sinterizacin, between other problems. For the production of the laboratory test there were implemented raw materials that are of easy access and are of wide use, since they it are the black pigments based on Faith-Cr-Ni, green color Ca-Cr-Si, to 1100C for 10 hours, analyzing the properties of colorimetry that they proved after the process of boiling and dried, after this it was compared with the method polymeric used to do the pigment MgFe2O4 to low temperature 300C for 1 hour. .

3 WORK EXPERIMENTAL CIMEX


To realize the manufacture of pigments for traditional route in the laboratory we possess the following raw materials:

Tabla1. Materias Primas.

COMPARISION BETWEEN TRADITIONAL CERAMIC PIGMENTS VS NEW ADVANCES IN CERAMIC PIGMENTS CREATION. Kelly Zuluaga
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5 RESULTS
EQUIPMENTS Mortar of porcelain refractory Crucibles electrical Muffle with temperature for 1200C Mill Manometer During the experimental practice three were obtained Pigments with three different colors due to the used raw materials, since the black color with red tonality was in use the Fe2O3 and Fe3O4 Green color was in use Cr2O3 and Faith. In agreement to the quality of the product the wished pigments were obtained, nevertheless the time of residence in the oven is very high 10 hours approximately, and the temperature of calcination is of 1200C, which incurs major expenses of production., the sample 2 fused to the temperature that was submitted due to his principal components

control

of

4 PROCEDURE
For the manufacture of ceramic pigments one came from the following way: 1. The sample is prepared and homogenized the sample like shows in the table 1 with the proportions there exposed. 2. The mixture is homogenized in a mortar of porcelain up to achieving a uniform appearance (color) 3. The samples surrender to a process of calcination for 6 hours to 1200C 4. The calcined material is submitted to a process of grinding 5. Him material ground is lixiviate to eliminate impurities 6. It is pulverized Figure1. Samples homogenized before entering to the oven

Muestra 1

Muestra 2

Muestra 3

Muestra 4

COMPARISION BETWEEN TRADITIONAL CERAMIC PIGMENTS VS NEW ADVANCES IN CERAMIC PIGMENTS CREATION. Kelly Zuluaga
.

RESULTS MANUFACTURE OF PIGMENT MGFE2O4 TO LOW TEMPERATURE2 INTRODUCTION The aim of the authors in the experimentation is to obtain the pigment MgFe2O4, across the method polymeric precursor. Later, they do different types of analysis to him as: thermal analysis (DTA), diffraction of X-rays (XRD), scanning for electronic microscope, between others, to analyze the results of his pigment from granulometry up to colorimetry GENERAL PROCEDURE In the last years methods have investigated as the Sun - gel and precipitation that improve the disadvantages of the pigments made by traditional methods. Nevertheless, the offer of the authors is the precursor method polymeric, which consists of the polymerization of a metallic citrate using glycol of ethylene and an acid hidrocarboxlico, as the citric acid in a watery solution to form an organic ester. Then, the polymerization under warming, results in a homogeneous resin, where the metallic ions are uniformly distributed in the organic counterfoil. Finally, the part that is called me the attention is that the resin calcines to low temperatures and the break of the polymer happens and the predecessor is obtained in powder. Finally the calcination, he drives to oxides of cations mixed in the thin structure with stoichiometry controlled. Process polymeric precursor, he needs from low temperatures in comparison with the traditional method. Besides that the time of residence is very short, since in the experimentation described in the article, they warm during an hour for the obtaining of the resin to 300C, that is the first so called calcination, and then they do the second calcination of the resin in plates of Aluminum of 500C to 1100C during only an hour and they obtained good results of granulometry and colorimetry. Fig. 1 illustrates the thermo gravimetric curve of the MgFe2O4 powder precursor. It indicated two decomposition steps. In agreement to the tests realized like thermogravimetry, drx, RX, Granulometry, scanning for microscopy electronic, obtained the following graphs:

This graph indicates since in the process of calcination they presented 2 stages, one the elimination of water and another elimination of organic matter, represented in an exothermic reaction

Fig. 2 Crystallite size of the MgFe2O4 as a function of the heat treatment temperature As it increases the temperature the degree of crystallization increases, due to the fact that the pigments are stable heat

COMPARISION BETWEEN TRADITIONAL CERAMIC PIGMENTS VS NEW ADVANCES IN CERAMIC PIGMENTS CREATION. Kelly Zuluaga
.

CONCLUSION Checking the bibliography for the formulation and manufacture of the ceramic pigments, the doubt arises, in Colombia because even the manufacture has not been implemented of these, and only they import them? East paper shows two areas based on methods of manufacture of pigments, which they carry to a constant improvement, and that optimize the processes, carrying to the decrease of operational costs and that is an operation with standards of high quality. As the method polymeric, it helps to diminish certain disadvantages that the traditional method presents, since granulometry does not homogenize for example, there exist other methods that have for purpose optimize the process and improve the physical, mechanical and chemical characteristics of the particles that constitute the pigments. Many studies exist on this topic, and Colombia must promote his culture of innovation and enter to this wonderful and extensive world that they are the ceramic pigments, which is absent is decision and desire of continuing growing and innovating.

Fig 3. Particle diameter of the MgFe2O4 as a function of heat treatment temperature As the crystallization, the size of particle ascends as it increases the temperature, improving the physical and chemical properties that must have the pigments

6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Restrepo Oscar J. Teora y Medicin del


Color. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Sede Medelln. Rubiola Pigmentos. Department de Investigation y Desarrollo.

Fig. 4. SEM micrographs of the MgFe2O4 after calcinations at 1000 8C. Thanks to the temperature and forms the mineral grains of providing a uniform color in besides allowing the growth of the process. the method, one a uniform way, all his particles, phases wished in

2. R.A. Candeia, M.A.F. Souza, M.I.B. Berna


rdi, S.C. Mae strelli, I.M.G. Santos, A.G.Souza, E. Longo and published by the journal "Materials Resear ch Bulletin", was delivered on May 5, 2005, accepted on July 13, 2005 and published online on August 15 , 2006

3.

SEABRIGHT, C.A, Y THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL. Ceramic Pigment. U.S. Pat 2,441,447. 1948.