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ASPHAL T .. ":.
Manual Series .. 19· )) ...
Second Edition, / .'.
, \l., ,,:,;.:,!
This manual is based upon the publication of the same
title Issued by the Federal Highway Administration of
the U.S. Department of Transportation as FHWA·
IP·79-1 In January 1979. the contents of which were
prepared by The Asphalt Institute under contract to
the Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association
acting for the Federal Highway Administration.
LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG
CARD NUMBER:
86-72240
The Asphalt Institute does not endorse products or
manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers' names appear
herein solely because they are considered essential to
the object of this publication.
PRINTED IN USA
FOREWORD
The primary purpose of this manual is to impart a basic understanding of asphalt emulsions to
those who work with the product. Further, it is intended to be useful in choosing the emulsion that
best fits a project's specific conditions. And it should be most helpful in evaluating pavement
systems for construction and maintenance.
The manual is not written in such detail that one can use it to produce asphalt emulsions.
Neither is it directed toward the specific features of one manufacturer's products. Rather, it
explains the general characteristics of asphalt emulsions and their uses. In times past, lack of
information of this type may to some extent have prevented realization of the full potential of
emulsions.
This new second edition is thoroughly updated and special attention should be paid to
Parts II and III for new and revised tests and procedures.
A thorough study of the manual, then, should enable one to recommend where, when, and
how emulsions should be used. It also should aid in the solving of problems that may arise on
projects in which emulsions are used.
The Asphalt Institute can accept no responsibility for inappropriate use of this
manual. Engineering judgment and experience must be used to properly utilize
the principles and guidelines contained in this Manual taking into account
available equipment, local materials and conditions.
iii
CONTENTS
Page
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
List of Illustrations ..................:.................................. vii
List of Tables ......................................................... ix
PART ONE:
UNDERSTANDING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
Chapter Page
I. Introduction ..................................................... 1
II. The Chemistry of Asphalt Emulsions ...................................... 5
A. General ...................................................... 5
B. Emulsion Ingredients .............................................. 7
C. Producing the Emulsion ........................................... 12
D. Breaking and Curing ............................................. 15
III. Storing, Handling, and Sampling Asphalt Emulsions ........................... 17
IV. Emulsified Asphalt Tests ............................................ 25
PART TWO:
USING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
V. Selecting the Right Type and Grade of Asphalt Emulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37
VI. Asphalt Emulsion Surface Treatments ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 41
A. Materials .................................................... 45
B. Types of Treatments and Seals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 48
C. Surface Treatment Design .......................................... 54
D. Equipment ................................................... 58
E. Construction Procedure ........................................... 64
VII. Asphalt Emulsion-Aggregate Mixes ..................................... 67
A. Mixed-in-Place ................................................ 71
B. Asphalt Emulsion Plant Mix (Cold) .................................... 79
C. Asphalt Emulsion Plant Mix (Hot) .................................... 87
v
CONTENTS (Cont'd)
Chapter
VIII. Miscellaneous Asphalt Emulsion Applications
IX. Maintenance Mixes .............................................. .
X. Recycling .................................................... .
PART THREE:
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE
MIX-DESIGN METHODS
Page
89
97
JOI
Introduction ................................................... 109
XI. Modified Hveem Mix Design. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. III
XII. Procedural Outline and Design Criteria for The Asphalt Institute
Design Method for Open-Graded Mixes ........................................... 147
XIII. Procedural Outline and Design Criteria for the McConnaughay
Design Method for Cold Mixtures ................................................ 151
XIV. Marshall Method for Emulsified Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mixture Design ............. 155
APPENDICES
Appendix A Glossary .................................................. 171
Appendix B Testing Emulsified Asphalt (ASTM D 244) ............................ 175
Appendix C Miscellaneous Tables .......................................... 197
Appendix D Standard Method of Test for Unit Weight of Aggregate
(AASHTO T19; ASTM D 29) .................................. 209
Appendix E Bibliography ............................................... 213
Index 221
vi
Figure
II-I
Il-2
IV-I
IV-2
IV-3
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Diagram of an asphalt emulsion manufacturing plant ....... .
Relative sizes and distribution of asphalt particles in an emulsion
Distillation test for emulsified asphalts
Particle charge lest
Saybolt Furol viscosity test
IV -4 Float test ...... .
VI-I Longitudinal streaking
VI-2 Bleeding asphalt ...
VI-3 Loss of cover aggregate ........ .
VI-4 Flat particles are covered when enough asphalt is used to hold cubical particles
VI-5 Slurry seal machine ............. .
VI-6 Flow diagram of a typical slurry seal mixer
VI-7 Asphalt emulsion distributor ........ .
VI-8 Proper nozzle angle setting ........ .
VI-9 Spray bar height must be set exactly for proper coverage
VI-IO Tailgate vane spreader ....... .
VI-II Hopper type tailgate spreader
VI-12 Truck-attached mechanical spreader
VI-13
VI-14
VI-15
VI-16
VII-I
VII-2
VII-3
VII-4
VII-5
VII-6
VII-7
VIII-I
Self-propelled mechanical spreader
Pneumatic-tired roller .. .
Power broom ............ .
Surface treatment operation
Major uses of emulsified asphalt mixes
Volume of windrows
Travel plant. windrow type
Travel plant. hopper type
Rotary mixer. pulvimixer type
Blade mixing ....... .
Cold-mix continuous plant ..
Applying tack coat ..... .
VIII-2 Using emulsified asphalt to tie down mulch
VIII-3 Completed section of Interstate with emulsified asphalt mulch on median and close-up
Page
13
14
28
28
29
32
43
44
45
47
50
50
58
59
59
60
60
62
62
63
64
65
68
72
75
76
77
78
80
90
92
93
95 VIII-4 Filling crack with emulsified asphalt .. .
X-I A candidate for recycling ........ .
X-2 Loss of curb depth and draining capacity
X-3 Cold mix recycling operation
X-4 Hammermill pulverizing old pavement
X-5 Heater-overlay methods ........ .
XI-l Testing schedule for dense-graded emulsified asphalt mixes
XI-2 Chart for determining sUlface constant for fine material, Kf
XI-3 Chart for determining surface constant for coarse material, Kc
vii
102
103
104
104
106
112
119
120
(Continued next page)
LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd)
Figure
Page
XI-4 Chart for combining Kf and Kc to determine surface constant for combined aggregate ..... 121
XI-5 Chart for computing oil ratio for dense-graded asphalt mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 122
XI-6 Apparatus for Hveem C.K.E. tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
XI-7 Transfer of mix to mold .......................................... 127
XI-S Rodding mix in mold ............................................. 127
XI-9 Mechanical kneading compactor
XI-lO Resilient modulus device
XI-II Transducers and Mr yoke ......... .
XI-I2 Mr yoke on holder ............. .
XI-I3 Tightening Mr clamping screws
XI-I4 Seating Mr specimen on loading block
XI-I5 Adjusting Mr recording meter .....
XI-I6 Adjusting Mr pressure regulator
127
131
131
132
132
132
133
133
XI -17 Vacuum manometer and desiccator ...................... . . . . . . . . . 135
XI-IS Hveem stabilometer ............................................. 136
XI-I9 Chart for determining R-value from stabilometer data ..................... 139
XI-20 Chart for correcting R-values to height of 63.5mm (2.50 in.) ................ 140
XI-2I Chart for correcting stabilometer values to effective specimen height of 64mm (2.5 in.) 142
XI-22 Diagrammatic sketch showing principal features of the Hveem cohesiometer. . . . 144
XII-I
XIV-I
Wire screen funnel ...................... .
Typical emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture design plots
viii
14S
169
LIST OF TABLES
Table
II-I Requirements and typical applications for emulsified asphalt ........... .
11-2 Requirements and typical applications for cationic emulsified asphalt ....... .
Page
.. 8
10
III-I Storage temperatures for emulsified asphalts ................................ 18
III-2 Guide for condition of emptied tanks before loading emulsified asphalts ........... 20
III-3 Possible causes of contamination of asphalt material or samples and suggested precautions 20
IV-l Summary of emulsion tests
V -I General uses of emulsified asphalt ............................... .
V-2 Emulsified asphalt seal coats and surface treatments .................. .
26
...... 39
. ..... 40
VI-I Suggested distributor spraying temperatures for various grades of emulsified asphalt 46
VI-2 Slurry mixture gradings ....................................... 52
VI-3 Quantities of asphalt and aggregate for single surface treatments and seal coats .......... 55
VI-4 Quantities of asphalt and aggregate per square metre (square yard) for double
surface treatment .............................................. 56
VI-5 Quantities of asphalt and aggregate per square metre (square yard) for triple
surface treatment (armorcoat) ............................ .
VI-6 Quantities of asphalt and aggregate per square metre (square yard) for cape seal
VII-l
VII-2
VII-3
VII-4
VII-5
VII-6
IX-I
XI-I
XI-2
XI-3
Coarse aggregates for asphalt paving mixtures ............ .
Fine aggregates for asphalt paving mixtures ... .
Aggregate evaluation procedures .................... .
Aggregates for open-graded emulsion mixes ........ .
Aggregates for emulsified dense-graded asphalt mixtures .
Sand-emulsion mixes .......... .
Mineral aggregate gradations ..... .
Selection of emulsified asphalt amount
Surface area factors ............. .
Variables affecting asphalt dispersion
XI-4 Multiplying factors for cohesiometer values ...... . ....... .
XI-5 Design criteria for emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixes ........... .
XII-I Selection of emulsified asphalt amount
XIV -I Emulsified asphalt mixture data sheet .............. .
57
57
69
70
71
81
83
85
99
114
116
124
143
145
147
164
XIV-2 Stability correlation ratios ......................................... 167
XIV-3 Emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture design criteria .......................... 168
C-l Temperature-volume corrections for emulsified asphalts..... .......................... 198
C-2 Mass per cubic metre of dry mineral aggregates of different specific
gravity and various void contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
C-2a Weight per cubic foot and per cubic yard of dry mineral aggregates of different
specific gravity and various void contents ......................................... 200
C-3 Linear measurement covered by tank of any capacity for various
widths and rates of application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
C-4 Linear metres covered by 4000 litre tank of asphalt for various
widths and litres per square metre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
C-4a Linear feet covered by looO-gallon tank of emulsified asphalt
for various widths and rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
ix
LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd)
Table Page
C-5 Litres of asphalt required for 50 linear metres; various widths
and lit res per square metre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 203
C-5a Gallons of emulsified asphalt required per 100 linear feet;
various widths and rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 203
C-6 Megagrams of material required per kilometre for various widths
and kilograms per square metre ................................................. 204
C-6a Tons of aggregate required per mile for various widths and rates ........................ 204
C-7 Quantities at depths in cylindrical tanks in a horizontal position .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 205
C-8 Area in square metres of road surface for various road widths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 206
C-8a Area in square yards of road surface for various road widths. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 206
C-9 Temperature conversion chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 207
C-IO Conversion factors: U.S. customary to metric units ................................... 208
D-l Dimensions of measures, metric ................................................... 210
D-2 Dimensions of measures, U.S. customary system ..................................... 210
D-3 Unit weight of water. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 211
x
PART ONE:
UNDERSTANDING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
1.01 BASIC TYPES OF PAVING ASPHALTS
Virtually all asphalts used in the United States are products of the distillation of crude
petroleum. Asphalt is produced in a variety of types and grades ranging from hard and brittle
solids to almost water-thin liquids. Asphalt cement is the basis of all of these products. It can be
made fluid for construction uses by heating, by adding a solvent, or by emulsifying it. When a
petroleum solvent, such as naphtha or kerosene, is added to the base asphalt to make it fluid, the
product is called a cutback. When asphalt is broken into minute particles and dispersed in water
with an emulsifier it becomes an asphalt emulsion. The tiny droplets of asphalt remain uniformly
suspended until the emulsion is used for its intended purpose.
When combined with hydrocarbon solvent the asphalt cutback
is in solution. In an emulsion, the chemical emulsifier is orientated in and around droplets of
asphalt cement which influences their dispersion and stable suspension in water. When either
type is used in the field, evaporation of the asphalt carrier, i.e., the cutback hydrocarbon
solvent or the emulsion water, usually takes place to cause the cutback or emulsion to revert
to asphalt cement. In the case of the emulsion, the chemical emulsifier is retained with the
deposited asphalt.
1.02 ASPHALT EMULSION IN THE PAST
The use of asphalt emulsions for road construction and maintenance is not new. Emulsions
were first developed in the early 1900s. It was not until the 1920s, however, that emulsions, as we
know them today, came into being. Their early use was confined largely to spray applications
and use as a dust palliative. The growth in the use of asphalt emulsions was relatively slow. It was
limited by the types available and a lack of knowledge as to how they should be used. Continuing
development of new types and grades, coupled with improved construction equipment and
practices, now gives a broad range of choices, with which virtually any roadway requirement can
be met. Judicious selection and use can yield significant economic benefits.
Use records reveal a slow but steady increase iii the amount of emulsions used between 1930
and the mid 1950s. Following World War II, traffic loads and volumes increased so much that
roadway designers began to curtail the use of these materials. Instead, they specified high-type
hot plant mixes requiring the use of asphalt cement. While the volume of asphalt cement used has
shown a rapid increase since 1953, the combined use of other asphalt products has remained
almost constant. But one interesting trend is worthy of note-there has been a steady rise in the
volume of asphalt emulsions used.
The major uses of asphalt emulsion in the United States are:
- Surface treatments
- Patching and thin overlays
- Stabilization
- Slurry sealing
1
Asphalt emulsions also are used in base, surface course mixes and in recycling.
In the past several factors contributed to a nationwide interest in the use of asphalt emulsions,
namely:
- The energy crisis of the early 1970s that prompted conservation measures by the
Federal Energy Administration. Asphalt emulsion does not require a petroleum
solvent to make it liquid. (However, some medium-setting grades contain limited
amounts of solvent to enhance mixing qualities.) Also, asphalt emulsion can be
used (in most cases) without additional heat. Both of these contribute to energy
savings.
- Reduced atmospheric pollution. There are little or no hydrocarbon emissions from
asphalt emulsions.
- The ability of certain types of asphalt emulsion to coat damp aggregate surfaces,
which is another energy saving feature.
- Availability of a variety of emulsion types, coupled with improved laboratory
procedures, to satisfy design and construction requirements.
- Potential cost savings by the use of less fuel.
( conservation and atmospheric pollution--caused
I grave concern and a realization that some type of Federal action was needed. Our nation
suddenly became aware that energy needs soon could exceed supply unless conservation laws
were enactly promptly. In one of the early actions, the Federal Highway Administration
(FHW A) issued notices that directed attention to fuel savings that could be realized by using
asphalt emulsions instead of cutback asphalts. It estimated that a huge amount of petroleum
solvents could be saved annually by such substitution. While the substitution was not
\ mandatory, it was strongly suggested that it be considered. Since that time, all states are
\ substituting, or allowing the substitution of, asphalt emulsions for cutback asphalts.
1.03 LOOKING AHEAD
The demand for a well maintained, efficient highway network continues and consequently
asphalt is essential to meet these requirements.
The Federal Highway Administration annual survey shows that the United States has
about 6.3 million kilometres (3.9 million miles) in the roadway network. The survey also
shows that of the 3.2 million kilometres (2.0 million miles) of paved highways, about 93
percent have asphalt paved surfaces. A 1983 FHW A survey of the nation's major road system,
about 1.9 million kilometres (1.2 million miles), estimated that over 161,000 kilometres
(100,000 miles) were in poor condition and needed immediate repair while another 97,000
kilometres (60,000 miles) were only in fair condition.
Other significant findings contained in the report include:
- The cost of maintaining these roads, even at the current level of performance, will
exceed $300 billion over the next 15 years and this does not include money that will
be required on the 4.3 million kilometres (2.7 million miles) of local roads.
2
- Between 1983 and the year 2000, approximately 66,000 kilometres (41,000 miles)
of Interstate, 538,000 kilometres (334,000 miles) of arterials and 1,024,000
kilometres (636,000 miles) of collector roads will require capital improvements to
maintain serviceability.
- Total travel between 1984 and the year 2000 is expected to grow at an annual rate
of 2.0 to 2.7 percent. Thus, by the end of the century, America's highways must
accommodate 40 to 60 percent more travel than in 1984.
Thus, the demands for a well maintained roadway will be high, and the demand for asphalt
will continue. Because of these tremendous needs, every attempt should be made to utilize
road materials in an efficient, conservative manner.
A clear understanding of the "Why and How" of using asphalt emulsions offers a promise
of such an efficient use. The proper use of asphalt emulsion can result in high performance
pavements and thrifty but versatile maintenance systems. This manual is directed toward
those ends.
As an aid in understanding technical terms that may not be familiar, a glossary is provided
as Appendix A.
3
CHAPTER II
THE CHEMISTRY OF ASPHALT EMULSIONS
A.GENERAL
2.01 EMllkS1QNS
There are many types of emul1iion we use in our daily lives. Some of the more
common are mayonnaise, paints, hair dyes, and ice cream. In each case, certain mechanical and
chemical processes are involved that permit the combining of two or more materials that, under
normal conditions, will not mix. An entire scientific field is devoted to the study of emulsifica-
tion. You don't have to understand how an internal combustion engine works to operate an
automobile. Neither do you have to understand complex emulsion chemistry to obtain high
quality results with asphalt emulsion. The key is to select the right emulsion for the aggregate and
construction system involved. Throughout this text when the term "emulsionj' is used it is
_.'-...,
intended to mean "asphalt emulsion.i"
\ -.. --.' .. -',. . -'"
2.02 COMPOSITION OF ASPHALT EMULSIONS
An consists of basic ingredieQ!s: and an (emulsifying
On some occasions the emulsifying agent may a stabilizer. -
--Ii' is well known tbat water and asphalt will not mix, except under carefully controlled
conditions using highly specialized equipment and chemical additives. The blending of asphalt
cement and water is somewhat akin to an trying to wash grease from his hands
with water only. It is not until a detergent or soapy agent of some type is used that grease can be
successfully removed. The soap particles surround the globules of grease, break the surface
tension that holds them, and allow them to be washed away. Some of the same physical and
chemical principles apply in the formulation, production, and use of asphalt emulsion.
The object is to make a dispersion of the asphalt cement in water, stable enough for pumping,
prolonged storage, and mixing. Furthermore, the emulsion should break down quickly after
contact with aggregate in a mixer, or after spraying on the roadbed. Upon curing, the residual
asphalt retains all ofthe adhesion, durability, and water-resistance ofthe asphalt cement from
which it was produced.
2.03 CLASSIFICATION
Asphalt emulsions are divided into three categories: anionic, cationic, and nonionic. In
practice, the are jn .. roadW<lYG.QnstructioD-and.maintenanc.e.
Nonionics, however, may be more widely used as emulsion technology advances. The anionic
and cationic classes refer to the electrical charges surrounding the asphalt particles. This
identification system stems from one of the basic laws of electricity -like charges repel one
another and unlike charges attract. When two poles (an anode and a cathode) are immersed in a
liquid and an electric current is passed through, the anode becomes positively charged and the
cathode becomes negatively charged. If a current is passed through an emulsion containing
negatively charged particles of asphalt they will migrate to the anode. Hence, the emulsion is
referred to as anionic. Conversely, positively charged asphalt particles will move to the cathode
and the emulsion is known as cationic. With non ionic emulsions, the asphalt particles are
neutral and therefore do not migrate to either pole.
5
Emulsions are further classified on the basis of how quickly the asphalt will coalesce; i.e.,
revert to asphalt cement. The terms if{,s, have been adopted to simplify and
standardize this classification. They are relative terms only and mean
ting, and The tendency to coalesce is closely related to the mixing of an emulsion.
An @emulsion has .. QLnO ab!l!ty to mix wJth an aggt:cgate, an is expected
to mix with coarse but ,not aggrega.te, and an SS emulsion is designed to mix withfi!le
--
The emulsions are further subdivided by a series of numhers related to viscosity of the
emulsions and hardness of the base asphalt cements. The letter "C" in front of the emulsion
type denotes cationic. The absence of the "C" denotes a,nionic or nonionic. For example,
RS-l is anionic or non ionic and CRS-I is cationic.
Four grades of high-float medium-setting anionic emulsions, designated HFMS, have been
added to standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. These
grades are used primarily in cold and hot plant mixes, coarse aggregate seal coats, and road
mixes. High float emulsions have a specific quality that permits a thicker film coating without
danger of runoff.
A quick-set type of emulsion (QS) has been developed for slurry .3eals. Its use is rapidly
increasing as the unique quick-setting property solves one of the major problems associated
with the use of slurry seals.
Standard specifications for quick-set emulsions are under development. Additionally, some
emulsions are made with the water dispersed in asphalt, usually a cutback. As these so-called
"inverted emulsions" are seldom used, they are not discussed in this manual.
2.04 SPECIFICATIONS
ASTM and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) have developed standard specifications for the following grades of emulsions:
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
(RS-1 "
'R.S;2'
/MS-1
( MS-2

tHffMS-2
13fMS-2h
,HfMS-2s
'8S-1

CATIONIC EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
CRS-1
CRS-2
CMS-2
CMS-2h
CSS-1
CSS-1h
The "h" that follows certain grades simply means that a harder base asphalt is used. The
"HF" preceding some of the MS grades indicates high-float, as measured by the Float Test
(ASTM D 139 or AASHTO T 50). High-float emulsions have a quality, imparted by the
addition of certain chemicals, that permits a thicker asphalt film on the aggregate particles
with minimum probability of drainage. Some user agencies specify an additional cationic
sand-mixing grade designated CMS-2s, which contains more solvent than other cationic grades.
All grades in this lengthy list of emulsions may not be stocked by most producers.
Communication and planning between user and producer helps facilitate service and supply
of a given grade.
6
The specifications for emulsified asphalts (ASTM D 977 and AASHTO M 140) make no
mention of a solvent in the emulsion. CRS- and CMS- cationic emulsion specifications (ASTM
D 2397, AASHTO M 208), on the other hand, permit solvent but restrict the amount.
General Uses of Emulsified Asphalts are given in Table V-I, Chapter V. Standard specifi-
cations for emulsified asphalts carry ASTM Designations D 977 and D 2397 and AASHTO
Designations M 140 and M 208. For convenience, the basic requirements of these specifications
are given in Tables 11-1 and 11-2.
2.05 VARIABLES AFFECTING ASPHALT EMULSION
There are many factors that affect the production, storage, use, and performance of an asphalt
emulsion. It would be hard to single out anyone as being the most significant. But, among the
variables having a significant effect are:
- Chemical properties of the base
- Hardness and quantity of the base asphalt cement
- Asphalt particle size in the emulsion
- Type and concentration of the emulsifying agent
- Manufacturing conditions such as temperatures, pressures, and shear
- The ionic charge on the emulsion particles
- The order of addition of the ingredients
- The type of equipment used in manufacturing the emulsion
- The property of the emulsifying agent
- The addition of chemical modifiers.
The above factors can be varied to suit the available aggregates or to suit construction
conditions. It is always advisable to consult the emulsion supplier with respect to a particular
asphalt-aggregate combination as there are few absolute rules that will work the same under all
conditions.
An examination of the three main constituents-asphalt, water, and emulsifier-is essential
to an understanding of why asphalt emulsions work as they do.
B. EMULSION INGREDIENTS
2.06 ASPHALT
Asphalt cement is the basic ingredient of asphalt emulsion and, in most cases, it makes up from
55 to 70 percent of the emulsion. Tables II-I and 11-2 show the asphalt content specified for
various types of emulsions. ----'
Because asphalt cement is such a complex material, only those properties that significantly
affect emulsions are discussed. There is not an exact correlation, however, between the
properties and the ease with which the asphalt can be emulsified. Although hardness of base
asphalt cements may be varied as desired, most emulsions are made with asphalts in the
100-250 penetration range. On occasion, climatic conditions may dictate that a harder or
softer base asphalt be used. In any case, compatibility of the emulsifying agent
asphalt cement IS essential for production of a stable emulsion.
Asphalt is a colloid composed of several fractions, the major ones being asphaltenes and
maltenes. The colloidal make-up ofthe asphalt depends on thechemical nature and percentage of
these fractions and their relationship to each other.
7
0977
Type
Grade.
Tests on emulsions:
Viscosity. Saybolt Furol at 77°F
(25°C), s
Viscosity. Saybolt Furol at 122°F
(SO°C). s
Storage test. 24-h. %
_35 mt, N
% >. --- >-
Coating ability and water resistance:
Coating. dry aggregate
00
Coating. after spraying
Coating. wet aggregate
Coating. after spraying
Cement mixing test. %
Sieve test. %
Residue by distillation. %
Oil distillate by volume of emulsion.
%
r.esidue from distillation test: .
Penetration. 77°F (25°C). lOOg. 5 s
Ductility. (25"(:). 5 em/min.
em
Solubility in trichloroethylene. %
Float test, 140°F J60
0
C). 5
TABLE 11-1 REQUIREMENTS AND TYPICAL APPUCATIONS FOR
EMULSIRED ASPHALT
Rapid-Setting Medium-Setting
RS-I RS-2 MS-I MS-2
min max min max min max min max
20 100 20 100 100
75 400
60 60
good- good
fair fair
fair fair
fair fair
0.\0 0.10 0.\0 0.\0
55 63 55 65
100 200 100 200 100 200 100 200
40
1
40 40 40
.j
97.5 97.5 97.5 97.5
MS-2h
min max
100
good
fair
fair
fair
0.10
65
40 90
40
97.5
D9n
Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Grade ..................
TalS on emulsions:
Viscosity. Saybolt Furol at 7rF
(2S"C). s
Viscosity. Saybolt Furol at 122"F
(SO"C). s
Storaae stability test, 24-h. %
Demulsibility. 3S mI. 0.02 N
caO)' %
Coating ability and water resist-
ance:
Coatina. dry aggresate
Coating, after spraying
Coating, wet aggresate
Coating, after spraying
Cement mixing test. %
Sieve test. %
Residue by distillation. %
Oil distillate by volume of emul-
sion. "
Tall 011 residue/rom distil/ation lesl:
TTF (2S°C). 100 g, 5
s
Ductility, 77°F, (25°C), 5 em/min,
em
Solubility in trichloroethylene. %
Roat test, 14O"F (6O"C). s
TABLE 11-1 REQUIREMENTS AND TYPICAL APPUCATIONS FOR
EMULSIRED ASPHALT (Continued)
Mcdium-Setting
HFMS-I HFMS-2 HFMS-2h HFMS-2s
min max min max min max min max min
20 100 100 100 50 20
good good good good
fair fair fair fair
fair fair fair fair
fair fair fair fair
0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
55 65 65 65 57
I 7
100 200 100 200 40 90 200 100
40 40 40 40 40
97.S 97.5 97.5 97.5 97.5
1200 1200 1200 1200
The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any potent rights assened in connection with
any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights,
and the risk of infringement of such rights. is entirely their own responsibility.
Slow-Setting
SS-I SS-Ih
max min max
100 20 100
2.0 2.0
0.10 0.10
57
200 40 90
40
97.5
0
TABLE 11-2 REQUIREMENTS AND TYPICAL APPUCATIONS FOR
CATIONIC EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
~ ~ l ~ 02397
Type .................. .... ' ....... Rapid-Setting Medium-Setting
CRS-I CRS-2 CMS-2 CMS-2h
Grade .....................
min max min max min max min max
Test on emulsions:
Viscosity, Saybolt Fuml at 77"F (25"C), s
Viscosity, Saybolt Fuml at 122"F (50"C), s 20 100 100 400 50 450 50 450
Storage stability test, 24-h, % I 1
Oassification test passes passes
Coating ability and water resistance:
Coating, dry aggregate good good
Coating, after spraying fair fair
Coating, wet aggregate fair fair
Coating, after spraying fair fair
Particle charge test positive positive positive positive
Sieve test, % 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10
Cement mixing test, %
I>sillation:
Oil distillate, by volume of em uIsion, % 3 3 12 12
Residue, % 60 65 65 65
Tests on residue from distillation test:
Penetration, TTF (25"C), 100 II. 5 s 100 250 100 250 100 250 40 90
Ductility, 7TF (25"C), 5 em/min, em 40 40 40 40
Solubility in trichloroethylene, % 97.5 9i.5 97.5 97.5
Slow-Setting
CSS-I CSS-Ih
min max min max
20 100 20 100
positive positive
0.10 0.10
2.0 2.0
57 57
100 250 40 90
40 40
97.5 97.5
The asphaltenes are the dispersed phase in the asphalt whereas the maltenes are the continuous
phase. The asphaltenes are thought to furnish hardness while the maltenes are believed to provide
the adhesive and ductile properties of the asphalt. The maltenes present have an influence on the
viscosity, or flow properties, of the asphalt. The complex interaction of the different fractions
makes it almost impossible to predict accurately the behavior of an asphalt to be emulsified. For
this rcason, constant quality control is maintained on emulsion production.
Several analytical methods of asphalt analysis are in use today to separate and evaluate the
asphalt fractions. There is no agreement among technologists as to how each fraction affects
field performance.
Each emulsion manufacturer has his own formulations and production techniques. They have
been developed to achieve optimum results with the asphalt cement and emulsifying chemicals
that are used.
2.07 WATER
The second largest ingredient in an asphalt emulsion is water. Its contribution to the desired
properties of the finished product cannot be minimized. Water wets and dissolves; it adheres to
other substances; and, it moderates chemical reactions. These are all important factors to the
production of a satisfactory emulsion. On the other hand, water may contain minerals or
other matter that affect the production of stable asphalt emulsions.
Water found in nature may be unfit because of impurities, either in solution or colloidal
suspension. Of particular concern is the presence of positive and negative ions, which can
affect the properties of the emulsion.
Water containing impurities should not be used in emulsion production. It may result in an
imbalance of the emulsion components that can adversely affect performance or cause premature
hrcaking.
2.08 EMULSIFYING AGENTS
Properties of an asphalt emulsion depend greatly upon the chemical used as the emulsifier.
That chemical is a surface-active agent, commonly called a surfactant, that determines
whether the emulsion will be classified as anionic, cationic, or nonionic. The emulsifier keeps
the asphalt droplets in stable suspension and controls the breaking time. The surfactant
changes the surface tension at the interface, i.e., the area of contact between the asphalt droplets
and the water. A great many chemical emulsifiers are available. Each must be appraised for
compatibility with the asphalt cement being used.
In the early days of asphalt emulsion production, such materials as ox-blood, clays, and soaps
were used as emulsifying agents. As the demand for emulsions increased, new and more efficient
emulsifying agents were found. Several chemical emulsifiers now are commercially available.
The most often used anionic emulsifiers are fatty acids, which are wood-product derivatives
such as tall oils, rosins, and lignins. Anionic emulsifiers are saponified (turned into soap) by
reacting with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.
Most cationic emulsifiers are fatty amines (diamines, imidazolines, amidoamines, to name
three). The amines are converted into soap by reacting with acid, usually hydrochloric. Another
type of emulsifying agent, fatty quarternary ammonium salts, is used to produce cationic
11
emulsions. They are water-soluble salts as produced and do not require the addition of acid to
make them water-soluble. They are stable, effective cationic (positively charged) emulsifiers.
Each manufacturer has his own procedure for using his agent in asphalt emulsion production.
In most cases, the agent is combined with the water before introduction into the colloid mill. In
other cases, however, it may be combined with the asphalt cement just before it goes into the
colloid mill.
C. PRODUCING THE EMULSION
2.09 EMULSIFYING EQUIPMENT
Basic equipment to prepare an emulsion includes a high-speed, high-shear mechanical device
(usually a colloid mill) to divide the asphalt into tiny droplets. Also needed are an emulsifier
solution tank, heated asphalt tank, pumps, and flow-metering gauges. The colloid mill has a
high-speed rotor that revolves at 17-100 Hz (l ,000-6,000 rpm) with mill-clearance settings
in the range of about 0.25 to 0.50 mm (0.01 to 0.02 in.). Such settings yield emulsions with
asphalt droplet sizes smaller than the diameter of a human hair [about O.OOt to 0.010 mm
(0.00004 to 0.0004 in.)]. There is a slight variation in mill clearance settings and, thus, asphalt
droplet sizes depend upon the equipment used. Some emulsion mills have fixed clearances
with no latitude for variation.
Separate pumps are used to meter asphalt and the emulsifier solution into the colloid mill.
Because the emulsifier solution can be highly corrosive, it may be necessary to use a pump
made of corrosion resistant materials.
A schematic diagram of a typical asphalt emulsion manufacturing plant is shown in Figure
II-I.
2.10 THE EMULSIFYING PROCESS
In the general method of emulsifying asphalts, concurrent streams of molten asphalt cement
and treated water are directed by pumps into the intake of the colloid mill. The asphalt and
emulsifying water are subjected to intensive shear stresses as they pass through the cg.!l0id
mill. The newly-formed emulsion may then be pumped through aheat exchanger. The excess
h6aiis used to raise the temperature of the incoming emulsifying water just before it reaches
the colloid mill. From the heat exchanger the emulsion may be pumped into bulk storage
tanks. These tanks sometimes are equipped with some type of stirring device to keep the
product uniformly blended.
Heated asphalt cement, the base of the asphalt emulsion, is fed into the colloid mill where
it is divided into tiny droplets. At the same time, water containing the emulsifying agent is
fed into the colloid mill. The asphalt, as it enters the colloid mill, is heated to ensure a low
viscosity, and the water temperature is adjusted accordingly. These temperatures vary; they
depend upon the emulsification traits of the asphalt cement and the compatibility between the
asphalt and the emulsifying agent. Extremely high asphalt temperatures are not used because
the temperature of the emulsion leaving the mill must be below the boiling point of water.
12
Figure 11-1. Diagram of an asphalt emulsion manufacturing plant.
Courtesy Chemicolloid Laboratories. Inc.
The method of adding the emulsifier to the water varies according to the maker's procedure.
Some emulsifiers, such as amines, must be mixed and reacted with an acid, such as hydrochloric,
to attain water solubility. Others, such as fatty acids, must be mixed and reacted with an alkali,
such as sodium hydroxide, to attain water solubility. Mixing is most typically done in a batch
mixer. The emulsifier is introduced into warm water containing acid or alkali and agitated until
completely dissolved.
Asphalt and emulsifier solution must be proportioned accurately. It is done by monitoring the
temperature of each phase and the mill discharge, or with meters. If the temperature
regulation method of proportioning is used, the outlet temperature of the finished emulsion is
calculated from the temperatures of the various emulsion ingredients.
13
Asphalt particle size is a vital factor in making a stable emulsion. A photograph of
a typical emulsion reveals the following average particle sizes:
Smaller than 0.001 mm (Ip,m) ................................. 28 percent
0.001-0.005 mm (l-5p,m) .................................... 57 percent
0.005-0.010 mm (5-IOp,m) ................................... IS percent
These microscopic-sized asphalt droplets are dispersed in water in the presence of the chemical
surface-active emulsifier (surfactant). The surfactant causes a change in the surface tension at the
contact area between the asphalt droplets and the surrounding water, and this permits the asphalt
to remain in a suspended state. The particles, all having a similar electrical charge, repel each
other, which also aids in their remaining in a suspended state. Figure 11-2 is a photomicrograph
showing the sizes and distribution of the asphalt particles.
Figure 11-2. Relative sizes and distribution of asphalt particles in an
emulsion.
Courtesy Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
14
D. BREAKING AND CURING
2.11 BREAKING
If the asphalt emulsion is to perform its ultimate function of cementing and waterproofing, the
asphalt must separate from the water phase. For surface treatments and seals, er:n""Jsig!l..L1!re
to break upon contact with a such __
surface. The asphalt droplets coalesce and produce a continuous film of asphalt on the aggregate
or pavement. For dense mixtures, more time is needed to _ for mixing and
Therefore, are formulated for delayed breaking. Asphalt coales-
cence is commonly referred to as breaking, or setting. The rate at which the asphalt globules
separate from the water phase is referred to as breaking or setting time. For example, a rapid-set RS
will break within .. tes after whereas a medium- or
slow-set material may take JQl]gCL .
The rate of breaking is controlled primarily by the specific type and concentration of the
emulsifying agent llsed, as well as atmospheric conditions. . .....
The fact that different aggregate types have of absorption (sucking up a liquid)
that breaking is also related to the relative absorption characteristics of the aggregate
used. Those with higher absorption rates tend to accelerate the breaking of the emulsion due
to the more rapid removal of the emulsifying water.
rTo asphalt emulsion-aggregate rni.xWres, gradation and surface area of the aggregate also are
significant factors in the rate of breaking. As the surface area changes, the breaking
characteristic of the emulsion also changes because of the altered adsorption (gathering on the
surface) of the emulsifying agent by the aggregate. In order to achieve optimum results, it is
necessary to control the sizing of the aggregate or to adjust the emulsion formulation to meet
the specific requirements of the aggregate.
2.12 CURING
For paving uses, both anionic and cationic asphalt emulsions depend on the evaporation of
water for development of their curing and adhesion characteristics. displacement can be
fairly rapid under favorable weather conditions but high humidity, low temperatures, or rainfall
soon after application can deter proper curing. Although surface and atmospheric conditions are
less critical for cationic emulsions than for anionic, they still depend somewhat on weather con-
ditions for optimum results. Perhaps the principal advantage of the cationics is their willingness ..
togive Ul? their water a little faster.
that anionic emulsions (with a negative charge on the asphalt cirOR.@)
perform best with aggregates having positive surface charges-limestone and dolomite
are examples. The theory also holds that cationic emulsions (with a positive charge on the asphalt
droplets) perform best with aggregates having mostly negative surface charges-some examples
are siliceous or granitic aggregates. Presently, there is not complete agreement on the subjec.Lof
electrical charges on aggregatesurface.s. Recent studies have challenged the traditional theories.
The theories presented in this manual follow the line of traditional usage, which may change in
the future.
When using either the anionic or cationic rapid-set emulsion the initial deposition of aspbJll1
develops through an electrochemical phenomenon. But the main bond of strength between the
asphalt film and the aggregates comes after the loss of emulsifying water. This water fi!l!l can be
15
displaced by evaporation, pressure (rolling), or by absorption. In actual use, breaking is usually a
function of the combination of these three factors.
Medium- and slow-set emulsions, being more heavily stabilized, depend less on the aggregate
type although the same basic principles of electrical charges with respect to selection of emulsion
type still apply. When the MS and SS grades are used for paving mixes, the use of damp
facilitates the mixing and coating process. The development of strength in the SS
types depends mainly on dehydration and absorption \\lith water by oLthese
mechanisms breaking the emulsion. Solvent-free CMS and CSS emulsions require that the
moisture on'the aggregate be at or near optimum for proper mixing and coating.
Some types of emulsions contain slight amounts of petroleum solvent to aid in the mixing and
coating process. While the solvent does not enter directly into the breaking mechanism,
be made for the evaporation of the solvent in order for the mixture to be properly
cured. Where multiple courses are to be placed, a sllccessive c,)urse should not be applied until
the water (and solvent, if applicable) has been removed from the preceding course.
2.13 FACTORS AFFECTING SETTING RATE
In general, some of the factors that affect setting rate of an asphalt emulsion are as follows:
1. The rate that water is absorbed by the aggregate. A rough-textured, porous aggregate
speeds the setting time by absorbing water from the emulsion.
2. Moisture content of the aggregate prior to mixing.
3. Weather conditions-temperature, humidity, and wind velocity all have
l
'! on
rate of set.
4. Mechanical forces brought to bear by roll ing and by traffic. Roller pressure, to a
limited extent, the water fr..Q!D the materials.
5. Size distribution and mineral composition of aggregate. Fine aggregate mixes tend to
break faster because they possess greater surface area than an equal mass (weight)
of coarse aggregate. The miI1eral composition also affects the speed at which the
asphalt emulsion breaks. There may be some type of <:;hemical reaction between
the (ind the aggregate surface. Also, dirty aggregate or
may accelerate breaking.
6. The type and amounfof emulsifying agent used.
7. Intensity of charge on aggregate versus intensity of emulsifier charge, in combination
with area, is a major setting-rate determinant.
8. coagulation) The emulsion becomes unstable because of a decreased water
. content.
" \The above factors must be considered in determining working time after the emulsion has been
sprayed or mixed with the aggregate in the field.
16
CHAPTER III
STORING, HANDLING, AND SAMPLING
ASPHALT EI\IIULSIONS
3.01 GENERAL
The storage and handling of asphalt emulsions require precaution beyond that used for other
types of asphalt materials. Improper handling or storage of the emulsion, or both, may cause
premature breaking, thereby making it useless. The Asphalt Institute, in recognition of these
necessary precautions, has outlined some of the safeguards that must be followed. Failure to
follow even a single one of them may cause the material to be unsatisfactory at the time of
use. Careful study of each item is therefore suggested. StickingJQ.these simple rules will save
time and money by having the material ready for use when needed. The safeguards listed by
the Asphalt Institute are repeated below to help those who have little or no experience with
asphalt emulsions. However, it is not intended to give the impression that asphalt emulsions
are so delicate as to limit their field use. The use of almost any other material would have a
long list of admonitions for the uninitiated.
3.02 STORING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
Emulsified asphalt, being a dispersion of fine droplets of asphalt cement in water, has both
the advantages and disadvantages of meqiuIll, When storing emulsified
asphalts:
DO store as you would fluid water-between 10°C (50°F) and 85°C (185°F), depending
\
on the use.
DO use hot water as the heating medium for storage tanks with heating coils. Low
pressure or waste steam also may be used, with temperature controlled on the coil
surface to not more than 85°C (185°F).
DO store at the temperature for the particular grade.
the emulsions are stored at higher temperatures than for mixing with aggregate.
For example, the higher viscosity rapid-set spray grades are stored at 50°C to 85°C
(l25°F to 185°F) since they are usually applied il] this temperature range. The
lower viscosity grades are stored at lower temperatures. Table 111-1 shows the
normal storage temperature ranges. Store the mixing gradeshat end of
the temperature ranges as shown in Table III-I. ,-_ ... _ .... ,) {2.R..L fP [ 13.
DO NOT permit the emulsified asphalt to be heated above (1 85°F). Elevated
temperatures evaporate the water, resulting in an increase in viscosity and an
asphalt layer in the tank. The materials can no longer be used as intended and it
will be difficult to empty the tank.
DO NOT let the emulsion This breaks the emulsion, separating the asphalt
from the water. The result will be two layers in'the tank, neither suited for the
intended use, and the tank will be difficult to clean.
DO NOT allow the temperature of the heating surface to exceed 100°C (212°F). This
will cause premature breakdown of the emulsion on the heating surface.
DO NOT use forced air to agitate the emulsion. It may cause the emulsion to break.
17
TABLE 111-1 STORAGE TEMPERATURES FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
Grade Temperature, °C (OF)
Minimum Maximum
RS-1 20° (70°) 60° (140°)
RS-2, CRS-1, CRS-2 50° (125°) 85° (185°)
SS-1, SS-1h, CSS-1, CSS-1h, MS-1, HFMS-1 10° (50°) 60° (140°)
CMS-2, CMS-2h, MS-2, MS-2h, HFMS-2, HFMS-2h, HFMS-2s 50° (125°) 85° (185°)
3.03 STORAGE FACILITIES
For protection from freezing and best utilization of heat, storage tanks should be insulated.
A skin of asphalt can form on the surface of emulsions when exposed to air. It is best, therefore,
to use tall, vertical tanks as they expose the least amount of surface area to the air. Most fixed
storage tanks are vertical but horizontal tanks are often used for short-term field storage.
Skinning can be reduced by keeping horizontal tanks full to minimize the area exposed to air.
Side-entering propellers located about one metre (three feet) up from the tank bottom may
be used to prevent surface skin formation. Large diameter, slow-turning propellers are best
and should be used to roll the material over. Avoid overmixing. Secondly, tanks may be
circulated top to bottom with a pump. A void over-pumping. In tanks not equipped with
propellers, or a circulating system, a very light film of kerosene or oil on the surface can
reduce skin formation. Emulsions that are rolled or circulated generally do not require a layer
of kerosene or oil on the surface. Cathodic protection should be provided to avoid possible
corrosion of tank walls and heating coils.
3.04 HANDLING EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
DO when heating emulsified asphalt agitate it gently to eliminate or reduce skin forma-
tion.
DO protect pumps, valves, and lines from freezing in winter. Drain pumps or fill them
with anti-freeze according to the manufacturer's recommendations.
DO blowout lines and leave drain plugs open when they are not in service.
DO use pumps with proper clearances for handling emulsified asphalt. Tightly fitting
pumps can cause binding and seizing.
DO use a mild heating method to apply heat to the pump packing or casing to free a seized
pump. Discourage the use of propane torches.
DO warm the pump to about 65°C (150°F) to facilitate start-up.
DO when a pump is to be out of service for even a short period of time, fill it with No.
fuel oil to ensure a free start-up.
18
DO when diluting grades ofclllulsified asphalt. check the compatibility of the water with
the emulsion, by testing a small quantity.
DO if possible, use warm water for diluting and always add the water slowly to the
cmulsion (not the emulsion to the water).
DO avoid repeated pUlllPing and /\:cycl ing, if possible, as thc viscosity may drop and air
may bccomc cntrained, causing the cmulsion to be unstablc.
DO guard against mixing diffcrcnt c1asscs, types, and grades of cmulsified asphalt in
storage tanks, transports, and distributors. For example, if cationic and anionic
emulsified asphalts are mixed, the blend will break and scparate into water and
coagulated asphalt that will be difficult to remove. Because it is hard to determine
visually the difference between various emulsified asphalts, always make a trial
blend of the newly-delivered emulsion and the stored emulsion before pumping off.
Check the trial blend for compatibility.
DO place inlet pipes and return lines at the bottom of tanks to prevent foaming.
DO pump from the bottom of the tank to minimize contamination from skinning that may
have formed.
DO remember that emulsions with the same grade designation can be very different
chemically and in performance.
DO haul emulsion in truck transports with baffle plates to prevent sloshing.
no Illix by circulation, or otherwise, ellluisions that have bcen in prolonged storagc.
DO NOT use tight-fitting pumps for pumping emulsified asphalt; they may "freeze."
DO NOT apply severe heat to pump packing glands or pump casings. The pump may be
damaged and the asphalt may become even harder.
DO NOT dilute rapid-setting grades of emulsified asphalt with water. Medium and slow
setting grades may be diluted, but always add water slowly to the asphalt emulsion.
Never add the asphalt emulsion to a tank of water when diluting.
DO NOT recirculate emulsified asphalts for too many cycles. They tend to lose
viscosity when subjected to pumping. Also, air bubbles may become entrained
which would render the emulsion unstable.
DO NOT load emulsified asphalt into storage tanks, tank cars, tank transports, or
distributors containing remains of incompatible materials. See Tables 111-2 and
111-3.
19
TABLE 111-2 GUIDE FOR CONDITION OF EMPTIED TANKS
BEFORE LOADING EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
LAST PRODUCT IN TANK
PRODUCT Asphalt Cutback Cationic Anionic Crude Any product
TO BE Cement Asphalt Emulsion Emulsion petroleum not listed
LOADED (includes In- and residual above
dustrial fuel oils
Asphalt)
Empty to no Empty to no Empty to no Empty to no Tank
Cationic Measurable Measurable OK to load Measurable Measurable must be
Emulsion Quantity Quantity Quantity Quantity cleaned
-
Empty to no Empty to no Empty to no Empty to no Tank
Anionic Measurable Measurable Measurable OK to load Measurable must be
Emulsion Quantity Quantity Quantity Quantity cleaned
NOTE: All tanks to be emptied to 0.5 percent or less of capacity. Pump section. unloading line. and all
piping must be drained.
TABLE 111-3 POSSIBLE CAUSES OF CONTAMINATION OF ASPHALT
MATERIAL OR SAMPLES AND SUGGESTED PRECAUTIONS
HAULERS AND HAULING VEHICLES
Field observations and studies of test results have indicated that contamination of materials during
transportation often occurs.
Possible Causes
(a) Previous load not compatible
with material being loaded.
(b) Remains of diesel oil or sol-
vents used for cleaning and
flushing of tanks. lines, and
pump.
(c) Flushing of solvents into re-
ceiving storage tank or equip-
ment tanks.
Precautions
Examine the log of loads hauled or check with the
supplier to determine if pre\lious material hauled is
detri mental.
If it is. make sure vehicle tanks. unloading lines. and
pump are properly cleaned and drained before
being presented for loading. Provide a ramp at the
unloading point at the plant that will ensure complete
drainage of vehicle tank while material is still fluid.
When this is necessary. make sure all solvents
are completely drained.
Do not allow even small amounts to flush into stor-
age tank as entire contents may be contaminated
(Continued on next page)
20
TABLE 111-3 (con't.)
MIX PLANT STORAGE TANK AND EQUIPMENT
Many investigations and test results point to mix plant storage tanks and associated equipment as the
source of contamination.
Possible Causes
(a) Previous material left over in tank
when changing to another material.
(b) Solvents used to flush hauling ve-
hicle tank discharged into storage
tank.
(c) Flushing of lines and pump between
storage tank and hot-plant witll sol-
vents and then allowing this material
to return to tank.
(d) Cleaning of distributor tank, pump,
spray bar, and nozzles with solvents.
(e) Dilutions from hot oil heating
systems.
Precautions
Any material allowed to remain must be compatible with new
material; and the amount remaining in the tank must be insuffi-
cient to cause new material to become out-of-specification.
If in doubt, check with your supplier.
To be on the safe side, tank should be drained or cleaned prior
to using tank for each different type or grade of asphalt.
Be sure discharge line connects at low point of storage tank to
ensure complete emptying when changing type or grades of
asphalt or cleaning tank.
Observe unloading operations, caution driver about flushing
cleaning materials into storage tank.
If possible, provide place for hauler to discharge cleaning
materials.
If necessary to flush lines and pump, suggest providing by-
pass valves and lines to prevent solvents from returning to
tank. A better solution is to provide insulated, heated lines
and pump, thereby eliminating the necessity of flushing.
Be sure all possible cleaning material is drained off or re-
moved prior to loading.
Do not take sample from nozzle until sufficient material has
been discharged to guard against taking a contaminated
sample.
Check reservoir on hot oil heating system. If oil level is low,
or oil has been added, check system for leakage into the
asphalt supply.
NON-REPRESENTATIVE OR CONTAMINATED SAMPLE
Test results are greatly dependent upon proper sampling techniques. Extra care, on the part of the
sampler, to obtain samples that are truly representative of the material being sampled will do much to
eliminate the possibility of erroneous test results by reason of improper sampling. Make sure samples are
taken only by those authorized persons who are trained in sampling procedures.
Possible Causes
(a) Contaminated sampling device
(commonly called a "sample thief").
(b) Samples taken with sampling de-
vice from top of tank where, under
certain conditions, contaminants
can collect on the surface.
Precautions
If sampling device (of type described in ASTM 0 140 or
AASHTO T 40 is cleaned with diesel oil or solvent, make
sure that it is thoroughly drained and then rinsed out several
times with material being sampled prior to taking sample.
In taking a sample from the top of a tank lower sampling de-
vice below the extreme top before opening. Note: This
sample may come from the top one-third of the tank.
(Continued on next page)
21
TABLE 111-3 (Con't.)
Possible Causes
(c) Contaminated sample container.
(d) Sample contaminated after
taking.
(e) Samples taken from spigot in
lines between storage tank
and hot-plant.
(f) Samples taken from unloading line
of hauling vehicle.
Precautions
Use only new clean containers. Never wash or rinse a sample
container with solvent. Glass or polyethylene containers
should be used.
DO NOT submerge container in solvent or even
wipe outside of container with solvent-saturated rag.
If necessary to clean spilled material from outside of
container, use a clean dry rag.
Make sure container lid is tightly sealed prior to stor-
age or shipment. Ship to testing laboratory promptly.
If sampling spigot is in suction line between tank
and pump, this necessitates stopping pump prior to taking
sample. Samples thus taken are by gravity and only
representative of material localized in the r.>ipe area
of the spigot.
Rather, the spigot should be in lines between pump
and return line discharge, thereby allowing slow
withdrawal of material during circulation.
DO NOT take sample while hauling vehicle is pump-
ing into storage tank.
DO NOT take sample without allowing sufficient
time for circulation and thorough mixing of material.
DO drain off sufficient material through spigot prior to
taking sample to ensure removal of any contaminant
lodged in spigot.
DO take sample slowly during circulation to be more rerre-
sentative of material being used.
Drain off sufficient material through spigot prior to taking
sample to ensure removal of any contaminant lodged there.
Sample should be taken after one-third and not more than
two-thirds of the load has been removed. Take sample slowly
to be sure it is representative of the material being used.
3.05 SAMPLING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
The purpose of any sampling method is to obtain samples that will show the true nature and
condition of the material. The general procedure is described in the following articles. The
standard procedure is detailed in "Standard Methods of Sampling Bituminous Materials,"
ASTM D 140 or AASHTO T 40.
3.06 SAMPLE CONTAINERS
Containers for emulsified asphalt materials shall be wide-mouth jars or bottles made of
plastic, or wide-mouth plastic-lined cans with lined screw caps, or plastic-lined triple-seal
friction-top cans.
22
3.07 SIZE OF SAMPLES
The size of samples shall correspond to the required sample containers.
3.08 SAMPLES
Whenever practicable, the emulsified asphalt shall be sampled at the point of manufacture or
storage. If that is not practicable, samples shall be taken from the shipment immediately upon
delivery. Three samples of the emulsified asphalt shall be taken. The samples shall be sent to the
laboratory for testing as soon as possible.
3.09 SAMPLING PRECAUTIONS
(I) Sample containers shall be new. They shall not be washed or rinsed. I f they contain
evidence of solder flux or if they are not clean and dry they shall be discarded. Top and container
shall fit together tightly.
(2) Care shall be taken to prevent the samples from becoming contaminated. The sample
container shall not be submerged in solvent, nor shall it be wiped with a solvent saturated cloth.
Any residual material on the outside of the container shall be wiped with a clean, dry cloth
immediately after the container is sealed and removed from the sampling device.
(3) The sample shall not be transferred into another container.
(4) The filled sample container shall be tightly and positively sealed immediately after the
sample is taken.
3.10 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
(I) Safety precautions are mandatory at all times when handling asphalt materials. These
safety precautions include, but are not limited to, the ones that follow.
(2) Gloves shall be worn and sleeves shall be rolled down and fastened over the gloves at the
wrist while sampling and while sealing containers.
(3) Face shields should be worn while sampling.
(4) There shall be no smoking while sampling asphalts.
(5) The sampler shall stand on the windward side when taking the sample.
(6) During sealing and wiping the container shall be placed on a firm level surface to prevent
splashing, dropping or spilling the material.
3.11 PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SAMPLES
(I) Immediately after filling, sealing, and cleaning the sample containers shall be properly
marked for identification with a wick marking pencil on the container itself, not on the lid. Linen
tags also may be used for identification if they can be securely fastened to the container in such a
manner as to ensure that they will not be lost in transit.
Linen tags shall not be attached to containers by using the lids to secure them.
(2) Samples of emulsions shall be packaged, labeled, and shipped in such a manner as to
protect them from freezing.
(3) All samples should be packaged and shipped to the laboratory the same day they are taken.
The containers, tightly sealed, should be packed in absorbent material, such as sawdust,
excelsior, or vermiculite, to reduce the probability of damage during shipment.
(4) Each sample shall be identified with at least the following information:
(a) Shipper's name and bill of lading or loading slip number.
(b) Date sampled.
(c) Sampler'S name.
(d) Product grade.
CHAPTER IV
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT TESTS
4.01 REASONS FOR TESTING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
Proper interpretation of laboratory test results can greatly aid in determining the traits of an
asphalt emulsion. As advances in asphalt emulsion technology have been made through the
years, corresponding advances in emulsion testing have evolved. Some of these tests are
designed to measure performance qualities. Others deal mainly with the manufacturing process.
Laboratory tests are normally performed for one of four purposes:
I. To measure properties related to handling, storage, and field use.
2. To control the quality and uniformity of the product during manufacturing and use.
3. To provide reference procedures for specifications.
4. To pred ict or control field performance.
Table I V-I is a useful summary of most of the tests.
J\. review of emulsion specifications used across the United States reveals a wide variety of
requirements. Many are directly related to the emulsions produced by specific manufacturers.
Because it is impraticable to discuss the multitude of requirements and test methods, this
chapter is confined to the methods in ASTM Method D 244 and AASHTO Test Method T 59.
4.02 ASPHALT EMULSION TESTS
Asphalt emulsions are made by taking asphalt cement, and by special formulation, converting
it to a liquid form. That makes the asphalt easy to apply, mix, or handle before it reverts to
its original state. Test methods for evaluating properties of asphalt cement are well known.
Among them are penetration, ductility, and solubility in trichloroethylene, tests that apply also
to the residual asphalt in the emulsion after the water has evaporated. The primary purpose
of this chapter is to consider the tests that apply to asphalt emulsion, rather than the base
asphalt cement. The major emulsion tests are briefly discussed, with details of each test method
presented in Appendix B. Most of the tests are standard procedures and are outlined in "Testing
Emulsified Asphalts," ASTM Method of Test D 244 and AASHTO Method T 59.
4.03 RESIDUE BY DISTILLATION
The relative proportions of asphalt cement and water in the emulsion can be determined by a
distillation test. Additional tests may be made on the asphalt cement residue when the emulsifed
asphalt contains an oil distillate. A micro-distillation test or residue-by-evaporation test also can
be performed to determine the amount of this material in the emulsion.
The distillation test procedure for asphalt emulsion is closely akin to that fiJr cutback asphalt.
The main difference is that an aluminum alloy still and ring burners are used instead of the glass
flask and Bunsen Burner (note Figure IV-I). The equipment is designed to prevent trouble from
25
TABLE IV-1 SUMMARY OF EMULSION TESTS
Test Property Factor Requirement
- ~ - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
CONSTANCY A) Uniformity Product must have the same 'Residue: Proportions of asphalt & water.
(Indication of uniformity of
manufacture.) Residue is
measured by dehydrating the
emulsion by evaporation or
distillation.
B) Storage
Stability
handling, mixing and setting
characteristics from shipment
to shipment.
Product must be capable of
storage without excessive
damage or change.
CLASSIFICATION A) Differentiate mixing grade product from rapid
set types. (Select proper grade)
B) Differentiate cationic from anionic emulsions.
(Prevent mixing of grades which could result
in breakdown)
'Sieve:
'Settlement:
'Storage Stability:
Freeze-Thaw:
'Demulsibility:
'Particle Charge
Test:
pH:
Amount of oversize particles,
shot and slugs retained on #20
mesh sieve.
Amount of settlement of asphalt
particles in 5 days -- one day
for storage stability test. The
difference in residue between
top and bottom is measured.
Most emulsions are damaged
by freezing.
Amount of coagulation on addition
of a salt-calcium chloride with
anionic emulsion; Aerosol OT with
cationic emulsion.
Deposition of asphalt on an
electrode.
Cationics are generally acidic with
a pH of less than 7. Anionics are
generally alkaline with a pH
greater than 7. Water has a pH=7.
------------------------
CONSTRUCTION A) Handling
CHARACTERISTICS
DURABILITY
ASPHALT PURITY
B) Rate of Set
C) Mixing
Stability
A) Traffic
Densification
B) Resistance to
Stripping
C) Long-Term
Service Life
A) Ensure
Presence of
Asphalt
Product must be s.ale to
handle and capable of being
pumped and sprayed without
breakdown or run-off.
The product must break
rapidly and hold aggregate
under the action of traffic.
The product must mix with
water and aggregate without
balling or breakdown. Once
mixed, the mix must cure
rapidly to an asphalt film.
Properly designed pavements
must not bleed under repeated'
load application by heavy
traffic.
Mixes must not strip when in
prolonged contact with water.
Asphalt must remain flexible
at cold temperatures and not
deteriorate on long-term
weathering in a pavP'T1ent.
Keep to a minimum the
additives, emulsifiers and fillers
used to emulsify the asphalt.
"Included in ASTM D 244 and AASHTO T 59
26
'Consistency:
Pumping Stability:
Dehydration:
'Cement Mixing:
'Stone Coating-
Water Resistance:
Miscibility
With Water:
'Penetration:
'Float Test:
'Residue:
Adhesion Test:
'Penetration &
Ductility After
Laboratory
Distillation:
Specification Tests
On Original Asphalt:
'Solubility 01 The
Asphalt After
Laboratory
Distillation:
Emulsion viscosity.
No test in current specifications.
Amount of water lost in 96 hours
at 100°F.
(Note: Improved test method for
Rate of Set is needed.)
Emulsion mixed with cement.
Job (or reference) aggregate is
mixed with the emulsion to
determine coating and early rain
resistance.
Ability to mix with water without
coagulation.
Consistency of base asphalt after
laboratory distillation.
Made on job aggregate or a
reference aggregate.
Courtesy Chevron U.S.A., Inc.
foaming of the emulsified asphalt as it is being heated to a maximum of 260°C (500°F).
The usual test method, however, is not necessarily preferred for recovery of the asphalt
residue and for defining the properties of the asphalt base stock used in the emulsion. Properties
of the asphalt base can be altered substantially by:
- Concentration of inorganic salts from the aqueous phase in the asphalt residue.
- Concentration of emulsifying agents and stabilizers (if present) in the asphalt residue.
These materials remain in the distillation residue and may alter the asphalt properties.
Thennally-induced changes do not occur in actual usage because the applied emulsion is
allowed to break either electrochemically or by evaporation of the water. In field use, the
temperature of the system never approaches that observed in the distillation test. Therefore,
the real purpose of the test-to detennine accurately the amount of asphalt cement in the
emulsion-is not always realized. Evaporation of the water at subatmospheric pressure and at
lower temperatures (ASTM D 244 or AASHTO T 59) provides a more realistic means for
defining the properties of the asphalt after it is cured on the pavement surface. Similar procedures
are now recognized and used by many agencies and emulsified asphalt producers.
4.04 OIL DISTILLATE
The oil distillate, percent by volume of the original emulsion sample, is obtained from the
amount of oil in the cylinder at the end of the test for residue by distillation.
4.05 RESIDUE BY EVAPORATION
This test is designed to measure the percentage of asphalt cement in the emulsion by
evaporating the water. The residue derived from this procedure usually yields lower penetration
and lower ductility than that from distillation. However, residue from evaporation can be used
for other tests.
4.06 PARTICLE CHARGE TEST
The particle charge test is made to identify cationic emulsions. It is perfonned by immersing
a positive electrode (anode) and a negative electrode (cathode) into a sample emulsion and
connecting them to a controlled direct-current electrical source, Figure IV -2. At the end of a
specified period, the electrodes are observed to detennine if the cathode has an appreciable
layer of asphalt deposited on it. Cationic emulsions will migrate toward the cathode.
4.07 VISCOSITY
Viscosity is defined as a flu id' s resistance to flow. In the case of emulsified asphalts the
Saybolt Furol visl:::osity test (Figure IV -3) is used as a measure of consistency. Results are
reported in Saybolt Furol seconds. For convenience and for testing accuracy, two testing
temperatures, which cover the normal working range, are used. These temperatures are 25°C
(77°F) and 50°C (122°F).
27
Figure IV-1. Distillation test for emulsified asphalts.
Figure IV-2. Particle charge test.
28
Figure IV-3.
SayboH Furol viscosity test.
4.08 DEMULSIBILITY
The demulsibility test indicates the relative rate at which the colloidal asphalt globules in
the rapid-setting type of emulsified asphalts will break when spread in thin films on soil or
aggregate. Calcium chloride causes the minute asphalt globules present in these emulsified
asphalts to coalesce. In the test, a solution of calcium chloride and water is thoroughly mixed
with emulsified asphalt; then it is poured over a sieve to determine how much the asphalt
globules coalesce.
In testing rapid-setting (RS) emulsions, a very weak solution of calcium chloride and water
is employed. Specifications prescribe the concentration of the solution and the minimum
amount of asphalt to be retained on the sieve. A high degree of "demulsibility" indicates a
rapid-setting (RS) emulsion. It is expected to break almost immediately upon contact with the
aggregate on which it is applied.
29
4.09 SETTLEMENT
The settlement test indicates the emulsion's stability in storage. It detects the tendency of
asphalt globules to settle during storage. This test also serves as an indicator of quality even if the
emulsion is not to be stored for a period of time. Failure of the settlement test indicates that
something is wrong or out of balance in the emulsification process.
A prescribed volume of emulsion is allowed to stand in a graduated cylinder for a specified
number of days (usually five). Small samples are then taken from the top and bottom parts. Each
sample is placed in a beaker and weighed. The sample is then heated until all water evaporates;
then the residue is weighed. The weights obtained are used to find the difference, if any, between
the asphalt cement content in the upper and lower portions of the cylinder. This provides a
measure of settlement.
When the asphalt emulsion is to be used promptly, most agencies will accept the storage
stability test (one-day settlement), Article 4.14, in lieu of the settlement test.
4.10 CEMENT MIXING
The cement mixing test does the same for slow-setting (SS) emulsified asphalts as the
demulsibility test does for rapid-setting grades. The SS grades are used with fine materials and
dusty aggregates. They are normally unaffected by calcium chloride solution as used in the
demulsibility test.
In the cement mixing test, a sample of emulsified asphalt is mixed with finely-ground portland
cement and the mixture washed over a 1.40 mm (No. 14) sieve. Specifications usually limit the
amount of material that may be retained on the sieve.
The cement mixing reaction for cationic and noncationic emulsions is quite different. The
cationic emulsion reacts to portland cement because of surface area; the noncationic, particularly
the anionic type, reacts chemically with portland cement constituents, forming a water-insoluble
salt.
4.11 SIEVE TEST
The sieve test complements the settlement test and has a somewhat similar purpose. It is used
to find the amount of asphalt in the form of rather large globules that may not have been detected
in the settlement test and could clog the spraying equipment. Such globules will not provide thin
and uniform coatings of asphalt on the aggregate particles.
In the sieve test, a representative sample of emulsified asphalt is poured through a 850 /Lm
(No. 20) sieve. For anionic emulsions, the sieve and retained asphalt are then rinsed with a mild
sodium oleate solution and finally with distilled water. For cationic emulsions, distilled water
only is used for rinsing. After rinsing, the sieve and asphalt are dried in an oven and the amount of
retained asphalt determined by weighing.
4.12 MISCIBILITY WITH WATER
This test finds if medium-setting or slow-setting emulsions can be mixed with water. It is not
applicable to rapid-setting asphalt emulsions. After adding and stirring distilled water, the
emulsion sample is allowed to stand for two hours. It is then examined for any appreciable
coagulation of the asphalt droplets in the emulsion.
The test is a quality measure in addition to indicating whether the emulsion is capable of
mixing with, or being diluted with, water. Quite often there will be a deposit of heavy emulsion
30
in the bottom of the beaker. If the deposit in the beaker is minimal, it signifies that the emulsion is
properly formulated and that the dispersed particles are in the desired size range.
4.13 COATING ABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE
This test has a threefold purpose. It determines the ability of an asphalt emulsion to: (I) coat the
aggregate thoroughly. (2) withstand mixing action while remaining as a film on the aggregates
and (3) resist the washing action of water after completion of mixing. The test is primarily
intended to identify medium-setting asphalt emulsions suitable for mixing with coarse-graded
calcareous aggregates. Other aggregates may be used in the test if calcium carbonate is omitted
throughout the method. This test is not adaptable to rapid-setting or slow-setting asphalt
emulsions.
The reference aggregate is coated with calcium carbonate dust and then mixed with the
emulsified asphalt. About one-half of the mixture is then placed on absorbent paper for a
visual inspection of the surface area of aggregate coated by the emulsified asphalt. The
remainder of the mixture is sprayed with water and rinsed until the rinse water runs clear.
This material is then placed on absorbent paper and inspected for coating.
A sample of job aggregate is similarly coated with calcium carbonate dust. A given quantity
of water is then mixed with the dust-coated aggregate. Emulsified asphalt is added and
thoroughly mixed. Inspections are made as described above for the dry-coated aggregates.
4.14 STORAGE STABILITY
The storage stability test is used to determine the ability of an emulsified asphalt to remain
as a uniform dispersion during storage. It is a measure of the permanence of the dispersion
as related to time.
A measured representative sample is placed in each of two glass cylinders. They are stoppered
and allowed to stand at laboratory temperature for 24 hours. A 50g sample from each cylinder
is siphoned from the top. The samples are placed for a set time in an oven heated to a prescribed
temperature. Then they are removed, allowed to cool, and weighed. After the top sample is
removed, all but a small portion of the asphalt emulsion remaining in each cylinder is siphoned
off. A 50g sample of the portion that is left is put through the same procedure as for the top
samples.
The storage stability is expressed as the numerical difference between the average percentage
of residue in the top samples and the bottom samples.
4.15 EXAMINATION OF RESIDUE
The same desirable characteristics in the base asphalt cement should show up in the residual
asphalt after emulsification and coalescence. The most common tests run on the residue include
penetration, solubility, ductility, float test, and specific gravity. These tests are described in
detail in ASTM Methods D 5, D 2042, D 113, D 139 and D 70 (AASHTO Methods T 49,
T 44, T 51, T 50, and T 228) respectively.
The penetration test is an empirical test of consistency. It has been carried over in some
viscosity-based asphalt specifications to ensure that materials of an undesirably low penetration
are precluded from use. This test measures the depth of penetration in units of 0.1 mm of a
standard needle under a load of 100g for exactly five (5) seconds when the asphalt sample is
at a temperature of 25°C (77°F). Lower test temperatures are sometimes checked when the
asphalt is to be used in an area where very low temperatures are prevalent.
The solubility test is a measure of the "purity" of the asphalt cement. The portion of the
asphalt cement that is soluble in specified solvents represents the active cementing constituents.
31
Only such inert matter as saIts, free carbon, or nonorganic contaminants, such as clay or finely
divided mineral matter, are insoluble. Solubility is determined by dissolving the asphalt cement
in the solvent and separating the soluble and insoluble portions by filtering.
The ductility of an asphalt cement is its ability to be extended or pulled into a narrow thread.
In many applications, it is an important characteristic of asphalt cements. The presence or
absence of ductility, however, is usually of more significance than the actual degree of ductility.
This test is made by molding a briquette of asphalt cement under standard conditions and
dimensions. The asphalt briquette is then brought to a standard test temperature in a water bath. It
is pulled at a specified rate of speed until the thread connecting the two ends breaks. The
elongation, in centimeters, at which the thread of material breaks is designated as ductility.
The float test is performed on the residue from distillation of HFMS emulsified asphalts.
The test is a measure of consistency of the material being examined.
In the test, illustrated in Figure IV -4, a plug of asphalt residue is solidified in a brass collar
by cooling to 5°C (41°F). The collar is then screwed into the bottom of an aluminum float
which is placed into a testing bath of water heated to 60°C (140°F). The time required for the
water to break through the plug is determined. Values are limited by specifications for the
HFMS emulsified asphalts (see Table II-I, Chapter II). The test is prescribed in ASTM Method
of Test D 139 (AASHTO Method of Test T 50).
4.16 CLASSIFICATION TEST FOR RAPID-SETTING
CATIONIC ASPHALT EMULSIONS
Figure IV-4. Float test.
This test identifies rapid-setting cationic asphalt emulsions by their failure to coat a specific
Ottawa sand-portland cement (Type III) mixture. Following a 2Vz minute mixing period, an
estimate is made of the amount of uncoated and coated areas in the mixture. An excess of
uncoated area over a coated area is considered as a passing rating for rapid-setting cationic
emulsions.
4.17 FIELD COATING TEST
This test is used at the project site to determine:
- The ability of an asphalt emulsion to coat the job aggregate.
- The ability of the emulsion to withstand mixing.
- The water resistance of the emulsion-coated aggregate.
Measured amounts of the job aggregate and job emulsion are hand mixed. The ability of the
emulsion to remain as a coating during a five-minute cycle is observed. The resistance of the
coating to wash-off is determined by filling with water and emptying a container of the
32
coated aggregate five times. The coating of the aggregate is visually rated as good, fair, or
poor. A rating of good means that the aggregate is fully coated (except for pinholes and sharp
edges). A rating of fair indicates an excess of coated over uncoated aggregate area. A rating
of poor indicates an excess of uncoated aggregate over coated area.
4.18 MASS PER LITRE (WEIGHT PER GALLON)
This test is used to determine the mass per litre (weight per gallon) of asphalt emulsion.
This unit mass (weight) is computed by finding the mass (weight) of an asphalt emulsion in
a standard measure of known volume. Results are reported in kilograms per litre (pounds per
gallon) to the nearest 0.005 kg (0.01 lb.) at 25°C (77°F).
4.19 SPECIFIC GRAVITY
Finding the specific gravity of asphalt cement is not normally a specification item. It can
be helpful, however, in making volume corrections at elevated temperatures and determining
necessary quantities. Asphalt cements fall within a specific gravity range of about 1.0 to 1.05.
This means that they weigh 1.0 to 1.05 times as much as the same volume of water under
the same test conditions. The specific gravity is usually determined with a pycnometer.
4.20 SPECIAL TEST-ZETA POTENTIAL
The measurement of zeta potential is not a standard ASTM or AASHTO test. The zeta
potential is a measurement of the intensity of positive or negative charge of emulsified asphalt
and/or aggregate particles. A device called a Zeta Meter measures the speed of movement
(electrophoretic mobility) of individual emulsified asphalt droplets or aggregate particles when
placed in an aqueous medium. The intensity of charge each droplet or particle inherently
possesses, either positive or negative, can be expressed in millivolts (111000 volt) as the zeta
potential.
33
PART TWO:
USING ASPHALT EMULSIONS
CHAPTER V
SELECTING THE RIGHT TYPE
AND GRADE OF ASPHALT EMULSION
5.01 GENERAL
Asphalt emulsions can be used for almost any purpose for which cutback asphalts are used.
Furthermore, they have a broader range of uses that include many not suited to cutbacks. That
does not mean that they can be used indiscriminately. Successful performance of asphalt
emulsions requires selecting the proper type and grade for the intended use. Guidelines presented
in this chapter should help select the specific grade and type of emulsion to be used.
5.02 CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTION
The first consideration in picking the right type and grade of emulsion is the kind of
construction in which it will be used. Is it a seal coat or a plant mix (central or mixed-in-place)?
Is it some type of surface application only? Is it for maintenance? Once this decision is made
other project variables must then be considered. Some other factors that affect the selection are:
- <;:1!..!!Iatic duringC.onst[uc.tian.: The selection of emulsion grade,
design of mix or treatment, and construction equipment depend upon this factor.
- Aggregate type and availability.
- Construction equipment availabil ity.
- Geographical location: hauling distance, and in some cases, water availability.
'(- Traffic control: can traffic be detoured?
1/-' Environmental considerations.
l
While general guidelines can be given for selecting emulsions,
recommended. There is no good substitute for a laboratory evaluation of the emulsion and the
aWegate-To be used, Different types and quantities of emulsion should be tried with the
aggregate to find the best combination for the intended use. An experienced technician can
determine the type and amount of emulsion to be used. He can also determine if additional water
must be added, and the amount of time for breaking to occur.
5.03 GENERAL USES
Each grade of asphalt emulsion is designed for specific uses. They are described in general
terms in the following paragraphs,
- Rapid-Setting EmuLsions:
The rapid-setting grades are designed'to react quickly with aggregate and revert from
the emulsion state to asphalt.
37
They are used primarily for spray applications, such as aggregate (chip) seals, sand
seals, surface treatments, and asphalt penetration macadam. The RS-2 and CRS-2
grades have high viscosities to prevent runoff.
- Medium-Setting Emulsions:
The medium-setting grades are designed for mixing with coarse aggregate. Because
these grades do not break immediately upon contact with aggregate, mixes using
them remain workable for a few minutes. They are used extensively in
The CMS grades have high viscosities to prevent runoff.
A newly standardized medium-setting asphalt emulsion, identified as high float,
is anionic in nature. The major difference between this emulsion and the conventional
medium-setting is the high float characteristic, measured on the asphalt residue by
the Float Test, ASTM D 139 (AASHTO T 50). It reportedly gives better aggregate
coating and asphalt retention under extreme temperature conditions. While regular
asphalts have a tendency to flow, or migrate- at about 60°C (140°F), the high float
residues are designed to stay in place up to about 71 °C (l60°F). Therefore, high
float residues are less susceptible to changes in temperature. They soften less in
summer and do not harden as much in winter.
The American Society for Testing and Materials has standardized four grades of
high-float emulsions-HFMS-I, HFMS-2, HFMS-2h and HFMS-2s. Their specifi-
cations are contained in ASTM D 977 (see Table II-I).
- Slow-Setting Emulsions:
The slow-setting grades are designed for maximum mixing stability. They are used
with high fines content, dense-graded aggregates. The SS grades have long work-
ability times to ensure good mixing with dense-graded aggregates. All slow-setting
grades have low viscosities that can be further reduced by adding water. These
grades, when diluted, can also be used for tack f()g and <i!:!§l.p-!;llU1ltiYe.s.
The SS grade of emulsioll.depends entirely upon 9L!.he yater...f9f
the.aspbJ!lLparticies'. If a faster setting rate is needed in mixtures,
as is for slurry seals, p()r,tland cement or hydrated lime can be added.
SS emulsions are generally used for dense-graded aggregate-emulsion ba,ses, so!!:-as-
asphalt surface mixes, and slurry seal:;.
,Table V-I shows the general uses of standard emulsion types and grades .
. 04 ADHESIVE PROPERTIES
Success with any aggregate-emulsion combination depends greatly on
c_harges.,Qf the asphalt droplets and the aggregate. The probability of good adhesion is diminished
if charges are similar. Conversely, the probability of good adhesion is greatly improved
if the charges are different. The predominating charge on the aggregate surface determines
whether anionic or cationic emulsion will produce the best results. The only way to be sure
,js to test in the laboratory.
5.05 GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE
In summary, success with any type and grade of asphalt emulsion system is best ensured
by adherence to each of the following steps:
38
I. Laboratory testing using the actual aggregate and emulsion that is to be used on the
project.
2. Selection of grades in conformance with TabIeV Article 5.02_ .. Table V -2 may
he helpful also.
J. Strict adherence to the specifications and guides for usage.
4. Careful handling of the emulsion to prevent
droplets, or premature
5. Consultation with the emulsion manufacturer's representative when special or un-
usual problems occur.
Asphalt emulsions as an alternative for use in paving and maintenance operations are now a
reality. Following proper procedures will produce a system that should provide a high level of
service.
TABLE V-1 GENERAL USES OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
NOTE-Only those grades of emulsified asphalt in general use have been indicated herein. It is possible that under certain variations of
aggregates, or climatic conditions, or both, additional selections might be appropriate. Where the use of emulsified asphalt for applications
other than those listed in the table are contemplated, the emulsion supplier should be consulted.
ASTMD977 ASTMD2397
AASHTOM208 AASHTOM 140
Type of
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'"
'" r.h r.h
"'::c

r.h 00: 00:
::l!
'" 00: 00: ::c
'" '"
U U
U U
Asphalt-aggregate mixtures:
For pavement bases and surfaces:
Plant mix (hot) X'
Plant mix (cold)
Open-graded aggregate X X X X
Dense-graded aggregate X X X X X
Sand X X X X X
Mixed-in-place:
Open-graded aggregate X X X X
Dense-graded aggregate X X X X X
Sand X X X X X
Sandy soil X X X X X
Slurry seal X X X X X
Asphalt-aggregate applications:
Treatments and seals:
Single surface treatment (Chip Sea\) X X X X
Multiple surface treatment X X X X
Sand seal X X X X X
A.,phalt applications:
X"' XC XC XC (
Fog seal
XC
X" X
O
X
O
XD XD
/!!!.CKCOar] - .' - XB)
XC XC XC XC
Dust binder
XC XC XC XC
Mulch treatment
XC XC XC
XC
Crack filler X
X
X X
Maintenance mix:
Immediate use X X X X X
A Grades of emulsion other than FH MS-2h may be used where experience has shown that they give satisfactory performance.
II Diluted with water by the manufacturer.
{' Diluted with water.
" Mixed-in prime only.
39
TABLE V-2 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT SEAL COATS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS
Type of
Construction
SAND SEAL
CHIPSEAL
DOUBLE SEAL
TRIPLE SEAL
SLURRY SEAL
CAPE SEAL
Description and Uses
Restores uniform cover. In city
street work, improves street
sweeping, traffic line visibility.
Enriches dry, weathered pave-
ments; reduces raveling.
Single most important low cost
maintenance method. Produces
an all-weather surface,
renews weathered
pavements, improves skid resist-
ance, lane demarcation, seals
pavement.
Two applications of
binder and aggregate. The
second chip application uses
a smaller sized stone, than the
first. Durable, provides some
leveling, available in a number
of textures.
Typical
Emulsified Asphalts
CRS-1 , CRS-2,
RS-1, RS-2,
MS-1, HFMS-1
CRS-2 or RS-2
CRS-2 or RS-2
Three applications of binder CRS-2 or RS-2
and 3 sizes of chips are applied.
Provides up to a 20mm (3A in.) thick,
flexible pavement. Levels as
well as providing a seal, tough
wearing surface.
Used in airport and city street
maintenance where loose
aggregate cannot be tolerated.
Seals, fills minor depressions,
provides an easy-to-sweep
surface. The liquid slurry is
machine-applied with a sled-type
box containing a rubber-edged
strike-off blade.
Combines a single chip seal
with a slurry seal. Provides the
rough, knobby surface of a chip
seal to reduce hydroplaning
yet has a tough sand matrix for
durability.
Test track data indicate better
studded tire damage resistance
than a chip seal.
CSS-1, CSS-1 h,
SS-1, SS-1 h,
or OS" Grades
CS-1, CSS-1 h,
SS-1, SS-1 h, RS-2
CRS-2and
OS" Grades
Modified table from Chevron, U.S.A.
Construction Hints
Spray-applied with sand cover.
Roll With pneumatic roller. Avoid
excess bin1er.
Spray-applied. Many types of
textures availabie. Key to
success: Coordinate construc-
tion, use hard, bulky grained,
clean aggregate, and have
properly calibrated spray
equipment.
See Chip Seal.
Spray-applied in three lifts.
Pretest the aggregate and
emulsion mix to achieve desired
workability, setting rate, and
durability. Calibrate equipment
prior to starting the project.
Apply an aggregate single chip seal.
Broom and apply slurry seal.
Have the strike-off ride on the
rock surface to form the matrix.
Avoid excess slurry as this
destroys the knobby stone
texture desired.
• The quick-set grades of emulsion (OS) have been developed for slurry seals. While not yet standardized, their use is rapidly
increasing, as the unique quick-setting property solves one of the major problems associated with the use of slurry seals.
40
CHAPTER VI
ASPHALT EMULSION SURFACE TREATMENTS
6.01 SURFACE TREATMENTS
Asphalt surface treatment is a broad term embracing several types of asphalt and asphalt-
aggregate applications, usually less than 25 millimetres (I in.) thick, to any kind of road surface.
The road surface may be a primed granular base, or similar, or it may be an existing pavement.
Surface treatments applied to an existing pavement surface often are called seal coats.
without cover are also .. They
are included in Chapter VIII. This chapter covers surface treatments consisting of asphalt
emulsion-aggregate applications only. And, as surface treatments and seal coats differ in name
only for this type of construction, they are treated as a single subject.
A single surface treatment involves spraying asphalt emulsion followed at once by a thin
aggregate cover, which is rolled as soon as possible. For multiple surface treatments the
process is repeated a second, or even a third time with the aggregate size becoming smaller
with each application. The maximum size aggregate for each successive application is about
one-half that of the previous one. The total thickness of the treatment is about the same as
the maximum size aggregate particles of the first course.
Properly constructed, asphalt surface treatments are economical, easy to place, and long
lasting. They seal and add life to road surfaces but each type has one or more special purposes.
A surface treatment is not a pavement in itself. Rather, it resists traffic abrasion and provides
a waterproof cover over the underlying structure. It adds little load-carrying strength and
therefore is not normally taken into account in computing the load limit of a pavement. While
a surface treatment can provide an excellent surface if used for the correct purpose, it is not
a cure-all to solve all paving problems. A clear understanding of the advantages and limitations
of asphalt emulsion surface treatments is essential for best results. It is vital that a careful
study of traffic requirements, along with an evaluation of the condition of existing materials
and pavement layers, be made.
6.02 USES OF SURFACE TREATMENTS
Surface treatments are primarily used for the following purposes:
I. To provide a low-cost, all-weather surface for light to medium traffic.
2. To provide a waterproof layer to prevent the intrusion of moisture into the underlying
course.
3. To provide a skid-resistant surface. Pavements that have become slippery because of
bleeding or wear and polishing of surface aggregates may be treated with sharp, hard
aggregate to restore skid resistance.
4. To give new life to a dry, weathered surface. A pavement that has become weathered
41
to the point where raveling might occur can be restored to useful service by application
of a single or multiple surface treatment.
5. To provide a temporary cover for a new base course. The surface treatment is an
appropriate cover for a new base course that is to be carried through a winter, or for
planned stage construction. The surface treatment makes an excellent temporary
surface until the final asphalt courses are placed.
6. To salvage old pavements that have deteriorated because of aging, shrinkage crack-
ing, or stress cracking. Although the surface treatment has little or no structural
strength, it can serve as an adequate stop-gap measure until a more permanent
upgrading can be completed.
7. To define shoulders so they won't be mistaken as traffic lanes.
8. To provide rumble strips for safety.
The need for a strong base or sound pavement under asphalt surface treatments cannot be
overemphasized. If the base or pavement is weak, the surface treatment stands little chance of
doing its job. Common defects may include unstable materials, faulty compaction, poor
aggregate grading, lack of drainage, and insufficient strength for the expected traffic.
6.03 SAFEGUARDS
A few simple safeguards will greatly increase the chance of success when a surface treatment
is used. These are • 'common-sense" items that apply much the same in other types of construc-
tion.
- Make sure that all materials to be used meet the job specifications.
- Check to be certain the existing pavement structure can support expected traffic loads
before the surface treatment is appl ied.
- Inspect all construction equipment to be assured of proper operation. Calibration of
gauges and meters, aggregate spreader, and inspection of spray nozzles is essential.
- Be sure that the asphalt emulsion and aggregate are compatible. Will cationic or
anionic emulsion work best? Is the aggregate free from dust?
- Determine the optimum application rate of emulsion and correct amount of aggregate
cover.
- Select the proper type and weight of rollers.
- Adhere to good construction techniques.
- Use proper traffic controls.
- Do the work only in proper weather conditions; i.e., warm and dry. (Emulsions are
significantly less tolerant than cutbacks to cool temperature surface treating.)
6.04 COMMON PROBLEMS
Adherence to the simple safeguards will prevent problems that could start during the job. Three
of the most common problems and their causes are discussed in the following paragraphs.
42
Streaking. This is the non-uniform application of the asphalt emulsion on the road surface,
Figure VI-I. It can be either longitudinal or transverse. Longitudinal streaking shows up as
alternating lean and heavy narrow bands of asphalt running parallel to the centerline of the road.
Transverse streaking, on the other hand. runs across the road. Streaking not only leaves an
unsightly appearance, it can greatly reduce service life through loss of cover aggregate.
Some causes of longitudinal streaking are:
- Spray bar on the asphalt emulsion distributor not set at the correct height for the spray
fans to overlap properly.
- Spray bar rising as load in distributor lightens.
- Nozzle on spray bar not set at correct angle, not all set at same angle, are the wrong
size, differ in size, some plugged with cold asphalt, or have imperfections.
- Wrong asphalt emulsion pump speed.
- Asphalt emulsion too cold.
- Pump pressure too low.
A single centerline streak may be caused by too little or too much emulsified asphalt at the
joint between two applications.
Transverse streaking is caused by spurts in the asphalt spray from the distributor spray bar.
These spurts may be produced by pulsation of the asphalt pump due to worn or loose parts, by
improper pump speed, or by poor governor control of the pump motor.
Figure VI-1. Longitudinal streaking.
43
Bleeding (Flushing). This is the upward movement of asphalt in an asphalt pavement that
results in a film of asphalt on the surface, see Figure VI-2. Bleeding can cause a slick, hazardous
condition during wet weather.
The most common cause of bleeding of a surface treatment is spraying too much asphalt.
Other causes are not enough or too small aggregate, or water vapor pressure from the base or
subgrade causing flow of asphalt upward.
Figure VI-2.
Bleeding asphalt.
Loss of Cover Aggregate. This is the whipping-off of aggregate under traffic from a surface-
treated pavement. leaving the asphalt, see Figure VI-3. This condition can be dangerous because
loose chips thrown by the tires of a moving vehicle can fly into the windshield of another vehicle.
Also, the chip-free asphalt, resembling the bleeding condition, can become a skid hazard.
Several things can cause loss of cover aggregate. If it is not spread immediately after the
asphalt emulsion is applied to the surface, the aggregate may not hold. Dry, dusty aggregate may
cause premature breaking of the asphalt emulsion and may not leave enough asphalt to hold the
44
aggregate under traffic. If it is not rolled immediately after placing, the aggregate may not
become seated firmly enough to hold under traffic. Other causes include: not enough asphalt
emulsion; too little aggregate embedment; weather too cool when the treatment is applied;
surface being treated is too wet or too dusty when asphalt emulsion is applied; fast traffic too soon
on new surface treatment; a surface that absorbs part of the asphalt, leaving too little to hold the
aggregate; and a rainstorm that washes away the emulsion.
Figure VI-3. Loss of cover aggregate.
A. MATERIALS
6.05 GENERAL
To produce high quality, durable, surface treatments both the asphalt emulsion and the
aggregate must meet established quality standards. Although other types of asphalt materials
may be used, this manual is concerned only with the use of emulsified asphalt and the guidelines
given will apply only to them.
6.06 ASPHALT EMULSION
The successful use of asphalt emulsion for surface treatments is well established. The
emulsions offer several advantages over other types of available materials:
45
-They can be used with cold or hot aggregate.
-They can be used with aggregate that is damp.
-They need not be at highly elevated temperatures for proper application.
-They eliminate the fire hazard that is associated with the use of cutback asphalt.
-They set up more quickly than cutback asphalt.
One of the keys to good performance lies in the selection of the correct type, grade, and
application rate of emulsion. Using the correct grade, the asphalt emulsion for surface treatment
will:
-When applied, be fluid enough to spray properly and cover the surface uniformly.
-After application, retain the proper consistency to wet the surface being treated and the
applied aggregate.
-Cure and develop adhesion quickly.
-After rolling and curing, hold the aggregate tightly to the road surface to prevent
dislodgement by traffic.
-When applied in the right amount, not bleed or strip with changing weather conditions.
Table V-I in Chapter V shows the types of emulsified asphalt recommended for surface
treatments and seals. Table VI-I gives typical application temperature ranges for the various
types and grades. The use of these materials with relatively low temperatures is a significant
energy-saving feature.
TABLE VI-1 SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTOR SPRAYING TEMPERATURES
FOR VARIOUS GRADES OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT -DEGREES CELSIUS (CO)
OR FAHRENHEIT (FO)
Spraying Temperatures
Type and Grade Road Mixes Surface Treatments
of Asphalt
(0C) (OF) (0C) (OF)
Emulsified Asphalts
RS-1
- - 20-60 70-140
RS-2 - - 50-85 125-185
MS-1 20-70 70-160 20-70 70-160
MS-2 20-70 70-160 - -
MS-2h 20-70 70-160 - -
HFMS-1 20-70 70-160 20-70 70-160
HFMS-2 20-70 70-160 - -
HFMS-2h 20-70 70-160 - -
HFMS-2s 20-70 70-160 - -
SS-1 20-70 70-160 - -
SS-1h 20-70 70-160 - -
CRS-1
- - 50-85 125-185
CRS-2
- - 50-85 125-185
CMS-2 20-70 70-160 - -
CMS-2h 20-70 70-160
- -
CSS-1 20-70 70-160
- -
CSS-1h 20-70 70-160 -
-
46
Asphalt emulsion binders used for surface treatment operations are normally the rapid-setting
type. Rapid-setting emulsions should be used when heavy traffic makes a rapid rate of cure
essential, or when uncertainty about wet weather makes rapid-setting imperative.
6.07 AGGREGATE
Any aggregate used in a surface course is subjected to the abrasive action of traffic. If it
is not hard enough to resist rapid wear, the pavement may become a skid hazard when wet.
Most hard aggregates can be used with success for surface treatments. But all that are considered
for use should be tested for abrasion wear, the standard test being the Los Angeles Abrasion
Test, ASTM C 131 (AASHTO T 96). For surface treatment use, the abrasion wear should be
not more than 45 percent. Angular particles with rough surface texture and relatively low
absorption will produce the best results. The aggregate selected, however, also must meet job
requirements for size, shape, and cleanliness.
Size. The aggregate should be as close to one size as is economically practical, preferably
in the range of 12.5 to 6 mm (1J2 to 1J4 in.) for single surface treatments. Larger sizes may be
used in multiple treatments. If it is much larger than 12.5 mm (1J2 in.), it can cause objectionable
tire noise. If much finer than 6 mm (1J4 in.), it is hard to spread evenly. Also, the finer the
aggregate the smaller the allowable range for asphalt application rate becomes. Generally, the
largest particle should be no more than twice the diameter of the smallest one. An allowance
should be made for a slight amount of oversized and undersized particles. For single treatments,
the top size is limited by the amount of emulsified asphalt that can be applied in one pass of
the distributor without flowing off the surface.
Shape. The ideal shape for surface treatment aggregate is cubical. Flat or elongated particles
are undesirable. They tend to become aligned on their flat sides and may be completely covered
with asphalt when enough is used to hold the cubical particles in place. Figure VI-4 is an example
of this condition. If all particles are flat, it takes so little asphalt to hold them that control becomes
difficult .
Clealliiness. Clean aggregate is very important. If the particles are dusty or coated with clay or
silt, the emulsified asphalt may not stick. The dust produces a fil m that prevents the asphalt from
adhering to the aggregate.
VOIDS AGGREGATE PARTICLES
Figure VI-4. Flat particles are covered when enough asphalt is used
to hold cubical particles.
47
B. TYPES OF TREATMENTS AND SEALS
6.08 SINGLE SURFACE TREATMENT
A single surface treatment, often called "chip seal," may be used for one of several reasons:
- As an interim measure pending application of a higher pavement type.
- To correct surface raveling and oxidation of old pavements.
- To provide a waterproof cover over an existing pavement structure.
- To correct excessive traffic wear beyond that presumed in the original design.
The single treatment approach is expecially suited for light duty traffic and as an interim
maintenance procedure. It also may be used following crack sealing operations. The surface
treatment is applied to resist the abrasive forces of the traffic.
Problems that can be associated with a treatment of this type include:
- Construction during cool weather. It usually requires about one month of warm
weather following construction for the aggregate particles to become reoriented and
properly embedded in the asphalt membrane.
- Possible damage to windshields by loose aggregate not embedded in the asphalt
membrane.
Possible loss of cover aggregate because of the relatively thin layer and the time
required for embedding and bonding to develop. In a single treatment the larger
aggregate particles are more prone to be lost.
6.09 MULTIPLE SURFACE TREATMENT
A multiple surface treatment can produce a pavement thickness in the order of 13 to 19
mm (Y2 to % in.). Some extra reinforcement may be added with this type of treatment. If
properly designed and constructed, double surface treatments give about three times the service
life of a single surface treatment for about I Y2 times the construction cost. Because the cover
stone for the second layer is smaller, loss of particles from a graded cover aggregate is greatly
minimized.
In a double surface treatment the largest size of stone in the first course determines the
surface layer thickness. The second course serves to fill the voids in the mat of the first course
aggregate. The extent to which these voids are filled determines the texture and riding quality
of the surface treatment.
One type of surface treatment known as "cape seal," involves application of a slurry seal
to a newly-constructed surface treatment. Because this system does not have widespread usage,
it is not presented in d e t a i l ~ but refer to Table VI-6, Chapter VI, and Par 6.13.
A good, long-lasting pavement can be produced by increasing the thickness with more
surface treatments, either single or multiple, as traffic conditions demand.
48
6.10 SAND SEAL
Sand seal is defined as a spray application of asphalt emulsion followed with a light covering
of fine aggregate, such as clean sand or screenings. Although this is a rather simple operation,
it can be useful in correcting a number of pavement flaws. The procedure involves an emulsion
spray application. Usually, emulsion grades RS-I, CRS-I, MS-I or HFMS-I are used at a rate
of about 0.68 to 0.90 litre/m
2
(0.15 to 0.20 galjyd
2
). This is followed by about 5.5 to 8 kgjm2
(10 to 15lbjyd
2
) of sand, or screenings cover.
The sand seal is used primarily for the following purposes:
a. To enrich a dry, weathered or oxidized surface. The sand seal will help prevent loss of
material from the old surface by traffic abrasion.
b. To prevent the intrusion of moisture and air. When an existing pavement surface
begins to crack, moisture and air may pass into the underlying pavement structure
thereby reducing its load carrying ability. A sand seal can provide a barrier to prevent
this intrusion.
c. To develop a skid-resistant surface texture. By selecting a sharp, angular fine
aggregate, a highly skid-resistant surface can be provided. The sand may also be
used to "soak up" spots of asphalt that have appeared on the surface because of an
overly rich condition.
6.11 SLURRY SEAL
A slurry seal is a mixture of well-graded fine aggregate, mineral filler (if needed), emulsified
asphalt, and water applied to a pavement as a surface treatment. It is used in both the preventive
and corrective maintenance of asphalt pavement surfaces. It does not, nor is it intended to,
increase the structural strength of a pavement section. Any pavement that is structurally weak in
localized areas should be repaired before applying the slurry seal. All ruts, humps, low pavement
edges, crown deficiencies, waves, or other surface irregularities that diminish the riding quality
should be corrected before placing the slurry seal.
Slurry seal, when applied to the surface of an older pavement, can be used quite effectively. It
will seal the surface cracks, stop raveling and loss of matrix, make open surfaces impermeable to
air and water, and improve skid resistance. Its timely appl ication will help reduce surface distress
caused by oxidation of the asphalt and embrittlement of the paving mixture.
Slurry seal has a number of advantages: some are listed below:
-Rapid application.
-No loose cover aggregate.
-Excellent surface texture for paint striping.
--Ability to correct minor surface irregularities.
-Minimum loss of curb height.
-No need for manhole and other structure adjustments.
- In many cases, the relatively low cost of the treatment makes it practical to import
aggregates for special effects, such as high skid resistance, color contrast and noise
reduction.
49
Figure VI-S. Slurry seal machine.
Courtesy Slurry Seal Incorporated.
CD
1\j!llrellate Bin
0) Filler Bin
CD AIlllrellate Flow Gate
0
AIlllregate Conveyor Belt
CD
Emulsion Injector
<1) Water Injector
(i) Pugmill
CD
Spreader Box
CD
Slurry
Figure VI-6. Flow diagram of a typical slurry seal mixer.
Courtesy Scan Road , Inc.
50
The slurry is usually applied in a thickness of 3 to 6 mm (Vs to V4 in.). It comes directly
from a traveling mixing plant into an attached spreader box that spreads the slurry by a
squeegee-type action, Figure VI-5. The machine used for production of the slurry seal is a
self-contained, continuous-flow mixing unit. It is capable of delivering accurately to the mixing
chamber predetermined amounts of aggregate, mineral filler (if required), water, and asphalt
emulsion. It also discharges the thoroughly mixed materials on to the prepared surface. Certain
basic features are common to all batch type slurry machines. They are truck-mounted units
with separate storage tanks, bins, and metering systems for emulsified asphalt, water, aggregate
and mineral filler. The slurry machine has a continuous-flow mixing unit, either single or
double pugmill, from which the slurry is discharged into a spreader box. The box is equipped
with flexible squeegees and a device for adjustable width. Spreader boxes may be equipped
with hydraulically-powered augers to keep the slurry in motion and help keep the mixture
uniformly spread across the spreader box width. These are helpful when quick-set (QS)
emulsion is used (refer to Article 2.03). One type of slurry mixer unit is depicted in the
schematic drawing, Figure VI-6.
Continuously self-loading machines capable of mixing 15 lane miles per day of coarse slurry
are in use in many regions of the United States.
The aggregate used in slurry seal must be clean, angular, durable, well graded, and uniform.
An individual aggregate or a blend of aggregates to be used in a slurry mix should meet these
limits:
- Sand equivalent value, ASTM D 2419 (AASHTO T 176) = 45 minimum.
- Los Angeles abrasion loss, ASTM C 131 (AASHTO T 96) Grading C or D = 35
maximum.
Also, the amount of smooth-textured sand of less than 1.25 percent water absorption is limited
to not more than 50 percent of the total combined aggregate.
The three generally accepted gradings used for slurry mixtures are shown in Table VI-2.
Type I is used for maximum crack penetration. Also, it makes an excellent pretreatment
for hot-mix overlay or chip seal. It is usually used in low density traffic areas such as light
aircraft airfields, parking areas, or shoulders where the primary objective is sealing.
Type II is the most widely used gradation. It is used to seal; to correct severe raveling,
oxidation, and loss of matrix; and to improve skid resistance. It is used for moderate to heavy
traffic, depending upon the quality of aggregates available and the design.
Type III is used to correct surface conditions, as the first course in multicourse applications
for heavy traffic, and to impart skid resistance.
Emulsified asphalt used in the slurry mix may be SS-I, SS-lh, CSS-l, or CSS-lh. The
recently developed quick-setting (QS) asphalt emulsion is being used when early opening to
traffic is necessary. Sometimes, a small amount of liquid or powdered additive is added to
the asphalt emulsion to control the setting time of the slurry mixture. This additive starts the
set in anionic quick-set emulsions. It retards the set in cationic quick-set emulsions.
It is almost always necessary to add a small amount of mineral filler-hydrated lime,
limestone dust, portland cement, or fly ash-to aid in stabilizing and setting the slurry.
Water used in the slurry should be potable and compatible with the mix.
Blending the slurry seal materials in varying proportions in the laboratory is a great aid in
selecting the proper mixture. Correct blending should produce a slurry with a creamy texture
that will flow smoothly in a rolling wave ahead of the strike-off squeegee. This slurry should
be a semifluid, homogenous mass with no emulsion runoff.
51
TABLE VI-2 SLURRY MIXTURE GRADINGS*
Type of
Slurry I II III
1 st and or 2nd
Crack General seal, application,
General filling medium two-course
Usage & fine textured slurry, highly
seal surfaces textured surfaces
Sieve
Size Percent Passing
9.5mm Wain.) 100 100 100
4.75mm (No.4) 100 90-100 70-90
2.36mm (No.8) 90-100 65-90 45-70
1.18mm (No. 16) 65-90 45-70 28-50
600 flm (No. 30) 40-65 30-50 19-34
300 flm (No. 50) 25-42 18-30 12-25
150 flm (No. 100) 15-30 10-21 7-18
75 flm (No. 200) 10-20 5-15 5-15
Residual Asphalt
Content, % Weight 10-16 7.5-13.5 6.5-12
of dry aggregate
Application Rate,
kg/m
2
(lb/yd
2
),
based on mass 3-5.5(6-10) 5.5-8(10-15) 8(15) or more
(weight) of dry
aggregate
* Recommended by International Slurry Seal Association.
If lumping, balling, or unmixed aggregate is observed, the slurry should be removed from the
pavement. It should also be removed if coarser aggregate particles settle to the bottom of the mix.
Streaks, such as those caused by oversized aggregate, should be repaired at once with a hand
squeegee.
After mix proportions have been determined in the laboratory it is always advisable to place
one or more trial mixes. This should be done either at the job site or in a location where small
spreads of the slurry seal would not be objectionable. The trial sections serve a two-fold purpose.
First, to calibrate the feeding and metering devices on the slurry machine. Aggregate flow should
be determined for different gate openings and the amount of emulsion pumped per revolution of
the aggregate feed belt. Second, to see if the slurry mix proportions are right. It is often necessary
to make several trial runs to find the best blend of materials - even when starting with a
laboratory-determined mixture.
Just before applying the slurry, the pavement surface should be cleaned of all dirt, dust, mud
spots, vegetation, and other foreign matter. A tack coat of diluted emulsified asphalt of the same
type and grade specified for the slurry may be rC4uircd directly ahead of the slurry application.
With relatively new asphalt pavements, the tack coat may be omitted. In this case, the surfuce
should be pre-wetted by water fogging. The surface should be damp but with no free water in
front of the slurry machine.
Special care must be taken with longitudinal and transverse joints to prevent excessive buildup
of slurry (ridging) or to prevent streaking. It is best to make the joint after the: first placed lane is
52
either completely cured or is stilI in a semi-fluid condition. For good appearance and durability,
a joint should not be made when the lane to be joined is only partially set, as tearing and
scarring may result.
Quite often a drag is pulled behind the spreader box to improve the joint and overall surface
appearance. Drags should be changed regularly. Hand squeegees and hand drags are used to
improve joints and place the slurry in areas inaccessible to the machine.
It is especially important to get a good homogenous mix; one that will produce a slurry
with a creamy texture that will flow smoothly in a rollaway wave inside the spreader box. A
non-homogenous mixture will cause an asphalt rich surface and many ensuing problems.
On flat grades, slurry in the spreader box must be kept at a uniform thickness. On high
crowned pavements or superelevated curves, slurry should be diverted to the high side of the
spreader box. Gravity will keep the low side filled. Spreading slurry in hilly areas is easier if
the slurry machine travels in an uphill direction. If circumstances require placing in a downhill
direction, the slurry must be thickened to contain it from flowing ahead of the machine.
Rolling a slurry seal is only needed in those areas where pneumatic-tired rolling will improve
durability. Such areas include taxiways, runways, truck terminal yards, and intersections of
heavily traveled roads. All of these are subject to power steering turns, braking, or acceleration
forces. For rolling, a 4.5 tonne (5 ton) pneumatic roller with 345 kPa (50 psi) tire pressure
will be most effective. Rolling can start as soon as clear water can be pressed out of the slurry
mixture with a piece of paper, without discoloring the paper. In most cases, however, traffic
will iron out the slurry and close any hairline cracks of dehydration. Rolling usually is not
needed unless the thickness is more than 6 mm (V4 in.) or unless late season work is involved.
Slurry should be placed only when the temperature is at least 10°C (50°F) and rising and
when no rain is expected. A newly placed slurry should not be opened to traffic until it has
completely cured. As with rolling, traffic generally can be allowed on the slurry as soon as
a clear water can be pressed out of the slurry mixture with a piece of paper without discoloring
the paper. The traffic, of course, must be controlled somewhat as quick stops or accelerations
and the turning of wheels while parked will cause damage to the slurry.
For slurry seal design the following sources are recommended:
ASTM D 3910 "Standard Practices for Design, Testing and Construction of Slurry Seal"
American Society for Testing and Materials
1916 Race Street
Philadelphia, PA 19103
"Recommended Performance Guidelines for Emulsified Asphalt Slurry Seal
Surfaces" Al 05
International Slurry Seal Association
1101 Connecticut Avenue
Washington, D. C. 20036
"Recommended Guideline for Slurry Seal"
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association
1133 Fifteenth Street, N. W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
53
C. SURFACE TREATMENT DESIGN
6.12 SINGLE SURFACE TREATMENTS
When a decision has been made that a surface treatment is to be used, the next step is to
find the proper rates of application for asphalt emulsion and aggregate. The objective is to
produce a pavement surface one stone thick with enough asphalt to hold the aggregate in
place, but not so much that it will bleed.
When a one-sized cover aggregate is dropped by a spreader on an asphalt film the particles
will lie in an unarranged position. After compaction and considerable traffic, the particles will
become oriented into their densest position with about 20 percent voids between the particles.
It is desirable to fill these voids about two-thirds to three-fourths full with asphalt. A typical
design will call for 70 percent of the voids filled. Because of the meniscus effect of the residual
asphalt left on the aggregate upon the evaporation of the water when emulsified asphalt is
used, the residual asphalt can be reduced to 55 to 60 percent of the voids between the aggregates
under average conditions.
There are several theoretical procedures for determining the quantity of cover aggregate.
These usually involve determining the average least dimension, the voids in the cover aggregate
and the bulk specific gravity.
Mathematical calculations, coupled with laboratory testing, are usually employed in deter-
mining the required quantities of asphalt and aggregate. Rather than herein presenting a complex
means of making these determinations, Table VI-3 is presented. This table gives a range of
asphalt and aggregate applications with respect to the specific size of aggregate being used.
The suggested quantities of asphalt cover the average range of conditions that include primed
granular bases and old pavement surfaces. The quantities and types of materials may be varied
according to local conditions and experience.
However, a rather simple way of determining the quantity of aggregate is simply to spread
the aggregate to be used over an area of I square metre (I yd
2
). A pan I x I metre x 25 mm (3 x 3
ft. x 1 in.) deep is suggested, as this will also allow determination of the asphalt quantity. Place
aggregate in the pan carefully by hand, arranging the aggregate so that it fills the pan in the
densest condition anticipated to exist in the field after the surface treatment has been subjected
to traffic. In order to do this it is necessary to have a good visual image ofthe finished product.
Determine the mass (weight) of the aggregate required, and that mass (weight) will be the
spread rate of the aggregate, in kilograms per square metre (pounds per square yard.)
With the aggregate carefully arranged as described, fill the pan with water until the surface
of the water comes just to the top of the aggregate. Measure this volume of water and use
approximately two-thirds of that volume as the asphalt quantity required (adjusted, of course,
by Note 3 of Table VI-3).
54
TABLE VI-3 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE
FOR SINGLE SURFACE TREATMENTS AND SEAL COATS,* 123
Quantity of Quantity of
Line
Nominal Size Size Aggregate Asphalt Type and Grade
of Aggregate No. kg/m
2
(lb/yd
2
) 11m2 (gal/yd
2
) of Asphalt
1 19.0t09.5mm 6 22-27 1.8-2.3 RS-2,
(% to 3/a in.) (40-50) (0.40-0.50) CRS-2
2 12.5t04.75mm 7 14-16 1.4-2.0 RS-1, RS-2,
(112 in. to No.4) (25-30) (0.30-0.45) CRS-1 , CRS-2
3 9.5t02.36mm 8 11-14 0.9-1.6 RS-1,RS-2,
(3fa in. to No.8) (20-25) (0.20-0.35) CRS-1 , CRS-2
4 4.75 to 1. 18mm 9 8-11 0.7-0.9 RS-1, MS-1
(No.4 to No. 16) (15-20) (0.15-0.20) CRS-1, HFMS-1
5 Sanel AASHTO 5-8 0.5-0.7 RS-1, MS-1
M-6 (10-15) (0.10-0.15) CRS-1, HFMS-1
*These quantities of asphalt cover the average range of conditons that Include primed granular bases and
old pavement surfaces.
The quantities and types of materials may be varied according to local conditions and experience.
lThe lower application rates of asphalt shown in the above table should be used for aggregate having
gradations on the fine side of the specified limits. The higher application rates should be used for aggregate
having gradations on the coarse side of the specified limits.
2The mass (weight) of aggregate shown in the table is based on aggregate with a specific gravity of 2.65. In
case the specific gravity of the aggregate used is lower than 2.55 or higher than 2.75, the amount shown in
the table above should be multiplied by the ratio that the bulk specific gravity of the aggregate used bears to
2.65.
3ft is important to E'djust the asphalt content for the condition of the road, increasing it if the road is
absorbent, badly cracked, or and decreasing it if the road is "fat" with flushed asphalt.
Texture
Black, flushed asphalt .................................. .
Smooth. non-porous ................................... .
Absorbent -slightly porous, oxidized ................. .
-slightly pocked, porous, oxidized ....... .
-badly pocked, porous, oxidized ........ .
Correction**
Iitre/m2
-0.04 to -0.27
0.00
0.14
0.27
DAD
(gal/yd
2
)
(-0.01 to -0.06)
(0.00)
(0.03)
(0.06)
(0.09)
**This correction must be made from observations at the jobsite.
55
6.13 MULTIPLE SURFACE TREATMENTS
There are several arbitrary design methods for multiple surface treatments. In the method
described here, each course is designed as though it is a single surface treatment. For each
succeeding course the nominal top size of cover stone should be not more than one-half the
size of that for the previously placed course. No allowance is made for wastage. Also, after
the first course, no correction is made for underlying surface texture.
Asphalt quantities for each course are added together and 40 percent of the total should be
applied for the first application and 60 percent for the second application in a double surface
treatment. In a triple surface treatment, 30 percent of the total should be applied for the first
application, 40 percent for the second application and 30 percent for the third application.
In multiple surface treatments, the first course of cover aggregate generally determines the
thickness. Subsequent courses partially fill the upper voids in the previously placed courses.
[See Tables VI-4 and VI-5.]
The term "Cape Seal" is attributed to the Cape Provincial Administration of South Africa.
A Cape Seal can be defined as a single layer surface treatment (chipseal) followed by an
emulsion mix slurry seal.
In order to have a successful Cape Seal project beyond following standard surface treatment
and slurry seal specifications and methods, it is important that the surface treatment be placed
as a single course only. The most critical element to avoid in a Cape Seal is an excess of
slurry, as this can destroy the desired knobby surface texture. A cure time of four to ten days
between placement of the surface treatment and subsequent slurry seal application should also
be provided for, during which time regular brooming should occur to remove loose cover
material or other foreign material that would prevent the adherence of the slurry. [See Table
VI-6.]
TABLE VI-4 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE
PER SQUARE METRE (SQUARE YARD) FOR DOUBLE SURFACE TREATMENT
Quantity of Quantity of
Nominal Size Size Aggregate Asphalt
of Aggregate No. kg/m
2
(lb/yd
2
) 11m2 (gal/yd
2
)
12.Smm (%") Thick
1 st Application* 9.5 to 2.36mm 8 14-19 0.9-1.4
(3fs in to No.8) (25-35) (0.20-0.30)
2nd Application 4.75to 1.18mm 9 5-8 1.4-1.8
(No.4 to No. 16) (10-15) (0.30-0.40)
1S.9mm (%") Thick
1 st Application* 12.5t04.75mm 7 16-22 1.4-1.8
(% in. to No.4) (30-40) (0.30-0040)
2nd Application 4.75to 1.18mm 9 8-11 1.8-2.3
(No.4 to No. 16) (15-20) (0.40-0.50)
19.0mm (3f4") Thick
1 st Application * 19.0t09.5mm 6 22-27 1.6-2.3
(3f4 to 3fs in.) (40-45) (0.35-0.50)
2nd Application 9.5t02.36mm 8 11-14 2.3-2.7
We in. to No.8) (20-25) (0.50-0.60)
* If applied on untreated granular (stone) base use penetrating prime in lieu of emulsions (See Par. 8.06)
56
TABLE VI-5 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE
PER SQUARE METRE (SQUARE YARD) FOR TRIPLE SURFACE TREATMENT
(ARMORCOAT)
Quantity of Quantity of
Nominal Size Size Aggregate Asphalt
of Aggregate No. kg/m
2
(lb/yd
2
) 11m2 (gal/yd
2
)
12.5mm (%") Thick
1 st Application· 9.5 to 2.36mm 8 14-19 0.9-1.4
(% in to No.8) (25:35) (0.20-0.30)
2nd Application 4.75 to 1.18mm 9 5-8 1.1-1.6
(No.4 to No. 16) (10-15) (0.25-0.35)
3rd Application 4. 75mm to 150,.,.m 10 5-8 0.9-1.4
(No.4 to No.1 00) (10-15) (0.20-0.30)
15.9mm (5fs") Thick
1 st Application· 12.5t04.75mm 7 16-22 0.9-1.4
(% in. to No.4) (30-40) (0.20-0.30)
2nd Application 9.5 to 2.36mm 8 8-11 1.4-1.8
(% in. to No.8) (15-20) (0.30-0.40)
3rd Application 4.75to 1.18mm 9 5-8 0.9-1.4
(No.4 to No. 16) (10-15) (0.20-0.30)
19.0mm (3f4") Thick
1 st Application· 19.0t09.5mm 6 19-25 1.1-1.6
(%to%in.) (35-45) (0.25-0.35)
2nd Application 9.5 to 2.36mm 8 11-14 1.4-1.8
(% in. to No.8) (20-30) (0.30-0.40)
3rd Application 4.75 to 1 .18mm 9 5-8 1.1-1.6
(No.4 to No. 16) (10-15) (0.25-0.35)
• If applied on untreated granular (stone) base use penetrating prime in lieu of emulsions (See Par. 8.06)
TABLE VI-6 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE
PER SQUARE METRE (SQUARE YARD) FOR CAPE SEAL
Llm
2
-Asphalt Kg/m2-Aggregate Kg/m
2
-Slurry Mixture
12.5mm (% .. ) Thick
(gal/yd2) (lbs./yd
2
) (lbs./yd
2
)
Emulsion (RS-2. CRS-2) 1.4 - 2.0
(0.30-0.45)
Cover Aggregate
ASTM or AASHTO
Size No. 7
12.5 to 4. 75mm 14-16
(W'toNo.4) (25-30)
Slurry Seal
Type I 3-5.5
(See Par. 6.11) (6-10)
57
Figure VI-7. Asphalt emulsion distributor.
Courtesy E. D. Etnyre Co.
D. EQUIPMENT
6.14 GENERAL
The equipment used for surface treatment construction is a major contributor to the quality
of the finished product. It should be kept in proper adjustment and good operating condition
by routine maintenance and frequent inspection for excessive wear, breakdown, and calibration.
A brief description of the major equipment items is contained in the following articles.
6.15 THE ASPHALT DISTRIBUTOR
The most important piece of equipment used in surface treatment construction is the asphalt
distributor, Figure VI -7. Its function is to apply uniformly the asphalt emulsion over a surface
at the specified rate.
The distributor consists of either a truck-mounted or trailer-mounted insulated tank with
controls for setting the rate at which the asphalt is applied. At the back end of the tank is a
system of spray bars and nozzles. Through this system the asphalt is forced under pressure
on to the surface of the road. The spray bars cover widths of 3 to 9 m (10 to 30 ft.) in a single
pass, depending on the pump capacity. A hand spray is included to apply the emulsion to
areas that cannot be reached with the spray bar. The distributor tank normally has a capacity of
3,000 to 20,800 litres (800 to 5,500 gal.). Attached to the tank is a circulating system that includes
the spray bar unit. Pressure generated when a noncirculating or un-bypassed spray bar is shut
off can cause the emulsion to break and plug the unit with asphalt. The tank is also equipped
with one or more heaters that can be used to bring the emulsified asphalt to spray application
temperature. Extreme care should be taken in the use of these heaters. Premature breaking of
the emulsion may occur if heater temperatures are too high. If the heaters are to be used, the
emulsion should be circulating in the tank while heat is applied and excessive temperatures
in the heaters should not be allowed.
Two extremely important adjustments are the spray nozzle angle setting and spray bar height.
The angle of the long axis of the nozzle openings must be adjusted so that the spray fans will
not interfere with each other. The recommended angle, measured from the spray bar axis, is
from 0.26 to 0.52 radians (15 to 30 deg.) see Figure VI-8. To ~ n s u r e uniformity of spread, the
spray bar must be set and maintained at the proper height above the pavement surface. If it is
set too high, wind distortion of the spray fans may occur. The best results usually are achieved
with an exact double coverage, but triple coverage can sometimes be used with spray bars with
58
100 mm (4 in.) nozzle spacing. Figure VI-9 illustrates the heights of the spray bar necessary to
achieve these coverages.
~ - NOZZLE ANGLE SETTING, 0.26 TO 0.52 RADIANS (15 TO 30 DEQ.)
s --
SPRAY BAR AXIS
Figure VI-S. Proper nozzle angle setting.
SINGLE COVERAGE
DOUBLE COVERAGE
TRIPLE COVERAGE
Figure VI-g. Spray bar height must be set exactly for proper coverage.
Three controls are standard equipment on most distributors. One is a valve system that
governs the flow of material. Another is a pump tachometer or pressure gauge that registers
pump output. And the third is a bitumeter with an odometer that indicates the number of
metres (feet) per minute and the total distance traveled.
Despite the rather precise controls on the distributor it is always advisable to check the rate
of application in the field. This can be done with a shallow metal tray exactly one square
metre (1 sq. yd.) in area. If a tray is not available, a sheet of heavy paper or cardboard can
be used. The tray is weighed and placed on the surface to be sprayed. Immediately after the
distributor has passed, the tray is lifted and weighed again. The difference between the two
is the mass (weight) of the emulsified asphalt. The application rate can then be found by the
equation below.
where
S.l. Metric
R = wM
R = application rate, litre/m2 (gallyd
2
)
U.S. Customary
(R = 0.12wM)
w = weight of emulsified asphalt on tray, kg/m2 (lb/yd
2
)
M = temperature-volume correction factor, see Table C-l, Appendix C.
59

The aggregate spreader is second only to the asphalt distributor in the order of importance
of surface treatment equipment. Its function is to apply a uniform aggregate cover at a specified
rate. Spreaders range from the simple vane type attached to a truck tail gate to the highly
efficient self-propelled type.
Tail gate spreaders are usually one of two types. One is a steel plate to which is attached
a series of vanes to provide coverage across the lane, Figure VI-IO. Another is a truck-mounted
hopper with a feed roller activated by small wheels driven by the the truck wheels, Figure VI-II. In
Figure VI-10. Tailgate vane spreader.
Figure VI-11. Hopper type tailgate spreader.
Courtesy Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
60
each case, the truck backs to spread the stone. This prevents the freshly applied asphalt from:
being picked up by the truck's tires.
Mechanical aggregate spreaders contain hoppers mounted on pneumatic tires. Each has a
built-in distribution system to ensure a uniform spread of the aggregate across the entire lane
width. Mechanical spreaders are either truck-attached (Figure VI-12) or self-propelled (Figure
VI-l3). In both types, the aggregate is dumped from a truck into a receiving hopper for
spreading. The truck-attached spreader contains an auger and a roughened spread roll in the
hopper that ensures a positive, uniform feed of material. The self-propelled unit has a similar
feed mechanism. One difference is that the self-propelled spreader contains a scalping screen
over the aggregate receiving hopper; another is a sloped screen, over which the cover aggregate
passes that drops the larger particles into the asphalt film first, followed by the finer particles
which fall through the screen. This system ensures that the larger particles are embedded in
the asphalt enough to hold them in place while the fines fall onto the larger particles. The
self-propelled unit has the advantage of being able to follow closely behind the asphalt dis-
tributor, with minimum stopping to change aggregate trucks.
Mechanical self-propelled aggregate spreaders should be calibrated to apply the quantity of
cover stone indicated by the design requirements for any given project. The required equipment
can be very simple, and may consist only of several sheets of canvas each being exactly one
square metre (square yard), and a bathroom scale. By making several runs at different speeds
and gate openings over the sheets of canvas, and carefully weighing the aggregate on each
canvas sheet, the gate opening and aggregate spreader speed required to apply the cover stone
at the specified rate per square metre (square yard) can be quickly determined.
61
Figure VI-12. Truck-attached mechanical spreader.
Courtesy Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
Figure VI-13. Self-propelled mechanical spreader.
Courtesy Chevron U.S.A Inc.
62
6.17 ROLLERS
Unless the cover stone is properly embedded in the asphalt film there is a danger that some
may be lost through traffic abrasion. Rolling presses the cover material into the asphalt binder,
thereby promoting better adhesion. For single surface treatments, pneumatic-tired rollers,
Figure VI-14, produce best results. They force the aggregate firmly into the asphalt binder
without crushing the particles. The tires are able to press into small depressions to seat the
particles. Steel-tired rollers tend to bridge over such depressions.
With multiple surface treatments, one or two steel-tired roller passes, after pneumatic-tired
rolling, will help produce a smoother surface.
Figure VI-14. Pneumatic-tired roller.
63
6.18 POWER BROOM
Unless the surface to be covered is completely clean, the asphalt may not adhere to the
pavement. It is therefore necessary to clean the whole surface before spraying the asphalt
emulsion. A power street sweeper, Figure VI-IS, is recommended to pick up both dust and
loose particles; but if one is not available a rotary power broom should be used. Flushing with
water may be necessary when brooms are used, to meet clean air standards.
Power sweepers or brooms are also used to remove loose particles after the treatment is
completed.
Figure VI-1S. Power sweeper.
6.19 TRUCKS
Enough trucks must be available to ensure that the operation can proceed without interruption.
Frequent stops and starts may cause variations in asphalt spray distribution, rate of aggregate
cover, or both, and result in a non-uniform surface.
E. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE
6.20 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS
The sequence of operations is basically the same for all types of surface treatment construc-
tion. The usual order is as follows:
64
I. Patch potholes and r ~ p a i r damaged areas in existing pavement.
2. Clean surface to be covered with rotary broom or other approved means.
3. Spray asphalt emulsion binder at specified rate and proper temperature (Table VI-I).
4. Spread cover aggregate at specified rate immediately behind the asphalt spray appli-
cation (emulsion still brown in color) to achieve maximum possible chip wetting.
5. Roll aggregate cover to seat particles in asphalt membrane.
Figure VI-16 shows a proper surface treatment operation. If a double or triple surface
treatment is required, steps 3 through 5 should be repeated once or twice.
Figure VI-16. Surface treatment operation.
Courtesy E. D. Etnyre Co.
6.21 PREPARATION
The project engineer should be certain that all equipment has been inspected and is in proper
working order before construction begins. An adequate supply of aggregate should be available
on the job site, or scheduled for delivery at proper intervals, to permit continuous spreading
operations. The required quantity of asphalt emulsion should also be stored at the job site. If
not, delivery arrangements should be scheduled at proper intervals to prevent delays in construc-
tion. Also, an adequate traffic control plan should be developed.
65
6.22 PRECAUTIONS
Most problems with surface treatments are caused by failure to adhere to common-sense
construction practices. Even when the highest quality aggregates and asphalt emulsions are
used, inferior pavements may result unless fixed guidelines are strictly followed. An attempt
at short cuts, or construction during bad weather, will probably result in increased maintenance.
Surface treatment operations should not be carried out during periods of cold, wet weather.
Best results will be obtained if the air temperature is at least lOoC (50°F) in the shade and
rising. Some specifications require that the temperature of the road surface be above 27°C
(80°F) before an asphalt spray application can be applied. The reason being the emulsified
asphalt may not break properly in cold temperatures and the asphalt will not satisfactorily
retain the cover aggregate. Surface treatments should not be constructed in the rain, or when
rain is threatening. The water may cause a loss of the partly cured emulsion from the cover
aggregate.
A simple rule of thumb can be cited when rapid-setting emulsions are used for surface
treatments. The emulsion selected should break just after the first roller pass has been made.
This assumes that the roller is following as closely as possible behind the aggregate spreader.
And that the spreader, in tum, is maintained immediately behind the asphalt distributor. This
sequence should result in good wetting of the cover aggregate by the asphalt emulsion and
the development of satisfactory adhesion between the emulsion and cover aggregate-also,
good cover aggregate retention when the surface treatment is opened to traffic.
6.23 CHECKING APPLICATION RATE
Checks on the rate of application of emulsified asphalt should be made after each run with
the distributor. This can be done quite simply by using the formula shown below. The use of
this formula requires that the number of litres (gallons) of asphalt sprayed be known along
with the length and width of the spread.
where
S1. Metric
TM
R =-
WL
R = Rate of application, litre/m2 (gal/yd
2
)
U.S. Customary
9TM
R = --.-
WL
T = Total litres (gallons) spread from the distributor at spraying temperature; i.e., (gauge
stick reading before spread)--(gauge stick reading after spread)
W = Width of spread, m (ft)
L = Length of spread, m (ft)
M = Multiplier for correcting asphalt volume to basis of 15.6°C (60°F) (from Table C-l in
Appendix C).
66
CHAPTER VII
ASPHALT EMULSION - AGGREGATE MIXES
7.01 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Until recent years, engineers considered emulsion-aggregate mixes to be of inferior quality
compared to hot-plant mixes made with asphalt cement. There was a common misconception
that emulsion mixes can be used only on low volume, secondary roads with low traffic loads;
such is not the case. Advances in technology make it possible for emulsion mixes to perform
as well as other types of asphalt mixes. They can be used in the whole range of pavement
systems from light duty to heavy duty. Figure VII-J lists some major uses of emulsified asphalt
mixes along with some suggested design requirements. Emulsified asphalt and aggregate mix
design methods are descrihed in Part Three of this manual.
7.02 STRENGTH
Several strength tests are availahlc as tools to evaluatc the structural contribution of the mix
to a pavcment section. One that is gaining widespread usage is the resilient modulus, MR
test. Another one, in general use, is a stability or hearing capacity test (except for open-graded
mixes) that measures resistance, R- Value. This test is performed with the Hveem Stahilometer
using 1103 kPa (160 psi) maximum vertical pressure. After determining the R- Value, the same
test specimen is evaluated for cohesion. Still another test used for evaulation of stability or
bearing capacity is the measurement of a stabilometer S- Value. Again, the Hveem Stabilometer
is used in this test. In this case the test results are related to the displacement of the specimen
under various conditions of loading and pressure.
Development work has been done on asphalt emulsion-aggregate mix design using several
other including Marshall Stability and split tension tests.
7.03 AGGREGATE REQUIREMENTS
Discussion in previous chapters on testing is largely directed toward the base asphalt
cement and properties of the finished emulsion. Characteristics of the aggregate in any
emulsion-aggregate mixture are equally important to good results. Responsibility for
proper materials evaluation, good design procedures, adherence to established construc-
tion practices, and evaluation of the completed pavement structure are in no way
diminished when using an asphalt emulsion. For acceptable results, all involved must
follow good engineering practice in every detail, as in any other type of construction
operation.
Aggregate constitutes about 90 to 95 percent by weight of an emulsion mixture. A wide
variety of types and gradations can be used successfully for both hot and cold mixes. But
67
As a construction aid
Must meet user agency base requ irements.
2-3% emulsified asphalt generally used.
Must meet Resistance R
t
Value of 70 minimum
Upgrading marginal
(Initial Cure) and 78 minimum (Final Cure) after
aggregate to quality of
vacuum saturation. Field Density should be 95%
untreated granular base
of laboratory density. Usual emulsified asphalt
range 4.5 to 8%.
Must meet Resistance R
t
Value of 78 minimum
As a temporary Wearing plus minimum 50 cohesiometer value at room
Surface
temperature (Initial Cure) and 100 (Final Cure).
Usual emulsified asphalt range 5.5 to 10%.
Mix Type
Must meet minimum requirements as above.
To reduce pavement Resilient Modulus and mix void data used to
thickness determine lift thickness. Typical emulsified
asphalt range 5.0 to 10%.
'v
The mix must not have emulsion run off or be
Open-Graded Base and
washed off by water. Drainage 0.5% asphalt
maximum. Washoff 0.5% maximum (where
Surface Mixes
applicable). Typical emulsified asphalt range
4.5 to 8%.
Use highest emulsion content consistent with
Stabilometer S-value of 30 minimum - Cohesiome-
Dense-Graded Wearing
ter C-value 100 minimum, both measured at 60°C
Surface
(140°F). Typical emulsified asphalt contents 6.0 to
15% depending on aggregate gradation.
Subbase
Must meet Resistance R
t
Value of 60 minimum.
Usual emulsified asphalt range 4.5 to 8%.
Figure VII-1. Major uses of emulsified asphalt mixes.
Courtesy Chevron U.S.A. Inc.
68
TABLE VII-1 COARSE AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES (ASTM 0692)
Amounts Finer Than Each Laboratory Sieve
(Square Openings),
Size Nominal Size (Sieves with
Weight Percent
No. Square Openings)
63mm 50mm 37.5mm 25.0mm 19.0mm 12.5mm 9.5mm 4.75mm 2.36mm 1.18mm
(2-1/2 in.) (2 in.) (1-112 in.) (1 in.) (314 in.) (1/2 in.) (3/8 in.) (No.4) (No.8) (No. 16)
3 50 to 25.0 mm (2 to 1 in.) 100 90 to 100 35 to 70 o to 15 - o to 5 - - - -
357 50 to 4.75mm (2 in. to No.4) 100 95 to 100 - 35 to 70 - 10 to 30 - o to 5 - -
4 .37.5 to 19.0mm (1-1/2 to 3/4 in.) - 100 90 to 100 20 to 55 o to 15 - o to 5 - - -
-
-
-. --
467 37.5 to 4.75mm (1-112 in. to No.4) - 100 95 to 100 - 35 to 70 - 10 to 30 o to 5 - -
---
. - - ~ ;
--
.,
- -
5 25.0 to 12.5 mm (1 to 112 in.) - - 100 90 to 100 20 to 55 o to 10 Oto 5 - - -
57 25.0 to 4.75mm (1 in. to No.4) - - 100 95 to 100 - 25 to 60 - o to 10 o to 5 -
6 19.0 to 9.5mm (3/4 to 318 in.) - - - 100 90 to 100 20 to 55 o to 15 Oto 5 - -
67 19.0 to 4.75mm (3/4 in. to No.4) - - -
19
0 90 to 100 - 20 to 55 o to 10 o to 5 -
--
--
68 19.0 to 2.36mm (3/4 in. to No.8) - - - 100 90 to 100 - 30 to 65 5to 25 o to 10 o to 5
-
7 12.5 to 4.75mm (1/2 in. to No.4) - - - - 100 90 to 100 40 to 70 o to 15 Oto 5 -
78 12.5 to 2.36mm (1/2 in. to No.8) - - - - 100 90 to 100 40 to 75 5to 25 o to 10 o to 5
8 9.5 to 2.36mm (3/8 in. to No.8) - - - - - 100 85 to 100 10 to 30 o to 10 o to 5
TABLE VII-2 FINE AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES
(ASTM 0 1073)
Amounts Finer Than Each Laboratory
Sieve (Square Openings), Percent by Weight
Sieve Size
Grading Grading Grading
No.1 NO.3 N04
9.5mm (3/8 in.) 100 - 100
4.75mm (No.4) 95 to 100 100 80t0100
2.36mm (No.8) 70 to 100 95 to 100 65 to 100
1.18mm (No. 16) 40 to 80 85 to 100 40 to 80
600f,Lm (No. 30) 20 to 65 65 to 90 20t065
300f,Lm (No. 50) 7t040 30 to 60 7t040
150f,Lm (No.1 00) 2t020 5t025 2t020
75f,Lm (No. 200) Oto 10 Ot05 Oto 10
Note - It is recognized for certain purposes satisfactory results may be obtained with materials not conforming to
this specification. In such cases the use of fine aggregate not conforming to the grading requirements of
this specification may be authorized only under special provisions based on field experience or laboratory
studies of the possibility of designing a mixture of materials to be used on the job that will yield asphalt
paving mixtures equivalent in quality to the job mix requirements.
certain standards must be maintained if the mixtures are to meet stability, workability,
flexibility, skid resistance, and durability requirements.
In several of the following sections, gradation ranges are suggested for specific
mixtures. Many of the gradings are intended for local aggregates alone, or with a
minimum of imported materials. Others are intended to produce carefully controlled,
well-graded mixtures. Tables VII-l and VII-2 contain ranges for standard mixture
designations.
7.04 AGGREGATE TESTS
Standard test procedures are used to evaluate aggregate properties. The mineral
aggregates should be tested by the m ~ t h o d s in Table VII-3.
Compatibility of the aggregate with the asphalt emulsion is more critical than in a
standard plant mix using asphalt cement. The mineral composition of the aggregate
can have a significant bearing on field performance. For this reason, it is necessary
that trial mixes be prepared in the laboratory.
7.05 TRIAL MIXES
It is essential that trial mixes be made in the laboratory with the actual aggregates
to determine the type and grade of asphalt emulsion that will be used on the project.
An optimum asphalt emulsion content should be found to allow for the water that will
evaporate from the emulsion. Moisture in the stockpiled aggregates should also be
considered in the design of cold mixes because it may have some effect on the coatability,
workability, and compaction. Alternatively, partial drying of the aggregate may be
required to attain the optimum moisture content for mixing.
70
TABLE VII-3 AGGREGATE EVALUATION PROCEDURES
Characteristics
Amou01t of material finer than 7511m
(No. 200) Sieve in aggregate
Unit weight of aggregate
Sieve analysis, fine and coarse aggregates
Sieve analysis of mineral filler
Abrasion of coarse aggregates
Los Angeles Machine
Plastic fines in graded aggregates and
soils by use of the Sand Equivalent Test
7.06 ASPHALT SELECTION
Method of Test
ASTM
C 117
C 29
C 136
0546
C 131
02419
AASHTO
T 11
T 19
T 27
T 37
T96
T 176
Although general guidelines for emulsified asphalt selection are presented in Chapter
,V,) some personal judgment must be used, The decision must take into account
'Characteristics of the asphalt residue and curing rate of the emulsion. Also, the type of
pavement and the specific construction conditions have a bearing on asphalt selection.
A. MIXED-IN-PLACE
7.07 STABILIZA nON
The Transportation Research Board defines stabilization as "the modification of soils
or aggregates by incorporating materials that will increase load bearing capacity, firm-
ness, and resistance to weathering or displacement." Soil stabilization with asphalt emul-
sion is particularly adaptable to stage construction where additional courses may be
needed to meet increased traffic demands. The emulsion serves as an excellent cementing
and waterproofing agent.
71
7.08 FACTORS TO CONSIDER
The stabilization operation can be a simple process where the asphalt elllulsion and aggregate
are mixed-in-place by a traveling mixer. It may also involve the more sophisticated batch or
continuous central mix plant as described in Par. 7.16. With some types of emulsion, proper
mixing and coating for stabilization depends on the proper amount of pre-wetting water on
the aggregate. Some of the factors that must be considered in determining which method to
use include:
- Project location (urban, rural, mountainous, coastal, remote ... ).
- Traffic conditions (from both the design and construction viewpoint).
- Whether imported or in-place aggregate is to be used. Aggregate type and
gradation, availability, source, and cost.
- Type of pavement, total mix mass (tonnage), structural section of the pavement,
and size of the project.
- Climatic conditions.
- Whether the work will be done by contract or force account.
- Type of available construction equipment.
The best balance between these various considerations must be worked out.
7.09 BLENDING IMPORTED AGGREGATE
A laboratory evaluation should be made to determine if blending of an imported ag-
gregate will be necessary. If a central mix plant is to be used, the aggregates can be ac-
curately blended with the plant'S hopper system. If a travel plant or mixed-in-place
operation is to be used and it is necessary to combine an imported aggregate, separate
windrows of the two materials should be constructed. To obtain the specified final grada-
tion, the volume of each windrow must be carefully calculated and maintained (Figure
VII-2). The windrows are then mixed together thoroughly and windrowed again before
the emulsified asphalt is added.
104-------B ------...... -.j
r-
A
--1--+--r-
c
Figure VII-2. Volume of w i n ~ Q ~ .
72
7.10 APPLICATION RATES FOR MIXED-IN-PLACE
It is probable that some mixing water must be sprayed on the aggregate in the windrow.
The amount of water to produce best results, with regard to coating, must be determined in
the laboratory. Most important, the optimum application rate of the emulsified asphalt must
be determined. The following formulas can be used to find the emulsified asphalt application
rate and forward speed of the mixer or distributor:
First, determine the volume of aggregate in the windrow:
(A + B)C
Va = 2 x metres (feet)
where:
volume of aggregate in windrow, m
3
(ft
3
)
m ft
A,B,C, = dimension of windrow, m Cft), (Figure VII-2).
Then, find the application rate:
where:
Ab = application rate of emulsified asphalt
litre (gal)
m ft
Va = volume of aggregate in windrow (see Eq. 1)
Wa = loose unit weight of dry aggregate,
~ ~ G ~ ) ,(refer to ASTM Test Method C 29, Appendix E
or AASHTO Test Method T 19)
P
b
= design percent of emulsified asphalt by dry weight of aggregate
in the mixture expressed as decimal
W b ~ weight of emulsified asphalt, ~ (Ib ) ~ I ()() kg
(1)
(2)
(or U. S. Customary 8.3 I ~ ; ~ f
al
. litre
Refer to Appendix C for weight and volume relations and temperature-volume corrections.
*NOTE: As the specific gravity of asphalt materials varies, even for the same type and
grade, the mass (weight) relationships shown above are approximate and should be used
only for general estimating purposes. Where more precise data are required, they must be
computed on the basis oftaboratory tests on the specific product. The approximate data
shown above are for materials at lS.6°C (60°F).
73
To determine forward speed:
where:
S = forward speed of mixture or distributor,
Dp = pump discharge rate,
mm mm
Ab = emulsified asphalt application rate,
m (ft)
min min
m ft
EXAMPLE-
litre (gal)
A windrow of dry aggregate .30m (1.0 ft) high, 2.0m (6.5 ft) wide at the top, and 2.5m
(8.2 ft) wide at the base is to be mixed with 7.5 percent by weight of MS-2 emulsified
asphalt, Pb' The loose unit weight of the aggregate, W
a
, is 1 440kg/m
3
(90 Ib/ft
3
). One-half
of the emulsified asphalt is to be applied in each of two passes of a rotary mixer equipped
with a spraying system. Needed is the total emulsified asphalt application rate and the
forward speed of the mixer.
v =
a
v =
a
(A + B)C
2 x metres (feet)
(2.0 - 2.5) 0.3 xl = 0.68 m
3
/m (7.35 ft3/ft)
2
Ab = 0.68x = 73.4 litre/m (5.98 gal/ft)
Asphalt application rate per pass = 731,4 = 36. 7litre/m (2.99 gal/ft). Then, the forward speed
of the mixer, assuming a constant asphalt pump discharge, D
p
' of 100 litre/min (26.4 gal/min), is
EL
Ab
S=
S = i:'; = 2.7 rnImin (8.8 ftlmin).
74
7. 11 TRAVEL PLANTS
Travel plants are self-propelled pugmill plants that proportion and mix aggregates and
emulsified asphalt in-place as they move along the road. There are two general types of
travel plants:
1. One that moves through a prepared aggregate windrow on the roadbed, picks
up the material, adds and mixes the emulsified asphalt as it moves forward
and discharges at the rear of the machine a mixed windrow ready for aeration
and spreading. See Figure VII-3.
2. One that receives aggregate into its hopper from a haul truck, adds and mixes
emulsified asphalt, and spreads the mix to the rear as it moves forward on the
roadbed, Figure VII-4.
Irrespective of the type of equipment used, the purpose of the travel plant is to leave a
uniform, properly coated, emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture on the roadbed. On
some types the proportioning devices are interlocked to ensure a constant emulsified
asphalt-aggregate blend. On others the proportioning system is keyed to the travel speed
of the mixer.
Figure VII-3. Travel plant, windrow type.
75
Figure VII-4. Travel plant, hopper type.
Courtesy Midland Machinery Co., Inc.
7.12 ROTARY MIXERS
A rotary type mixer consists of a mobile mixing chamber mounted on a self-propelled
machine. The chamber is open at the bottom and has a width of about 2.1 metres (7 feet).
Inside are one or more transverse rotating shafts on which are mounted tines or cutting
blades, Figure VII-5. These blades serve a two-fold purpose, cutting the in-place material
76
Figure VII-5. Rotary mixer, pulvimixer type.
to a specified depth and mixing it with the emulsified asphalt. As the machine moves
forward it strikes off the freshly-mixed material to a predetermined level. The emulsified
asphalt can be introduced either of two ways. In some mixers it comes through a spray
bar that extends across the mixer chamber, the amount sprayed being governed by the
forward speed of the unit. With the second method an asphalt distributor sprays the
emulsion on the aggregates ahead of the mobile mixer. The materials are drawn into the
mixing chamber as the machine moves forward.
Rotary mixers may be used to cut and scarify the roadbed materials (either old pavement
or new aggregate) without the introduction of asphalt emulsion. They also may be used
for aeration.
7.13 BLADE MIXING
Blade mixing, while not as efficient as the previously described systems, is perhaps
the least complicated of all mixing methods. Even so, it requires experienced operators.
The emulsified asphalt is applied by a distributor on a flattened windrow of imported or
scarified in-place material immediately ahead of the motor grader. The blade on the motor
grader mixes the materials through a series of turning and tumbling actions, Figure VII-6.
Scarifiers or plow attachments on the motor grader aid in breaking up the material in the
77
Figure VII-6. Blade mixing.
roadbed. When a motor grader is used for final leveling of the finished surface, it should
be equipped with smooth, rather than treaded, pneumatic tires.
In the usual procedure, the material in the windrow is placed either through a spreader
box or by running it through a windrow sizer before adding the asphalt emulsion. The
emulsion demand of the aggregate in the windrow must be determined and the amount
needed per lineal metre (foot) of windrow calculated.
If pre-wetting water is required, slightly more water than is called for by the design is
applied to the windrow and thoroughly mixed with the aggregate. Then, the asphalt
emulsion is applied on the flattened windrow in successive passes of the distributor truck
and folded into the windrow immediately after each pass.
There is a possibility of variation of the grading of the aggregate in the windrow and
a resulting fluctuation in asphalt demand. Therefore, as mixing progresses, close attention
should be paid to the appearance of the mix. It is important that uniformity of gradation
and moisture content be achieved. Mixing should consist of as many manipulations with
the motor grader blade as necessary to thoroughly disperse the asphalt and coat the
aggregate particles. Too many passes, though, may result in stripping of the asphalt
coating from the aggregate, with certain types of aggregates or emulsions.
When mixing, the mold board of the motor grader should be adjusted to give a rolling
action to the material as the blade moves through the windrow. Also, care must be used
so that extra material is not taken from the mixing table and incorporated into the windrow.
At the same time, none of the windrow should be lost over the edge of the mixing table.
After mixing has been completed, the windrow should be moved to one side of the
roadbed in preparation for spreading.
7.14 SPREADING AND COMPACTING
The mixture should always be spread to a uniform thickness, whether in a single pass
78
or in several thinner layers, so that no thin spots exist in the final mat. Mixtures that do
not require aeration may be spread to the required thickness immediately after mixing,
and then compacted with pneumatic-tired, vibratory, or steel-tired rollers.
Blade spreading should be accomplished in successive layers, with no layer thinner
than about 2 times the diameter of the maximum particle size. As each layer is spread,
compaction should follow almost immediately with a pneumatic-tired roller.
Experience has shown that breakdown rolling of emulsified asphalt mixes should begin
immediately before, or at the same time as, the emulsion starts to break (this is indicated
by a marked color change from brown to black). About this time, the moisture content
of the mixture is sufficient to act as a lubricant between the aggregate particles, but is
reduced to the point where it does not fill the void spaces, thus allowing their reduction
under compactive forces. Also, by this time, the mixture should be able to support the
roller without undue displacement.
Because the tires of the motor grader compact the freshly-spread mix, their tracks will
appear as ridges in the finished mat unless there is adequate rolling between the spreading
of each successive layer. The roller should follow directly behind the motor grader in
order to eliminate these ridge marks.
If, at any time during compaction, the asphalt mixture exhibits undue rutting or shov-
ing, rolling should be stopped. Compaction should not be attempted until there is a
reduction in diluent content, occurring either naturally or by mechanical aeration.
After one course is thoroughly compacted and cured, other courses may be placed on
it. This operation should be repeated as many times as necessary to bring the road to
proper grade and crown. For a smooth riding surface the motor grader should be used to
trim and level as the rollers complete compaction of the upper layer.
After the mat has been shaped to its final required cross-section, it must then be finish
rolled, preferably with a steel-tired roller, until all roller marks are eliminated.
B. ASPHALT EMULSION PLANT MIX (COLD)
7.15 GENERAL
As mentioned previously, emulsion mixes can be produced for a wide range of service
conditions ranging from light duty, low traffic volume roads to heavy duty pavement
structures designed for off-highway vehicles and equipment. They may be used for base,
surface, leveling, widening and overlay courses and are especially adaptable to the
upgrading and strengthening of thin pavements. In selecting the type of mix to be used
for a project the weight and volume of traffic, the availability of aggregates, and the
location and size of the project should be considered. Then the kind of mix that will most
economically satisfy all requirements can be designated.
" Asphalt cold mix is a mixture of unheated mineral (iggregate and emulsified. asphalt.
The variety of types and grades of emulsified asphalt that are available is a distinct ad-
vantage when designing cold mixes using pit or bank run aggregates or aggregates of
marginal quality.
This advantage is diminished somewhat when designing high-strength, high-quality
mixes where quality controls similar to those for hot-mix asphalt concrete are r';!quired.
But even in these situations, cold emulsion mixes offer some advantages over hot mixes
such as:
79
Economy-High production rates combined with mobility and low investment cost
in equipment. Ideally suited for projects in remote areas.
Non-Polluting- With the exception of stockpile dust there are virtually no emis-
sions from cold-mix production, hauling and laydown.
Safety-In high hazard fire areas, e.g., National Forests and Bureau of Land Man-
agement Grasslands, fire hazard is reduced because there is no dryer and
no high-temperature mix or asphalt cement used in construction.
7.16 MIXING PLANTS
Cold-mix plant setups may vary depending on the quality and type of mix being produced.
At the very least it should consist of a mixer, emulsified asphalt storage tank, emulsion
metering pump, piping and spray bar equipment and spray bar for feeding water and additives,
controls for adjusting and monitoring the various components, a conveyor for feeding the
aggregate and, of course, a power source. It may also include one or more aggregate bins,
proportioning aggregate feeders, scalping screen, aggregate load-sensing device, and surge
bin or storage silo. Batch type pugmills can be used. However, this mix production is ideally
suited for continuous mixers and these are used almost exclusively.
The production of high-quality cold mixes for heavy-duty pavements requires a well-control-
led plant setup to ensure success. In addition to carefully monitored and controlled blending
of aggregate, emulsified asphalts and, in some cases, water, the mixer should be of a type
that permits variation in mixing times of 5 to 30 seconds. This can be controlled by shifting
the emulsion spray bar, or adjusting the depth of material, or both in a continuous mixer.
Surge hoppers or storage silos are highly desirable since they minimize plant shutdowns and
improve mix uniformity. A typical cold mix continuous plant is shown in Figure VU-7.
Figure VII-7. Cold-mix continuous plant.
7.17 OPEN-GRADED MIXES
Open-graded mixtures with asphalt emulsion have been used for bases and surfaces for
many years. Because of the relatively simple plant equipment required, economy of con-
struction strongly favors this type of operation. Durability and field performance of the
open-graded mixes have been comparable to other types of asphalt paving. Their flex-
ibility and high void contents make them highly resistant to fatigue and reflection crack-
ing. Open-graded mixes function somewhat differently when used for surface courses as
80
compared to base courses. Further, mix gradations are different. As surface courses,
they permit the rapid removal of surface water because of their high permeability,
thereby reducing the problem of hydroplaning. This automatically means that a good
drainage field must be provided to facilitate rapid removal of water. When an open-
graded mix is used as a base course, and when water-susceptible subgrade materials are
present, a positive moisture seal must be provided within or under the open-graded layer
to prevent water from entering and weakening the subgrade materials.
7.18 MATERIALS FOR OPEN-GRADED MIXES
Samples of all materials for use in the mixture should be submitted to the laboratory
for testing in accordance with the procedures previously outlined. A great variety of ag-
gregate gradations have been used for open-graded cold mixes, and with varying degrees
of success. Most of the research and development work in recent years has centered in the
northwestern states where they have been successfully used as bases and surface courses
on many miles of Federal, state and county highways and heavy-duty logging roads. Ag-
gregate gradation and quality requirements vary somewhat but most of them closely ap-
proximate those listed in Table VII-4. Some attempts have been made to use aggregates
with up to 20 percent passing the 2.36mm (No.8) sieve and 5 percent passing the 75J.1m
(No. 200) sieve and using CMS-2s* emulsified asphalt. Their performance as high-quality
base and surface courses has been variable.
TABLE VII·4 AGGREGATES FOR OPEN-GRADED EMULSION MIXES
Sieve Size
38.1 mm (1-1/2 in.)
25.0mm (1 in.)
19.0mm (3/4 in.)
12.5mm (1/2 in.)
9.5mm (3/8 in.)
4.75mm (No.4)
2.36mm (No.8)
1.18mm (No. 16)
75pm (No. 200)
Los Angeles Abrasion loss
@ 500 Rev. (ASTM C 131 )
Percent Crushed Faces
Emulsified Asphalt Grades
Coarse
100
95 - 100
25 - 60
0-10
0-5
0-2
40 max
65 min
Base
Medium
100
90 - 100
20 - 55
0-10
0-5
0-2
40 max
65 min
Surface
Fine
100
85 - 100
0-5
0-2
40 max
65 min
MS-2, MS-2h, HFMS-2, HFMS-2h, HFMS-2s, CMS-2 or CMS-2h
·Some lIser agencies specify an additional cationic sand mixing grade designated CMS-2s. The CMS-2s is
lIsed for sand and silty sand mixes; it contains more solvent than standard CMS grades.
81
7.19 OPEN-GRADED MIX DESIGN METHODS
Individual laboratories have developed their own methods for determining optimum aggre-
gate, asphalt and water percentages for open-graded mixes.
A procedural outline and design criteria for The Asphalt Institute design method for open-
graded mixes are contained in Part 3, Chapter XII. In general, an attempt is made to use as
much asphalt as possible without excessive runoff. The initial asphalt content may be selected
from experience or by some test method such as the Surface Capacity test for coarse aggregate
(Kc) as determined in the Hveem Method of Mix Design. Subsequent trial batches are made
with increasing quantities of asphalt and at varying moisture contents until the optimum asphalt
content is determined. Ease of mixing, mixing time, percent coating and moisture content will
all affect the emulsion content selected. Usually a minimum of 50 to 75 percent coating is
required and moisture contents will range from 0.5 to 3.0 percent. Moisture contents in excess
of 3 percent usually cause mixing and coating problems as well as excessive runoff during
hauling and placing. Stockpiled aggregates with excessive fines [more than 2 percent passing
the 75 f.Lm (No. 200) sieve] often contain more than 3 percent water which is one reason fines
should be kept to a minimum. Conventional strength and stability test criteria are not applicable
for these mixtures since they have very little cohesive strength. Their stability in service is
largely dependent on inter-particle friction and confining pressures.
The best guarantee of success when using open-graded mixes for heavy duty bases and
surfaces is strict adherence to weather limitations and quality controls for all materials and
mixing plants.
7.20 DENSE-GRADED MIXES
Dense-graded aggregate mixtures are graded from the maximum size down to and including
material passing the 75 f.Lm (No. 200) sieve. They embrace a wide variety of aggregate types
and gradations and, similarly, can be used for the full range of base and surface pavement
types, depending on aggregate quality and equipment. Substantial savings can be realized
when locally available, unprocessed aggregates are utilized on lightly traveled roads and in bases
for heavy-duty pavements.
7.21 MATERIALS FOR DENSE-GRADED MIXES
Samples of all aggregate intended for use in the mixture(s) should be submitted for testing
as previously noted. Recommended aggregate gradation and quality requirements for dense-
graded mixes are shown in Table VII-5. MS, CMS, SS, CSS, and HFMS emulsified asphalts
are used generally for dense-graded mixes.
7.22 DENSE-GRADED MIX DESIGN METHODS
The Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent (CKE) method is generally used to determine the initial
emulsified asphalt content when formulating dense-graded cold mixes. This value is multiplied
by 1.4 to correct for the water in SS and CSS types of emulsion. Subsequent trial batches are
made in much the same manner as open-graded mixes with the exception that considerably
more water is added to obtain adequate coating and workability of the mix. Generally, complete
coating of aggregate particles is not considered necessary for dense-graded mixes. The optimum
fluids (water and emulsion) for mixing is compared to that needed for compaction since a
wide variation in these values could cause difficulty in placing and compacting the mixture.
82
00
w
TABLE VII-5 AGGREGATES FOR EMULSIFIED DENSE-GRADED ASPHALT MIXTURES
Semi-Processed
Sieve Size Crusher, Pit Processed Dense-Graded Aspha It Mixtures
USA Standard Alternative
or Bank Run
50mm (2 in.) - 100 - - -
37.5 mm (1-1/2 in.) 100 90-100 100 - -
25.0mm
....
(1 in.) 80-100 - 90-100 100 -
.c
. ~
Q>
19.0mm ~ (3/4 in.) - 60-80 - 90-100 100
12.5mm
>-
(1/2 in.) - - 60-80 - 90-100
.0
0>
C
'"
9.5mm '" (3/8 in.) - - - 60-80 -
'"
4.75mm
0-
(No.4) 25-85 :20-55 25-60 35-65 45-70 ...
c
Q>
U
....
2.36mm
Q>
(No.8) 10-40 15-45 20-50 25-55 0-
1.18mm
c
(No. 16) - - - - -
.Q
...
'" "0
600J.Lm
~ (No. 30) - - - - -
300J.Lm
t:)
(No. 50) 2-16 3-18 3-20 5-20 -
150J.Lm (No. 100) - - - - -
75J.Lm (No. 200) 3-15 0-5 1-7 2-8 2-9
Sand Equivalent, Percent 30 min. 35 min. 35 min. 35 min. 35 min.
Los Angeles Rattler
- 40 max. 40 max. 40 max. 40 max.
@ 500 Revolutions
Percent Crushed Faces - 65 min. 65 min. 65 min. 65 min.
Emulsified Asphalt See Tables 11-1 and 11-2
I I I I I
-
-
-
-
100
90-100
60-80
35-65
-
-
6-25
-
2-10
35 min.
40 max.
65 min.
Modifications to the Marshall or Hveem procedures are used to compact specimens for density
and voids analysis. The compacted and cured specimens may then be further tested to determine
Resilient Modulus (MR), Marshall, or Hveem stability values or Resistance (R) Value. The
latter test is often used with poorly-graded and marginal aggregates used in emulsified asphalt
bases.
Part Three of this manual contains emulsified asphalt-aggregate mix design methods: Chapter
XI, Modified Hveem Mix Design (for dense graded mixtures); Chapter XII, Procedural Outline
and Design Criteria for Open-Graded Mixes; Chapter XIII, McConnaughay Design Method
for Cold Mixtures; and Chapter XIV, Marshall Method for Emulsified Asphalt-Aggregate Cold
Mixture Design.
Dense-graded emulsion mixes with SS and CSS emulsions can be improved by the addition
of 0.5 to 2.0 percent portland cement during mixing. Excessive amounts should be avoided.
The cement serves a fourfold purpose:
1. Workability is improved during mixing and laying.
2. Rapid dehydration of the mix occurs permitting compaction to proceed almost
immediately.
3. Higher initial mix stabilities are obtained thereby providing better service under
early traffic. Strength properties of the asphalt later overcome the early strength
attributed to cement.
4. Retained strengths in a water-saturated condition are higher, providing longer pave-
ment life.
As with open-graded mixes, when high quality aggregates are used and adequate equipment
and production quality requirements are met, dense-graded emulsion mixes provide strength
and durability equal to hot-mix asphalt concrete. Many case histories are available revealing
high performance levels with limited maintenance cost after several years of use by heavy
logging trucks.
7.23 SAND MIXES
Except for aggregate gradation, the same basic principles apply for production of sand-emul-
sion plant mixes as for dense-graded, coarse aggregate emulsion mixes. Sand mixes may be
used for either base or surface construction. The mixing, transporting, laydown, and compaction
procedures parallel those discussed in Articles 7. 16 and 7.24.
The addition of 1 to 2 percent portland cement will aid in the development of early initial
strength. Thorough mixing is essential to uniform distribution of the cement throughout the
mixture.
A wide variety of fine aggregates throughout the country has produced satisfactory results.
Blending of two, or more, aggregates may be necessary to produce the desirable mix charac-
teristics. The gradations in Table VII-6 have been used successfully.
The emulsified asphalt content normally varies within a range of 6 to 15 percent. Types
SS-I, SS-lh, CSS-l, CSS-1h or HFMS-2s may be used along with a laboratory-determined
amount of mixing water added to the sand.
7.24 LAYDOWN AND COMPACTION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT COLD MIXES
Laydown procedures for cold plant mixes are similar to those employed for hot mixes. Base
courses may be laid with towed type or self-propelled base spreaders. However, self-propelled pavers
84
TABLE VII·6 SAND·EMULSION MIXES
Total Percent Passing
Sieve Size
Poorly-Graded Well-Graded Silty Sands
12.5mm (1/2 in.) 100 100 100
4.75mm (No.4) 75 - 100 75 - 100 75 - 100
300l1m (No. 50) - 15 - 30 -
150l1m (No. 100) - - 15 - 65
7511m (No. 200) 0-12 5 -12 12- 20
Sand Equivalent, percent 30 min. 30 min. 30 min.
Plasticity Index NP NP NP
are recommended for high type or heavy duty surface courses. Cold mixes, generally,
are not as workable as hot mixes; and open-graded mixtures, in particular, are extremely tough
so mat repairs and handwork should be kept to a minimum. If mix sticks to the screed or
tearing of the mat occurs, the problem usually can be corrected at the plant by adjusting mix
time or emulsion-water ratio (or content). Heating the screed will not solve the problem but
lubricating with diesel oil may help alleviate it. (Installing a diesel spray bar at the leading
edge of the screed to apply a light diesel mist when needed has been found helpful.)
Cold mixes have been placed in lifts of 100 mm (4 in.) or more but compaction and curing
proceed much more quickly with courses of 50 or 75 mm (2 or 3 in.) compacted thickness.
Thick lifts may result in non-uniformly aerated layers. Breaking ofthe emulsion in open-graded
mixes usually occurs by the time the mix is placed and, as previously stated, the mixes are
tough and extremely stable. Unlike the open-graded mixes, however, the emulsion in dense-
graded mixes usually does not break until some time after laydown. This, plus the high moisture
content usually required for mixing, often necessitates a waiting period until the mixture
develops sufficient stability to support the roller(s). The more rapidly the loss of water occurs,
the more quickly the mix can be compacted. Here, again, the use of a small amount of cement
in the mix will greatly increase the rate of cure.
Because open-graded mixes are extremely tacky and dense-graded mixes are often low in
stability, it has been found advantageous to use static steel-tired rollers for breakdown rolling.
There is some concern that too much vibratory rolling may cause migration of asphalt and
water in dense-graded mixes. Sometimes, pneumatic-tired rollers are used for breakdown.
Either pneumatic- or steel-tired rollers may be used for intermediate rolling and steel-tired
rollers are generally used for finish rolling.
Before the initial or breakdown rolling of open-graded mixes, a light application of choke
aggregate should be spread uniformly on the pavement surface at the rate of 3-5 kg/m2
(6-1 Olb/yd
2
). The aggregate may be coarse, dry sand or the 2. OOmm (No. 10) minus screenings
from open-graded aggregate production. The choke material will prevent pick-up of the mix
by construction traffic or subsequent rolling.
85
7.25 PRECAUTIONS
Dense-graded mixes normally are resistant to water damage during construc-
tion. But, if it rains before the mixture is compacted and cured, traffic should
be kept off until it cures and the necessary compaction or recompaction ac-
complished.
Use only as much mixing water as is needed to disperse the asphalt emulsion
and gain good workability. Too much water may retard curing and delay roll-
mg.
Do not mix longer than is necessary to disperse the asphalt emulsion. Over-
mixing may cause the emulsion to strip from the aggregate or break
prematurely.
For faster curing, place asphalt emulsion cold mixes in several thin layers
rather than a single thick layer.
Do not seal emulsion cold-mix surfaces too soon. Entrapped mixing water
and distillates may create problems.
If raveling occurs under traffic, the loose material should be broomed off as
soon as possible to prevent further damage to the surface. If the degree of
raveling is increasing, then asphalt enrichment of the surface by a very light
fogging with an SS-emulsion diluted at a ratio of about 85 percent water to 15
percent asphalt emulsion may be desirable. The intent is to obtain some
penetration so as to avoid a tacky surface and potential pickup by vehicle
tires. If the raveling is due to an already tacky surface, then a light blotting
with sand will be necessary.
7.26 COLD-MIX SEALS
Until the last few years it has been common practice to place a chip seal on new cold-
mix pavements several weeks after construction is finished. Dense-graded mixes usually
have low resistance to raveling under traffic until they are fully cured and the same is
always true for sand mixes. Open-graded mixes are very tough and raveling is unlikely to
occur, but even here the chip seal was felt to be an advantage. This practice is still
adhered to by most agencies but on some open-graded projects the chip seal has been
eliminated if a positive moisture seal has been provided within or below the pavement
structure. On some U.S. Forest Service projects where well-crushed dense-graded ag-
gregates have been used in the mix, a fog seal has been used in place of a chip seal. The
asphalt emulsion is diluted with water at a ratio of 10 to 20 percent emulsion with 80 to 90
percent water and applied with a distributor or water tanker. Successive applications of
this type of seal have also been used on open-graded mixes in an effort to obtain a better
moisture seal at the bottom of the open-graded pavement.
A dense-graded mixture is more likely to show reflective cracking than an open-
graded mixture. Therefore, the use of an asphalt surface treatment will give some degree
86
of protection from this condition. In addition, it will help against the intrusion of water,
which may damage the underlying pavement structure.
c. ASPHALT EMULSION PLANT MIX (HOT)
7.27 MIXING PLANTS

The production of hot plant-mix using asphalt emulsion as' the binder is somewhat
akin to the production of hot mix using-'as'i:ihalt"·c·ement:.- time and
operatIng temperatures are employed with the emulsion, however. Either a batch type or
continuous mix plant may be used. The drum mixer, a type of continuous mix plant, is
especially adaptable for this operation. Both base and surface mixtures can be produced.
In addition to reduced mixing temperatures (compared to conventional hot mixes) the
high float asphalt emulsion hot mixes appear tO'be superior for two other reasons. One is
the modification of the residual asphalt by the emulsifier. The other is that there is less
hardening during pugmill mixing because of the high water vapor content that is flashed
off when the emulsion water hits the hot aggregate.
7.28 AGGREGATE BLENDING
Aggregates can be blended accurately using the controls on the cold feed bins. But, if a
more precise gradation control is desired (as in a batch plant), the aggregates can be
screened and reproportioned. In the latter case, the asphalt emulsion and the various ag-
gregate sizes are weighed separately into the batch mixer. When a continuous mix plant
or drum mix plant is used, all proportioning is done on a volumetric basis. This is
achieved by a combination of variable speed belts under each bin and variable gate open-
ings. An automatic load-sensing device under the combined aggregate conveyor permits
accurate proportioning of the aggregate and the asphalt. Regardless of the blending
system used, high quality emulsion mixes require the same degree of quality control in
their production that is required for asphalt hot mix. Combinations of aggregates with
widely different absorption characteristics should not be used. Otherwise, there may be
difficulty in getting a uniform coating over all aggregate particles.
7.29 MIXING
As pointed out earlier, emulsion plant mixes may be produced in pugmill or dryer drum
mixers. The procedures are the same as for conventional hot mix. Two temperature ranges
are employed-between 49°C and 85°C (120°F and 185°F) for emulsified asphalt warm mixes
and 104°C and 127°C (220°F and 260°F) for emulsified asphalt hot mixes. Mixing time is a
critical factor. Too little mixing results in non-uniform coating while excessive mixing induces
stripping and causes stiffening of the mixture from premature coalescence. In some cases, the
addition of about 1 to 2 percent portland cement has accelerated development of initial strength
and provided some measure of water resistance.
The asphalt emulsion normally used for warm plant mix is MS-2h, although there may
be occasions when a slow-set emulsion could be used. The asphalt emulsion normally
used for hot plant mix is HFMS-2h.
87
7.30 PLACING
Asphalt emulsion plant mixes are placed with conventional spreading equipment.
Basically, the same procedures that are employed for placement of hot plant-mix can also
be used for emulsion mixes. A minimum of delay must be allowed between discharge
from the mixer unit and placement.. After breaking has occurred and curing has begun,
the mixture may become very difficult to spread without tearing. In order for a smooth
mat to be laid, the emulsion mixture must remain workable throughout the spreading
operation. Therefore, timely placement is essential for satisfactory results.
7.31 COMPACTION
There is no standard procedure for determining the field density of emulsified asphalt
mixtures. The Asphalt Institute recommends that the following be used until a standard proce-
dure is adopted:
Divide emulsified asphalt mixture production into lots, each lot equal to the mix
produced during one day. Determine the target density for each lot by measuring the
average density of six laboratory-prepared specimens representing two randomly chosen
sub-samples from trucks delivering mixture to the jobsite. The target density should
be reported as dry density.
Determine the compacted density in the field from five randomly located positions in
each lot of the compacted mixture. The density of freshly compacted material can be
determined using a properly calibrated nuclear density device or other procedure.
Density determinations made after a period of curing may be determined on samples
obtained from the compacted material by a suitable core-drilling technique. All com-
pacted densities should be converted to dry density. It is recommended that the average
of the five field density determinations made in each lot be equal to or greater than 95
percent of the average density of the six laboratory-prepared specimens, and that no
individual determination be lower than 92 percent.
88
CHAPTER VIII
MISCELLANEOUS ASPHALT EMULSION
APPLICATIONS
8.01 GENERAL
Previous chapters in this manual have described the use of asphalt emulsion in plant mixes,
mixed-in-place, and various types of treatments and seals. It can also be used for a number
of other applications connected with both construction and maintenance of paved surfaces. Its
energy-saving advantage and are valid reasons for growing use. This chapter
does not cover every possible use. However, it does offer guidelines for the more common
miscellaneous uses.
8.02 TACK COAT
A tack coat is a of diluted aSQh.l!lt emu}sjQn, Figure VIII -I. It
is used to ensure a bond between a surface being paved and the new course. For most overlays,
a tack coat is advisable. Perhaps the only exception is when an additional course is placed
within two or three days on a asphalt surface. In this case, between
the two courses should develop without the use of a tack coat. In all cases: however, the
surface must be clean and free of loose material.
The more common emulsion types for tack coats are diluted SS-I h, CSS-l, and
CSS-l h. The emulsion is diluted by adding amouni-of waterl To_prevent premature..
bre*i.l}g, the watec is always added to the emulsion, not the to the water. Warm
water is used, if practical,and added slowly. But, first, a test dilution is made to be certain
that the water to be used is compatible with the emulsion. The diluted material is then applied
at a rate of 0.25 to 0.70 litre/m2 (0.05 to 0.15 gal/yd
2
). £2ilt§.Qgq}g,kl11llllie
d
)
to_an area .. cavered. by.the .. same., day 's operations, . ....
Tack coats should not be applied during periods of cold or wet. are
obtained if the road surface is dry, has Ii.' (80°F), . andthere is
no threat of rain.
! .-The goal is a very th in but uniform coating of asphalt left on the surface when the emulsion
has broken. Too much tack coat may create a plane of
cQ!!!].es as the asphalt acts as a lubricant rather than an adhesive.<JDmay even create---"Jit
spots" or bleeding(on t e surfa ..' .... . '. t, a condition that is not only unsightly,
a c!angerouslyr sl!<;j{.'pavement. rolling of ""'\
help spread the asphalt for better coverage. It will also help to lessen the probability of fat spo1L.L)
'After spraying the tack coat, enough time must be allowed for complete breaking to occur
I before the overlay is placed. Traffic should be kept off the tacked area. If that is not possible,
vehicle speeds should be kept below 32 km/hr mph). The freshly-tacked pavement may
be too slick for safe driving if excessive speeds are permitted, especially before the emulsion
breaks.
A tack coat is also an essential part of . First, the area to be
patched must be thoroughly cleaned and all loose material removed. Then, a fairly heavy tack
coat of asphalt emulsion is sprayed, or painted, over the entire area, including the vertical
89
Figure VIII-1. Applying tack coat.
Photo Courtesy of E. 0, Etnyre and Company
sides. The tack helps hold the patch in place and i,mparts a seal between the patch
and the surrounding pavemenC
8.03 FOG SEAL
A fog seal is a light application to an existing surface of a slow-setting asphalt emulsion
diluted with water, similar to a tack coat. It can be diluted in varying proportions up to qne part
emulsion to five parts water, but in most cases a one is used. (Se,e Par. 8.02)
Grades of asphalt emulsion normally used for this purpose are SS-l, SS-l h, CSS-l, or
CSS-Ih.
A fog seal can be a Y!ll!!able __ aid when used for its intended purpose. It is
neither a substitute for an asphalt surface treatment nor a seal coat. It is used to renew old
asphalt surfaces that have become dry and embrittled with age and and
surface voids. The fairly low viscosity diluted emulsion flows easily into the cracks and surface
It ilia' coats aggregate particles on the surface. This corrective action will prolong
pavement life and may delay the time when major maintenance or reconstruction is needed.
The total quantity of fog seal used is normally in the order of 0.45 to 0.70 litre/m2 (0.1 to
0.15 gal/yd
2
) of diluted material. Exact quantities are determined by the surface texture,
dryness, and degree of cracking of the pavement on which the fog seal is sprayed.
The same traffic restraints used with tack coats should be employed with fog seals.
Over-application must be avoided, as this would result in an by vehicles
and possibly a slippery surface. If an excess of emulsion is applied, a light dusting of the
affected area with aJJ.T]e §an5!. may remedy the problem.
90
8.04 MULCH TREATMENT
Soil erosion caused by water and wind can present a serious problem in the construc-
tion of embankments and flat areas adjacent to highways. The most common method of
combating this problem is the use of vegetation to stabilize these areas. But, during the
period between the time the seeds are planted and germination takes place they are
susceptible to being blown or washed away. Several procedures have been developed to
protect the planting until the seeds germinate and a root system forms. One of the most
effective is the use of emulsifi,ed asphalt. It leaves a thin membrane over the seeded area
or holds a hay or straw mulch in place. Both approaches have been used successfully.
Because they differ in procedure each will be discussed separately, although both are
designed to achieve the same result.
Emulsified Asphalt Spray Mulch
In this system the asphalt emulsion is sprayed directly onto the seeded area, forming a thin
membrane cover. The thin film of asphalt has three beneficial effects:
1. The asphalt cover holds the seeds in place and prevents their loss by the
eroding forces of wind and water.
2. Because of its dark color, the asphalt absorbs and holds solar heat during the
germination period.
3. The asphalt membrane tends to hold moisture in the soil, thereby promoting
faster plant growth.
As the young seedlings emerge from the soil they can easily break through the thin asphalt
cover. The membrane eventually disintegrates as the seedlings mature and cover the ground area.
Emulsion 'grades commonly used in this operation are SS-l, SS-l h, CSS-l, or CSS-lh. It
is normally applied at a rate of 0.70 to 1.35 litre/m2 (0.15 to 0.30 gallyd
2
). The exact amount
is determined by the nature of the soil and the slope of the area being treated. Special care
must be taken to apply the optimum amount of emulsified asphalt. Too little may not hold
the soil against erosion by wind and water. Too much emulsion may leave a thick membrane,
which would delay growth. The area that is to receive the emulsion spray must be reasonably
smooth so that a uniform coating can be applied. Depressions in the surface may collect pools
of asphalt and ridges may be coated on one side with virtually no asphalt on the other.
The emulsion can be applied with a hand-held spray nozzle or with an offset distributor bar
attached to an asphalt distributor truck.
Emulsified Asphalt Mulch Tie-Down
Asphalt emulsion can be used for anchoring straw or hay to a seeded area. There are two
approaches that can be used.
In one case the straw or hay mulch is distributed over the prepared area at a rate of 3.3 to
4.5 tonnes/hm
2
(1 V2 to 2 tons/acre). The seed is then mixed with water and liquid fertilizer
and applied with a hydraulic seeder. A spray application of 0.45 litre/m2 (0.10 gal/yd
2
) of
asphalt emulsion follows, Figure VIII-2. The emulsion can be applied in a solid pattern or a
saw-tooth, checkerboard, or perpendicular line pattern. The solid pattern is most effective,
especially when the wind velocity is high. If the amount of mulch is increased above 3.3 to
91
Figure VIII-2. Using emulsified asphalt to tie down mulch.
4.5 tonnes/hm
2
(lV2 to 2 tons/acre), the amount of emulsified asphalt applied must be increased
proportionately.
A second method begins with the hydraulic application of seed and fertilizer directly to the
prepared soil. Then, the mulch and emulsified asphalt are ejected at the same time through a
special blower equipped with twin jets. (See completed section. Figure VIII-3.) The two
materials are mixed in flight. This is the preferred method as it has at least two advantages:
The mulch and the asphalt emulsion are applied in a single application, which
reduces costs and reduces the time required.
It results in better bonding between the emulsion and the hay/straw mulch.
The same types of asphalt emulsion can be used as recommended for the emulsified
asphalt spray mulch.
8.05 CRACK FILLER
The average maintenance department spends a large amount of time sealing cracks in
pavement surfaces. Depending upon the location and size of the cracks, their
maintenance may be thought of as corrective or preventive. In either case the technique
for sealing the crack is the same.
Cracking takes many forms, from small hairline cracks to major cracks that may have an
opening of as much as 25 millimetres (I in.). Larger cracks, or more severely cracked areas, are
92
Figure VIII-3. Completed section of Interstate with emulsified asphalt
mulch on median and close-up.
Courtesy of Ohio Department of Transportation
not always correctable by crack filling. Often, it is necessary to completely remove the
cracked material and replace with a Full-Depth asphalt patch.
Knowledge of some of the more common types of crack patterns helps determine the
proper maintenance procedure. Cracks generally fall into one of the following
categories:
Alligator cracks-Interconnected cracks forming a series of small blocks
resembling an alligator's skin or chicken wire.
Longitudinal crack-A crack that follows a course approximately parallel to
the centerline.
Reflection cracks-Cracks in asphalt overlays that reflect the crack pattern in
the pavement structure below.
Shrinkage cracks-Interconnected cracks forming a series of large blocks,
usually with sharp corners or angles.
Slippage cracks-Crescent shaped cracks that point in the direction of the
thrust of wheels on the pavement surface.
Transverse crack-A crack that follows a course approximately at right
angles to the centerline.
93
If a crack results from a defective condition beneath the pavement surface, it is unlike-
ly that filling it will be a permanent solution. In many cases, it is necessary to correct the
defect in the underlying pavement course to solve the crack problem. This manual only
addresses the type of cracks that can be repaired with emulsified asphalt, i.e.,
longitudinal, reflection, shrinkage, and transverse.
Good maintenance practice calls for sealing as soon as possible after a crack shows up.
When it is sealed promptly, the sealing is often the end of the problem. Sometimes the
crack continues to widen and sealing applications must be continued until the crack is ar-
rested. Failure to seal cracks is an invitation to further damage through freeze-thaw
cycles or weakened support caused by intrusion of water. Sealing the cracks with asphalt
emulsion is easy and inexpensive; it postpones major maintenance and may avoid it en-
tirely.
Before the cracks are filled, they should be cleaned in the following manner:
- A compressed air jet should be used to blowout any loose material in the crack.
- A steel wire brush or router should be used to remove any foreign material that
cannot be removed by blowing.
- The entire crack area should be cleaned by brooming.
When the cracks have been thoroughly cleaned they are then ready for sealing. Small cracks
[less than 3 mm (118 in.) width] are difficult to seal effectively. For large cracks, an emulsion
slurry, or emulsion mixed with sand, should be forced into the crack until it is about 6 to
3 mm (114 to 118 in.) from the surface. After curing has been completed, finish the sealing
by filling the remainder of the crack area with emulsified asphalt (Figure VIII -4). The surface
should then be sprinkled with a light dusting of dry sand to prevent pickup by traffic.
Emulsion grades SS-l, SS-lh, CSS-l and CSS-lh may be used for crack filling.
COAT
A prime coat is <?f to a granular base in preparation for
an asphalt surface course. The prime coat is designed to perfonn several functions:
To coat and bond loose mineral particles on the surface of the base.
To harden or toughen the surface.
To waterproof the surface of the base.
To plug capillary voids.
To provide adhesion between the base and the next course.
In satisfy these criteria it needs to penetta.t<?
At one time it was thought that the use of a prime coat was an essential element of good
pavemenfconstruction. However, in recent years some engineers have eliminated the use of a
prime, especially when the asphalt layer(s)(surface and/or base) is 100 mm (4 in.) or more in
thickness.
94
Figure VIII-4. Filling crack with emulsified asphalt.
The prime coat is used when a granular base course is to be carried through ari"extended
period_(such as the winter months), or when(iVis subjected to of trafflc-!..--
Otherwise, most engineers believe that the cost/benefit ratio of a prime is open to serious
questioning. Perhaps this decision can be summed up by saying, "if in doubt, use a prime coat."
1 - Most primes in the past have been some type of cutback asphalt. The use of emulsified
asphalt for this purpose is relatively new. are pecessary when emulsi<?nJ
is used. must remember that in _ asphalt emulsion tiny particles of asphalt cemeQt are L
in water ..
The quantity to be used depends upon the nature of the granular base and weather conditions.
The gradation of the aggregate, size of void spaces, and absorption of the aggregate all affect it:
-One way to use an emulsion for a prime coat is to scarify the top 5.9 to 75 mm (2 to 3 in.)
__ and mix it in-place. Generally 0.45 to 1.35 litres/m
2
/25 mm (0.1 to 0.3 gal/yd
2
/in.) of .s.S_:J,
1 h, CSS-l or CSS-l h would be used for this purpose. If a layer of base aggregate is to
he supplied, the emulsion and compaction water can be mixed at the source.
8.07 DUST PALLIATIVE
Research at Iowa State University revt!aled that, on an unpaved road, one vehicle per day
creates 560 kg/ km (one ton per mile) of dust per year. Also, the accident rate is twice as high on
unpaved roads. Lack of money or infrequent use may call for some other way to keep dust
down or make a road passable in bad weather.
95
The use of emulsified asphalt offers a practical and thrifty solution to these problems. A
dilute asphalt emulsion is sprayed directly on the unpaved road surface. This technique is
known as dust laying or application of a dust palliative.
When used as a dust palliative, an SS-I, SS-l h, CSS-l, or CSS-l h emulsion is mixed with
five or more parts water, by volume. The diluted material is sprayed in repeated light
applications on the unpaved surface at the rate of 0.45 to 2.25 litre 1m2 (0.1 to 0.5 gall yd
2
). The
actual quantity applied depends on the condition of the existing surface. Some penetration is
expected. Thus, if the road surface is penetrable or contains relatively large surface voids, a
greater amount of the dilute emulsion can be applied. The material is applied with an asphalt
distributor, following the usual spray application technique.
96
CHAPTER IX
MAINTENANCE MIXES
9.01 PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE
Pavement maintenance is a major responsibility of every highway and street department.
From the time construction is completed, all pavements begin deteriorating. Loads are applied
by traffic. Temperature and moisture changes cause uneven rates of expansion and contraction
of the pavement layers. Pavement weakening may, however, be so gradual that the defects
are difficult to notice in the early stages. Therefore, a close inspection of every pavement
section should be made regularly to detect the start of trouble. Early detection and correction
prevent further deterioration and more expensive maintenance at a later date. Often, weather
conditions make temporary repairs advisable to halt further damage until more lasting repairs
can be made. In any case, when highway safety is involved, repairs should never be delayed
or left undone.
9.02 PATCHING MIXES
One of the most time-consuming maintenance functions is the patching of potholes
and weak areas that have developed in a pavement surface. It is generally agreed that the
use of high-quality, hot-mixed patching mixtures will produce best results, even though it
may cost more. But there is one serious drawback. In many cases, the hot-mix is not ob-
tainable from late fall through sprhig.'Alihough small mixing plants, designed
specifically for maintenance operations, are available, they have had limited use. Many
maintenance forces, therefore, must rely on some type of s,tockpjle that mayor
may not be heated prior to use.
No matter what type of mix is used, there is no substitute for good construction prac-
tices. A dream mixture that can be thrown into a pothole with no preparation, and
tamped with the back of a shovel for a permanent patch, is still a dream. Asphalt in
Pavement Maintenance, MS-16, The Asphalt Institute, contains a system of making
pavement repairs that, when properly followed, will ensure reasonable success.
Maintenance mixes are divided into two types-one for immediate use and one for
long-range storage (up to 6 months).
9.03 IMMEDIATE USE MAINTENANCE MIXES
Some systems are set up to make immediate use of maintenance mixtures. Such systems
provide more flexibility because either hot or cold mixes can be used.
It is common practice for maintenance crews to pick up truck loads of hot mix at the
beginning of a day's operations. By using an insulated cover, the mix may remain workable
for a few hours. As its temperature decreases, however, the ability to obtain good compaction
also decreases. Likewise, the bond between the individual aggregate particles is diminished.
97
Therefore, patches placed near the end of the day may not be as effective as those placed at
the beginning. Some trucks are equipped with a heating device that will keep the mixture
warm and workable. By this means the objection to a rapidly cooling mixture can be minimized.
Emulsified asphalt can be used very effectively in the preparation of a mixture for immediate
use. The emulsion-aggregate mixture can be mixed in a pugmill and transported to the area
where it is to be used. If small quantities are required, it may be mixed by hand at the job
site. The application of external heat is not necessary since good coating and adhesion can
be obtained otherwise.
Emulsified asphalts used for this purpose include HFMS-2s, CMS-2, and CMS-2h. Aggre-
gates should meet quality requirements outlined in previous chapters for asphalt-aggregate
mixtures. A wide range of local gradations can be used successfully. Where practicable, one
of the gradations in Table IX -1 is suggested.
The amount of asphalt emulsion required for the aggregate gradings specified in Table IX-I
nonnally will be in the range of 5 to 10 percent by weight of total mix. Central mix plants,
small truck mixers, or hand mixing can be used in the preparation of these mixtures.
Asphalt emulsions containing small amounts of solvents produce the best cold patch mix.
The mixture does not gain its full strength until the solvent evaporates, however. Also, patching
mixtures should not be placed with an excess amount of mixing water present because that
will extend the time before the patch can be opened to traffic.
All mixes described in this article are intended to be used relatively soon after preparation.
They are not designed for long term storage.
9.04 STOCKPILE MAINTENANCE MIXES
During the cold weather months the most widely-used maintenance mixture is a type drawn
from stockpile storage. It can be produced in late summer and stored in quantity in remote
locations for ready use. It is usable for periods up to six months and is easily workable without
the use of heat. Nonnally, a thin crust, which can be broken with a shovel, will fonn over
the surface of the stockpile. Material immediately beneath the crust will possess the characteris-
tics of a freshly made emulsion mix.
The production of stockpile maintenance mixes is a relatively simple operation. Basic
equipment required for mixing large quantities includes a pugmill mixer and system for metering
correct amounts of aggregate and emulsified asphalt. The metering system may use either
volumetric or weight proportioning. Aggregate used in these mixes should meet all quality
requirements. Recommended aggregate gradations for stockpile mixes are given in Table IX-I.
The amount of emulsion used nonnally is in the range of 5 to 10 percent by weight of total
mix. Certain grades of medium-set emulsions are typically used for this purpose.
Stockpile life depends on the formulation of the emulsion used and the aggregate
characteristics. Its extended workability comes from using emulsion that contains some
portion of solvent. Stockpile life and workability at low temperatures is in direct proportion to
the amount of solvent used.
The emulsion supplier's guidelines can be most useful in setting operating procedures and
in finding the proportions for each material used.
The completed mixture should be stored in a clean area so that there is no possibility of
contamination. A covered storage bin will protect it and will help retain workability.
The specifications for emulsified asphalts (ASTM D 977 and AASHTO M 140) make no
mention of a solvent in the emulsion. CRS- and CMS- cationic emulsion specifications (ASTM
D 2397 and AASHTO M 208), on the other hand, pennit solvent but restrict the amount.
98
TABLE IX·1 MINERAL AGGREGATE GRADATIONS
Percent Passing by Weight
Sieve Size
9.5 mm (3/8 in.) 12.5 mm (1/2 in.) 19.0 mm (3/4 in.)
25.0mm (1 in.) - - 100
19.0mm (3/4 in.) -
100 90 -100
12.5mm (1/2 in.) 100 90 -100 -
9.5mm (3/8 in.) 90 - 100 - 56 - 80
4.75mm (No.4) 55 - 85 44 -74 35 - 65
2.36 mm (No.8) 32 - 67 28 - 58 23 - 49
300llm (No. 50) 7 - 23 5 - 21 5 - 19
751lm (No. 200) 2 - 10 2 - 10 2-8
*From Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance, MS-16, The Asphalt" Institute
Many states have modified these specifications to suit their individual needs. At least two
permit up to 25 percent solvent and several permit up to 15 percent. To a degree, the use of
solvent in emulsions is contrary to the efforts of EPA and FHW A with respect to environmental
But improved workability and longer stockpile life 'ffiaY justilytlie ,,, ..
addition of the solvent. In most cases, however, the amount of solvent added is considerably
less than the amount required for cutback asphalt mixtures of the same stockpile life.
Careful selection, proportioning, and mixing of materials ensure a high-quality, economical
maintenance mixture. Coupled with good construction techniques, these mixtures can be used
as an effective deterrent to the destructive forces of traffic and weather.
99
CHAPTER X
RECYCLING
10.01 RECYCLING DEFINED
Recycling is defined as "the re-use, usually after some processing, of a material that
has already served its first-intended purpose." It can take several forms with respect to
pavement recycling. Location of the project, structural requirements of the new pave-
ment, availability of other materials, pavement cross-section, and amount of available
funding are determining factors as to which recycling method is most appropriate for a
specific situation.
10.02 TYPES OF RECYCLING
Although there are variations within each method, pavement recycling is classified into
three broad categories:
1. Hot-Mix Recycling-One of several methods where the major portion of the
existing pavement structure, including in some cases, the underlying un-
treated base material, is removed, sized and mixed hot with added asphalt ce-
ment at a central plant. The process may also include the addition of new ag-
gregate, a softening agent, or both. The finished product is a hot-mixed
asphalt base, binder, or surface course.
2. Cold-Mix Recycling-One of several methods where the entire existing pave-
ment structure, including in some cases the underlying untreated base
material, is processed in-place or removed and processed at a central plant.
The materials are mixed cold and can be re-used as an aggregate base.
Asphalt, other materials, or both, can be added during mixing to provide a
higher strength base. This process requires that an asphalt surface course be
used.
3. Sur/ace Recycling-One of several methods where the surface of an existing
asphalt pavement is planed, milled, or heated in place. In the latter case, the
pavement may be scarified, remixed, relaid, and rolled. Additionally,
asphalt, softening agents, minimal amounts of new asphalt hot-mix, ag-
gregates, or combinations of these may be added to obtain desirable mixture
and surface characteristics. The finished product may be used as the final sur-
face or may, in some instances, be overlaid with an asphalt surface course.
This chapter is not intended to discuss fully all forms of recycling. Rather, its purpose
is to describe methods that use emulsified asphalt. Many other publications are available
outlining details of the different procedures.
101
Figure X-l. A candidate for recycling.
10.03 CANDIDATES FOR RECYCLING
A candidate for recycling usually is an old asphalt pavement (hot-mix, surface treat-
ment, or seal coat) that has become badly cracked because of overstressing, Figure X-I.
It can be a city street, a primary or secondary highway, an airport runway, or a parking
lot. The cost of resurfacing such a pavement thick enough to prevent reflection cracks
could be prohibitive.
Most of these pavement structures have untreated aggregate bases that can be
strengthened and upgraded with emulsified asphalt to meet current traffic loads and
volumes.
The asphalts in pavements as described have aged and may have become brittle. Some
components in the asphalt that determine its physical and chemical characteristics may be
lost in the process. Recycling may involve, in part, putting back these components by ad-
ding emulsified asphalt.
Some form of recycling may also be used in a curb and gutter section where repeated
resurfacings have resulted in a loss of curb depth and draining capacity, Figure X-2. The
need in this case would be to retain or regain draining capacity.
10.04 HOT-MIX RECYCLING
If asphalt emulsion is used for this purpose, such work should be considered ex-
perimental until a satisfactory procedure is developed. Lower mixing temperatures are
necessary if emulsion is used.
102
Figure X-2. Loss of curb depth and draining capacity.
10.05 COLD-MIX RECYCLING
Emulsified asphalt is especially suited for cold-mix recycling, Figure X-3. In this method, the
old asphalt pavement is crushed, often in place. An in-place aggregate base also can be
incorporated or new aggregates can be added to the old materials and asphalt emulsion added.
Then, materials are mixed together, spread to a uniform thickness, and compacted. Although
not necessarily required, a softening agent may be used along with the emulsified asphalt.
Several different procedures are available to accomplish the same result.
Mixed-in-Place
One method that has gained widespread acceptance employs a system known as in-
place mixing. Several types of mechanical devices are available for this purpose. First,
the pavement must be crushed or broken into small-size particles. This can be done with a
portable hammermill that pulverizes the pavement as it moves forward, Figure X-4. No
attempt is made to control gradation, only maximum aggregate size. Material beneath
the asphalt pavement (aggregate base) may also be crushed. With especially hard pave-
ment a second pass with the hammermill may be necessary. The crushed material may be
left in place as it is discharged from the pulverizer or shaped into a windrow.
The crushed material is now ready for mixing with asphalt emulsion. Several choices
are available. Perhaps the simplest is blade mixing with a motor grader. Emulsified
asphalt is applied with an asphalt distributor directly to the surface of the crushed
103
Figure X-3. Cold-mix recycling operation.
Courtesy Koehring Company. Bomag Division
Figure X-4. Hammermlll pulverizing old pavement.
104
material at the specified rate, determined in the laboratory. Immediately, the recycled ag-
gregate and the asphalt emulsion are thoroughly mixed. If necessary, a second applica-
tion of asphalt emulsion can be sprayed and the mixing procedure repeated. In some
cases water is sprayed on the crushed material before the emulsion application to aid in
coating. Or, a softening agent may be used with the emulsion to aid in restoring the
original asphalt characteristics. Blade mixing should be continued until thorough mixing
and coating have been achieved, the water has been removed, and the mixture is ready
for compaction.
Rotary Mixers
A more efficient mixing process makes use of a rotary mixer. See Article 7.12 for a
description of these mixers that mix the aggregate and the emulsified asphalt with
rotating tiller blades as they move through the material. The rapia rotation of the tiller
blades provides a vigorous mixing action. Extra water, emulsified asphalt, and untreated
base aggregate, or virgin aggregate may be mixed into the crushed pavement material
with this machine. Most rotary mixers are now equipped with spray systems for adding
the asphalt emulsion at the time of mixing. When using this type of mixer the following
steps are recommended:
Spread the material to be recycled to uniform grade and cross-section with a
motor grader.
Thoroughly mix by one or more passes of the mixer. When ready for the
asphalt emulsion, the moisture content of the aggregate should not exceed 3
percent. A higher moisture content can be used if laboratory tests show that it
will not be harmful when the asphalt emulsion is added.
Travel Plant
Still another type of mixer unit is a travel plant. One type contains its own pugmill, ag-
gregate storage bins, and emulsified asphalt storage tanks. This is a self-contained mobile
unit capable of mixing and spreading the mixture on the roadbed. In this case, it is
necessary that the crushed material be removed from the roadbed. It is usually stockpiled
away from the job site and transported to the travel plant where it is discharged into ag-
gregate hopper(s). It is then drawn into the pugmill mixer, asphalt emulsion is added, and
the two are mixed. The completed mixture is discharged in front of the screed for
spreading to the required depth.
Another type moves through a prepared aggregate windrow on the roadbed and adds
and mixes the emulsified asphalt as it goes. It discharges to the rear a mixed windrow
ready for aeration and spreading.
All types of MS- and SS- emulsions can be used in cold-mix recycling. Laboratory
testing should be performed in advance to determine which type and grade best suits the
materials and local conditions.
Central Plant
Still another method for the cold recycling of existing pavement structures including,
in many cases, the underlying base material, is central plant mixing. The process involves
105
ripping, scarifying, and pulverizing or crushing the pavement layers. If further crushing is
needed, the material may be put through a rock crusher.
Samples of the salvaged pavement should be tested in the laboratory to determine aggregate
gradations and the amount and consistency of the old asphalt. This gives the basis for deciding
if additional aggregate is needed and how much asphalt emulsion must be added to produce
a proper, stable mix. Refer to Part Three for an emulsified asphalt mix design test method.
Mixing, placing, and compaction are the same as described in Chapter VII. For additional
information, see Asphalt Cold-Mix Recycling, Manual Series No. 21, The Asphalt Institute.
10.06 SURFACE RECYCLING
In this method only the upper surface of the old pavement is involved, usually about 20 to
25 mm (3/4 to 1 in.). Open-flame or infrared heat is applied so that the upper surface can be
scarified or planed for complete removal. Surface recycling offers many advantages. However,
it should not be used in areas where pavement deterioration has been caused by base failure.
Correction of the surface only will be a temporary measure unless the source of the problem is
dealt with.
Asphalt emulsion frequently is used to enrich the aged asphalt in the scarified surface.
Major equipment items normally required for surface recycling operations are shown in
Figure X-5.
10.07 CONCLUSION
Experience with recycling is increasing every day. Results to date show it to be a viable
alternative to current maintenance and restoration procedures. Careful selection of the best
procedure to suit conditions can result in ample savings. Additionally, recycling appears to
offer the potential for emulsions to be used widely, particularly when utilizing in-place untreated
base materials to produce a new base with increased strength.
IDIRECT/ON OF TRAVEL)
PAVING TRAIN METHOD
Preheater
New mix
Remixer Roller
INTEGRAL METHOD
Figure X-5. Heater-overlay methods.
106
PART THREE:
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE
MIX-DESIGN METHODS
PART THREE
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIX DESIGN
METHODS
There is no universally-accepted emulsified asphalt-aggregate mix-design method; but
nearly all of those in use employ some parts, or modifications, of the standard H veem (ASTM
D 1560and D 1561 or AASHTO T 246 and T247) or Marshall (ASTM D 1559 or AASHTO
T 245) test methods.
Two mix-design methods contained in the first edition of this manual were (1) The Asphalt
Institute's Pacific Coast Division Method, based on the Hveem procedure plus a resilient
modulus test, and (2) an Illinois method, based on a modified Marshall mix design procedure
and a moisture durability test. These laboratory methods were evaluated by the Asphalt
Institute as a part ofthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project
9-5, "Design of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixtures," and the results of that evaluation are
contained in NCB RP Report 259.
The methods contained in this edition generally follow the above with certain modifications
suggested by NCB RP Report 259. In addition, an outline and design criteria for The Asphalt
Institute design method for open-graded mixes, also from NCBRP Report 259, are included.
The McConnaughay method for designing cold mixtures, which has been in use in the
Midwestern United States for over three decades has been added to this second edition.
These laboratory design methods will be evaluated periodically as data is accumulated on
field performance.
109
CHAPTER XI
MODIFIED HVEEM MIX DESIGN
11.01 SCOPE
This method covers the selection, proportioning and testing of aggregates, additives and
emulsified asphalt for dense-graded mixes for pavement construction. It contains California
Department of Transportation test methods or modifications of these methods as well as
procedures developed within The Asphalt Institute. Criteria to determine the suitability of
emulsified asphalt mixes are presented. Procedures for resilient modulus determination are,
however, applicable to mixes using emulsified asphalt or paving grade asphalts.
For information on mix-design methods when using paving asphalt (asphalt cement), refer to
the The Asphalt Institute publication, Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete, Manual
Series No.2 (MS-2).
11.02 OUTLINE OF METHOD
a. General
For convenience, the design method is divided into the following parts:
(1) Selection of aggregate and emulsified asphalt
(2) Trial emulsified asphalt content
(3) Mixing test (Determination of optimum fluids content at mixing)
(4) Detennination of optimum fluids content for compaction
(5) Strength testing
(6) Moisture exposure and stability and cohesion testing
(7) Determination of optimum emulsified asphalt content
See Figure XI-l for the testing schedule for this mix design method.
b. Selection of Aggregate and Emulsified Asphalt
Aggregates used for emulsified asphalt paving mixtures (Table VII-5) and guidelines
for the selection of emulsified asphalt type are shown in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this Basic
Asphalt Emulsion Manual.
c. Trial Emulsified Asphalt Content
The Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent Test (C.K.E.) is used for estimating the emulsified
asphalt contents for trial mixes of aggregates. Ranges of emulsified asphalt content for
trial mixes are shown in Table XI-I.
111
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S1EP 1
Selection of Mix Proportions + Mixing Test
(Optimum Ruids at mixing)
I Use 1.4 x C.K.E.
Emulsion Content
l
Add water flllCl'eaSing increments) and
Mixing Test Spoon
75% + Okay for Surface
~
& Bowl or Record % Coating
--+
addtive O.e., portland cement)
Mechanical
50% + Okay for Base
r---+
Record %
~
Reject if Excessively Stiff or
WOlbbity Sloppy
Proceed to Step 2
Step 2 Emulsion Content of 1.4
Kneadng Plus DoWIIe Ruids content of mix with
Optimum Ruids for
~
C.K.E. 01 Ratio & Min. 3
PItmger Static Compaction .. highest dry density
Compaction Ruids Contents
l
Proceed to Step 3
STEP 3
SpecImen Fabrication
lor Strength Testfng
1.1, 1.4, and 1.7 C.K.E. Oil
Ratio for Emulsion Contents
Optimum Auids for
Compaction (from Step 2)
Knealing Plus
Double Plunger
Static Compaction"
STEP 4
Cure One Specimen in Mold 72 Hrs.
Strength
r---
For AI Mixes

at 23 2.8"C (73 , 5'F) Vacuum
f--- Desiccate Out of Mold to Pressure
Testing
of 1 ()'2Omm Hg for 4 Days
STEP 5
MoIsture Exposure and StabIty
Testing
Base Mixes
I
-
+
Vacuum lllunlte Mr specinen
Cure second &pI!Cimen (from
(from Step 4) 81 23 2.8"C
Step 3) In mold 24 hIS. 81 23 :t
(73 , 5'F) 2.8"C
(73 , 5'F)
R·VaIue II 23 , 2.8"C R-Value II 23 , 2.8"C
(73 , 5'F) (73 , 5'F)
t
C-Value 81 23 1: 2.8"C
r--
C-Value 81 23 :t 2.8"C
- (73 :t5'F) (73 1: 5'F)
Measure Modulus
(Mr) at
23 :t 1.7"C r---
Proceed to Step 5
(73,3'FJ
I
Surface Mixes
I

lor ter S-Value 81
H 60 2.B'C (140 , 5'F)
CohesIometer C-Value 81 60 ,
2.8"C (140 :t 5'F)
I

I
I
100+
Calculate RT Value Accept H
78+
Calculate RT Value Accept H
70+
• Two specimens prepared 81 each emulsified esphaft content lor base mixes. One specimen prepared at each emulsified asphalt content for permanent surface mixes.
.. Includes 1 ()'50 blows (25Ops1) kneedlng and up to 40,000 lb. double plunger.
Figure XI-1 (Cont.). Testing schedule for dense-graded emulsified
asphalt mixes.
113
d. Mixing Test, Determination of Optimum Fluids Content at Mixing
Either a spoon and bowl or mechanical mix is made to determine the coating and
workability of the trial mixtures. The amount of mix water is varied to optimize these
properties unless job conditions obviously prevent such optimization. Additives, if used,
are premixed with the aggregate prior to conducting the mixing test.
e. Optimum Fluids Content for Compaction
Determination of the optimum fluids content (mixing water plus emulsified asphalt)
for compaction and test specimen fabrication are achieved by a light kneading compaction
followed by a double plunger static load.
f. Strength Testing
The strength of emulsified asphalt mixes is measured by running a final modulus at a
temperature of 23 ± 1. 7°C (73 ± 3°P) after a total of three days mold cure plus four days
vacuum desiccation. ** This data is used in conjunction with certain project variables
(traffic, regional temperature and curing conditions) and other mix properties (volume
percent of asphalt residue and air voids) in determining the pavement thickness require-
ments.
g. Moisture Exposure and Stability Testing
Base mixes have their strength evaluated before and after vacuum saturation. Base
mixes are tested at 23 ± 2. 8°C (73 ± 5°F) for Resistance R- Value and Cohesiometer
C-Value. Surface mixes are tested at 60 ± 2.8°C (140 ± 5°F) for Stabilometer S-Value
and Cohesiometer C-Value.
h. Determination of Optimum Emulsion Content
Table XI-5 gives design criteria for the two types of emulsified asphalt dense-graded
mIxes.
TABLE XI-1 SELECTION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CONTENT
Type
Processed Dense Graded
Sands
Silty Sands
Semi-Processed Crusher
Pit or Bank Run
Approximate Emulsified Asphalt
Content, Percent by Weight of Aggregate *
5.0 - 10.0
4.5 - 8.0
• With porous aggregates the emulsified asphalt content should be increased by a factor of approximately 1.2.
Porous aggregates are those which absorb more than 2 percent water by dry weight when tested by ASTM
Method C 127 .
•• An alternate procedure, that shortens the laboratory curing time, is to cure for one day in mold at room temperature
followed by one day out of mold in oven at 37.8°C (100°F).
114
11.03 AGGREGATES FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MIXES
a. General
The types of materials that are suitable for emulsified asphalt treatment include sand,
blast furnace slag, coral, volcanic cinder, gravel, ore tailings-, crushed ledge stone or
rock, reclaimed aggregate or other inert material.
b. Selection
Aggregates meeting the requirements of Table VII-5 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion
Manual are among those suitable for emulsified asphalt mixes. All of these aggregates
are acceptable for bases and also for temporary surfaces for at least light traffic. (For
mix design purposes, temporary surfaces are treated as base mixes.) However, for perma-
nent surfaces, the processed dense-graded or open-graded aggregates plus a surface treat-
ment will be required.
11.04 ASPHALTS
a. General
Two types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing. These are designated as slow
setting (SS) and medium (MS). ASTM specifications for these asphalt materials are given
in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this manual.
11.05 MIX PROPORTIONS
a. General
The amount of emulsified asphalt is estimated for trial mixes of dense-graded aggregates
using the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent test (C.K.E.).
b. Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent Test
(1) General
The first step in this method of mix design is to determine the approximate asphalt
content by the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent method. * With a calculated surface
area and the factors obtained by the C.K.E. method for a particular aggregate or blend
of aggregates, the approximate asphalt content is determined by using a series of charts.
These charts are presented herein, accompanied by typical examples to demonstrate
their application.
(2) Equipment
The equipment and materials required for determining the approximate asphalt content
are as follows:
(a) Sample Splitter, small, for obtaining representative samples of fine aggregate.
(b) Pans, 114 mm (4V2 in.) diameter x 25 mm (1 in.) deep.
(c) Kerosene, 4 litres (1 gal.).
(d) Oil, SAE No. 10, lubricating, 4 litres (1 gal.).
(e) Beakers, 1500 ml.
(f) Metal Funnels, 89 mm (3V2 in.) top diameter, 114 mm (4V2 in.) height, 13 mm
(V2 in.) orifice with piece of2.oo mm (No. 10) sieve soldered to bottom of opening.
(g) Timer.
• The development of this method of determining optimum asphalt content is outlined in "Establishing the Oil Content for
Dense-Graded Bituminous Mixtures" by F.N. Hveem, California Highways and Public Works, July-August, 1942.
115
(h) Centrifuge, hand-operated, complete with cups, capable of producing 400 times
gravity (a power-driven centrifuge is available from Soiltest, Inc., 2205 Lee Street,
Evanston, Illinois 60602, Catalog No. AP-275 or equivalent).
(i) Filter Papers, 55 mm diameter (No. 611, Eaton-Dikeman Co., Mt. Holly Springs,
Pennsylvania, or equivalent).
(3) Surface Area
The gradation of the aggregate of blend of aggregates employed in the mix is used
to calculate the surface area of the aggregates. This calculation consists of multiplying
the total percent passing each sieve size by a "surface-area factor" as set forth in Table
XI-2. Add the products thus obtained and the total will represent the equivalent surface
area of the sample in terms of square metres per kilogram (ft2/1b). It is important to
note that all surface-area factors must be used in the calculation. Also, if a different
series of sieves is used, different surface-area factors are necessary.
TABLE XI-2 SURFACE AREA FACTORS
Total
Percent
Passing
Sieve No.
Surface
Area
Factor,*
ml/kg (ft1/lb.)
Maximum Size
.41
(2)
4.75 2.36 1.18 600 300 150 75
mm mm mm j.Lm j.Lm j.Lm j.Lm
( ~ o ) ( ~ o ) ~ ~ ) ( ~ ~ ) ( ~ ~ ) ( ~ o ~ ) ( ~ ; o )
.41 .82 1.64 2.87 6.14 12.29 32.77
(2) (4) (8) (14) (30) (60) (160)
·Surface area factors shown are applicable only when all the above-listed sieves are used in the
sieve analysis.
The following tabulation demonstrates the calculation of surface area
by this method.
Sieve Percent S.A. Surface
Size Passing
x =
Factor Area
19.0 mm (3/4 in.)
loo} .41 (2) .41 (2)
9.5 mm (3/8 in.) 90
4.75 mm (No.4) 7S .41 (2) .31 (1.5)
2.36 mm (No.8) 60 .82 (4) .49 (2.4)
1.18 mm (No. 16) 4S 1.64 (8) .74 (3.6)
600 j.Lm (No. 30) 35 2.87 (14) 1.00 (4.9)
300 j.Lm (No. SO) 2S 6.14 (30) 1.54 (7.5)
150 j.Lm (No. 100) 18 12.29 (60) 2.21 (10.8)
75 j.Lm (No. 200) 10 32.77 (160) 3.28 (16.0)
Surface Area 9.98 mI/kg
(48.7 ftI/lb)
116
(4) C.K.E. Procedure
(a) Place exactly lOOg of dry aggregate (representative of the passing 4.75 mm
[No.4] material being used) in the tared centrifuge cup assembly fitted with a
screen and a disk of filter paper.
(b) Place bottom of centrifuge cup in kerosene until the aggregate becomes
saturated.
(c) Centrifuge the saturated sample for 2 minutes at a force of 400 times gravity. (For
the suggested centrifuge this force can be developed by turning the handle
approximately 45 revolutions per minute.)
(d) Weigh sample after centrifuging and determine the amount of kerosene re-
tained as a percent of the dry aggregate weight; this value is called the Cen-
trifuge Kerosene Equivalent (C.K.E.). (Note: Duplicate samples are always
prepared in order to balance the centrifuge and to check results. The average
of the two C.K.E. values is used unless there is a large discrepancy, in which
case the test is rerun.)
(e) If the apparent specific gravity of samples is greater than 2.70 or less than 2.60
make a correction to the C.K.E. value using the formula at the bottom of the chart
in Figure XI-2.
(5) Surface Capacity Test for Coarse Aggregate
(a) Place into a metal funnel, exactly lOOg of dry aggregate passing the 9.5mm
(3/8 in.) sieve and retained on the 4.75 mm (No.4) sieve (this fraction is con-
sidered to be representative of the coarse aggregate in the mix).
(b) Immerse sample and funnel in a beaker containing SAE No. 10 lubricating oil
at room temperature for 5 minutes.
(c) Drain for 2 minutes.
(d) Remove funnel and sample from oil and drain for 15 minutes at a temperature of
60°C (140°F).
(e) Weigh the sample after draining and determine the amount of oil retained as a
percent of the dry aggregate weight. (Note: Duplicate samples are prepared to
check results. Average value is used unless there is a large discrepancy, in
which case the test is rerun.)
(f) If the apparent specific gravity is greater than 2.70 or less than 2.60 make a
correction to the percent oil retained using the formula at the bottom of the chart
in Figure XI-3.
117
(6) Estimated Optimum Emulsified Asphalt Content
(a) Using the C.K.E. value obtained and the chart in Figure XI-2, determine the value
K
f
(surface constant for fine material).
(b) Using the percent oil retained and the chart in Figure XI-3, determine the value
Ke (surface constant for coarse material).
(c) Using the values obtained for K
f
and Ke and chart in Figure XI-4, determine the
value Km (surface constant for fine-coarse aggregate combined). Km = K
f
+ cor-
rection to K
f
. The correction to Kfobtained from Figure XI-4 is positive if (Ke - K
f
)
is positive and is negative if (Ke - K
f
) is negative.
(d) The next step is to determine the approximate asphalt ratio for the mix based on
cutback asphalts of RC-250, MC-250 and SC-250 grades. With values obtained
for K
m
, Surface Area and average specific gravity use CASE 2 procedures of chart
in Figure XI-5 to determine the oil ratio.
(7) Example
To demonstrate the use of the charts in Figures XI-3 through XI-7, assume the
following conditions apply to a paving mix using emulsified asphalt.
Apparent Specific Gravity, coarse
Apparent Specific Gravity, fine
Percent Passing 4.75 mm (No.4)
Avg. Sp. Gr. = 100
~ + ~
2.45 2.64
Surface Area of Aggregate Grading
C.K.E.
Percent Oil Retained, coarse
(corrected for specific gravity, this value is
1.7 percent. See Figure XI-3)
From Figure XI-2 determine K
f
as 1.25.
From Figure XI-3 determine Kc as 0.8.
From Figure XI-4 determine Km as 1.15.
= 2.45
= 2.64
= 45
= 2.53
=
=
=
6.6 m2jkg (32.4 ft
2
flb)
5.6
1.9
From Figure XI-5 determine the oil ratio for liquid asphalt as 5.2 percent.
118
CHART FOR DETERMINING K
f
FROM C.K.E.
m
2
ft2
'Surface area, - = 0.204816-
kg Ib
sp. gr. fine
C.K.E. Corrected = C.K.E. x 2.65
NOTE: Do not confuse this correction
to C.K.E. with that used in Fig. XI-3
Figure XI-2. Chart for determining surface constant for fine material,
Kfl from C.K.E., Hveem method of design.
119
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2.8
2.6
2.4
2.2
2.0
~ u 1.8
;. 1.6
z
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z
o
u
w 1.2
u
4(
u.
~ 1.0
I/)
.8
/
L
/
L
/
L
/
/
/
V
/
/
V
~
.,
V
/ j
1.5 2 3 4 5 6 789
PER CENT OIL RETAINED· CORRECTED FOR SP. GR. OF AGGREGoHE
Material Used: Aggregate - Passing 9.5 mm (3/8"), Ret 4.75 mm (#4) Sieve
Oil- SAE 10
% Oil Ret. Corrected = % Oil Ret. x sp. gr. of Coarse Aggregate
2.65
Figure XI-3. Chart for determining surface constant for coarse
material, Kc, from coarse aggregate abs_orption, Hveem
method of design.
120
CHART FOR COMBINING K
f
AND Kc TO DETERMINE Km
If (K
e
- Kfl is neg., corr. i
If (K
e
- Kfl is pos., corr. i
Km = K
f
+ corr. to K
f
N.= I
<0
..-
co

0
C\I
0
II
N
EI
ni
Q)
....
«l
Q)
0
«l
-
....
:J
(/)

.0
Cl

300
200
...
:e
i
. 100
.:: 90
!l 80
$ 70
t 60
g 50
ca
...
o 40
ca

ca
III 30
I.)
-e
:2
CI) 20
10
/ /1/ ,9
r/
/ 0.8
s neg.
r/
./
0.7
s pos.
h
17/
V
r/
0.6
'l
"/
-0
0.5
0-
t/':
'/
0.4
/
",;;::;



/
. <b,(.0V

0.3
, ,/".",./ '/
/


V
V
V
V
V V
V
0.2
/ /





V
V
l1
V




V

V V
V
V



V
V
V
0.1


V
V
7

/
/
/
V
/ / /
/ /
V
/
/
/
,
,I
j
,
\ \ \ \
1\
\ 1\
\
'1-'
\ 1\ \
\ \ 1\ 1\\\
,
1\ \
,
\

1\ 1\'
l\j
113.

\
\ \


\I
\ \
1\
\ \ \ \
\
\ \ \ \ \\
r\ \
\ 1
\ \ \
\ \
,
\
1\ \
\ \ \ [\ \ \
\
,

\
\ \
1\'
l\ \
\
\
1\
l\

..z
o
...
c
o

..
8
Rgure XI-4. Chart for combining K
f
and Kc to determine surface
constant for combined aggregate, Km, Hveem method of design.
121
-tv
tv
:II
ca
C
;
><

o
3::T
9 _.!

(') Co
g ;
iU)()
0
a :::1:3
0<-0


23::l
D> ca
o 3
CD 2.
D> -
:::l.
3 ::T m

o 0
;; 9.0-
a.

D> 2!. CD
=-ca::l
g ? j
!
&
=
-0
::T
!

2 0
:; 100 / /
& 90 /./
///V
cT 70 /. / / / /
.:: 60 0 ..IV
g - '!o',(,/]V V V
« 50
.. '/ ./
.. 40 O'?
:!! <::>'/V v ",.
« - c"Q''-''..t. /
30 "/ VVVV
-
o -


20JA 20 VVV"V V
15 vv V
15 .... V B 20
10 VVV
.. vVV 15
10 v/ ./ "
/ ./
6- ......-:.// 10
'!: 8 / ::;...-:,...-: ....... ", 9
! 7 0 v V ./ .... *
6 / ').V V / 6
V" v:: v......-: v / V 5 rr.
5 .... 4 0
4 //V""'"
/
1, 3
3
2
v//:::::VVi V

./// ....... V
(+1 H 2
B
CHART FOR COMPUT1NG APPROXIMATE
BITUMEN RATIO (ABA) FOR DENSE
GRADED ASPtW..T MIXTURES
Case 1. Given C.K.E., sp. gr. of aggregate
and percent passing 4.75mm (#4) sieve.
Correct C.K.E. as indicated by scale E.
Find corrected C.K.E. on scale A. Find
percent aggregate passing 4.75mm (#4)
sieve on scale C. Intersection of straight
line with scale B = oil ratio.
Case 2. Given surface area, sp. gr. and Km
of aggregate.
Find surface area on scale D. Proceed
horizontally to curve corresponding to
sp. gr. of aggregate. Then down to curve
corresponding to Km' Then horizontally
to scale B for oil ratio.
Oil ratio = Ibs. of oil iOO Ibs. of
aggregate and applies directly to oil of
SC -250 MC - 250 and RC - 250 grades.
A correction must be made for heavier
cutback or paving asphalts.
1.5 1.0 0.5 0.3 0.1 0 0.1 0.3 0.5 E (Correction to C.K.E.)
m2 ft2
A II.!IIIIIIIIII'I,I' , ,I, ,
, 'i' i " i' i , ' , i i
• Surface Area, kg = 0.204816ib
1.6 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 :>.8 3.0 3.2
Sp. Gr. of Aggregate
C
100
90
80
..
> .,
70
iii
60
:tI,
50
E
E
40 I/)
roo:
-t
30
'" c:
"ii
tf.
..
20
..
8.
f
8l
«
*-
10
C
Figure XI-6. Apparatus for Hveem C.K.E. tests.
c. Emulsified Asphalt Content for Trial Mixes
The trial emulsified asphalt content for dense-graded mixes is equal to
1.4 x CKE oil ratio, and is adjusted to a 60 percent residue as follows:
Correct Emulsified
Asphalt Content
=
(1.4 x CKE Oil Ratio) x 60
Emulsion Residue, %
d. Mixing Test, Determination of Optimum Fluids Content at Mixing
(1) General
This test measures the ability of the emulsified asphalt to uniformly disperse
throughout the mix. It also allows the laboratory technician to judge the mix worka-
bility. A number of variables have been found to influence asphalt dispersion and
these are listed in Table XI-3.
TABLE XI-3 VARIABLES AFFECTING ASPHALT DISPERSION
Variable
Aggregate
Emulsified Asphalt
Mixing Water
Mixing Operations
Factors Influencing
Surface area (fines)
Porosity
Roughness
Amount
Type
Oil Distillate
Amount
Temperature
Mix Cycle
124
To Improve Asphalt Dispersion
Decrease
Decrease
Decrease
Increase
Use anionics with calcareous aggregates
(limestone).
Use cationics with siliceous aggregates.
Increase with MS-types.
Increase with SS-types.
Decrease with most MS-types.
Decrease to reduce asphalt runoff.
Decrease with SS-types to prevent
coalescence during the mixing cycle.
I ncrease with MS-types.
Optimize. Insufficient mixing may give
poor coating.
Excessive mixing may induce stripping.
(2) Equipment
(a) Balance. 5,OOOg minimum capacity and accurate to within ± 0.5 g.
(b) Mixing Equipment. preferably mechanized and capable of producing intimate
mixtures of the job aggregate, water and asphalt. Hand mixing, if used, must
be sufficiently thorough to uniformly disperse the water and emulsified
asphalt throughout the aggregate.
(c) Hot Plate or 110 ± 5° C (230 ± 9° F) oven.
(d) Supply of round bottom mixing bowls (approximately 5 litre (5 qt.) capacity).
(e) Supply of 250 mm (10 in.) metal kitchen mixing spoons.
([) A one-hundred millilitre glass graduate.
(3) Procedure
(a) Obtain representative samples of each emulsified asphalt to be considered for
the project.
(b) Obtain representative samples of the job aggregate or aggregate blend.
(c) Determine the moisture content on the aggregate according to ASTM D 2216
procedure and record.
(d) Prepare the remainder of the aggregate by drying to constant weight at 60°C
(l40°F). Separate into sizes using the following sieves: 25.0 mm, 19.0 mm,
12.5 mm, 9.5 mm, and 4.75 mm (1 in., 3/4 in., 112 in., 3/8 in. and No.4).
(e) Weigh out a sufficient number of batches of the job aggregate for mixing
tests. The batch weight shall be based on the nominal maximum size particle
in the aggregate - see below:
Nominal Maximum Particle Size
25.0mm (1 in.)
19.0mm (3/4 in.)
12.5 mm (1/2 in.)
4.75 mm (No.4)
Batch Weight
2,000 grams minimum
1,200 grams minimum
750 grams minimum
500 grams minimum
Note: These batches should be prepared by reblending exact fractions of plus
4.75 mm (No.4) material with minus 4.75 mm (No.4) material to match the
grading analysis of the whole sample.
(f) Put one batch of aggregate in the mixing bowl and incorporate the additive
(Le., cement) if specified.
(g) Add and incorporate the minimum amount of mixing water required to
achieve coating. Normally this is just enough to darken the aggregate.
Note: In areas where the addition or removal of water is uneconomical, mixes
should be made at the in-<)itu moisture content.
125
(h) The emulsified asphalt, in an amount as detennined by the "correct emulsified
asphalt content" of Par. 11.05 (c), is added to the damp aggregate and mixed.
The mix cycle should simulate field mixing operations (generally a I-minute cycle*
with a laboratory mechanical mixer or a 2-minute spoon bowl mix is sufficient).
Judge the suitability of the finished mix by the unifonnity of the color (best judged
by drying a small portion of the batch on a hot plate). Spottiness denotes an
unsatisfactory mix (usually due to insufficient water or improper mixing properties
of the emulsion). Mixes which strip or stiffen excessively on mixing are also
considered unsatisfactory. If unsatisfactory, re-run a new batch with an additional
increment of water and observe for suitability as before. Repeat until a satisfactory-
appearing mix is obtained. Mixes which become excessively soupy with additional
water and segregate on standing are considered unsatisfactory.
(i) Selection of the emulsified asphalt for the project shall be based upon the following
considerations:
1) Coating. As close as possible to 100 percent coating is preferred. Mixes will be
considered suitable if they have a minimum of 75 percent coating if used as a
surface and 50 percent if used as a base.
2) Workability. The mix should be workable. Mixes which are excessively stiff or
sloppy should be rejected.
3) Job Conditions. The availability of water at the construction site, mixing process
and anticipated rate of the emulsion mixture cure will also influence the selection
of the type and grade of emulsified asphalt.
(j) The total fluids content at mixing of the satisfactory mix is computed by adding
percentages of the asphalt emulsion, added mixing water and natural water content
of the aggregate. It is expressed as weight percent of dry aggregate. This optimum
fluids content at mixing is used for establishing weight proportions of subsequent
batches.
11.06 OPTIMUM FLUIDS CONTENT FOR COMPACTION
a. General
The optimum fluids content for compaction is detennined as well as the fabrication of
all test specimens using a light kneading compaction followed by a double plunger
static load.
b. Equipment
(1) Mechanical compactor, meeting the requirements of ASTM Method D 1561, "Com-
paction of Test Specimens of Bituminous Mixtures by Means of California Kneading
Compactor. ' ,
(2) Compactor accessories; 101.6 mm (4 in.) diameter x 127 mm (5 in.) high stainless
steel molds, and a mold holder.
(3) Compression testing machine, 222 kN (50,000 lb.) capacity.
(4) Tw%l/ower rams; one ram 101.2 mm (3.985 in.) outside diameter x 139.7 mm
(5.5 in.) high, and the other ram 101.2 mm (.3.985 in.) outside diameter x 38.1 mm
(1.5 in.) high.
(5) Special/eeder trough, 100 mm (4 in.) wide and 405 mm (16 in.) long.
* Mixing time may be shortened to 30 seconds if segregation in the mixture is noticed.
126
Figure XI-7. Transfer of mix to mold.
Figure XI-S. Rodding mix in mold. Figure XI-g. Mechanical kneading compactor.
127
(6) Metal paddle to fit feeder trough.
(7) Bullet-nosed steel rod, 9.5 mm (% in.) diameter by 405 mm (16 in.) long.
(8) A devicefor measuring the height of test specimens to the nearest 0.25 mm (0.01 in.).
(9) Metal plate, 6.4 mm (1/4 in.) thick, approximately 9.5 mm (3Js in.) wide and 63.5 mm
(21/2 in.) long.
c. Optimum Fluids for Compaction
( 1) Prepare a mix at the fluids content as developed by the procedures of Par. 11.05.
(2) Weigh at least three batches of approximately 1,200 grams each of this mix for the
fluids-density curve specimens. One batch will be compacted immediately with the
remaining batches loose-cured (aerated) prior to compaction so as to produce lower
fluids contents (minimum of 3 points required to establish optimum). As a first step
in the compaction of all specimens, the mix will be spread uniformly on the feeder
trough as shown in Figure XI-7. Using paddle, push one-half of the mix into the
mold. Rod the mix 20 times in the center of the mass and 20 times around the edge
with a bullet-nosed steel rod 9.5 mm (3/8 in.) diameter. 405 mm (16 in.) long (Figure
XI-8). Then, push the remainder of the mix into the mold and repeat the rodding
procedure.
(3) Place a mold in the mold holder. Slide the metal insert plate [Item 11.06 b.(9)]
under the bottom edge of mold. Note: This is used to give temporary support during
the preliminary compaction step.
(4) Place the mold holder containing the mix into the kneading compactor (Figure XI-9).
(5) Start the compactor and adjust the tamper foot pressure to 1.7 M Pa (250 psi).
Apply approximately 20 tamping blows at 1. 7 M Pa (250 psi) pressure to ac-
complish preliminary consolidation of the mix. The exact number of blows to
accomplish the initial compaction shall be determined by observation. The
number of blows may vary between 10 and 50, depending upon the type of
material. In some instances with sandy or unstable material, it may not be possi-
ble to accomplish compaction in the mechanical compactor because of the un-
due movement of these mixtures under the compactor foot. Discontinue com-
paction if the compactor foot penetrates more than 6.5 mm (l /4 in.) or if fluids
exude from the base of the compaction mold, and proceed to step (6).
Note: Occasionally, the mix may adhere to the compactor foot. When this
occurs, stop the compactor and clean the foot. Use heat on the compactor
foot only if necessary to prevent sticking.
(6) Remove the mold from the holder and apply a 178 kN (40,000 lb.) static load by
the double plunger method, in which a free-fitting plunger is placed below the sample
as well as on top. Load at a rate of about 1.3 mm/min (0.05 in.lmin) and maintain
the full load for one minute and release. Reduce the level of the static load if excess
fluids exude from the compaction mold and proceed to step (7).
(7) Specimens shall be cured for one day in the mold at room temperature and then
extruded. After extrusion, the bulk specific gravities of the specimens are determined
by displacement in water (ASTM D 1188 or D 2726).
(8) A plot is made of dry density versus fluids content at compaction. The fluids content
resulting in the highest dry density is optimum for compaction.
128
d. Specimen Fabrication for Strength Testing
(1) Use approved mix as developed following the procedures of Par. 11.05 for strength
test specimens. This would include trial mixes at emulsified asphalt contents of 1.1,
1.4 and 1.7 times the C.K.E. Oil Ratio adjusted to a 60 percent residue.
(2) Weigh sufficient mix (approximately 1.150 grams) to fabricate each 101.6 mm (4 in.)
diameter specimen, 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) in height, and loose cure (aerate) the mix to
the optimum fluids content determined by the procedures of Par. 11.06c. Two
specimens will be required at each of the trial emulsified asphalt contents selected
for bases and temporary wearing surfaces, while only one specimen for each trial
emulsified asphalt content is required for permanent surfaces.
11.07 STRENGTH TESTING
a. General
The rate at which emulsified asphalt mixes cure or develop tensile strength is important.
A number of factors including the aggregate gradation, type and amount of emulsion,
type and amount of additive, construction and climatic conditions must be assessed by
the engineer in determining the rate of tensile strength development. This procedure
measures one strength parameter of the mix using the Resilient Modulus Test which is
the final modulus (M
f
). The curing procedure used in defining this strength is given.
b. Equipment
Resilient Modulus apparatus and support equipment as manufactured by Retsina Com-
pany, 601 Brush Street, Oakland, California 94607.
c. Procedure
( 1) One of the two specimens compacted at each asphalt content using the procedures
of Par. 11.06 will be cured by placing the mold in a horizontal postion for a
total of 72 hours at a temperature of 23 ± 2.SoC (73 ± 5°F).
(2) Remove the specimen(s) from the mold and vacuum desiccate for 4 days (Figure
XI-II). Adjust the total pressure to 10-20 mm of Hg. (Note: Fill the bottom of the
desiccator with Drierite to facilitate removal of water. If the Drierite is spent, indicated
by pink color, replace with fresh Drierite and desiccate for an additional day.)
(3) Determine the specimen's final modulus (M
f
) at 23 ± 1.7°C (73 ± 3°F) as outlined
below.
(a) Resilient Modulus Test, Mr.
The equipment used for determining M r consists of a repetitive loading device
which applies a 0.1 second pulsed load every 3 seconds across the diameter of the
test specimen (Figure XI-IO). The horizontal response to the applied load is measured
by a pair of transducers mounted in a yoke that is clamped to the specimen (Figure
XI -II). The electrical output from the transducers is amplified and shown on a
recording meter designed to hold the deflection long enough for the operator to
record the reading.
(b) Calibration
Primary calibration of the instrument is made with a Lansing Instrument Differential
Translator. Secondary and load calibration is made with a proving ring. Calibration
details are supplied by the instrument manufacturer.
129
(c) Temperature Control
The Mr of an asphalt treated mix is dependent on the stiffness of the asphalt binder.
Consequently the M r is quite dependent on the temperature of the specimen. Equilib-
rate all specimens and the yoke assembly at least 2 hours at the temperatures of
23 ± 1. 7°C (73 ± 3°F) before testing.
(d) Me Measurements
1) Place the yoke assembly on the holder (Figure XI-12).
2) Back out the thumb screw so that the transducer levers are clear. Back out the
four clamping screws and gently insert the 100 mm (4-in.) diameter sample into
the center of the yoke. Place the sample squarely on the centering strip. Gently
tighten the four clamping screws, keeping the sample centered and square in the
yoke. Use only enough pressure to keep the yoke from falling off the sample
(Figure XI-13).
3) Place the assembly in the loading device and align on the centering strip. (Note:
Do not lift by the yoke.)
4) Lift the loading shaft and place the top loading block on the specimen, 3.14
radians (180°) from the bottom centering strip. Allow the shaft to seat against
the ball on top of the loading block (Figure XI-14).
5) Zero the recording meter. Set the multiplier knob to 100 and tum on the meter.
Adjust the zero control until the meter reads just above zero (Figure XI-15).
6) Tighten one of the transducer advancement screws until an increased meter
reading of about 1.0 is obtained. Tighten the advancement screw on the other
transducer until an additional increase of 1.0 is obtained on the meter.
7) Set the pressure regulator to the desired load (Figure XI -16). Some instruments
use manometers to measure the air pressure--others use pressure transducers.
Choice of load depends on the strength of the specimen. Usually 0.33 kN (75 lb.)
is used on sound dry specimens having modulus values ranging from 6.89 x 10
5
to 3.45 X 10
7
kPa (10
5
to 5 X 10
6
psi). However, lower pressures may be
required to minimize specimen damage. MR values as low as 3.45 x 10
4
kPa
(5 x 10
3
psi) can be measured.
8) Reset the zero knob to just above zero, i.e., until both the high and low pilot
lights are out.
9) Set the mode switch to operate.
10) Record the deflection in microinches on the meter. If the reading is out of
range change the multiplier to a higher or lower value. Reset the zero knob if
one of the zero indicator pilot lights is on and make another measurement.
11) More complete operating details are supplied by the instrument manufacturer.
12) Rotate the sample 1.57 rad (90°) and repeat measurements. Deflection readings
should normally agree within 10 percent. Sometimes a specimen is non-isotropic
and a larger difference exists.
130
Figure XI·11.
Transducers
and Mryoke.
131
Figure XI·10. Resilient
modulus device.
Figure XI-13.
Tightening
Mrclamping
screws.
132
Figure XI-12.
Mr yoke
on holder.
Figure XI-14. Seating
Mr specimen on loading
block.
13) Calculate the M r as follows:
S.1. Metric U.S. Customary
Mr
1000 P ('Y + 0.2734) = 623.4K.
Mr
=
P ('Y + 0.2734) = o 6234R..
=
tA tA
tA . tA
P = dynamic load in kN (lb)
'Y
= 0.35 (assumed for Poisson's ratio)
t = thickness of specimen, mm (in.)
A = deflection in I-Lm (microinches) obtained by
multiplying the meter reading by the multiplier.
4 6
~ \ \ \ , ,\ \ \ \ \ \ \ IIIIII1111111II 111,l
o ~ \ \ \ I///h 10
~ 0 ~ ~ /
MICROINCHES
WESTON
Figure XI-1S. Adjusting Mr recording meter.
133
Figure XI-16. Adjusting Mr pressure
regulator.
Sample Calculation:
S.1. Metric
P = 0.333 616 6kN
t = 63.5mm
-7
6. = 3.81 x 10 ~ m
623.4 x 0.3 336 166
Mr=
63.5 x 3.81 x 10-
7
Mr = 8596383 kPa
P
=
t
=
6.
=
Mr
Mr
U.S. Customary
75lb
2.5 in.
15 micro inches
0.6234 x
75
=
10-
6
2.5 x 15 x
=
1,246,800psi
(4) Measure the bulk specific gravity of the specimen according to ASTM D 1188 or
D 2726.
(5) Calculate the volume of air and asphalt as follows:
Where:
Va = 100 - (Vb + Vsa>
Vb = Wb. 100
Gb Vmb
Vsa = Ws . 100
Gsa Vmb
Vmb = Wm
Gmb
W - WeRe
b - 100
Va = Volume of air (percent of total mix)
Vb = Volume of asphalt in mix (percent of total mix)
V sa = Volume of aggregate (by apparent specific gravity percent of total mix)
V mb = Bulk volume of compacted mix
Wb = Weight of asphalt
134
Gb = Specific gravity of asphalt
W s = Weight of dry aggregate
W m = Weight of dry compacted mix
Gmb = Bulk specific gravity of dry compacted mix
Gsa = Aggregate apparent specific gravity
We = Weight of emulsified asphalt
Re = Percent residue of emulsified asphalt, expressed as a whole number.
11.08 MOISTURE EXPOSURE AND STABILITY AND COHESION TESTING
a. General
Dense-graded mixtures used in the base course or as a temporary wearing surface are
evaluated for early strength and fully-cured strength after vacuum saturation.
b. Vacuum Saturation
(1) General
This test simulates the effect of prolonged exposure to subsurface water on dense-
graded base mixtures.
(2) Equipment
(a) Vacuum apparatus shown in Figure XI-17.
Figure XI-17. Vacuum manometer and desicator.
135
(b) Vacuum pump capable of pulling 100 mm of Hg.
(3) Procedure
(a) Record the weight, AB, of the specimen from the resilient modulus testing.
(b) Place the specimen into the vacuum apparatus and cover with water (desiccant
should be removed from the vacuum apparatus before filling with water).
(c) Evacuate the desiccator to 100 mm of Hg and hold for one hour.
(d) Slowly release the vacuum and allow the specimen to soak in water for one hour.
(e) Remove the specimen, surface dry, reweigh and record this weight as A
w
.
(f) Determine the Stabilometer (R-value) and Cohesiometer (C-value) as subsequently
described.
(g) Dry the entire specimen to constant weight at 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°F), cool to
room temperature and weigh. Record this weight as AD.
(h) Calculate percent Moisture Pick-up, P, by the specimen during vacuum saturation
as follows: Aw _ AB
P = x 100.
c. Resistance R-Value Test
(1) General
AD
This test is used to measure the stability or bearing capacity of dense-graded base
mixtures at a test temperature of 23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F). An early Resistance R-value
is determined on "early cure" specimens fabricated by the procedures of Par. 11.06
after curing in the mold in a horizontal position for a total of 24 hours at a temperature
of 23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F) (no moisture exposure). Also, this test is performed on the
"fully cured" specimens that are vacuum saturated as described in Par. 11.08 (b).
(2) Equipment
(a) Hveem stabilometer and accessories (see Figure XI-I8).
(b) Testing machine, 222 kN (50,000 lb.) capacity.
Figure XI-18. Hveem
stablometer.
136
(3) Procedure
(a) Calibrate the displacement of the stabilometer by the following procedure:
I) Adjust bronze nut on stabilometer stage base so that the top of the stage is 89 mm
(31/2 in.) below the bottom of the upper tapered ring. Perform all tests at this
stage setting.
2) Put a metal dummy specimen in place in the stabilometer. Apply a load of from
0.445 to 0.89 kN (100 to 200 lb.) on the testing machine dial to the dummy
specimen to make certain the dummy is held firmly in place. Crank the pump to
a pressure of exactly 34.5 kPa (5 psi). Tap the stabilometer dial lightly with
fingers in order to be sure the needle is resting on 34.5 kPa (5 psi) pressure.
Adjust the turns indicator dial to zero.
Tum pump handle at approximately two turns per second until the stabilometer
reads 689 kPa (100 psi). The turns indicator dial should then read 2.00 + 0.05
turns. If it does not, the air in the cell must be adjusted by means of the rubber
bulb, and the displacement measurement must be repeated after each air change
until the proper number of turns is obtained. Release horizontal and vertical
pressures and remove dummy specimen. The stabilometer is now ready for testing
specimens.
3) Adjust testing machine to give a constant movement of 1.3 mm (0.05 in.) per
minute with no load applied. The hydraulic machines must be run several minutes
before oil warms sufficiently to maintain a constant speed.
(b) Transfer the specimens to the stabilometer.
(c) Place follower on top of specimen and crank pump to give a horizontal pressure
of 34.5 kPa (5 psi). [The 34.5 kPa (5 psi) pressure should be exact as a deviation
of only 7 kPa (l psi) has considerable effect on the final value.]
(d) Start vertical movement of testing machine platen at speed of 1.3 mm (0.05 in.)
per minute, and record the stabilometer gauge readings when the vertical forces
are 2.224, 4.448, and 8.896 kN (500, 1,000 and 2;000 lb.) total load. [Vertical
pressures are 276,552, and 1,103 kPa (40,80 and 160 psi).]
(e) Stop vertical loading exactly at 8.896 kN (2,000 lb.) and immediately reduce to a
load of 4.448 kN (1,000 lb.)
(f) Tum the displacement pump so that the horizontal pressure is reduced to exactly
34.5 kPa (5 psi). This will result in a further reduction in the vertical loading
reading which is normal and for which no compensation is made. Set the turns
displacement indicator dial to zero. Tum pump handle at approximately two turns
per second until the stabilometer gauge reads 689 kPa (100 psi).
During this operation, the vertical load registered on the testing machine will
increase and in some cases exceed the initial 4.448 kN (1,000 lb.) load. As before,
these changes in testing machine loading are characteristic and no adjustment or
compensation is required.
(g) Record the number of turns indicated on the dial as the displacement of the specimen.
The turns indicator dial reads in 0.0254 mm (0.001 in.) and each 2.54 mm (0.1 in.)
is equal to one tum. Thus, a reading of 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) indicates that 2.50
turns were made with the displacement pump.
137
(h) Calculate the Resistance R-value from the following formula:
R = 100 _ 100
2.5 (P
v
_ 1) + 1
D Ph
Where: P v = 1 103 kPa ( 160 psi) vertical pressure
D = turns displacement reading
Ph = horizontal pressure [stabilometer gauge reading
for 1 103 kPa(16Opsi ) vertical pressure)]
The chart for determining R-value from stabilometer data (Figure XI-19) is
normally used to solve the above formula.
(i) Every attempt should have been made to fabricate test specimens having an overall
height between 62 mm (2.45 in.) and 65 mm (2.55 in.). However, if for some
reason this was not possible, the R-value should be corrected as indicated on the chart
for correcting R-values to height of 64 mm (2.5 in.). (Figure XI-20.)
(j) Upon completion of R -value determination, remove the specimen and immediately
test for cohesiometer value (Par. 11.08f).
d. Stabilometer S-Value
(1) General
This test measures the stability or bearing capacity of compacted fully cured permanent
dense-graded surface mixes (no moisture exposure).
(2) Equipment
(a) Hveem stabilometer and accessories (see Figure XI-18).
(b) Testing machine, 222 kN (50,000 lb.) capacity.
(3) Procedure
(a) Place the specimens for test in 60 ± 2.8°C (140 ± 5°F) oven for 2 hours before
testing.
(b) Calibrate the displacement of the stabilometer (see Par. 11.08d (3».
(c) Transfer the specimen to the stabilometer.
(d) Start vertical movement of testing machine platen at speed of 1.3 mm (0.05 in.)
per min., and record the stabilometer gauge readings when the vertical forces are
2.224, 4.448 and each 4.448 kN (500, 1,000 and each 1,000 lb.) thereafter up
to 22.24 kN (5,000 lb.).
(e) Stop vertical loading exactly at 26.69 kN (6,000 lb.) and immediately reduce the
load to 4.448 kN (1,000 lb.).
(f) Tum the displacement pump so that the horizontal pressure is reduced to exactly
34.5 kPa (5 psi). This will result in a further reduction in the vertical loading
reading which is normal and for which no compensation is made. Set the turns
displacement indicator dial to zero. Tum pump handle at approximately two turns
per second until the stabilometer gauge reads 689 kPa (100 psi).
138
5.0
1.0
155
2
3
4.5
150
4
5
140
4.0
10
100
130
R = 100 -
: : ( ~ - 1)
+ 1 120
d Ph
20
3.5
110
where P
y
= 160psi
.;;;
30
100
c..
0
0
90 ...
II
.s=
80 CI..
..
GI o
;:, ...
;;
70 ...
C
GI
E a:
60
II
'"
III
Q.
. !e
50
0
..
E
40
;:,
I-
I
'tl
30
2.5
20
90
10
2.0
5
Figure XI-19. Chart for determining R-value from stabllometer data; multiply psi by
6.894 757 to obtain kPa.
139
-
.;;;
.g-
GI
..
i
...
GI
ct:
ii
..
:I
!J
I
.s=
CI..
o
ILl
~
o
ILl
Q:;
Q:;
o
o
ILl
:::>
..J
c(
>
I
Q:;
R-VALUE BEFORE HEIGHT CORRECTION
Figure XI-20. Chart for correcting R-values to height of 63.5 mm
(2.50 in.); multiply in. by 25.4 to obtain mm
80
During this operation the vertical load registered on the testing machine will
increase and in some cases exceed the initial 4.448 kN (1,000 lb.) load. As
before, these changes in testing machine loading are characteristic and no ad-
justment or compensation is required.
(g) Record the number of turns indicated on the dial as the displacement of the
specimen. The turns indicator dial reads in 0.0254mm(0.001 in.) and each 2.54
mm (0.1 in.) is equal to one turn. Thus, a reading of 6.35 mm (0.250 in.) in-
dicates that 2.50 turns were made with the displacement pump. This measure-
ment is known as turns displacement of the specimen.
140
(h) Calculate the stabilometer S-value from the following formula:
S
22.2
+ 0.222
Where: S = stabilometer value
D2 = displacement on specimen (turns)
P
v
= vertical pressure [typically 2 758 kPa (400
psi) = 22.24 kN (5,000 lb.) total load]
Ph = horizontal pressure - stabilometer pressure gauge
reading taken at the instant P
v
is 2 758 kPa
(400 psi) or 22.24 kN (5,000 lb.) total load
(i) Every attempt should have been made to fabricate test specimens having an overall
height between 62 mm (2.45 in.) and 65 mm (2.55 in.). However, iffor some reason
this was not possible, the S-value should be corrected as indicated on the chart for
correcting S-values to a height of 64 mm (2.5 in.) (Figure XI-2I).
(j) Upon completion of S-value determination, remove specimen and immediately test
for cohesiometer value (Par. II.08f).
e. Cohesiometer Test
(1) General
This test provides a measure of the cohesive resistance or tensile strength of the
compacted mixture.
(2) Equipment
(a) Cohesiometer (see Figure XI-22).
(3) Procedure
(a) Cohesiometer tests are performed on the same specimens previously tested in the
stabilometer.
(b) Calibrate cohesiometer device so that the shot (or liquid) will flow into the receiving
bucket at the end of760 mm (30 in.) lever arm at the rate of 1800 ± 20gperminute.
(c) Adjust heating unit in cabinet of cohesiometer device to maintain a temperature of
23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F) for testing base and 60 ± 2.8°C (140 ± 5°F) for surface
mixes.
(d) Lock device in position with release pin. Clamp firmly in position, centered, and
with top plates parallel with top surface of specimen .. Permit temperature in
cohesiometer cabinet to equilibrate to the desired temperature before starting the test.
(e) Pull release pin and allow shot flow to continue until the specimen breaks, indicated
by a sudden drop of beam.
141
CHART FOR CORRECTING STABILOMETER VALUES
TO SPECIMEN HEIGHT OF 64 mm (2.50 in.)
Height correction should be made using the table and
chart below.
Example: Overall height of 69 mm (2.74 in.) select correc-
tion curve "B". Stabilometer value uncorrected = 35
Stabilometer value corrected = 38.
Overall Specimen Ht. Correction Curve
71 mm to 76mm (2.80 in. to 3.00 in.) A
66mm to 70mm (2.60 in. to 2.79 in.) B
61mm to 65mm (2.40 in. to 2.59 in.) C
56mm to 60mm (2.20 in. to 2.39 in.) D
51mm to 55mm (2.00 in. to 2.19 in.) E
ABC 0 E

• • • t • • • .
• •.. I ....
--t--------- .--.-.- --_ ....- -- ----+-- ---.
• ••• t . . • • • •••••••.•• t·' •..
.• • • • j .••..... t • • ••• , ••••
.. --+- .. -.-.-.-.- ..
Q) •.•• 1 ••••
... . ....... .
u
Q)


o
.•••• f ••••
• - .• + • - ...
- ••. t ..•.
..... I .•..
· . . . . . . .
.------t----'
· ... , -- ..
· ... ; ....
• ••• 1 ••••
• ••• t ••.•
· ... , .. ' .
U
Q)
::J


Q)
• ... t ..•.
.... ! ....
• ••• t ••••
----+_.
: : : : I : : : :
· ..• I' ..•
.... j ••••
• ••• I ••.•
• •.• I, . , •
.. .. t .. ••
· ........ - . -
....
· ... t· ...
.. - . ! ... ·l-:-· .. t •••
•• t ••• ' •• - ..... ...
· .•• I •.•• - •• -
.. -.-t-.-.- .. .. -,-.-.- .. ..
E . . . . . . . . . . . . . t • . ., •••• I . . .. . .•• -+ - ••
o . . . . j • . • . . . . . • • . .. .... t • • •• •••• t .-,'.'
• .•. t . • . . . ..••.•...... i . .. . --

-g : : : : I : : :: :::::::::
- ····1···· .... , ... .
en I 0 _. '_',-' _. _. '-+--' ... I ... .
: : : : I : : : :
• ••• t ••••
· ... I ....
• ••• + .•.•
· ..• t . - .•
. . .. .... .... , ....
: : : : I : : :: :::: j : : : :
- --.- t .•••
• . ••. . •• ,,- •.•. I •.••
• , •• f • • •• • ••• I .. +.
10 20 30 40 50 60
Stabilometer Value Before Height Correction
Figure XI-21. Chart for correcting stabllometer values to
effective specimen height of 64 mm (2.5 in.).
142
(f) In the event that the specimen is flexible or ductile rather than brittle, the flow of
shot is stopped when the end of the 760 mm (30 in.) beam has lowered 13 mm
(112 in.) from horizontal.
(g) Weigh shot caught in receiving bucket to the nearest gram and record as shot
weight.
(h) Calculate cohesiometer value, C, as:
L C = ______________ _
W (0.20H + 0.044H2)
Where: C = cohesiometer value (g per mm (in.) width
corrected to a 75 mm (3 in.) height
L = weight of shot in grams
W = diameter or width of specimen in mm (in.)
H = height of specimen in mm (in.)
Cohesiometer values may also be obtained by mUltiplying the weight of shot
necessary to break the specimen by factors established for various heights of
100 mm (4 in.) diameter (or width) specimens. The factors used are shown in Table
XI-4.
TABLE 4 MULTIPLYING FACTORS FOR COHESIOMETER VALUES
Heigh,t
Factor
Height
Factor
mm in. mm in.
56 2.20 0.382 64 2.50 0.322
57 2.25 0.371 65 2.55 0.313
58 2.30 0.360 66 2.60 0.305
60 2.35 0.349 67 2.65 0.297
61 2.40 0.340 69 2.70 0.290
62 2.45 0.331 70 2.75 0.283
Example: Assume that it takes 600 g of shot to break
g. Resistance R
t
Value
a certain specimen which has a 100 mm (4 in.)
diameter and 64 mm (2.50 in.) height.
Cohesiometer value = 600 x 0.322 = 193.
Calculate the Resistance R
t
Value for base and temporary wearing surfaces ac-
cording to the following formula:
R
t
= R + 0.05 C
R = Resistance R-Value [23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F)]
C = Cohesiometer C-Value [23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F)]
143
STATIONAlY PlATES
r---- "'OVAllE PlATfS
SHOT
SVPl'tY
COUNTEI. 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ r r = = ~ = = = ~ = = = = = = = ; ~ L -
WEIGHT , SHOT
TEST - __ ~ - - V - CONTIOI
SPECIMEN
Figure XI-22.
Diagrammatic sketch
showing principal
features of the
Hveem cohesiometer.
:::::::1«::
IllUSTRATION Of MANNEI
IN WHICH SPECIMEN BlEAU
11.09 DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CONTENT
An optimum emulsified asphalt content is established on the basis of the best combination
of stability, density and maximum resistance to water in addition to meeting the minimum
requirements of Table XI-5.
144
TABLE XI-5 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR EMULSIFIED
ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIXES
Base
Test Property Mixtures
RESISTANCE Rt-VALUE EarlyCure
B
70 min.
at (23 ± 2.8°C) (73 ± 5°F)
Fully cured and 78 min.
water immersed
b
STABILOMETER S-VALUE NA
at (60 ± 2.8°C) (140 ± 5°F)
COHESIOMETER C-VALUE EarlyCure
B
50min.
at (23 ± 2.8°C) ( 73 ± 5°F)
Fully cured and
water immersed b
100 min.
COHEISIOMETER C-VALUE NA
at (60 ± 2.8°C) (140 ± 5°F)
AGGREGATE COATING (%) 50min.
a Cured in mold for total of 24 hours at temperature of 23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F).
Surface
Mixtures
NA
NA
30min.
N.A.
NA
100min.
75min.
b Cured in mold for total of 72 hours at temperature of 23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F) vacuum desiccated for
4 days followed by water immersion for one hour under vacuum and one hour without vacuum.
N A Not Applicable
NOTE: Besides meeting the above requirements, the mix must be reasonably workable (Le., not too
stiff or sloppy).
145
CHAPTER XII
PROCEDURAL OUTLINE AND DESIGN CRITERIA
FOR THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE DESIGN METHOD
FOR OPEN-GRADED MIXES
12.01 SCOPE
This outline covers the design of open-graded emulsified asphalt mixtures for base and
surface courses. Design criteria for open-graded mixtures are also presented.
12.02 AGGREGATES
Aggregate for open-graded emulsified asphalt pavements should be sound, clean and free
from flat and elongated pieces. The selected aggregate may be any mineral that meets the
requirements of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard D 692,
with the following amendments:
1. Not less than 65 percent by weight of material must have at least one fractured face.
2. Loss when subjected to the Los Angeles Abrasion Test must not be greater than 40
percent.
Recommended gradations for open-graded emulsion mixtures are shown in Table VII-4, Chapter
VII, of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual.
12.03 ASPHALTS
Two types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing. These are designated as slow setting
(SS) and medium setting (MS). Specifications (ASTM) for these asphalt materials are given
in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this manual.
12.04 SELECTION OF TRIAL EMULSION CONTENT
The emulsified asphalt content for trial mixes for open-graded aggregates shall be as specified
in Table XII-l. Trial mixes should be prepared to determine the maximum emulsified asphalt
content that can be used within the range that meets the mix-design requirements.
TABLE XII-1 SELECTION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT AMOUNT
Type Approximate Emulsified Asphalt
Open Graded
Coarse
Medium
Fine
Content, Percent by Weight of Aggregate·
4.5 - 6.5
5.0 -7.0
6.0 - 8.0
• With porous aggregates the emulsified asphalt content should be increased by a factor of approximately 1.2.
Porous aggregates are those which absorb more than 2 percent water by dry weight when tested by ASTM
Method C 127.
147
Figure XU-1. Wire screen funnel.
12.05 MIXING TEST
This test measures the ability of the emulsified asphalt to uniformly disperse throughout
the mix. It also allows the laboratory technician to judge the mix workability. A number of
variables have been found to influence asphalt dispersion and these are listed in Table XI-3
of Method A.
For a given emulsion content, add enough water to just darken the aggregate (the amount
of which is a function of nominal maximum particle size). Then add the selected amount of
emulsion and mix for 30 seconds using a mechanical mixer. Immediately pour or spoon the
mixture into an 850 J.Lm (No. 20) mesh wire screen funnel that has been positioned over a
tared litre (quart) container. (See Figure XII-I.)
Allow the mix to drain for 30 minutes. Remove the mix from the funnel and judge it for
coating and workability. Place the container with the runoff in a 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°F)
oven and dry to a constant weight. Determine the final weight and compute the runoff as:
Runoff, % = Final Weight - Tared Weight x 100
Batch Aggregate Weight
If the three characteristics (coating, workability and runoff) arejudged to be unsatisfactory,
increase the water content in fixed increments until a satisfactory mix is obtained.
The process is repeated for each trial emulsion content. The objective is to determine the
maximum emulsified asphalt content that can be used within the range that meets the mix
design requirements. (Note: The mixing fluids content [asphalt and water] for open-graded
mixes is assumed to be at optimum for compaction.)
148
12.06 MIX CURING AND RESILIENT MODULUS TESTING
Prepare two specimens at the emulsion and water content established as optimum in the
mixing test. Compact them using the kneading compactor followed by a 178 kN (40,000 lb.)
double-plunger static load (see Par. 11.06c).
One specimen is cured for 72 hours in the mold at room conditions and then vacuum
desiccated (with a residual pressure of 10 to 20 mm of Hg) for four additional days. This
specimen is then tested for diametrial resilient modulus, Mr. (The Mr is not part of the actual
mix design since criteria have not been established. It may be used for establishing pavement
layer thickness. See Par. 11.07, Strength Testing, Method A.)
12.07 WASHOFF TEST
(Open-graded mixes are evaluated for damage by surface water if rain is a possibility on a
project within a short period after laydown. Damage from washoff as a result of rainfall is
generally not a problem after 24 hours under favorable curing conditions.)
The second specimen, from Par. 12.06 above, is cured for 24 hours in the mold at room
conditions and subjected to the washoff test. This involves placing the specimen, while still
in its mold, on a 125 mm (5 in.) square 850 fJ.m (No. 20) mesh wire screen supported by a
pedestal, and then pouring 200 cm
3
of water over the sample and collecting the washoff in a
tared container. After allowing the specimen to drain for 30 minutes, the washoff is dried to
a constant weight in an oven at a temperature of 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°P). The residue weight
after drying is computed as the' 'residual asphalt washoff. " The percent of washoff is computed
as:
Washoff, % = Wt. of Residual Asphalt Washoff x 100
Wt. of Aggregate in Specimen
12.08 DESIGN CRITERIA
To be acceptable, the mix must satisfy the design criteria as follows:
Coating, percent
Runoff, percent
Washoff, percent
Combined (runoff & washoff), percent
* Usually requires a surface treatment. (See Chapter VII.)
149
Base
Mixture
50.0 min.
0.5 max.
0.5 max.
0.5 max.
Surface
Mixture *
75.0min.
0.5 max.
0.5 max.
0.5 max.
CHAPTER XIII
PROCEDURAL OUTLINE AND DESIGN CRITERIA
FOR THE McCONNAUGHAV
DESIGN METHOD FOR COLD MIXTURES
13.01 SCOPE
This outline covers the design procedure and criteria for open- and dense-graded emulsified
asphalt cold mixtures.
13.02 AGGREGATES
Dense-graded aggregates meeting requirements of Table VII-5 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion
Manual are among those suitable for emulsified asphalt mixtures. (Generally, gradations
containing appreciable fines may require aeration.)
For open-graded mixtures, aggregates should conform to the requirements of Par. 12.02,
and Table VII-4, this manual.
13.03 ASPHALTS
Two types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing. These are designated as slow setting
(SS) and medium setting (MS). Specifications (ASTM) for these asphalt materials are given
in Tables II-I and II-2 of this manual. The McConnaughay method, while not limited, has
been applied for the most part to mixtures made with high float (HFMS) type of emulsion.
13.04 PART A-DETERMINATION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CONTENT AND
CURED MIX STABILITY
This procedure is used to determine the emulsified asphalt content and to indicate the
H veem * stability of the mixture in its cured state. A minimum of three (3) emulsified asphalt
contents should be tested.
For average traffic conditions, Hveem stability values above 30 are recommended. However,
successful results with local aggregates yielding lower H veem stabilities have been experienced
on low volume roads. Generally well-graded aggregates will develop Hveem stabilities in the
35 to 45 range.
1. Determine the residue content of the emulsion to be used by ASTM D 244, "Residue
and Oil Distillate by Distillation." (See Appendix B.)
2. Estimate an initial emulsified asphalt content based on dry aggregate weight as follows:
a. A (Base Mix) = [(0.06 x B) + (0.01 x C)] x 100
OR
A (Surface Mix) = [(0.07 x B + (0.03 x C)] x 100
b. E = A 1(1.00 - A) X 100
R
* For a description of the Hveem and Marshall test, see Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Hot-Mix
Types, Manual Series No.2, The Asphalt Institute.
151
Where: A = Percent residue based on dry weight of mix
B = Percent passing 4.75 mm (No.4) sieve
C = 100 minus percent passing 4.75 mm (No.4) sieve
R = Percent residue by distillation (Step 1)
E = Percent emulsion based on dry weight of aggregate
Note: This procedure is for obtaining an estimate only and does not apply to open-graded
aggregates.
Example: Estimate the initial emulsified asphalt content for a base mix where: (1) the
graded aggregate has 60% passing the No.4 sieve and (2) the residual content of the
emulsified asphalt is 68%.
a. A (Base Mix) = [(0.06 xO.60) + (0.01 x (1.00 - 0.60»] x 100 = 4.0%
b. E = 0.04/(1.00 - 0.04) x 100 = 6.13%
0.68
After determining the asphalt emulsion content required for the aggregate, weigh the
required amount of emulsion on to the cold pre-weighted aggregate. (Dry weight plus
moisture content.) The aggregate should be used at its natural moisture content.
3. Mix the emulsion and aggregate by hand for 30 seconds. Evaluate the aggregate
coating. * Test for water resistance with a small portion of the resulting mix. * If coating
and water resistance are satisfactory for the intended use of the mix, proceed to Step
4. If not, another emulsion should be selected.
4. Heat this mixture to 121°C (250°F) with continual mixing.
5. Compact the mixture at 110°C (230°F) using the Marshall hammer. (Apply 50 blows
to each side of the specimen.)
6. Allow the sample to cool in the mold for a minimum of 1 hour.
7. Place the sample while still in the mold in an 60°C (140°F) oven for 2 hours.
8. Test the specimen in the Hveem stabilometer in accordance with ASTM D 1560
"Resistance to Deformation and Cohesion of Bituminous Mixtures by Means of Hveem
Apparatus. "
13.05 PART B-INITIAL STABILITY (PARTIALLY CURED)
The following procedure is used to determine the initial strength of the mixture; that is,
after the mixture has been placed and compacted. As noted in the procedure, if the moisture
is excessive, it may be necessary to aerate the mixture prior to compaction.
This part of the procedure may be omitted if past experience has shown that the mix has
sufficient stability to carry initial anticipated traffic without undue distress.
1. Determine the residue content of the emulsion to be used by ASTM D 244, "Residue
and Oil Distillate by Distillation."
2. Determine moisture content of the aggregate.
3. Estimate the initial emulsified asphalt content (Par. 13.04, Step 2). After determining
the emulsified asphalt content required for the aggregate, weigh the required amount
of emulsion on to the cold aggregate. (The aggregate should be used at its natural
moisture content.)
• ASTM D 244, Residue and Oil Distillate by Distillation, Section on "Coating Ability and Water Resistance"
152
4. Determine the proper emulsion which will provide for satisfactory coating ability and
water resistance on the aggregate, as per Par. 13.04, Step 3.
Mix the emulsion and aggregate for 30 seconds. Note the percentage of the aggregate
that is coated. Continue mixing for an additional 21/2 minutes.
5. Compact the mixture at ambient temperature using the Marshall hammer. (Apply 50
blows to each side of the specimen.) If moisture is excessive, it may be necessary to
aerate the mixture prior to compaction.
6. Remove the base plate and paper discs and place the mold containing the compacted
specimen on a perforated shelf in a forced draft oven at 60°C (140°F) for 48 hours.
7. After removal from the oven and while the specimen is still at 60°C (140°F) temperature,
apply a static load of 178 kN (40,000 lbs.), by the double plunger method, in which
a free-fitting plunger is placed below the sample as well as on top. Load at the rate
of about 1.3 mrnlmin. (0.05 in.lmin.) and maintain the full load for one minute and
release.
8. Allow the sample to cool in the mold for a minimum of 1 hour.
9. Test the specimen in the Hveem stabilometer in accordance with ASTM D 1560,
except that the test is performed at ambient* temperature.
13.06 DESIGN CRITERIA
To be acceptable for average traffic conditions the mixture must satisfy the following criteria:
Par. 13.04 Par. 13.05
(Part A) (Part B)
Minimum Minimum
Hveem Stabilometer, S-Value
at60 ± 2.8°C(140 ± 5°F) 30
at 23 ± 2.8°C (73 ± 5°F) 30
Aggregate Coating (%) Fair Fair
Water Resistance ** Fair Fair
* 23 ± 2.SOC (73 ± 5°F)
** The water resistance may be waived/or slow setting (SS and CSS) emulsions.
153
CHAPTER XIV
MARSHALL METHOD FOR EMULSIFIED
ASPHALT·AGGREGATE COLD MIXTURE DESIGN
14.01 SCOPE
This design method for cold-mix emulsified asphalt-aggregate paving mixtures is based on
research conducted at the University of Illinois using a modified Marshall method of mix
design and a moisture durability test. The method and recommended test criteria are applicable
to base course mixtures for low traffic volume pavements containing emulsified asphalt and
dense-graded mineral aggregates with maximum sizes of 25 mm (1 in.) or less. This design
is recommended for road mixes or plant mixes prepared at ambient temperatures. The procedures
contain certain modifications suggested by NCHRP Report 259, "Design of Emulsified Asphalt
Paving Mixtures."
14.02 OUTLINE OF METHOD
The design procedure involves the following major parts:
(1) Aggregate quality tests.
(2) Emulsified asphalt quality tests.
(3) Type and approximate amount of emulsified asphalt.
(4) Water content at mixing and at compaction.
(5) Variation of residual asphalt content.
(6) Selection of optimum asphalt content. The optimum asphalt content is chosen as the
percentage of emulsified asphalt at which the paving mixture best satisfies all of the design
criteria.
14.03 OBJECTIVE
Provide an adequate amount of residual asphalt to economically stabilize granular materials to:
- Give required strength or stability to withstand repeated load applications (compres-
sive and flexural) without excessive permanent deformation or fatigue cracking.
- Render the mixture sufficiently insensitive to moisture effects.
14.04 AGGREGATES FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MIXES
Aggregate properties are the determining factor in many of the choices made concerning
the optimum mixture. Thorough testing of the aggregate therefore is necessary. A wide range
of materials are suitable for use with emulsified asphalt including crushed stone, rock, gravel,
sand, silty sand, sandy gravel, slag, reclaimed aggregate, ore tailings, or otherinert materials.
Aggregates meeting the requirements of Table VII-5 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual
are among those suitable for emulsified asphalt mixes.
14.05 EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
Two general types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing. These are designated as slow
setting (SS) and medium setting (MS). ASTM specifications for these asphalt materials are
given in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this manual.
Selection of emulsified asphalt type and grade for use on a particular project is based in
part on the ability of the emulsion to adequately coat the job aggregate. Some factors which
affect this selection are:
155
(1) Aggregate type.
(2) Aggregate gradation and characteristics of the fines.
(3) Anticipated water content of the aggregate.
(4) A vail ability of water at the construction site.
More than one emulsified asphalt type is often acceptable for a given aggregate, and the
selection should be based on mixture properties determined by comparative mixture designs.
Additional factors that cannot be evaluated at the time of design of the mixture, but which
should be accounted for at the time of construction are:
(1) Anticipated weather at the time of construction.
(2) Type of mixing process.
(3) Construction equipment selected and field procedures used.
14.06 APPROXIMATE AMOUNT OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
The amount of emulsified asphalt is estimated for trial mixes of dense graded aggregates
using the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent test (C.K.E.).
The equipment and procedures for running the C.K.E. test are contained in Chapter XI
"Modified Hveem Mix Design," Par. 11.05 band c.
If C.K.E. equipment is not available, an approximation of the emulsified asphalt content for trial mixes can be
made by the following formula:
P = 0.05A + 0.1 B + (j.5e
where P = Percent* by weight of emulsified asphalt, based on weight of graded mineral aggregate
A = Percent* of mineral aggregate retained on 2.36 mm (No.8) sieve
B = Percent* of mineral aggregate passing 2.36 mm (No.8) sieve and retained on 75 Il-m (No. 200) sieve
C = Percent* of mineral aggregate passing 75 Il-m (No. 200) sieve.
*Expressed as a whole number.
14,07 COATING TEST
Preliminary evaluation of each emulsified asphalt selected for mixture design is accomplished
through a coating test. The trial residual asphalt content as determined in Par. 11.06 is combined
with the job aggregate, and coating is visually estimated as a percentage of the total area. An
emulsified asphalt's ability to coat an aggregate is usually sensitive to the premix water content
of the aggregate. This is especially true for aggregates containing a high percentage of material
passing a 75 IJ..m (No. 200) sieve, where insufficient pre-mixing water results in balling of
the asphalt with the fines and insufficient coating. For this reason, the coating test is performed
at varying aggregate water contents. Emulsified asphalts which do not pass the coating test
are not considered further. Detailed procedures for the coating test are listed below.
(1) Equipment
(a) Balance 5,000 g minimum capacity and accurate to within ± 0.5 g.
(b) Laboratory mixing equipment, preferably mechanized and capable of producing inti-
mate mixtures of the job aggregate, water and emulsified asphalt. Hand mixing, if
used, must be sufficiently thorough to uniformly disperse the water and emulsion
throughout the aggregate.
(c) Hot plate or 100° ± 5°C (230° ± 9°F) oven.
156
(d) Pans, metal, approximately 200 x 355 x 50 mm (8 x 14 x 2 in.).
(e) Supply of metal kitchen mixing spoons (approximately 250 mm (10 in.».
(t) A one-hundred millilitre glass graduate.
(2) Procedure
(a) Obtain representative samples of each emulsified asphalt considered for the project.
(b) Obtain representative samples of the job aggregate or aggregate blend.
(c) Prepare the aggregate by air drying until it is easily separated into sizes using the
following sieves: 25.0 mm (1 in.), 19.0 mm (3/4 in.), 12.5 mm (112 in.), 9.5 mm
(3/8 in.), and 4.75 mm (No.4) sieve. Dry until the portion passing the 4.75 mm
(No.4) sieve has a free-flowing consistency. Any suitable means of drying which
does not heat the aggregate in excess of 60°C (140°F) or cause degradation of the
particles may be used. The aggregate should be stirred frequently to prevent crusting
or fonnulation of hard lumps.
(d) Detennine the moisture content on a combined sample of the air-dried aggregate
according to ASTM Test Method D 2216, "Laboratory Detennination of Moisture
Content of Soil," and record.
(e) Prepare a sufficient number of batches of the air-dried job aggregate for trial mixes.
The batch mass should be approximately 1200 g (oven dry basis). These batches
should be prepared by reblending exact fractions of material retained on 25.0 mm
(1 in.), 19.0 mm(3/4 in.), 12.5 mm(l/2 in.), 9.5 mm(3/8 in.) and 4.75 mm(No. 4)
sieves with material passing 4.75 mm (No.4) sieve to match the grading analysis of
the whole sample.
(f) Place one batch of aggregate in the mixing bowl of the mechanical mixer. Incorporate
X percent of water by dry weight of aggregate in excess of the air dried water
content. Water should be added in a thin stream and the aggregate mixed until the
water is thoroughly dispersed. (Sixty seconds of mixing time is sufficient.) Select
the initial X percentage water by the following criteria:
1. Medium setting (HFMS, CMS and other solvent containing asphalt emulsions).
Initial trial may be mixed without the addition of any water (i.e., air dry condition).
2. Slow setting (SS and CSS) asphalt emulsions. Often require a higher water content
to produce satisfactory mixes; start the coating test at about 3 percent added water.
With aggregates containing clay, the aggregate should be placed in a sealed container
for a minimum of 15 hours prior to the addition of emulsified asphalt.
(g) Add the amount of emulsified asphalt (percent by weight of dry aggregate) as deter-
mined in Par. 14.06. The emulsion should be added in a thin stream to minimize the
tendency of the asphalt to ball up with the fine aggregate. A one-minute mixing
process* is usually satisfactory. If hand mixing is used, it should be sufficiently
thorough to disperse the asphalt throughout the mixture.
(h) Calculate the free water content of the aggregate at mixing by combining the moisture
content of the aggregate as detennined in Step (d) with the percentage of water added
in Step (f).
*Mixing time should be shortened to 30 seconds if segregation of asphalt-fines mixture from coarse aggregate is noticed.
157
Example:
Water content of [air dried] aggregate = 0.5 percent
Percentage of water added prior to addition of emulsified asphalt = 3.0 percent
Total premix water before mixing with emulsified asphalt = 3.5 percent.
(i) Allow the mixtures to air dry with the aid of an electric fan. Prepare a new batch by
repeating Steps (t), (g) and (h) with an additional increment of 1 percent water by
weight of dry aggregate. Mixes which become soupy or segregate on standing are
considered unacceptable. When this occurs proceed to Step (j).
(j) Rate the appearance of the surface dry mixtures by visually estimating the total
aggregate surface area that is coated with asphalt. For each pre-mix water content at
mixing, record the estimate of the coating as a percentage of the total area. Aggregate
coating in excess of 50 percent shall be considered acceptable (see Note 1). If the
mixture does not attain 50 percent coating at any water content, the emulsion shall
be rejected from further consideration. If the coating appears borderline, the mixture
may be evaluated by the full mixture design procedure.
(k) For medium setting (HFMS, CMS and other solvent-containing asphalt emulsions)
emulsions, use sufficient premix water to give optimum dispersion of the emulsified
asphalt. In some cases, excessive premix water may cause stripping of the asphalt
from the aggregate. Where this occurs, use only as much water as needed to give at
least 50 percent coating. All subsequent mixing shall be done at the water content
that produces maximum coating without stripping (see Note 2).
(1) Slow setting (SS and CSS) asphalt emulsion mixtures generally exhibit increased
coating as the pre-mix water content is incrementally increased. At some point,
sufficient water is available for optimum dispersion of the asphalt and additional
increments of water do not improve coating. This result shall be the minimum pre-mix
water content required for mixing. All subsequent mixing in the design process shall
be done at the minimum pre-mix water content.
NOTE 1: It is important to recognize that 100 percent coating common to hot-mixed materials
is desirable but not required. Sufficient asphalt to produce 100 percent coating may result in
an excessively high asphalt content.
NOTE 2: Some combinations of aggregate and emulsified asphalt are not significantly affected
by a variation of water content at mixing. In these cases, mixing may be allowed at or above
the optimum water content as determined for compaction.
14.08 OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT AT COMPACTION
Mixture properties are closely related to the density of the compacted specimens. Thus, it
is necessary to optimize the water content at compaction to maximize the desired mixture
properties. This must be done for each combination of emulsified asphalt, type and grade,
and aggregate type considered for each project.
The mixture design procedure utilizes standard Marshall specimens in the evaluation of
compacted mixture properties. To obtain reliable results, triplicate specimens are prepared for
each water content at compaction.
158
a. EQUIPMENT
The equipment required for the preparation of test specimens is as follows:
(1) Scoop, for batching aggregate.
(2) Thermometer, armored, glass or dial type with metal stem, lOoC (50
0
P) to 65.5°C
(150
0
P).
(3) Balance, 10 kg capacity, sensitive to ± 1 g for aggregate and aerating mixtures.
(4) Balance, 2 kg capacity, sensitive to ±0.1 g for compacted specimens and bulk
density determination.
(5) Mixing spoon, large.
(6) Spatulas, small and large.
(7) Mechanical mixer, capacity to handle 2500 g.
*(8) Compaction pedestal consisting of an 200 x 200 x 460 mm (8 x 8 x 18 in.)
wooden post capped with a 305 x 305 x 25 mm (12 x 12 x 1 in.) steel plate.
The wooden post should be oak, yellow pine or other wood having a density of
673 to 769 kg/m
3
(42 to 48 Ib/ft
3
). The wooden post should be secured by four
angle brackets to a solid concrete slab. The steel cap should be firmly fastened to
the post. The pedestal should be installed so that the post is plumb, the cap level,
and the entire assembly is free from movement during compaction.
*(9) Compaction mold consisting of base plate, forming mold, and collar extension. The
forming mold has an inside diameter of 101.6 mm (4 in.) and height of approximately
76 mm (3 in.); the base plate and collar extension are designed to be interchangeable
with either end of the forming mold.
*( 10) Compaction hammer consisting of a flat circular tamping face 98.4 mm (3% in.)
diameter and equipped with a 4.5 kg (10 Ib) mass constructed to obtain a specified
457 mm (18 in.) height of drop.
*( 11) Mold holder, consisting of spring tension device designed to hold compaction mold
in place on compaction pedestal.
(12) Extrusion jack or Arbor press for extruding compacted specimens from mold.
(13) Gloves, welders, for handling hot equipment; gloves, rubber, for removing speci-
mens from oven.
(14) Marking crayons for identifying test specimens.
(15) Pans, metal, approximately 200 x 355 x 50 mm (8 x 14 x 2 in.) for batching
aggregates.
(16) Oven, forced draft, capable of maintaining a temperature of 110 ± 2.8°C (230 ±
2.8°P) for determining moisture contents.
b. PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS
(1) Number of specimens. Prepare three specimens for each water content at compaction
to be evaluated. Generally, three increments of water content one percent apart are sufficient
to define the stability (density) / water content at compaction curve.
(2) Preparation of molds and hammer. Thoroughly clean the specimen mold assemblies
and the face of the compaction hammer. Place a piece of waxed paper cut to size in the
bottom of the mold before placing mixture in the mold.
*Marshall test apparatus should confonn to requirements of ASTM test method D 1559.
159
(3) Preparation of aggregate. Recombine each size fraction of the aggregate to produce
a total aggregate mass of 1.2 kg for each batch. Place the pans in a well ventilated area
and determine the temperature of the aggregate. The temperature should be adjusted to
22.2 ± 1.7°C (72 ± 3°F) prior to mixing.
(4) Calculations. Four calculations are required for each combination of aggregate and
asphalt: mass of aggregate, emulsified asphalt, added pre-mixing water and water loss for
compaction. The following formulas are used for the calculations.
(a) Mass of air dried aggregate added
a
100 _ b x 100
(b) Mass of emulsified asphalt = a : c
(c) Mass of pre-mixing water added = a ~ - b _ e ; C) 100
(d) Mass of water loss for compaction -- a(fl00-g)
where a
b
c
d
e
f
g
Example:
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
mass of dry aggregate
percent water content of air-dried aggregate
desired residual asphalt content, percent weight dry aggregate
percent residual asphalt in the emulsion
percent water in emulsified asphalt = 100 - d
percent pre-mix water content at mixing (mass dry aggregate)
percent water content at compaction (mass dry aggregate)
mass of dry aggregate = a = 1200 g
percent water content of air-dried aggregate = b = 0.5 percent
desired residual asphalt content = c = 4.0 percent
percent residual asphalt in the emulsified asphalt = d = 65 percent
percent water in emulsified asphalt = e = 35 percent
percent pre-mix water content at mixing = f = 5.0 percent
percent water content at compaction = g = 3.5 percent
(a) Mass of air-dried aggregate added = 1 ~ 2 ~ ~ . 5 x 100 = 1206 g.
(b) Mass of emulsified asphalt = 1200
6
; 4.0 = 74 g.
(c) Mass of added pre-mixing water = 1200(5.0 - 0.5 _ 35 x 4.0)1100 = 28 g.
65
(d) Mass of water loss for compaction = 1200(5.0 - 3.5) = 18 g.
100
Appropriate input values for the previous formulas are discussed in subsequent
sections.
160
(5) Addition of pre-mixing water. Place the air dried aggregate in the mechanical mixer.
Calculate the total amount of free water that needs to be added to achieve the optimum
pre-mixing water as determined in the coating test. (Par. 14.07).
Measure the volume of added water in a graduated cylinder. The temperature of
the water shall be 22.2 ± I. 7°C (72 ± 3°F). Add the water in a slow stream and
mix for 1 ± 0.5 minutes or until the water is thoroughly dispersed throughout the
aggregate. For aggregates containing clay the material shall be placed in a sealed
container for a minimum of 15 hours (see Note below). Determine the mass of
emulsified asphalt container and record. Add the emulsified asphalt to the moistened
aggregate in a thin stream as the material is mixing. Reweigh the emulsified asphalt
container periodically to ensure the required mass of emulsified asphalt is not exceeded.
A one minute mixing time using a mechanical mixer should be sufficient. Excessive
mixing tends to strip the asphalt from the aggregate and should be avoided.
(6) Aeration to reduce the water content of the mixture to get maximum density (see
Par. 14.08b (1). If the desired water content at compaction differs from the optimum
mixing water content, aeration is required. Remove all material from the mixing bowl
and blade and place in an aeration pan. Distribute the mixture in the pan such that
the depth does not exceed 25 millimetres (1 in.). Record the mass of the mixture and
pan. The required loss to reach the desired compaction water content is calculated by
equation (4)(d). The required loss is subtracted from the recorded mass of mixture
and pan and that mass recorded. A fan may be used to aerate the mixture. Stir and
weigh the mixture every 10 ± 0.5 minutes until the calculated required water loss is
complete. The mixture is now ready for compaction.
NOTE: If coating of the aggregate is not sensitive to the water content at mixing as determined
in the coating test (Par. 14.07), the aggregate may be mixed at the desired water content at
compaction, emulsion added, and the mixture compacted immediately.
(7) Compaction of specimens. For specimens to be tested in the modified Marshall
stability test use standard Marshall forming molds. Assemble the base plate, Marshall
forming mold, and collar extension. Cover the base plate with a piece of waxed paper
cut to size and place mixture in the mold assembly (see Note). Spade the mixture
with a small spatula 15 times around the perimeter and 10 times over the interior.
Place a second piece of waxed paper cut to size over the top of the mixture. Repeat
this process for the remaining mold assemblies.
Place the first mold assembly on the compaction pedestal in the mold holder and
apply 50 blows with the compaction hammer. Remove the collar and base plate,
reverse the mold and reassemble. Apply the same number of compaction blows to
the face of the reversed specimen. Repeat the process for the remaining mold as-
semblies. Remove the collars, base plates, and paper from all specimens. Specimens
are now ready for curing.
161
NOTE: Generally it is desirable to prepare a single trial specimen for each type of aggregate considered for
the job prior to compacting the test specimens. Should the height of the extruded trial specimen fall outside
thelimitsof63.S ± 6 mm(2.5 ± 0.251n.), the amount of mixture per specimen may be adjusted as follows:
Adjusted mass of aggregate per specimen =
or for U.S. Customary Units:
Adjusted weight of aggregate =
63.5 ( mass of aggregate used)
(specimen height (mm) obtained)
2.5 (weight of aggregate used)
(specimen height (in.) obtained)
(8) Curing of specimens. Cure for 1 day in the mold at room temperature, with molds
on their edge for equal ventilation on both sides, and then extrude. After extrusion,
the bulk specific gravities of the specimens are determined by displacement in water
(ASTM D 1188 or D 2726).
(9) A plot is made of dry density versus fluids content at compaction. The fluids content
resulting in the highest density is optimum for compaction. (See "Mix Design Cal-
culations" for use with Table XIV-I).
If further definition of results is required, batches with an additional water content
at compaction may be prepared. The optimum water content at compaction shall be
used on all subsequent compaction regardless of the residual asphalt content.
14.09 VARIATION OF RESIDUAL ASPHALT CONTENT
In determining the optimum residual asphalt content for a particular aggregate and emulsified
asphalt combination, a series of test specimens are prepared over a range of residual asphalt
contents, using the previously established optimum water contents for mixing and compaction.
Test mixtures are prepared in one percent increments of residual asphalt content with two
increments on either side of the trial asphalt content determined in Par. 14.06. If further
definition of test results is required, increments farther away from the trial residual asphalt
content are prepared.
a. EQUIPMENT
The equipment required for preparation of specimens is listed under Equipment, Par.
14.08a.
b. PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS
Use the Procedure for Preparation of Specimens listed in Par. 14.08b. Additional instructions
and clarifications presented below correspond to the appropriate Sections of 14.08b.
162
(1) Number of specimens. Prepare six specimens for each residual asphalt content.
(2) Preparation of molds and hammer. No change.
(3) Preparation of aggregate. Use a total aggregate mass of 1.2 kg for each specimen batch.
(4) Calculations. No change.
(5) Addition of mixing water. Note that the optimum total compaction water is used for
all asphalt contents. As the residual asphalt content increases, the amount of water
contributed by the emulsion increases. Thus, the amount of pre-mix water added will
be reduced as the residual asphalt content is increased. Vary the residual asphalt
content on successive batches to yield five one-percent increments (the trial residual
asphalt content and one and two percent increments both sides of the trial).
(6) Aeration to reduce the water content of the mixtures. No change.
(7) Compaction of specimens. No change.
(S) Curing of specimens. Cure for 1 day in the mold at room temperature, extrude and
cure for 1 day out of mold in oven at 3SoC (100°F).
14.10 TEST PROCEDURE
To complete the mix design, the following tests and analyses are made from data obtained
from the compacted specimens:
Bulk Specific Gravity.
Modified Marshall Stability and Flow of Dry Specimens at 22.2 ± 1. 1°C (72 ± 2°F).
Soaked Stability and Flow after vacuum saturation and immersion.
Density and Voids Analysis.
Moisture Absorption.
Table XIV -1 is a detailed data sheet that can be used to record pertinent data and perform
calculations.
a. EQUIPMENT
The equipment required for the testing of the 102mm (4 in.) diameter x 64mm
(2-112 in.) height speci mens is as follows:
(1) Marshall Testing Machine. A compression testing device. It is designed to apply
loads of test specimens through semicircular testing heads at a constant rate of strain
of (50.Smm) (2 in.) per minute. It is equipped with a calibrated proving ring for
determining the applied testing load, a Marshall stability testing head for use in testing
the specimen and a Marshall flow meter for determining the amount of strain at the
maximum load for the test. A universal testing machine equipped with suitable load
and deformation indicating devices may be used instead of the Marshall testing frame.
(2) Water Bath. At least 610 x 915 x 155mm (24 x 36 x 6 in.) and thermostatically
controlled at 22.2 ± 1.1
0
C (72 ± 2
0
F).
(3) Pans, either 229 x 229 mm (9 x 9 in.) or 254mm (10 in.) in diameter and 25mm
(1 in.) deep capable of containing failed specimens for moisture content determination.
(4) Balances 1500g capacity equipped for bulk density determination.
(5) Towel, cloth for drying samples during bulk density determination.
(6) Vacuum pump, vacuum desiccator and manometer. (See Chapter XI, Par. 11.0S.)
163
b. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION
The method used for determination is ASTM D 2726, "Bulk Specific Gravity and
Density of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens" or
ASTM D 1188, "Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures
Using Paraffin-Coated Specimens."
TABLE XIV-1 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MIXTURE DATA SHEET
(Use for specimens containing a single residual asphalt content)
ASPHALT AGGREGATE
Type & Grade Source rd.
Asphalt in Emulsion % Type
Asphalt Spec. Gra. (B) Apparent Spec. Grav. (C)
Residual Asphalt
%
in Mi xture (A)
MIXING AND COMPACTION TESTING
Total Mix Water % Dry Spec. Test Date
Added Mix Water
9
Rotate Soak Spec. Date
Water at Compaction % Soak Spec. Test Date
Compac t i OJ) Da te
COMPACTED SPECIMEN DATA Dry Soaked
1 2 3 4 5 6
Bul k Density
Mass in Air (D)
>< >< ><
Mass in Water (E)
>< >< ><
Mass SSD (F)
>< >< ><
BSG - compacted mix (G)
>< >< ><
Dry BSG - compacted mix
>< >< ><
Thickness
Stabil ity
Dial
Load
Adjusted Stability (S)
Flow
Moisture Content
Mass of specimen (H)
Mass of oven-dry specimen (I)
Tare (J)
Moisture content (K)
Moisture absorbed
>< >< ><
Maximum Total Voids - %
XlXX
164
c. MODIFIED STABILITY AND FLOW TESTS
After determining the bulk specific gravity on six cured specimens, test three of them
for stability and flow as follows: (In the selection of test specimens, the three retained
for water conditioning should have the same average density as the three tested dry.)
(I) Determine mass of cured specimens and record in column' 'Mass of Specimen (H)"
(2) Thoroughly clean the guide rods and inside surfaces of the test heads prior to making
the test, and lubricate the guide rods so that the upper test head slides freely over
them. The testing head temperature is maintained between (21.1 and 23.3°C) (70 and
74°P) using a water bath when required. Check the load measuring device for zero
"adjustment. "
(3) Place one of the three specimens on the lower testing head into position and center
complete assembly in the loading device. Place the flow meter over marked guide rod.
(4) Apply testing load to specimen at constant rate of deformation of (50.8 mm) (2 in.)
per minute until failure is obtained. The total number of newtons (pounds) required
to produce failure of the specimen at 22.2 ± 1.1°C (72 ± 2°P) shall be recorded
as its modified Marshall stability value.
(5) While the stability test is in progress, hold the flow meter firmly in position over the
guide rod and remove it the instant the maximum load starts to decrease. Note and
record the indicated flow value in units of 0.25mm (0.01 in.)
(6) Place the failed specimens in tared pans taking care to make sure all of the of the
specimen is put into the pan. The specimens are broken up and put in an oven
at 93 + 6° C (200 + 10° F). The specimens are removed after 24 hours, reweighed,
and the masses recorded under the heading "Mass of Oven Dried Specimen." The
mass of the water is corrected by su btracting the mass of water absorbed during bulk
specific gravity determination. The mass of the water absorbed can be determined
by subtracting the mass of the dry specimens from the mass of the SSD specimen.
Prom the data obtained above, a water content at testing is determined.
MIX DESIGN CALCULATIONS
POR USE WITH TABLE XIV-I
G (bulk specific gravity) = _p D
-E
G
'fi') G (100 + A)
d (dry bulk Specl IC gravity = X (100 + A + K)
Dry density, Kg/m2 = 1,000 Gd (lb/ftJ = Gd K 62.4)
, mass of water, g
K (water content at testmg), % = f d' X (100 + A)
mass 0 ry mixture, g
_ [(100 + A+K 100), (100 + A + K)] 100
VMA % - - - -:- X
,7< G C G
[(
100 + A + K 100 A) (100 + A + K)]
V (total voids), % = G - C - Ii + G X 100
[(
K X 1(0) (100 + A + K)]
Air Voids, % = V - L + G
165
Percent stability loss -
3 3
x 100
Moisture absorbed =
where:
D = mass of specimen in air, g;
E = mass of specimen in water, g;
F = mass of specimen in saturated surface-dry (SSD) condition, g;
A = asphalt residue as percent of dry aggregate mass;
B = specific gravity of asphalt;
C = apparent specific gravity of aggregate;
L = specific gravity ofwater;and
S = adjusted stability
Note: Letters A through S refer to identical letters in parentheses in Table X/V-J
d. SOAKED STABILITY AND FLOW TESTS
After testing three of the six cured specimens for each residual asphalt content, the remaining
three specimens are subjected to vacuum saturation and immersion.
(1) Each specimen is separately placed into the vacuum apparatus (See Chapter XI, from
Par. 11.08b. (2), and covered with water (desiccant should be removed from the
vacuum apparatus before filling with water).
(2) Evacuate the desiccator to l00mm of Hg and hold for one hour.
(3) Slowly release the vacuum and allow specimen to soak in water for one hour.
(4) The specimens are then tested in modified Marshall stability and moisture content
determination as outlined in Section c.
e. DENSITY AND VOIDS ANALYSIS
A density and voids analysis is conducted as follows:
(1) Detennine each unit weight by multiplying the bulk specific gravity by 62.4 (for unit
weight in kg/m
3
multiply by 1000).
(2) After detennining water content at testing, aggregate apparent specific gravity, asphalt
specific gravity, and mix bulk specific gravity, voids can be calculated as shown
under' 'Mix Design Calculations for use with Table XIV-I. "
Voids are calculated for each specimen. Any values that are more than 50 percent from
the average of the three specimens should not be used.
14.11 INTERPRETATION OF TEST DATA
The stability, flow, voids, bulk density, and moisture content data are prepared as follows:
(1) Measured stability values for specimens that depart from the standard 63.5mm (2-1 /2
in.) thickness shall be converted to an equivalent 63.5mm (2-1/2 in.) value by means
of a conversion factor. Applicable correlation ratios to convert the measured stability
values are set forth in Table XIV-2. Note that the conversion may be made on the
basis of either measured thickness or measured volume.
166
TABLE XIV-2 STABILITY CORRELATION RATIOS
-
Volume of Approximate Thickness Correlation
Specimen of Specimen Ratio
cm
3
mm in.
457 to 470 57.2 2 114 1.19
471 to 482 58.7 25/16 1.14
483 to 495 60.3 2 3/8 1.09
496 to 508 61.9 2 7116 1.04
509 to 522 63.5 2 112 1.00
523 to 535 64.0 2 9/16 0.96
536 to 546 65.1 2 5/8 0.93
547 to 559 66.7 211116 0.89
560 to 573 68.3 2 3/4 0.86
NOTES:
I. The measured stability of a specimen multipled by the ratio for the thickness of the specimen equals the
corrected stability for a 63.S mm (2 1!2-in.) specimen.
2. Volume-thickness relationship is based on a specimen diameter of 101.6 mm (4 in.).
(2) Average the flow values and the converted stability values for all specimens of a
given asphalt content. Values that are obviously in error shall not be included in the
average.
(3) Prepare a separate graphical plot for the following factors as illustrated in Figure XIV-I.
(a) Dry and soaked stability versus residual asphalt content.
(b) Percent stability loss versus residual asphalt content [calculated by (Dry Stability
-Wet Stability) lOO/Dry Stability]
(c) Dry bulk density (corrected for moisture) versus residual asphalt content.
(d) Percent moisture absorbed versus residual asphalt content.
(e) Percent total voids (air plus moisture) versus residual asphalt content.
In each graphical plot, connect the data with a smooth curve that provides the best fit
for all values.
a. TRENDS AND RELATIONS OF TEST DATA
The test property curves as previously plotted have been found to vary copsiderably
between aggregate types and gradations, but typical curves are shown in Figure XIV-I.
General trends are described as follows:
(1) Soaked stability will generally show a peak at a particular residual asphalt content
while dry stability will generally show a continually decreasing curve with increasing
residual asphalt content. Some mixes may show a continual increase in soaked stability
over the range of asphalt content evaluated, which indicates the increased beneficial
effect of additional asphalt content on soaked stability.
(2) Percent loss of stability (computed by [dry stability - soaked stability] tOO/dry stability)
generally decreases as residual asphalt content increases.
(3) Dry bulk density usually peaks at a particular residual asphalt content.
167
(4) Percent moisture absorbed during the soak test decreases with increased residual
asphalt content.
(5) Percent total voids (air plus moisture) decreases as residual asphalt content increases.
b. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM ASPHALT CONTENT
(1) Mixture must provide an adequate stability when tested in a "soaked" condition to
provide adequate resistance to traffic load during wet seasons.
(2) The percent loss of stability of the mixture when tested "soaked" as opposed to
"dry" should not be excessive. A high loss is indicative of the mixture having high
moisture susceptibility and may cause disintegration during wet seasons.
(3) The total voids within the mixture should be within an acceptable range to prevent
either excessive pennanent deformation and moisture absorption (for too high void
content), or bleeding of the residual asphalt from the mixture (for a low void content).
(4) Moisture absorption into the mixture should not be excessive to minimize the potential
of stripping or weakening the bond between residual asphalt and agregate.
(5) Residual asphalt should provide adequate coating of the aggregate and should be
resistant to stripping or abrasion.
The optimum residual asphalt content for the paving mixture is determined from the data
obtained as presented. The optimum residual asphalt content is chosen that provides maximum
soaked stability, but is adjusted either up or down depending on moisture absorption, percent
loss of stability, total voids, and coating of aggregates. Design criteria for each of these values
is given in Table XIV-3. If the residual asphalt content at the peak of the soaked stability
curve provides for adequate moisture absorption, percent loss of stability, total voids, and
aggregate coating, it is selected as the optimum asphalt content. This value must meet minimum
stability requirements, however, as given in Table XIV-3, or the mix is rejected. If one or
more criteria cannot be met, the mix should be considered inadequate.
If no peak in residual asphalt content versus soaked stability or other properties is developed,
the optimum emulsion content should be established based on the best combinations of such
properties as Marshall stability of both cured and immersed specimens, percent stability loss
and dry density, with particular attention to the effects of water on specimen properties.
TABLE XIV-3 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE
MIXTURE DESIGN CRITERIA
Test Property
Stability, N (Ib) at 22.2°C (72°F)
Paving Mixtures
Percent Stability Loss
After vacuum saturation
and immersion
Aggregate Coating (percent)
Minimum Maximum
2224 (500)
50
50
168
II
~
II
~
Cl
Optimum
..
Residual Asphalt, %
(a)
"
Residual Asphalt, %
(c)
t
c
o
~ C)
a
.J::.
ilo
Ci5
eft. ::
o
..J
I L--_____ --J
..
~
0
-0
CD
~ I
~
·0
:!
Residual Asphalt, %
(e)
..
Residual Asphalt, %
(b)
..
Residual Asphalt, %
(d)
Figure XIV-1. Typical emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture design plots.
169
APPENDIX A
GLOSSARY
AGGREGATE
Aggregate: A hard inert mineral material, such as gravel, crushed rock, slag, or sand.
Coarse Aggregate: Aggregate retained on the 2.36mm (No.8) sieve.
Fine Aggregate: Aggregate passing the 2.36mm (No.8) sieve.
Sand: Fine aggregate resulting from natural disintegration and abrasion of rock or
processing of completely friable sandstone.
Dense-Graded Aggregate: Aggregate that is graded from the maximum size down through
filler with the object of obtaining an asphalt mix with a controlled void content and high stability.
Open-Graded Aggregate: Aggregate containing little or no mineral filler or in which
the void spaces in the compacted aggregate are relatively large.
Sandy Soil: A material consisting essentially of fine aggregate particles smaller than
2.00mm (No. 10) sieve and usually containing material passing a 75 J.lm (No. 2(0) sieve.
This material usually exhibits plasticity characteristics.
ASPHALT
Asphalt: "A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating
constituents are bitumens which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum
processing" (ASTM Designation D 8). Asphalt is a constituent in varying proportions of
most crude petroleums.
Asphalt Cement: Asphalt that is refined to meet specifications for paving, industrial,
and special purposes. It requires heat to make it fluid.
Asphalt Prime Coat: An application of asphalt primer to an absorbent surface. It is
used to prepare an untreated base for an asphalt surface. The prime penetrates or is mix-
ed into the surface of the base and plugs the voids, hardens the top and helps bind it to
the overlying asphalt course.
Asphalt Primer: A fluid asphalt of low viscosity (highly liquid) that penetrates into a
non-bituminous surface upon application.
Asphalt Seal Coat: A thin asphalt surface treatment applied to an existing asphalt surface.
Asphalt Surface Treatment: Application of asphalt materials to any type of road surface,
with or without a cover of mineral aggregate, that produces an increase in thickness of usually
less than 25mm (1 in.)
Cutback Asphalt: Asphalt cement that has been liquefied by blending with petroleum
solvents.
Emulsified Asphalt: An emulsion of asphalt cement and water which contains a small
amount of an emulsifying agent. Emulsified asphalt droplets may be of either the anionic
(negative charge) or cationic (positive charge) type, depending upon the emulsifying
agent.
171
EQUIPMENT
Aggregate Spreaders: Machines for spreading aggregate evenly at a controlled rate on
a surface.
Mechanical Spreaders: Spreader boxes mounted on wheels. The spreaders are attached
to, and are pushed by, the dump trucks.
Self-Propelled Spreaders: Spreaders with their own power units, and two hoppers. The
spreader pulls the truck as it dumps its load into the receiving hopper. The aggregate is
moved forward by conveyor belts to the spreading hopper.
Tail Gate Spreaders: Boxes with adjustable openings, which attach to and suspend
from the tail gates of dump trucks.
Whirl Spreaders: Spreaders that attach to or are built on to dump trucks. Aggregate is
fed on to the spreader disc through an adjustable opening and the speed of the disc is ad-
justable to control the width of spread.
Aggregate Trucks: Trucks equipped with hydraulic lifts to dump the aggregate into the
spreader.
Asphalt Distributor: A truck, or a trailer, with an insulated tank and a heating system.
The distributor is made to apply asphalt to a surface in an even spread and at a uniform
rate for the whole load.
Power Sweeper: A power operated rotary broom used to clean loose material from the
pavement.
Pneumatic- Tired Rollers: Rollers, usually two-axled and self-propelled, with a number
of tires spaced so their tracks overlap while giving kneading compaction.
Steel- Tired Static Rollers: Tandem, or three-wheel, rollers with cylindrical steel rolls
that apply their weight directly to the pavement.
Travel Plants: Travel plants are self-propelled pugmill plants that proportion and mix
aggregates and asphalt as they move along the road. There are three general types of
travel plants:
1. One that moves through a prepared aggregate windrow on the roadbed, adds
and mixes the asphalt as it goes and discharges to the rear a mixed windrow
ready for aeration and spreading.
2. One that receives aggregate into its hopper from haul trucks, adds and mixes
asphalt, and spreads the mix to the rear as it moves along the roadbed.
3. Batch mixing units, such as slurry machines, that haul materials to the site
then mix and apply the materials.
TYPES OF ASPHALT SURFACE TREATMENTS AND MIXES
Asphalt Emulsion Mix (Hot): A mixture of emulsified asphalt materials and mineral aggregate
usually prepared in a conventional hot-mix plant or drum mixer at a temperature of not more
than (127°C) (260°F). It is spread and compacted at the job site at a temperature above (93°C(
(200°F).
Pavement Base and Surface: The lower or underlying pavement course atop the subbase or
subgrade and the top of wearing course.
172
Plant Mix (Cold): A mixture of emulsified asphalt and mineral aggregate prepared in a
central mixing plant and spread and compacted at the job site when the mixture is at or
near ambient temperature.
Asphalt Application: The application of sprayed asphalt coatings not involving the use
of aggregates.
Asphalt-Aggregate Applications: Applications of asphalt material to a prepared ag-
gregate base or pavement surface followed by the application of aggregate.
Maintenance Mix: A mixture of asphalt material and mineral aggregate for use in
relatively small areas to patch holes, depressions, and distressed areas in existing
pavements. Appropriate hand or mechanical methods are used in placing and compac-
ting the mix.
Single Surface Treatment: A single application of asphalt to any kind of road surface
immediately 12Y-a single layer of aggregate of as uniform size as practicable. The
thickness of the treatment is about the same as the nominal maximum size aggregate par-
ticles. A single surface treatment is used as a wearing and waterproofing course.
Multiple Surface Treatment: Two or more surface treatments placed one on the other. The
aggregate maximum size of each successive treatment is usually one-half that of the previous
one, and the total thickness is about the same as the nominal maximum size aggregate particles
of the first course. Or, a multiple surface treatment may be a series of single treatments that
produces a pavement course up to 25mm (1 in.) or more in thickness. A mUltiple surface
treatment is a denser wearing and waterproofing course than a single surface treatment, and it
adds some strength.
Seal Coat: A thin surface treatment used to improve the texture of and waterproof an
asphalt surface. Depending on the purpose, seal coats mayor may not be covered with
aggregate. The main types of seal coats are aggregate seals, fog seals, emulsion slurry
seals, and sand seals.
Aggregate Seal: Usually the same as single surface treatment, see above.
Fog Seal: A light application of slow-setting asphalt emulsion diluted with
water. It is used to renew old asphalt surfaces, seal small cracks and surface
voids and inhibit raveling.
Emulsion Slurry Seal: A mixture of emulsified asphalt, well-graded fine ag-
gregate, mineral filler, and water. It is used to fill cracks and sealed areas of
old pavements, to restore a uniform surface texture, to seal the surface to
prevent moisture and air intrusion into the pavement, and to provide skid
resistance.
Sand Seal: An application of asphalt material covered with fine aggregate. It may
be used to improve the skid resistance of slippery pavements and to seal against
air and water intrusion.
Prime Coat: An application of\low viscosity fluig asphalt to an absorbent surface. It is
used to prepare an untreated base=Tor an asphalt surface. The prime penetrates into the
base and plugs the voids, hardens and helps to the overlying asphalt
course.
Tack Coat: A very light application of asphalt emulsion diluted with water. It is used to
ensure the surface being paved and the overlying course.
173
Dust Laying: Diluted slow-setting emulsion, sprayed on an untreated surface to prevent
dust. The asphalt penetrates and coats the fine particles to relieve the dust nuisance temporarily.
This treatment also is called dust palliative.
Road Oiling: Similar to dust laying except that usually it is done as a part of a planned
build-up of low-cost road surfaces over several years. Each application of asphalt may be
mechanically mixed with the material being treated or allowed to penetrate.
Mulch Treatment: A spray application of asphalt material used to temporarily stabilize a
recently-seeded area. The asphalt material can be applied to the soil or to a straw or hay mulch
as a tie-down.
Crack Filler: Asphalt material used to fill and seal cracks in existing pavement.
174
APPENDIX B
TESTING EMULSIFIED ASPHALT (ASTM D 244)
Reprinted with permission, from the Annual Book of
ASTM Standards, copyright American Society for Test-
ing and Materials, 1916 Race Street, Philadelphia, PA
19103
Standard Methods of Testing
EMULSIFIED ASPHAL TS
1 ~ t Designation: D 244 - 86
This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 244: the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of
original adoption or. in the case of revision. the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (tl indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
1. Scope
1.1 The methods given under the headings
titled Composition, Consistency, Stability, and
Examination of Residue cover the examination
of asphalt emulsions composed principally of a
semisolid or liquid asphaltic base, water, and an
emulsifying agent. The methods cover the follow-
ing tests:
Test
Composition:
Water Content.
Residue by Distillate.
Identification of Oil Distillate by Micro
Distillation
Residue by Evaporation
Particle Charge of Emulsified Asphalts
Consistency:
Viscosity (Saybolt Furol) ..
Stability:
Sections
4 to 8
9 to 13
14 to 16
17 to 21
.. 22 to 24
25 to 27
Demulsibility . . 28 to 31
Settlement . 32 to 35
Cement Mixing. . .. 36 to 40
Sieve Test .... 41 to 44
Coating 45 to 46
Miscibility with Water 47
Freezing. 48
Coating Ability and Water Resistance ... 49 to 54
Storage Stability of Asphalt Emulsion .. 55 to 61
Examination of Residue. . .. 62 to 67
Classification Test for Rapid Setting Cationic
Emulsified Asphalt. . .. 68 to 73
Field Coating Test on Emulsified Asphalts 74 to 78
Emulsified Asphalt/Job Aggregate Coating
Test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 79 to 85
Weight per Gallon of Emulsified Asphalt 86 to 91
1.2 This standard may involve hazardous ma-
terials. operations. and equipment. This standard
does not purport to address all of the safety prob-
lems associated with its use. It is the responsibil-
ity of whoever uses this standard to consult and
extablish appropriate safety and health practices
and determine the applicability of regulatory lim i-
tat ions prior to use.
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
C 150 Specification for Portland Cementl
C 190 Test Method for Tensile Strength of
Hydraulic Cement Mortars
2
D 5 Test Method for Penetration of Bitumi-
nous Materials
3
D6 Test Method for Loss on Heating of Oil
and Asphaltic Compounds
4
D 70 Test Method for Specific Gravity of Semi-
Solid Bituminous Materials)
D 86 Method for Distillation of Petroleum
Products
5
D 88 Test Method for Saybolt Viscositl
D 113 Test Method for Ductility of Bitumi-
nous Materials)
D 128 Methods for Analysis of Lubricating
Grease
5
D 139 Method of Roat Test for Bituminous
Materials)
D 140 Methods of Sampling Bituminous
Materials
3
D 2042 Test Method for Solubility of Asphalt
Materials in Trichloroethylene
3
D 3289 Test Method for Specific Gravity or
Density of Semi-Solid and Solid Bituminous
Materials by Nickel Crucible)
E I Specification for ASTM Thermometers
6
1 These methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Com-
mittee D-4 on Road and ~ a v i n g Materials and are the direct
responsibility of Subcommittee D04.42 on Emulsified Asphalt
Tests.
Current edition approved March 27. 1986. Published May.
1986. Originally published as D 244 - 26 T. Last previous edi-
tion D 244 - 85.
1 Annual Book ofASTM Standards. Vol 04.01.
l Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vol 04.03.
• Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 04.04.
I Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vol 05.01.
• Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vols 05.03 and 14.01.
175
E I I Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for
Testing Purposes
2
E 145 Specification for Gravity-Convection
and Forced-Ventilation Ovens7
Sample Conditioning for Testing
3.1 All emulsions with viscosity requirements
0244
of 122°F (50°C) should be heated to 122 ± SOF
(50 ± 3°C) in the original sample container in a
160°F water bath or oven. The container should
be vented to relieve pressure. After the sample
reaches 122 ± 5°F (50 ± 3°C), stir the sample to
achieve homoger eity.
COMPOSITION
WATER CONTENT
4. Apparatus and Materials
4.1 ,Hetal Still-The metal still (Fig. I(a))
shall be a vertical cylindrical vessel, preferably of
copper, having a faced flange at the top to which
the head is tightly attached by means of a clamp.
The head shall be made of metal, preferably brass
or copper, and shall be provided with a tubula-
tion I in. (25.4 mm) in inside diameter.
4.2 Glass Still-Tl)e glass still (Fig. I (b)) shall
be a short-neck, round-bottom flask, made of
well-annealed glass, and having an approximate
capacity of 500 mL.
4.3 lIeat Souree- The heat source used with
the metal still shall be a ring gas burner of 4-in.
(100-mm) inside diameter or an electric mantle
heater. The heat source for the glass still shall be
either an ordinary gas burner or an electric
heater.
4.4 Condenser-The condenser shall be a wa-
ter-cooled reflux glass-tube type, having a jacket
not less than 15
3
/4 in. (400 mm) in length, with
an inner tube 3fs to III in. (9.5 to 12.7 mm) in
outside diameter. The end of the condenser shall
be ground to an angle of 30 ± SO from the vertical
axis of the condenser.
4.5 Trap-The trap shall be made of annealed
glass constructed in accordance with Fig. I(c)
and shall be graduated in O.IO-mL divisions from
o to 2 mL, and in 0.20-mL divisions from 2 to
25 mL.
4.6 Solvent-Xylol or other petroleum distil-
late conforming to the following distillation re-
quirements: 98 % distills between 248 and 482°F
(120 and 250·C). This distillation shall be con-
ducted in accordance with Method D 86.
5. Sample
5.1 Obtain a representative sample of the ma-
terial for test using standard procedures as spec-
ified in Methods D 140.
176
NOTi I-The ditriculties in obtaining representative
samples for this determination are unusually great, so
that the importance of sampling cannot be too strongly
emphasized.
6. Procedure
6.1 When the material to be tested contains
less than 25 % water, place 100 ± 0.1 g of sample
in the still. When the material contains more
than 25 % water, use a 50 ± O.I-g sample. Thor-
oughly mix the sample to be tested with 200 mL
of solvent by swirling, taking proper care to avoid
any loss of material.
6.2 Connect the still, trap, and condenser by
means of tight-fitting corks as shown in Fig. I (a)
or (h). Adjust the end of the condenser in the
trap to a position which will allow the end to be
submerged to a depth of not more than 0.04 in.
(I mm) below the surface of the liquid in the trap
after distillation conditions have been estab-
lished. When using the metal still, insert a heaVy
paper gasket, moistened with the solvent, be-
tween the lid and flange before attaching the
clamp.
6.3 When the ring burner is used with the
metal still, place it about 3 in. (76.2 mm) above
the bottom of the still at the beginning of the
distillation, and gradually lower it as the distilla-
tion proceeds. Regulate the heat so that the con-
densate falls from the end of the condenser at a
rate of from 2 to 5 drops per second. Continue
the distillation at the specified rate until no water
is visible on any part of the apparatus and a
constant volume of water is obtained in the trap.
Remove any persistent ring of condensed water
in the condenser tube by increasing the rate of
distillation for a few minutes.
7. Calculation and Report
7.1 Calculate the water content as follows:
Water content, % = (AlB) x 100
J Annual Book o/ASTM Srandards, Vol 14.02.
where:
A = volume of water in trap, mL, and
B = original weight of sample, g.
7.2 Report the result as " ... water weight per-
cent, ASTM D 244.
8. Precision
8.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (95 % proba-
bility):
8.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Water Content. weight %
30 to 50
Repeatability. weight %
0.8
8.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Water Content. weight %
30 to 50
Reproducibility. weight %
2.0
RESIDUE AND OIL DISTILLATE BY
DISTILLATION
9. Scope
9.1 This method covers the quantitative de-
termination of residue and oil distillate in asphalt
emulsions composed principally of a semisolid
or liquid asphaltic base, water, and an emulsify-
ing agent.
10. Significance and Use
10.1 This method can be used for quantitative
determination of residue and oil distillates in
asphalt emulsions for specification acceptance.
service evaluation, control, and research. This
method can also be used to obtain residue and
oil distillate for further testing.
II. Apparatus
11.1 Aluminum-Alloy Still.8 (see Fig. 2), ap-
proximately 9
1
/2 in. (241.3 mm) in height by 3%
in. (95.3 mm) in inside diameter with one 4 3 / ~ _
in. (l21-mm) inside diameter ring burner,9 hav-
ing holes on the inner periphery and having three
spacers, to ensure centering of burner around the
still (see Fig. 3).
NOTE 2-Residue by distillation results obtained
with iron stills in accordance with Method D 244 - 66
are acceptable. Similarly results obtained with as-in.
(127-mm) ring burner as in subsequent issues of D 244
are acceptable.
0244
11.2 Connection Apparatus. consisting of a
glass connecting tube, tin shield. and water-
cooled glass condenser tube with a metal or
borosilicate glass jacket.
11.3 Graduated Cylinder. lOO-mL, with grad-
uation intervals of 1.0 mL.
11.4 Thermometer-Two ASTM Low-Distil-
lation Thermometers, graduated either in Fahr-
enheit or Celsius degrees as specified, having a
range from 30 to 580·F or - 2 to + 300·C, respec-
tively, and conforming to the requirements for
Thermometer 7F or 7C as prescribed in Specifi-
cation E I.
NOTE 3-For details of the assembly of apparatus
for the distillation test, see Fig. 4.
11.5 Balance. capable of weighing 3500 g to
within ±O.I g.
12. Procedure
12.1 Weigh 200 ± 0.1 g of a representative
sample of the emulsion in the previously weighed
aluminum-alloy still (including lid, clamp, ther-
mometers and gasket, if gasket is used).
12.2 Use a gasket of oiled paper between the
still and its cover, or grind the joint to a tight fit.
Securely clamp the cover on the still.
12.3 Insert a thermometer through a cork, in
each of the small holes provided in the cover.
Adjust these thermometers so that the end of the
bulb of one is 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) from the bottom
of the still and the bulb of the other is approxi-
mately 6
1
/2 in. (165.1 mm) from the bottom of
the still.
12.4 Place the ring burner around the still
about 6 in. (152.4 mm) from the bottom of the
still. Apply heat by lighting this burner and ad-
justing to low flame. Also apply just enough heat
from a bunsen burner to the connecting tube to
prevent condensation of water in this tube.
12.5 Move the ring burner approximately
level with the bottom when the temperature can
be read on the lower thermometer, approxi-
mately 420°F (2 I S·C). Increase the temperature
to 500 ± 10°F (260 ± 5°C), maintaining it at this
temperature for 15 min. Complete the total dis-
tillation in 60 ± 15 min from the first application
of heat.
• Available from P & H Electronics. 442 Columbia St..
Lafayette. IN 4790 I. Koehler Instruments, Inc., 168-56 Douglas
Ave., Jamaica. NY 11433. and Humboldt Mfg. Co .. 7300 w.
Agatite Ave .. Chicago. IL 60656.
• Available from Humboldt Manufacturing Co .. Catalog No.
H-1876. 7302 w. Agatite Ave., Chicago. IL 60656.
177
NOTE 4-The location of the burner at the start of
the test is flexible. It may be raised to decrease chance
of foam-over or lowered to middle of still for emulsion
containing no solvent. A sudden change in temperature
reading of upper thermometer indicates foam on bulb.
Remove heat until foaming ceases.
12.6 Immediately at the expiration of the
heating period, again weigh the stilI and acces-
sories as described in 12.1. Calculate and report
the percentage residue by distillation. Record the
volume of oil distillate to the nearest 112 mL.
Calculate and report the oil distillate as a volume
percentage on the total emulsion. Save this oil
distillate if identification is desired.
NOTE 5-The aluminum-alloy still at room temper-
ature (9.1) weighs 1.5 g more than at 500°F (260°C).
Correct for this error by adding 1.5 g to gross weight
obtained in 12.6 prior to calculating the percentage of
residue by distillation.
12.7 Remove the cover from the stilI, stir, and
immediately pour suitable portions of the residue
into an 8-oz tin or into suitable molds and con-
tail1ers for making the required tests. Permit the
residue in the molds and containers to cool,
uncovered, to room temperature, and thereafter
test as described in Sections 66 to 71. If there is
foreign matter in the residue, the material shall
be poured through a No. 50 (300-llm) sieve prior
to pouring into the test molds and containers.
13. Precision
13.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (95 % proba-
bility):
13.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Residue by Distillation.
weight %
50 to 70
Repeatability. weight
%
1.0
13.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Residue by Distillation.
weight %
50 to 70
Reproducibility. weight
%
2.0
13.2 The precision for penetration of residue
from distillation by this method is the same as
that shown in Section 69.
0244
IDENTIFICATION OF OIL DISTILLATE BY
MICRO-DISTILLATION
14. Apparatus
14.1 Apparatus shall be in accordance with
Method D 86, with the following exceptions:
14.1.1 Flask. 10-mL.
1O
14. J.2 Graduated Cylinder. JO-mL, gradua-
tion interval 1/10 mL.
14.1.3 Condenser. borosilicate glass, IOO-mm
jacket. 1 1
15. Procedure
15.1 Redistill a JO-mL sample of the oil dis-
ti1Iate under prescribed conditions of Method
D 86, using Group 2 Test Conditions in Table I
with the following exceptions:
Diameter of hole in flask support.
in. (mm)
Temperature at start of test:
Flask and thermometer
Graduate and 10-mL charge
16. Calculations and Reporting
0.75 (19)
not above ambient
not above ambient
16.1 Calculations and reporting shall be in
accordance with Method D 86, where applicable.
NOTE 6-Better identification of the solvent con-
tained in the emulsion is possible if a larger condenser
is used with ice water for the cooling medium during
the distillation of the emulsion.
RESIDUE BY EV APORA TION
17. Apparatus
17.1 Beakers. low form, lOOO-mL capacity,
made of borosilicate glass or aluminum.
17.2 Glass Rods. with flame-polished ends, 1/4
in. (6.4 mm) in diameter and 7 in. (177.8 mm)
in length.
17.3 Balance, capable of weighing 500 g to
within ±O.I g.
17.4 Oven, conforming to Specification E 145,
Type lB.
17.5 Sieve-A No. 50 (300-llm) sieve con-
forming to Specification Ell.
IS. Procedure A
18.1 Use procedure A when determination of
the percentage of residue only is required.
18.2 Weigh 50 ± 0.1 g of thoroughly mixed,
10 Arthur H. Thomas Co. Catalog No. 5395 flask has been
found satisfactory for this purpose.
" Arthur H. Thomas Co. Catalog No. 3906 condenser has
been found satisfactory for this purpose.
178
emulsified asphalt into each of three beakers,
each beaker having previously been weighed with
a glass rod. Place the beakers containing the rods
and sample in the oven, the temperature of which
has been adjusted to 325 ± 5°F (163 ± 2.S"C),
for 2 h. At the end of this period remove each
beaker and stir the residue thoroughly. Replace
in the oven for I h, then remove the beakers
from the oven, allow to cool to room tempera-
ture, and weigh, with the rods.
NOTE 7 -Care must be taken to prevent loss of
asphalt from the beaker through foaming or spattering,
or both. Also, the placing of beakers and emulsion
samples in a cold or warm oven and bringing the oven
and sample up to a temperature of 32s
o
F (l63"C)
together is permissible. If preferred, preliminary evap-
oration of water may be accomplished by careful heat-
ing on a hot plate. followed by oven treatment at 32s
o
F
for I h.
19. Calculation and Report
19.1 Calculate the percentage of residue on
each beaker as follows:
Residue. % = 2(A - B)
where:
A = weight of beaker, rod, and residue, g, and
B = tare weight of beaker and rod, g.
19.2 Report the percentage of residue by evap-
oration as the average of the three results.
20. Procedure B
20.1 Use procedure B when tests on the resi-
due from the emulsion are required.
20.2 Proceed in accordance with IS.2 using
four 50 ± O.I-g samples. After the calculation for
percentage of residue, replace the beakers in the
oven until the asphalt residue is sufficiently fluid
to pass through a No. 50 sieve (usually
requiring 15 to 30 min). Pour the residue through
the No. 50 sieve into suitable con-
tainers and molds for making such tests as de-
sired, as described in Sections 66 to 70.
Non 8-As the method for residue by evaporation
described in Sections 17 to 20 tends to give an asphaltic
residue lower in penetration and ductility than the
distillation method described in Sections II to 13.
material may be accepted but shall not be rejected as
failing to meet specifications containing requirements
for determination of residue by distillation. on data
obtained by evaporation. If residue from evaporation
fails to meet the requirements for properties specified
for residue from distillation, tests shall be rerun using
the distillation method.
0244
21. Precision
21.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (95 % proba-
bility):
21.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Residue by Evaporation.
weight %
50 to 70
Repeatability. weight %
0.4
21.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they by more than the following
amount:
Residue by Evaporation.
weight %
50 to 70
Reproducibility, weight %
0.8
PARTICLE CHARGE OF EMULSIFIED
ASPHALTS
NOTE 9-This test is made to identify cationic emul-
sions. Positively charged particles are classified as cati-
onic.
22. Apparatus
22.1 Current Source. of 12-V direct current, a
milliammeter, and a variable resistor. (See Figs.
5 and 6.)
22.2 Plates-Two stainless steel plates I in.
(25.4 mm) by 4 in. (101.6 mm), insulated from
each other and rigidly held parallel 1/2 in. (12.7
mm) apart. (See Fig. 5.)
22.3 Beaker. 150 or 250-mL.
23. Procedure
23.1 Pour the emulsion to be tested into the
150 or 250-mL beaker to a height that will allow
the electrodes to be immersed I in. (25.4 mm) in
the emulsion.
23.2 Connect the electrodes, which have been
cleaned and dried, to the doc current source and
insert them into the emulsion to a depth of I in.
(25.4 mm).
23.3 Adjust the current to at least S rnA with
the variable resistor and start timing with a suit-
able timing device equipped with a second hand.
NOTE 10-The 8 rnA is a minimum current value-
higher current levels may be specified. Current used
shall be reported.
23.4 When the current drops to 2 rnA, or at
the end of 30 min, whichever occurs first, discon-
179
nect the current source, and gently wash the
electrodes in running water.
23.5 Observe the asphalt deposit on the elec-
trodes. A cationic emulsion will deposit an ap-
preciable layer of asphalt on the cathode (nega-
tive electrode) while the anode (positive elec-
0244
trode) will be relatively clean.
24. Report
24.1 Report the test results in terms of the
determined polarity (positive or negative) as de-
fined in 23.S.
CONSISTENCY TEST
VISCOSITY
25. Apparatus
2S.1 Viscometer-A Saybolt Furol viscome-
ter conforming to the requirements specified in
Test Method D 88.
2S.2 Sieve-A No. 20 (8S0-jlm) sieve or a 20-
mesh strainer of wire cloth, framed or unframed.
2S.3 Thermometers-ASTM No. 17F or 17C
for tests at 77°F (2S°C) and ASTM No. 19F or
19C for tests at 122°F (SO°C), conforming to the
requirements of Specification E I.
2S.4 Water Bath. capable of maintaining the
required testing temperature within the limits
specified in Table 2 of Test Method D 88.
26. Procedure
26.1 Tests at 77"F (25"C}-Stir the sample
thoroughly without incorporating bubbles and
pour it into a 4-oz (118-mL) bottle. Place the
bottle in the water bath at 77°F (2S°C) for 30
min and mix the sample in the bottle by inverting
it several times slowly enough to prevent bubble
formation. Pour the sample into the viscometer
through the No. 20 (8S0-jlm) sieve or 20-mesh
strainer, allowing a small portion to flow through
the outlet tube to waste. Place the cork in posi-
tion, fill the viscometer and, without again stir-
ring the sample, determine the viscosity as pre-
scribed in Test Method D 88.
26.2 Tests at 122"F (50°C}-Clean and dry
the viscometer and insert the cork. Heat the
emulsion sample to 122 ± SOF (SO ± 3°C) in a
160 ± 5°F (71 ± 3°C) water bath or oven. Stir
the sample thoroughly without incorporating
bubbles, and then pour approximately 100 mL
into a 400-mL glass beaker. Immerse the bottom
of the beaker containing the emulsion approxi-
mately 2 in. (SO.8 mm) below the level of a 160
± SOF (71 ± 3°C) water bath. Hold the beaker
upright and stir the emulsion with a wide circular
motion at a rate of 60 rpm with the thermometer
to obtain uniform temperature distribution.
Avoid incorporation of bubbles. Heat the emul-
sion in the water bath to 124.S ± O.soF (S1.4 ±
O.3"e). Immediately pour the emulsion through
the No. 20 (8S0-jlm) sieve or 20-mesh strainer
into the viscometer until it is above the overflow
rim. Stir the emulsion in the viscometer at 60
rpm with the thermometer until the test temper-
ature is attained, avoiding bubble formation. Ad-
just the bath temperature until the emulsion
temperature remains constant for I min at 122
± O.loF (SO ± O.OS"C). Withdraw the thermom-
eter. Quickly remove the excess emulsion from
the gallery with a suction pipet. Determine the
viscosity as described in Test Method D 88. Re-
port the results to t:le nearest full second.
NOTE II-While the Saybolt Furol viscometer is
not used for petroleum products and lubricants when
the time of flow is less than 25 s, this instrument is
satisfactory for testing emulsified asphalt when the time
of flow is not less than 20 s.
27. Precision
27.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (9S % proba-
bility):
27.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Test Tempera-
ture. "F
77
122
Viscosity. s
20 to 100
75 to 400
Repeatability. %
of the mean
5
9.6
27.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the fOllowing
amount:
Test Tempera-
ture. OF
77
122
180
Viscosity. s
20 to 100
75 to 400
Reproducibility.
% of the mean
15
21
4t 0244
STABILITY TESTS
OEMVLSIBILITY
28. Apparatus and Heagents
28.1 Wire Cloth-Three pieces of No. 14
(1.40-mm) wire cloth approximately 5 in. (127.0
mm) square, unframed. having wire diameters
and openings that conform to Specification Ell.
28.2 Beakers-Three metal beakers of 600-
mL capacity each.
28.3 Rods-Three metal rods with rounded
ends, approximately 5/16 in. (7.9 mm) in diameter.
28.4 Buret-A 50-mL glass buret graduated
in O.I-mL intervals.
28.5 Calcium Chloride Solution (I. rt g/L)-
Dissolve 1.11 g of calcium chloride (CaCh) in
water and dIlute to I L. The 1.11 giL calcium
chloride solution shall be standardized to be a
0.02 N ± 0.00 I normal solution of calcium chlo-
ride in water.
28.6 Calciwn Chloride Solution (5.55 g/L)-
Dissolve 5.55 g ofCaCh in water and dilute to I
L. The 55.5 gil calcium chloride solution shall
be standardized to be a 0.1 N ± 0.00 I normal
solution of calcium chloride in water.
28.7 Dioctyl Sodium Su/fosuccinate Solution
(8.00 g/L)-Dissolve 8.00 g of dioctyl sodium
sulfosuccinate in 992 g ofwaler.
28.8 Balance. capable of weighing 500 g to
within ±O.I g.
29. Procedure
29.1 Determine the percentage of residue by
distillation as described in Section 12.
29.2 Record the weight of each assembly of
beaker, rod, and wire cloth.
29.3 Weigh 100 ± 0.1 g of the emulsified
asphalt into each of three 600-mL beakers in the
weighed assemblies. Bring the weighed sample of
emulsion and the proper reagent to a temperature
of 77 ± I.O°F (25 ± 0.5°C). Over a period of
approximately 2 min, add to each beaker, from
a buret, 35 mL ofCaCh solution (1.11 giL) (Note
14) for rapid setting emulsions, or 50 mL of
CaCh solution (5.55 giL) for mixing-type emul-
sions. While adding the CaCh solution, stir the
contents of the beaker continuously and vigor-
ously, kneading any lumps against the sides of
the beaker to ensure thorough mixing of the
reagent with the emulsion. Continue kneading
any lumps for an additional 2 min after the
addition of the CaCh solution.
NOTE 12-When testing cationic emulsions, use 35
mL of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate solution (0.8 %)
instead of 35 mL of CaCh solution (1.11 giL).
29.4 Decant the mixture of any unbroken
emulsion and reagent onto the wire cloth. Rinse
the beaker containing the sample and metal rod
with distilled water. Knead and break up all
lumps, and continue washing the beaker, rod,
and wire cloth until the wash water drains clear.
Place the wire cloth enclosing the asphalt in the
beaker with the metal rod. Place the assembly in
a 325°F ( 163°C) drying oven and dry to constant
weight.
30. Calculation
30.1 Subtract the tare weight of the beaker,
rod, and wire cloth from the weight of the dried
assembly to obtain the demulsibility residue. Cal-
culate the demulsibility as follows:
Demulsibility, % = (A/B) x 100
where:
A = average weight of demulsibility residue
from the three tests of each sample of emul-
sified asphalt, and
B = weight of residue by distillation in 100 g of
the emulsified asphalt.
31. Precision
31.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results of tests on RS
emulsions (95 % probability):
NOTE 13-Precision does not apply when using
dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate solution in the testing of
cationic emulsions for demulsibility.
31.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Demulsibility, weight %
30 to 100
Repeatability, % of the
mean
5
31.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
181
Demulsibility, weight %
30 to 100
Reproducibility. % of the
mearr
30
SETILEMENT
32. Apparatus
32.1 Cylinders-Two.500-mL glass cylinders,
with pressed or molded glass bases and cork or
glass stoppers, having an outside diameter of 50
±5mm.
32.2 Glass Pipet-A 60-mL siphon glass-tube
pipet of optional form.
32.3 Balance. capable of weighing 500 g to
within ±O.I g.
33. Procedure
33.1 Place a 500-mL representative sample in
each of the two glass cylinders. Stopper the cyl-
inders and allow them to stand undisturbed at
laboratory air temperature, for 5 days. After
standing for this period, remove approximately
the top 55 mL of emulsion by means of a pipet
or siphon without disturbing the balance. Mix
each portion thoroughly. Weigh 50 g of each
sample into separate weighed IOOO-mUow-form
glass beakers, and determine the asphaltic residue
by evaporation in accordance with Section IS.
33.2 After removal of the top sample, siphon
off approximately the next 390 mL from each of
the cylinders. Thoroughly mix the emulsion re-
maining in the cylinders and weigh 50 g into
separate weighed IOOO-mL low-form beakers.
Determine the asphaltic residue of these samples
in accordance with Section IS.
NOTE 14-lf the emulsion contains appreciable
amounts of oil distillate as determined by distiJlation
(see 12.6), the settlement value may be calculated from
the difference in the percentage of water content be-
tween the top and bottom samples as determined by
the procedure described in Section 6.
34. Calculation
34.1 Calculate the settlement as follows:
Settlement, % (5 days) = B - A
where:
A = average of the percentage of residues from
the top samples, and
B = average of the percentage of residues from
the bottom samples.
35. Precision
35.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (95 % proba-
bility):
35.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
0244
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Settlement. weight %
o to 1.0
above 1.0
Repeatability
0.4 weight %
5 % of the mean
35.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Settlement. weight %
o to 1.0
above 1.0
Reproducibility
0.8 weight %
10 % of the mean
CEMENT MIXING
36. Apparatus
36.1 Sieves-A No. SO (ISO-Ilm) sieve and a
3-in. (76.2-mm) diameter No. 14 (1.40-mm)
sieve, made of wire cloth conforming to Specifi-
cation Ell.
36.2 Dish-A round-bottom iron dish or a
kitchen saucepan of approximately 500-mL ca-
pacity.
36.3 Stirring Rod-A steel rod with rounded
ends, approximately 1/2 in. (13 mm) in diameter.
36.4 Graduate-A 100-mL graduated cylin-
der.
36.:; Balance. capable of weighing 500 g to
within ±O.I g.
37. Cement
37.1 High-early-strength portland cement
conforming to the requirements for Type III
portland cement in Specification C 150 and hav-
ing a minimum specific surface'area of 1900 cm
2
/
g, as measured by the Wagner Turbidimeter.
38. Procedure
3S.1 Dilute the emulsion with distilled water
to a residue of 55 %, as determined by distillation
or by evaporation for 3 h at 325°F (163°C).
3S.2 Sieve a portion of the cement through
the No. SO (IS0-llm) sieve. Weigh 50 ± 0.1 g of
the cement passing the No. SO (IS0-llm) sieve
into the iron dish or saucepan.
38.3 Bring the ingredients and apparatus to a
temperature of approximately 77°F (25°C) before
mixing. Add 100 mL of the diluted emulsion to
the cement and stir the mixture at once with the
steel rod, using a circular motion at a rate of 60
rpm. At the end of the I-min mixing period, add
150 mL of distilled water, and continue the stir-
182
ring for 3 min.
38.4 Pour the mixture through a weighed No.
14 (1.40-mm) sieve. Use repeated washings to
completely remove material from the mixing
bowl. Pour these over the sieve, and rinse the
sieve using distilled water held at a height of
approximately 6 in. (IS2.4 mm) until the water
is clear. Place the sieve in a weighed shallow pan,
heat at 32soF (163°C) in an oven, and weigh.
Repeat the heating and weighing until successive
weights differ by no more than 0.1 g.
39. Report
39.1 Report the weight, in grams, of the ma-
terial retained on the sieve and in the pan as the
percentage of break in the cement mixing test.
40. Precision
40.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (9S % proba-
bility):
40.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Cement Mixing. weight %
o to 2
Repeatability. weight %
0.2
40.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Cement Mixing. weight %
o to 2
Reproducibility. weight %
0.4
SIEVE TEST
41. Apparatus and Reagents
41.1 Sieve-A sieve having a 3-in. (76.2-mm)
frame conforming to Section 3.4 of Specification
E II. and having a No. 20 (8S0-l1m) wire sieve
cloth.
41.2 Pan-A tin box cover or shallow metal
pan of appropriate size to fit over the bottom of
the standard sieve.
41.3 Sodium Oleate Solution (2 %)-Dissolve
2 g of pure sodium oleate in distilled water and
dilute to 100 mL.
NOTE IS-Replace sodium oleate solution with dis-
tilled water in testing cationic emulsions.
41.4 Balances, capable of weighing 2000 g to
within ± I g, and SOO g to within ±O.I g.
42. Procedure
42.1 The temperature at which the sieve test
0244
should be performed is related to the emulsion
viscosity. For those materials whose viscosity is
100 s or less at 77°F (2S°C), perform the test at
room temperature. For those materials whose
viscosity is more than 100 s at 77°F (2S°C) and
those whose viscosity is specified at 122°F (SO°C),
use a test temperature of 122 ± SOF (SO ± 3°C).
If heating is necessary the emulsion, in a closed
container, may be placed in an oven or water
bath, followed by stirring to achieve homogene-
ity.
42.2 Record the weight of the sieve and pan
and wet the wire cloth with the 2 % sodium oleate
solution. Weigh 1000 g of the emulsified asphalt
into a suitable container and pour it through the
sieve. Wash the container and the residue on the
sieve with the sodium oleate solution until the
washings run clear. Place the pan under the sieve
and heat for 2 h in a 220°F (lOS°C) drying oven.
Cool in a desiccator, and weigh the sieve, pan
and residue.
43. Calculation
43.1 Calculate the percentage of sample re-
tained on the sieve as follows:
Sample retained, % = (B - A)/IO
where:
A = weight of sieve and pan, g, and
B = weight of sieve, pan, and residue, g.
44. Precision
44.1 The following criteria should be used for
jUdging the acceptability of results (9S % proba-
bility):
44.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Sieve Test. weight %
OtoO.1
Repeatability. weight %
0.03
44.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Sieve Test. weight %
o to 0.1
Reproducibility. weight %
0.08
COATING TEST
NOTE 16-This test is applicable only to emulsions
containing an asphalt base of semisolid consistency. It
is not applicable to the rapid-setting type of emulsions.
45. Apparatus and Material
4S.1 Sieves-Standard 3/4-in. (I9.0-mm) and
183
1/4-in. (6.3-mm) sieves conforming to Specifica-
tion E II.
45.2 Spatllla-A steel spatula or its equiva-
lent. having a blade approximately 8 in. (203.2
mm) in length.
45.3 Dish-A round-bottom iron dish or a
kitchen saucepan. of approximately l-qt (I-l)
capacity.
45.4 St one-A suppl y of reference stone (hard
limestone. trap rock. or other type) which has
been washed with water and dried before using.
All stone shall pass through the standard %-in.
(l9.0-mm) screen and not more than 5 % shall
pass through the 1/4-in. (6.3-mm) screen.
Non l7-Each laboratory shall select its own ref-
erence stone supply. the source of which is not apt to
change: this is to obviate rapid changes in the character
of reference stone used in anyone laboratory.
45.5 Balance. capable of weighing 1000 g to
within ± 0.1 g.
46. Procedure
46.1 Weigh 465 ± 0.1 g of stone into the metal
pan. Add 35 ± 0.1 g of the emulsion to the stone
in the pan. and mix vigorously with the spatula
for 3 min.
46.2 Record whether or not there is apprecia-
ble separation of the asphaltic base from the
water of the emulsion. and whether or not the
stone is uniformly and thoroughly coated with
the emulsion.
MISCIBILITY WITH WATER
NOTE 18-This test is not applicable to the rapid-
setting type of emulsions.
47. Procedure
47.1 Gradually add 150 ml of distilled water.
with constant stirring. to 50 ml of the emulsion
in a 400-ml glass beaker. The temperature
should be between 70 and 77°F (21 and 25T).
Allow the mixture to stand for 2 h; then examine
it for any appreciable coagulation of the asphalt
content of the emulsion.
FREEZING TEST
48. Procedure
48.1 Place approximately 400 g of the emul-
sion in a clean metal container, such as a I-pt
(500-ml) press-top can.
48.2 Expose the emulsion in the closed con-
0244
tainer to an air temperature of O°F (-17.8°C) for
12 (or more) consecutive hours.
48.3 At the expiration of the freezing period.
permit the emulsion to thaw by exposure of the
container to ambient temperature.
48.4 Repeat the freezing and thawing periods
until the emulsion will have been subjected to
three cycles of freezing and thawing.
48.5 After the third cycle, the emulsion may
be homogeneous or may have separated into
distinct layers which cannot be rendered homo-
geneous by stirring at laboratory temperature.
48.6 Report the result of this test as either
"Homogeneous" or "Broken."
COATING ABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE
NOTE 19-This method covers the determination of
the ability of an asphalt emulsion to (/) coat an aggre-
gate thoroughly. (2) withstand a mixing action while
remaining as a film on the aggregate. and (3) resist the
washing action of water after completion of the mixing.
The method is primarily intended to aid in the identi-
fication of asphalt emulsions suitable for mixing with
calcareous aggregates. (See Note 20 for
application of the method to other aggregates.)
49. Apparatus
49.1 Mixing Pan-A white-enameled kitchen
saucepan with handle, of approximately 3-qt (3-
l) capacity.
49.2 Mixing Blade-A putty knife with a 11/4
by 3
I
h-in. (31.8 by 88.9-mm) steel blade with
rounded corners. A 10-in. (254.0-mm) kitchen
mixing spoon may be used as an alternative.
49.3 Sieves-Standard %-in. (19.0-mm) and
No.4 (4.75-mm) sieves conforming to Specifi-
cation Ell.
49.4 Constant-Head Water Spraying Appara-
tlls-An apparatus for applying tap water in a
spray under a constant head of 2 ft, 6
1
h in. (774.7
mm) (Figs. 7 and 8). The water shall issue from
the apparatus in a low-velocity spray.
49.5 Thermometer-An ASTM low Soften-
ing Point Thermometer I:'F (or 15C), having a
range from 30 to 180°F (or -2 to 80°C) and
conforming to the requirements in Specification
E I.
49.6 Balance, capable of weighing 1000 g to
within ± 0.1 g.
49.7 Pipet, of IO-ml capacity.
50. Materials
50.1 Aggregate-Standard reference aggre-
184
gate
l2
shall be a laboratory-washed and air-dried
limestone aggregate graded to pass the )/4-in.
(19.0-mm) sieve and be retained on the No.4
(4.75-mm) sieve.
NOTE 20-Aggregates other than limestone may be
used provided calcium carbonate is omitted throughout
the method. Laboratory washing and air-drying of such
aggregates shan also be omitted.
50.2 Calcium Carbonate-Chemically pure,
precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO) shall be
used as a dust to be mixed with the standard
reference aggregate.
50.3 Water-Tap water of not over 250 ppm
CaCO) hardness for spraying over the sample.
SI. Sample
51.1 The sample shall be representative of the
asphalt emulsion to be tested.
S2. Procedure for Tests with Dry Aggregate
52.1 Carry out the test at 75 ± 10"F (23.9 ±
5SC).
52.2 Weigh 461 g of the air-dried, graded ref-
erence aggregate in the mixing pan.
52.3 Weigh 4.0 g ofCaC0
3
dust in the mixing
pan and mix with the 461 g of aggregate for
approximately I min by means of a mixing blade
to obtain a uniform film of dust on the aggregate
particles.
NOTE 21-The total weight of aggregate and dust
shall equal 465 g. If no calcium carbonate is included,
the weight of aggregate alone shall be 465 g.
52.4 Weigh 35 g of the asphalt emulsion into
the aggregate in the pan and mix vigorously with
the mixing blade for 5 min using a tossing action
created by a back-and-forth motion in an ellip-
tical path of the mixing blade or spoon. At the
end of the mixing period, tilt the pan and permit
any excess emulsion not on the aggregate to drain
from the pan.
52.5 Remove approximately one half of the
mixture from the pan and place it on absorbent
paper and evaluate the coating.
52.6 Immediately spray the mixture remain-
ing in the pan with tap water from the conStant-
head water spraying apparatus to cover the mix-
ture. The distance from the sprayhead to the
sample shall be 12 ± 3 in. (305 ± 75 mm). Then
carefully pour ofT the water. Continue spraying
and pouring ofT the water until the overflow water
runs clear. Carefully drain ofT the water in the
pan. Scoop the mixture from the mixing pan on
0244
to absorbent paper for evaluation of coating re-
tention in the washing test.
52.7 Evaluate the mixture immediately by vis-
ual estimation as to the total aggregate surface
area that is coated with asphalt.
52.8 Repeat the evaluation by visual estima-
tion of the coating of aggregate surface area by
asphalt after the mixture has been surface air-
dried in the laboratory at room temperature. A
fan may be used for drying if desired.
S3. Procedure for Tests with Wet Aggregate
53.1 Proceed in accordance with 52.1 to 52.3.
53.2 Pipet 9.3 mL of water to the aggregate
and CaCO) dust mixture into the mixing pan
and mix thoroughly to obtain uniform wetting.
53.3 Continue in accordance with 52.4 to
52.8.
54. Interpretation of Results
54.1 Evaluate and report the following infor-
mation for tests with both dry and wet aggregate:
54.1.1 At the end of the mixing period, record
the coating of the total aggregate surface area by
the asphalt emulsion as good, fair, or poor, where
a rating of "good" means fully coated by the
asphalt emulsion exclusive of pinholes and sharp
edges of the aggregate, a rating of "fair" coating
applies to the condition of an excess of coated
area over uncoated area, and a rating of "poor"
applies to the condition of an excess of uncoated
area over coated area.
54.1.2 After spraying with water, record the
coating of the total aggregate surface area by the
asphalt as good, fair, or poor.
54.1.3 After air-drying in the laboratory, re-
cord the coating of the total aggregate surface
area by the asphalt as good, fair, or poor.
54.1.4 Comments about the results of the test
may be included in the evaluation.
STORAGE STABILITY OF ASPHALT
EMULSION
SS. Scope
55.1 This method relates to the ability of an
asphalt emulsion to remain as a uniform disper ..
sion during storage. It is applicable to asphalt
emulsions composed principally of a semisolid
or liquid asphaltic base, water, and an emulsify-
ing agent.
12 Limestone from the Monon Stone Co. of Monon, IN, has
been found suitable as reference agrepte.
185
56. Summary of Method
56.1 The method determines the difference in
asphalt content of samples taken from the top
and bottom of material placed in undisturbed
simulated storage for 24 h. The result is expressed
as the difference between the average percent of
residue from top and bottom samples taken from
two storage cylinders.
57. Significance and Use
57.1 This method is useful for determining in
a comparatively short time the storage stability
of an asphalt emulsion. It is a measure of the
permanence of the dispersion as related to time,
but it is not to be construed to have significance
as a measure of other stability aspects involved
in use.
58. Apparatps
58.1 Cylinders-Two 5OO-mL glass cylinders,
with pressed or molded glass bases and cork or
glass stoppers, having an outside diameter of 50
± 5 mm, and having 5-mL graduations.
58.2 Glass Pipet-A 60-mL siphon glass-tube
pipet of optional form.
58.3 Balance. capable of weighing 500 g to
within ±O.I g.
59. Procedure
59.1 Bring the asphalt emulsion to room tem-
perature, 70 to 80°F (21 to 27"C). Place a 500-
mL representative sample in each of the two glass
cylinders. Stopper the cylinders and allow them
to stand undisturbed, at laboratory air tempera-
ture 70 to 80°F (21 to 27"C), for 24 h. After
standing for this period, remove approximately
55 mL from the top of the emulsion by means
of the pipet or siphon without disturbing the
balance. Thoroughly mix each portion.
59.2 Weigh 50 ± 0.1 g of each sample into
separately weighed lOOO-mL glass or aluminum
beakers, each beaker having previously been
weighed with a 1/4-in. (6-mm) diameter by 7-in.
(178-mm) glass rod. Adjust the temperature of
the oven to 325 ± 5°F (163 ± 2.8°C). Then place
the beakers containing the rods and sample in
0244
the oven for 2 h. At the end of this period remove
each beaker and thoroughly stir the residue. Re-
place in the oven for I h, then remove the beakers
from the oven, allow to cool to room tempera-
ture, and weigh, with the rods (see Note 7).
59.3 After removal of the top sample, siphon
off the next 390 mL (approximate) from each of
the cylinders. Thoroughly mix the emulsion re-
maining in the cylinders and weigh 50 g into
separate weighed lOOO-mL glass or aluminum
beakers. Determine dIe asphaltic residue of these
samples in accordance with 59.2.
60. Calculation
60.1 Calculate the storage stability as the nu-
merical difference between the average percent-
age of asphaltic residue found in the two top
samples and that found in the two bottom sam-
ples.
6 J. Precision
61.1 Repeatability-The repeatability stand-
ard deviation is 0.2 %. The average difference
between two results, obtained by the same oper-
ator with the same equipment, but not concur-
rently, will be approximately 0.2 %. Two such
values should be considered suspect (95 % con-
fidence level) if they differ by more than 0.5 %.
61.2 Reproducibility-The reproducibility
standard deviation is 0.2 %. The average differ-
ence between two results obtained by operators
in different laboratories will be approximately
0.3 %. Two such values should be considered
suspect (95 % confidence level) if they differ by
more than 0.6 %.
NOTE 22-lf this method of test is performed using
only one cylinder instead of two for each determination
as specified in the method. then the following precision
criteria should be used:
Repeatability, %
Standard deviation 0.2
A verage difference 0.3
Suspect criterion O.S
Reproducibility. %
Standard deviation 0.2
Average difference 0.3
Suspect criterion 0.6
EXAMINATION OF RESIDUE
62. Specific Gravity
62.1 Determine the specific gravity on a rep-
resentative portion of the residue in accordance
with Test Method 070 or Test Method 03289.
63. Ash Content
63.1 Determine the ash on a representative
portion of the residue in accordance with the
rapid routine method of ash determination, as
186
described in Section 5 of Methods D 12S.
64. Solubility in Trichloroethylene
64.1 Determine the solubility in trichloroeth-
ylene on a representative portion of the residue
in accordance with Test Method D 2042.
65. Penetration
65.1 Determine the penetration on a repre-
sentative portion of the residue in accordance
with Test Method D 5.
65.2 Precision-The following criteria should
be used for judging the acceptability of results
(95 % probability):
65.2.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Penetration of Residue.
range
80 to 200
Repeatability. points
15
65.2.2 The results submitted by each of two
0244
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Penetration of Residue. range
80 to 200
66. Ductility
Reproducibility. points
30
66. I Determine the ductility on a representa-
tive portion of the residue in accordance with
Test Method D 113.
67. Float Test
67.1 Determine the float test on a represent-
ative portion of the residue in accordance with
Method D 139 except revise Section 3.2 of
Method D 139 as follows: Pour the residue into
the collar at or near 500°F (260°C) preferably.
directly from the still. If the residue has been
allowed to cool below SOO"F (260°C). reheat it to
500°F (260°C) with stirring and pour into the
collar.
CLASSIFICATION TEST FOR RAPID SETTING CATIONIC EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
68. Scope
6S. I This method covers a procedure for dis-
tinguishing rapid-setting cationic emulsified as-
phalts from other types by their failure to coat a
specific Ottawa sand-portland cement (Type III)
mixture.
69. Apparatus
69.1 Mixing Pan-A white enameled kitchen
saucepan with handle. of approximately 3-qt (3-
L) capacity.
69.2 Mixing Tool-A IO-in. (250-mm)
kitchen mixing spoon.
69.3 Thermometer-An ASTM Low Soften-
ing Point Thermometer 15F (or 15C) having a
range from 30 to ISO°F (or -2 to SO°C) and
conforming to the requirements in Section 3 of
Specification E I.
69.4 Balance. capable of weighing 200 g to
within ± 0.1 g.
70. Materials
70. I AK,I?re,l?ale-Standard reference aggre-
gate shall be 20 to 30-mesh Standard Ottawa
Sand (see Test Method C 190).
70.2 Hi,l?h-Early Slren,l?lh Porlland Cement.
conforming to Type III portland cement in Spec-
ification C 150. and having a minimum specific
surface area of 1900 cm
2
/g.
71. Sample
71.1 Obtain a representative sample of the
cationic emulsion for test.
72. Procedure
72.1 Test at 77 ± 9°F (25 ± 5°C).
72.2 Weigh 461 g of air-dry. 20 to 30-mesh
Standard Ottawa Sand in the mixing pan.
72.3 Weigh 4.0 g of Type III portland cement
in the mixing pan. Mix with the 461 g of 20 to
30-mesh Ottawa sand for approximately I min
using the mixing tool to obtain a uniform distri-
bution of the cement on the sand particles.
72.4 Weigh 35 g of the asphalt emulsion into
the Ottawa sand-portland cement mixture. Mix
vigorously with the mixing spoon for approxi-
mately 2'12 min using a combined stirring and
kneading action. At the end of the mixing period,
tilt the pan and drain from the pan any excess
emulsion not on the aggregate.
72.5 Place a representative quantity of the
completed mixture on absorbent paper. Visually
187
estimate as soon as possible the amount of un-
coated and coated area in the mixture.
73. Interpretation of Results
73.1 From the evaluation made in 72.5 at the
0244
end of the mixing period, record the coating of
the total aggregate surface area by the asphalt
emulsion. An excess of uncoated area over a
coated area shall be considered as a passing rating
for rapid setting cationic emulsions.
FIELD COATING TEST ON EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
74. Scope
74.1 This test is proposed for use at the project
site to determine (1) the ability of an asphalt
emulsion to coat the job aggregate; (2) the ability
of the emulsion to withstand mixing; and (3) the
water resistance of emulsion-coated aggregate.
75. Summary of Method
75.1 A measured amount of the job aggregate
is hand-mixed with a measured amount of the
emulsion supplied to the job. The ability of the
emulsion to remain as a coating during a 5-min
mixing cycle is observed. The resistance offered
by the coating to wash-off is determined by re-
peated filling with water and emptying a con-
tainer of the coated aggregate.
76. Apparatus
76.1 Metal Containers, I-pt W2-L) capacity
(friction-top pint cans).
76.2 Metal Porcelain Saucepan, 2112 to 3-qt
(2
1
12 to 3-L), equipped with a handle.
76.3 Dispensing Graduate, 50-mL capacity,
preferably plastic.
76.4 Serving Spoon, long-handled.
77. Procedure
77.1 Derim the I-pt (lh-L) can.
77.2 Fill the can level with the job aggregate
deleting any sizes above 3/. in. (19 mm).
77.3 Measure out 50 mL of emulsified as-
phalt.
77.4 Dump the aggregate (77 .2) and the emul-
sion (77.3) into the porcelain saucepan.
77.5 Hand mix vigorously for 5 min with the
long-handled spoon.
77.6 Observe (1) whether the stone is fully
coated with the emulsion and rate the coating as
good, fair or poor-a rating of good means fully
coated by the asphalt emulsion exclusive of pin-
holes and sharp edges of the aggregate, a rating
of fair applies to the condition of an excess of
coated area over uncoated area, and a rating of
poor applies to the condition of an excess of
uncoated area over coated area; and (2) the pres-
ence, if any, of free water which denotes break-
down of the emulsion.
77.7 Refill the I-pt (l12-L) can with the coated
stone.
77.8 Set the can of coated stone upright in the
porcelain saucepan.
77.9 Fill the can with water and pour off.
Repeat this step five times.
77.10 Dump the contents of the can onto
newspapers. Repeat the observations made in
77.6 and record.
78. Report
78.1 Report the observations made in 77.6
and 77.10 as the results from this test.
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT/JOB AGGREGATE COATING TEST
79. Scope
79.1 This test method may be used to identify
the adequacy of slow setting grade of emulsified
asphalt to mix with and coat a dense and fine-
graded job aggregate. It is a laboratory test
method of screening emulsion candidates for
mixing with and coating job aggregates and is
not to be construed as a mix design test method.
80. Significance and Use
80.1 The conditions of the test are designed
to identify the adequacy of emulsified asphalt,
slow-setting grade (CSS-D2397 and SS-D977) for
mixing with and coating dense-graded aggregate
and fine-graded aggregate.
81. Summary of Method
81.1 A weighed amount of dry job aggregate
is hand-mixed with a weighed amount of water
for prewetting the aggregate. The wetted aggre-
gate is then hand-mixed with a weighed amount
of emulsified asphalt of known asphalt-cement
188
content until maximum coating of the job aggre-
gate is obtained. (Mix time is usually 15 to 120
s.) The adequacy of emulsified asphalt for mixing
with job aggregate is determined by using various
amounts of water and emulsified asphalt until a
maximum coating of the job aggregate is ob-
tained. This coating is rated as good. fair. or
poor.
82. Apparatus
82.1 Containers-A IOOO-mL glass beaker. a
I-qt (I.O-L) friction-tip metal can, or lOOO-mL
stainless steel beaker or bowl.
82.2 Mixing Tool-A steel spatula or its
equivalent. having a blade approximately 8 in.
(203.2 mm) in length.
82.3 Balance. capable of weighing 1000 g to
within ±O.I g.
83. Procedure
83.1 Weigh 300 g of dry job aggregate into the
container and add water basis dry weight of
aggregate. Immediately begin to mix vigorously
for I min or until all aggregate surfaces subjec-
tively appear to be wetted (as a guide. 2 to 8 %
water for dense-graded aggregate and 4 to 12 %
water for fine-graded aggregate). The natural
moisture in a job aggregate may be used in the
test if predetermined. Additional water may then
be added. if necessary. to obtain the desired level
of water to be used for prewetting the aggregate.
83.2 Add the emulsion and immediately begin
to mix vigorously. scraping sides and bottom of
container. for 15 to 120 s or until maximum
0244
coating has been attained (as a guide, basis dry
weight of aggregate. 3 to 7 % Asphalt Cement
(A/C) residue for dense aggregate and 4 to 8 %
AIC residue for fine aggregate). Example: 8 %
emulsion at 60 % solids would be equivalent to
4.8 % asphalt cement residue in the mix.
83.3 If mix appears to be too dry and insuffi-
ciently coated repeat 83.1 and 83.2 using an
increased amount of water or emulsified asphalt,
or both. If mix appears to be too wet from
excessive water or emulsified asphalt, or both.
repeat 83.1 and 83.2 using less water or emulsi-
fied asphalt. or both.
83.4 For each job aggregate mix observe and
record the amount of aggregate prewetting water
and asphalt cement residue from the emulsified
asphalt and note the one mix which provides the
best aggregate coating.
83.5 Rate the best coating as good. fair. or
poor using the ratings as defined in Section 54.
84. Report
84.1 Report the observations made in 83.2
and 83.3 relating to amount of aggregate pre-
wetting water and residual asphalt needed for
best obtainable aggregate coating.
84.2 Report the maximum coating achieved
as good, fair, or poor in accordance with Section
54.
85. Precision
85.1 The usual methods of analysis for preci-
sion cannot be applied to this test method be-
cause it is only semiquantitative.
WEIGHT PER GALLON OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT
86. Scope
86.1 This test method is used to determine
the weight per gallon of emulsified asphalt used
in highway construction. This unit weight i!> com-
puted by determining the weight of an asphalt
emulsion contained in a standard measure of
known volume.
NOli: 23-The calculation of Imperial Gallon
Weight may be made by using proper conversion fac-
tors.
87. Apparatus
87.1 Weight-per-Gallon Clip-Stainless
steel measure of known standard volume (83.2
ml),
87.2 Balance. accurate to 0.01 g.
87.3 Water Bath. constant-temperature.
maintained at 77°F (25°C).
88. Procedure
88.1 Stir the emulsion sample and place in a
constant-temperature water bath maintained at
77 ± 1°F (25 ± OSC) for approximately I h.
88.2 Place the measure and its cap on the
balance. tare. and zero the balance.
88.3 Remove the emulsion sample from the
bath and stir, using care to avoid trapping air in
the sample. If necessary. strain through a No. 20
(850-l1m) sieve to remove any skin or film that
might be present in the emulsion.
189
88.4 Bring the measure to approximately 77°F
(25°C) and pour the emulsion into the measure,
filling it completely.
88.5 Start placing the cap into the measure
and remove, with a clean dry rag or paper, the
excess emulsion oozing through the orifice in the
cap.
88.6 When the cap is placed on tightly, clean
the measure carefully, weigh on the tared balance
to the nearest 0.0 I g, and record.
89, Calculation
89.1 Calculate the weight per gallon of emul-
sion as follows:
W= G/IO
where:
W = unit weight of emulsion, Ib/gal, and
G = weight of emulsion in measure, g.
90, Report
90.1 Report the unit weight of emulsion in
0244
pounds per gallon to the nearest 0.0 I Ib at 77°F
(25°C).
91. Precision
91.1 The following criteria should be used for
judging the acceptability of results (95 % proba-
bility):
91.1.1 Duplicate results by the same operator
should not be considered suspect unless they
differ by more than the following amount:
Unit Weight
Pounds per gallon at 77'F (25'C)
Repeatability
0.019
91.1.2 The results submitted by each of two
laboratories should not be considered suspect
unless they differ by more than the following
amount:
Unit Weight Reproducibility
Pounds per gallon at 77'F (25'C) 0.034
NOTE 24-Weight per gallon at 77'F (25'C) may be
translated to weight per gallon at 60'F (15.6·C) by using
a multiplier of 1.00475.
--r-
A -45 to 55 mm
B - 14 to 16 mm
C-12to 16mm
D - 235 to 255 mm
. :
(6)
E" 25 to 38 mm
F - 186 to 194 mm
H-18tol9mm
FIG. I Apparatus for Determinioa Water
190
~ ~ 0244
I" lor I 0 - 2 Hoi ..
Clomp -
f Center Drill
9t'
I
I
I
I
f' Atumlf,um Plote
Alloy 3003-H14
in.
I
4 " ~
"-- Cost Aluminum
AllOY 319
r 0 x 2·r Lon9 Steel Rod
COSI Aluminum
Alloy 319
t ~ Aluminum Plote
Alloy 3003 - H 14
__ Standard 4"A1umlr'lum Tube
Alloy 3003- H 14
Metric Equivalents
mm
3.2
4.S
9.5
12.7
14.3
15.9
19.1
25.4
41.3
44.5
57.2
63.5
101.6
130.2
15S.S
IS4.2
241.3
NOTE-The still cover may be machined from Rolled Aluminum Plate Alloy 3003-H 14.
FIG. 2 Aluminum-Alloy Still
191
in.
mm
,","'M"'" \
6"
4t 0244
Mat'flol: erO,I
Finilh: BriQht Nlck'i
SPECIFY TYPE OF GAS
FOR PROPER ORIFICl
FIG. J Rinl Burner with o4
1
/.-in. (I21-mm) Inside Diameter
,
6f
r-- 13{ -------1

I f-------- ------------,
L£mm_:_--
,
DETAIL OF TIN SHIELD

Metric Equivalents
'I.
1/. Jlh 2 3 4 S 6 6
'
h 91f, 9
'
h 13'/, IS
6.4 19.1 38.1 SO.8 76.2 101.6 127.0 IS2.4 231.8 241.3 3S2.4 381.0
FIG. 4 Apparatus Assembly for Distillatioa Telt of Emulsl8ed Asphalts
192
1A
1>-_--.T1
C1-S00 IIF 2S-V capacitor
D I-silicon diode
RI-47 n. I-W .esistor
R2-5000!l potentiometer
R3-6800 n. '/.-W resistor
4 ~ 0244
FIG. 5 Particle Charge Tester
R
o Low
o-f.;.;;Ml=-.L ___ ~ To CATHODE
+
TO ANODE
R4-meter shunt (determined by type of meter used)
SI-2-pole. 3-position rotary switch
T 1-12.6-V filament transformer
M 1-0 to 100mA milliameter
FIG. 6 Particle Charge Tester Circuit Diagram
193
Inl't
4IDtt 0244
Male
Coupling
:S/.Pip. Valy'
I in. '" 25.4 mm 8 in. - 230.2 mm
2 in. - 50.8 mm I ft - 304.8 mm
6 in. - 152.4 mm I ft 10J/. in. - 577.9 mm
7lf. in. - 196.9 mm 2 ft I'll in. - 650.2 mm
2 ft 6'11 in. '" 774.7 mm
NOTE-Use galvanized steel sheeting for the tank. All joints and litting attachments shall be soldered and shall be watertight. All
couplings shall be standard brass garden hose littings. The J/ .. in. (19-mm) pipe valve shall be placed as close as possible to the
bottom of the tank. allowing space to shut ofT the valve. The tank shall be placed on a suitable stand. so that the distance from the
bottom of t h ~ spray head to the top of the test sample is 3 ft ± I in. (0.9 m ± 25.4 mm).
FIG. 7 Conslanl-Head Flow Tank
194
BOTTOM VIEWS
4--_ 4" Dia (101.6 mm)
0244
Flange Sol dered to Bottom of Tank
/ H = lr )1
%. Coupl i ng and Nipple to be E
Inserted Between Flange-Nipple E
and 3/4" Pipe Valve to Lower Valve O'l
Handle for Eas'ler Regulation

It)
,...
.!!
N
N
o
z
'0

(;
(l)
Holes in Spray Nozzle Approximately
0.05"( 1.3 mm) in Diameter, Spacing
I
I


c:
as Shown.
I
'II I Adopter from 3/4" Pipe to
_ Male Garden
Hose Coupling
I
I
I
-
o
E
o
-
-
o
(l)
E
e
-.r:.
-
C7I
c:

Knurled Fittinq
Female Couplino :0

11\

Spray Nozzle
NOTE I-A Speakman, Model 235S, all brass, fixed shower head has been found acceptable.
NoT!' 2-Existing 4·in. (10 1.6-mm) diameter shower heads may continue to be used.
FIG. 8 Valve and Nozzle Assembly for Constant-Head Flow Tank
The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection
with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such
patent rights. and the risk of infringement of such rights. are entirely their own responsibility.
This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical commillee and must be reviewed every five years and
if not revised. either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional
standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. Your comments will rl'ceive careful consideration at a ml'l'ting of thl'
rl'sponsibll' tl'chnical commilll'l'. which you may alll'nd. If you fl'elthat your comments havl' not rl'cl'ivl'd a fair hl'aring you should
make your views known to the ASTM Commilll'l' on Standards. 1916 Race St., Philadl'lphia, PA 19103.
195
APPENDIX C
MISCELLANEOUS TABLES
197
TABLE C-1 TEMPERATURE-VOLUME CORRECTIONS FOR
EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS
Oct OF
M*
Oct of
M*
Oct of
10.0 50 1.00250 35.0 95 0.99125 60.0 140
10.6 51 1.00225 35.6 96 0.99100 60.6 141
11.1 52 1.00200 36.1 97 0.99075 61.1 142
11.7 53 1.00175 36.7 98 0.99050 61.7 143
12.2 54 1.00150 37.2 99 0.99025 62.2 144
12.8 55 1.00125 37.8 100 0.99000
62.8 145
13.3 56 1.00100 38.3 101 0.98975
63.3 146
13.9 57 1.00075 38.9 102 0.98950
63.9 147
14.4 58 1.00050 39.4 103 0.98925
64.4 148
15.0 59 1.00025 40.0 104 0.98900
65.0 149
15.6 60 1.00000 40.6 105 0.98875
65.6 150
16.1 61 0.99975 41.1 106 0.98850
66.1 151
16.7 62 0.99950 41.7 107 0.98825
66.7 152
17.2 63 0.99925 42.2 108 0.98800
67.2 153
17.8 64 0.99900 42.8 109 0.98775
67.8 154
18.3 65 0.99875 43.3 110 0.98750
68.3 155
68.9 156
18.9 66 0.99850 43.9 111 0.98725
69.4 157
19.4 67 0.99825 44.4 112 0.98700
20.0 68 0.99800 45.0 113 0.98675
70.0 158
20.6 69 0.99775 45.6 114 0.98650
70.6 159
71.1 160
21.1 70 0.99750 46.1 115 0.98625
71.7 161
21.7 71 0.99725 46.7 116 0.98600
72.2 162
22.2 72 0.99700 47.2 117 0.98575
72.8 163
22.8 73 0.99675 47.8 118 0.98550
73.3 164
23.3 74 0.99650 48.3 119 0.98525
73.9 165
23.9 75 0.99625 48.9 120 0.98500
74.4 166
24.4 76 0.99600 49.4 121 0.98475
75.0 167
25.0 77 0.99575 50.0 122 0.98450
75.6 168
25.6 78 0.99550 50.6 123 0.98425
76.1 169
26.1 79 0.99525 51.1 124 0.98400
76.7 170
26.7 80 0.99500 51.7 125 0.98375 77.2 171
27.2 81 0.99475 52.2 126 0.98350 77.8 172
27.8 82 0.99450 52.8 127 0.98325 78.3 173
28.3 83 0.99425 53.3 128 0.98300 78.9 174
28.9 84 0.99400 53.9 129 0.98275
79.4 175
29.4 85 0.99375 54.4 130 0.98250
80.0 176
30.0 86 0.99350 55.0 131 0.98225
80.6 177
30.6 87 0.99325 55.6 132 0.98200
81.1 178
31.1 88 0.99300 56.1 133 0.98175
81.7 179
31.7 89 0.99275 56.7 134 0.98150
82.2 180
32.2 90 0.99250 57.2 135 0.98125
82.8 181
32.8 91 0.99225 57.8 136 0.98100
83.3 182
33.3 92 0.99200 58.3 137 0.98075
83.9 183
33.9 93 0.99175 58.9 138 0.98050
84.4 184
34.4 94 0.99150 59.4 139 0.98025 85.0 185
Legend: t = observed temperature in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit)
M = multiplier for correcting volumes to the basis of 15.ft C (60°F)
*Multiplier (M) for °C is a close approx imation.
198
M*
0.98000
0.97975
0.97950
0.97925
0.97900
0.97875
0.97850
0.97825
0.97800
0.97775
0.97750
0.97725
0.97700
0.97675
0.97650
0.97625
0.97600
0.97575
0.97550
0.97525
0.97500
0.97475
0.97450
0.97425
0.97400
0.97375
0.97350
0.97325
0.97300
0.97275
0.97250
0.97225
0.97200
0.97175
0.97150
0.97125
0.97100
0.97075
0.97050
0.97025
0.97000
0.96975
0.96950
0.96925
0.96900
0.96875
TABLE C-2 MASS PER CUBIC METRE OF DRY MINERAL AGGREGATES
OF DIFFERENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND VARIOUS VOID CONTENTS
Specific
Voids - Percent
Gravity
16 20 25 30 36 40 46
2.0 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100
2.1 1786 1680 1575 1470 1366 1260 11,55
CI)
2.2 1870 1760 1650 1640 1430 1320 1210
..
t:
2.3 1955 1840 1725 1610 1495 1380 1265
~
u
2.4 2040 1920 1800 1680 1560 1440 1320
:.0
a
2.5 2126 2000 1876 1750 1625 1600 1375
~
2.6 2210 2080 1960 1820 1690 1560 1430
Q.
2.7 2295 2160 2025 1890 1755 1620 1485
E
III 2.8 2380 2240 2100 1960 1820 1680 1640
..
.2 2.9 2466 2320 2175 2030 1885 1740 1595
~
3.0 2560 2400 2250 2100 1950 1800 1650
3.1 2635 2480 2326 2170 2015 1860 1705
3.2 2720 2560 2400 2240 2080 1920 1760
1. The Specific Gravity of commonly used road construction aggregates normally is within the
following ranges:
Granite 2.6-2.9 Sandstone 2.0-2.7
Gravel 2.5-2.7 Traprock 2.7-3.2
Limestone 2.1-2.B Blast Furnace
Sand (Quartzite) 2.5-2.7 Slag 2.0-2.5
2. Data contained in this table are appliCllble to dry mineral aggregates in either the loose or
compacted state, and the void content should be selected accordingly. Preferably, both the
void content and specific gravity should be determined in the laboratory.
3. The formula for computation of data in the table above is as follows:
kg/m
3
G(100- V)
W - 1000 x ----
100
where: W - Weight per cubic metre
G == Specific gravity
V = Air void content, percent
199
50
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
1300
1350
1400
1450
1500
1550
1600
65
900
945
990
1036
1080
1125
1170
1215
1.260
1305
1350
1395
1440
TABLE C-2a WEIGHT PER CUBIC FOOT AND PER CUBIC YARD OF DRY
MINERAL AGGREGATES OF DIFFERENT SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND VARIOUS
VOID CONTENTS
.,.11e
VOIDS-PERCENT
8r •• 11f
11 20 21 .0 15 40 41
~
II
-.:-
2.0 106.1 99.8 93.6 87.4 81.1 74.9 68.6 62.4 56.2
0
0
2.1 111.4 104.8 98.3 91.7 85.2 78.6 72.1 65.5 59.0
II.
2.2 116.7 109.8 103.0 96.1 89.2 82.4 75.5 68.6 61.8
"
'2.3 122.0 114.8 107.6 100.5 93.3 86.1 78.9 71.8 64.6
ii 2.4 127.3 119.8 112.3 104.8 97.3 89.9 82.4 74.9 67.4
::I
2.5 132.6 124.8 117.0 109.2 101.4 93.6 85.8 78.0 70.2
"
IC
2.6 137.9 129.8 121.7 113.6 105.5 97.3 89.2 81.1 73.0
III
2.7 143.2 134.8 126.4 117.9 109.5 101.1 92.7 84.2 75.8
..
2.8 148.5 139.8 131.0 122.3 113.6 104.8 96.1 87.4 78.6
• 2.9 153.8 144.8 135.7 126.7 117.6 108.6 99.5 90.5 81.4
a
z
3.0 159.1 149.8 140.4 131.0 121.7 112.3 103.0 93.6 84.2
::I
3.1 164.4 154.8 145.1 135.4 125.7 116.1 106.4 96.7 87.0
0
.. 3.2 169.7 159.7 149.8 139.8 129.8 119.8 109.8 99.8 89.9
- - - - -
-
-
a
2.0 2860 2700 2530 2360 2190 2020 1850 1680 1520
=
2.1 3010 2830 2650 2480 2300 2120 1950 1770 1590
)-
2.2 3150 2970 2780 2590 2410 2220 2040 1850 1670
"
2.3 3290 3100 2910 2710 2520 2330 2130 1940 1740
ii 2.4 3440 3240 3030 2830 2630 2430 2220 2020 1820
::I
2.5 3580 3370 3160 2950 2740 2530 2320 2110 1900
"
IC
2.6 3720 3500 3290 3070 2850 2630 2410 2190 1970
III 2.7 3870 3640 3410 3180 2960 2730 2500 2270 2050
..
2.8 4010 3770 3540 3300 3070 2830 2590 2360 2120
..
2.9 4150 3910 3660 3420 3180 2930 2690 2440 2200
a
3.0 4300 4040 3790 3540 3290 3030 2780 2530 2270 z
~
3.1 4440 4180 3920 3660 3400 3130 2870 2610 2350
0
3.2 4580 4310 4040 3770 3500 3230 2970 2700 2430
..
1. The Specific Gravity of commonly used road construction aggregates normally is within the following ranges:
Granite 2.6-2.9 Sandstone 2.0-2.7
Gravel 2.5-2.7 Traprock 2.7-3.2
Limestone 2.1-2.8 Blast Furnace
Sand (Quartzite) 2.5-2.7 Slag 2.0-2.5
2. Data contained in this table are applicable to dry mineral aggregates in either the loose or compacted state,
and the void content should be selected accordingly. Preferably, both the void content and specific gravity
should be determined in the laboratory.
3. The formulas for computation of data in table above are as follows:
Ib/fr3
and
Where: W = Wt. per cu ft
W = Wt. per cu yd
G = Specific gravity
G(100- V)
W = 62.4 x = O. 624 G(100 - V)
100
G(100- V)
W = 27 x 62.4 x 16.85G(100 - V)
100
V = Air void content, percent
200
TABLE C-3 LINEAR MEASUREMENT COVERED BY TANK OF ANY
CAPACITY FOR VARIOUS WIDTHS AND RATES OF APPLICATION
To compute the number of linear feet (metres) that will be covered by a tank of any capacity, for various
widths and rates of application, use the applicable formula:
C
S.1. Metric: L = -
RW
9C
U. S. Customary: L = -
RW
where: L = No. of linear metres (feet) that will be covered
C = Capacityoftankin litres (gallons) (or quantity of asphaltin tank)
R = Rate of application in litres per sq. metre (gallons per sq. yard)
W = Width of application in metres (feet).
201
Lltres
per
Sq.
Metre
0.45
0.68
0.91
1.13
1.36
1.58
1.81
2.04
2.26
2.72
3.17
3.62
4.07
4.53
5.66
6.79
7.92
9.05
TABLE C-4 LINER METRES COVERED BY 4000 LITRE TANK
OF ASPHALT FOR VARIOUS WIDTHS AND LlTRES PER
SQUARE METRE
Width-Metres
0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
1m8 8889 5926 4444 2963 2222 1778 1481
11765 5882 3922 2941 1961 1471 1176 980
8791 4396 2930 2198 1465 1099 879 733
7080 3540 2360 1no 1180 885 708 590
5882 2941 1Q61 1471 980 735 588 490
5063 2532 1688 1266 844 633 506 422
4420 2210 1473 1105 737 552 442 368
3922 1961 1307 980 654 490 392 327
3540 1nO 1180 885 590 442 354 295
2941 1471 980 735 490 368 294 245
2524 1262 841 631 421 315 252 210
2210 1105 737 552 368 276 221 184
1966 983 655 491 328 246 197 164
1766 883 589 442 294 221 in 147
1413 707 471 353 236 in 141 118
1178 589 393 295 196 147 118 98
1010 505 337 253 168 126 101 84
884 442 295 221 147 110 88 74
NOTE: See Table C-3 for formula used for calculation.
Gals.
per
Sq.
Yd. 1
-----
0.10 90000
0,15 60000
0,20 45000
0,25 36000
0.30 30000
0.35 25714
0,40 22500
0.45 20000
O.SO 18000
0.55 16364
0.60 15000
0.65 13846
0.70 12857
0.15 12000
0.80 11250
0.85 10588
0.90 10000
0.95 9474
1.00 9000
1.10 8182
1.20 7500
1.25 7200
1.30 6923
1.40 6429
1. SO 6000
1. 75 5143
2.00 4500
2.25 4000
2.SO 3600
2.75 3213
3.00 3000
TABLE C-4a LINEAR FEET COVERED BY 1000-GALLON TANK OF
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT FOR VARIOUS WIDTHS AND RATES
WIDTH-FEET
I
2 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 14 16 18 20
--- --- --- --- --- --- ------ ---
'--
--- - - ~ - - -
45000 15000 12857 11250 10000 9000 8182 7500 6429 5625 5000 4500
30000 10000 8m 7500 6667 6000 5455 5000 4286 3750 JJJJ 3000
22500 7500 6429 5625 5000 4500 4091 3750 3214 2813 2500 2250
18000 6000 5143 4500 4000 3600 3273 3000 2571 2250 2000 1800
15000 5000 4286 37SO 3J33 3000 2727 2500 2143 1875 1661 1500
12857 4286 3673 3214 2857 2571 2338 2143 1837 1607 1429 1286
11250 31SO 32t-4 2813 2500 2250 2045 1815 1607 1406 12SO 1115
10000 3333 la57 2500 2222 2000 1818 1661 1429 1250 1111 1000
9000 3000 2571 2250 2000 1800 1636 1500 1286 1125 1000 900
8182 2127 2338 2046 1818 1636 1488 1364 1169 1023 909 818
7500 2500 2143 1875 1667 1500 1364 1250 1071 938 833 150
6923 2308 1918 1731 1538 1385 1259 1154 989 865 769 692
6429 2143 1837 1607 1429 1286 1169 1071 918 804 714 643
6000 2000 1714 1500 1333 1200 1091 1000 857 7SO 661 600
5625 1815 1607 1406 1250 1125 1023 938 804 103 625 563
5294 1765 1513 1324 1116 1059 963 882 756 662 588 529
5000 1667 1429 1250 III 1 1000 909 833 714 625 ,56 500
4737 1579 1353 1184 1053 947 861 789 616 592 526 473
4500 1500 1286 1125 1000 900 818 750 643 563 500 450
4091 1364 ll69 1023 909 818 744 682 584 5ll 454 409
37SO 1250 1071 938 833 750 682 625 535 469 416 315
3600 1200 1029 900 800 720 655 600 514 450 400 360
3462 ll54 989 866 769 692 629 517 494 433 384 346
3215 1072 918 804 714 643 584 536 459 402 357 321
300Cl 1000 857 750 667 600 545 500 429 375 333 300
2571 857 735 643 571 514 468
I
429 367 321 286 251
2250 7SO 643 563 500 450 409
I
315 321 281 250 225
2000 667 571 500 444 400 364 333 286 250 222 200
1800 600 514 4SO 400 360 321 300 257 225 200 180
1636 545 468 409 364 327 298 272 234 204 182 163
1500 500 429 315 333 300 273 250 214 181 161 ISO
NOTE: See Table C-3 for formula used for calculation. For metric conversion factors refer to Table C-10.
202
7.0
1270
840
628
506
420
362
316
280
253
210
180
158
140
126
101
84
72
63
22 24
--- ---
4091 3750
2727 2500
2045 1875
1636 1500
1363 1250
1169 1011
1022 931
909 833
818 150
144 682
682 625
629 511
584 535
545 500
511 4 6 ~
481 441
454 416
430 394
409 315
312 341
341 312
327 300
314 288
292 268
212 250
234 214
204 181
182 166
163 150
149 136
136 125
TABLE C-5 LlTRES OF ASPHALT REQUIRED PER 50 LINEAR
METRES; VARIOUS WIDTHS AND LITRES PER SQUARE METRE
L1tres
per
Sq.
Metre 0.5 1.0 1.5
0.45 11.3 22.5 33.8
0.68 17.0 34.0 51.0
0.91 22.8 45.5 68.3
1.13 28.3 56.5 84.8
1.36 34.0 68.0 102.
1.58 39.5 79.0 119.
1.81 45.3 90.5 136.
2.04 51.0 102. 153.
2.26 56.5 113. 170.
2.72 68.0 136. 204.
3.17 79.3 159. 238.
3.62 90.5 181. 272.
4.07 102. 204. 305.
4.53 113. 227. 340.
5.66 142. 283. 425.
6.79 170. 340. 509.
7.92 198. 396. 594.
9.05 226. 453. 679.
NOTE: Formula used for calculation: Q=50 WR
where: Q = Quantity of asphalt required per 50 metres.
W=Width of application in metres.
Width-Metres
2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
45.0 67.5 90.0 113.
68.0 102. 136. 170.
91.0 137. 182. 228.
113. 170. 226. 283.
136. 204. 272. 340.
158. 237. 316. 395.
181. 272. 362. 453.
204. 306. 408. 510.
226. 339. 452. 565.
272. 408. 544. 680.
317. 476. 634. 793.
362. 543. 724. 905.
407. 611. 814. 1018.
453. 680. 906. 1133.
566. 849. 1132. 1415.
679. 1019. 1358. 1698.
792. 1188. 1584. 1980.
905. 1358. 1810. 2263.
R= Rate of application in litres per square metre.
Application rates for mtermediate widths can be determined by adding columnar values or by use of above formula.
6.0
135.
204.
273.
339.
408.
474.
543.
612.
678.
816.
951.
1086.
1221.
1359.
1698.
2037.
2376.
2715.
7.0
158.
238.
319.
396.
476.
553.
634.
714.
791.
952.
1110.
1267.
1425.
1586.
1981.
23n.
2m.
3168.
TABLE C-5a GALLONS OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT REQUIRED PER 100
LINEAR FEET: VARIOUS WIDTHS AND RATES
Gill.
WIDTn-fEET
per
Sq.
Yd. I 2 6 7 I

10
_1_1 _1_1_2 _
14
0.10 \.I 2.2 6.7 7.' I.' 10.0 11.1 12.2 13.1 15.6
0.15 1.7 3.3 10.0 11.7 13.3 15.0 16.7 18.3 20.0 23.3
0.20 2.2 4.4 13.3 15.6 17.' 20.0 22.2 24.4 26.7 31.1
0.·25 2.' 5.6 16.7 ".4 22.2 25.0 27.' 30.6 n.3 38.9
0.30 U 6.7 20.0 23.3 26.7 30.0 n.3 36.7 40.0 46.7
0.35 3.9 7.' 23.3 27.2 31.1 35.0 3I.t 42.8 46.7 54.4
0.40 4.4 1.9 26.7 31.1 35.6 40.0 44.4 4a.9 53.3 62.2
0.45 5.0 10.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 70.0
0.50 5.6 11.1 n.3 3'.9 44.4 50.0 55.5 61.1 66.7
17.'
0.55 6.1 12.2 36.7 42.a 4a.t 55.0 61.1 67.2 7U as.5
0.60 6.7 13.3 40.0 46.7 53.3 60.0 66.7 71.3 80.0 93.3
0.65 7.2 14.4 41.3 50.6 57.' 65.0 72.2 79.4 86.7 101.
0.70 7.' 15.6 46.7 54.4 62.2 70.0 17.a a5.5 91.3 109.
0.75 a.3 16.7 50.0 58.3 66.7 75.0 .3.3 tl.7 100. 117.
0.80 '.9 17.' 53.3 62.2 71.1 80.0 ....
97.'
107. 124.
0.a5 9.4 la.9 56.7 66.1 75.5 as.O 14.4 104. m. 132.
O.to 10.0 20.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 to.O 100. 110. 120. 140.
0.95 10.6 21.1 63.3 73.9 14 .• 95.0 106. 1\6. m. 14 ••
1.00 11.1 22.2 66.7
17.' ".9 100. III. 122. 133. 156.
1.10 12.2 24.4 71.3 85.5
97.' 110. 122. 134. 147. 171.
1.20 13.3 26.7 80.0 93.3 107. 120. ID. 147. 160. 187.
1.25 13.9 27.' 83.3 97.2 III. 125. 139. 153. 167. 1M.
1.30 14.4 2I.t 16.7 101. 116. 130. 144. 1St. 173. 202.
1.40 15.6 31.1 93.3 109. 124. 140. 156. 171. 117. 21a.
1.50 16.7 D.3 100. 117. ID. 150. 167. 183. 200. m.
1.75 19.4 3a.t 117. 136. 156. 175. 1M. 214. 21:. 272.
2.00 22.2 44.4 m. 156. 17a. 200. m. 244. 267. 31 I.
2.25 25.0 50.0 150. 175. 200. 225. 250. 275. 300. 350.
2.50 27.' 55.6 167. 1M. 222. 250. 27 •• 306. Dl. '19,
2.75 30.6 61.1 183. 214; 244. 275. 306. m. 367. 42 ••
3.00 D.3 66.7 200. m. 267. 300. 3D. 367. 400. 467.
tOOW
Note: Formula used for calculation: Q = -- R = "."WR
9
Where: Q = Quantity of asphalt required, in gallons per 100 ft.
R = Rate of application in gallons per sq. yd.
W ~ Width of application, in feet
203
16 \I 20 22
17.' 20.0 22.2 24.4
26.7 30.0 n.3 36.7
35.6 40.0 44.4 48.9
44.4 50.0 55.6 61.1
53.3 60.0 66.7 73.3
62.2 70.0
17.'
as.5
71.1 80.0 ".9 11.'
80.0 to.O 100. 110.
".9 100. III. 122.
97.'
110. 122. 134.
107. 120. m. 147.
115. 130. 144. 159.
124. 140. 156. 171.
ID. 150. 167. 183.
142. 160 . 17 •. 196.
151. 170. In. 208.
160. 180. 200. 220.
169. Ito. 211. 232.
17 •. 200. 222. 244.
196. 220. 244. 269.
213. 240. 267. 293.
222. 250. 27 •• 306.
230. 260. 218. 311.
24t. 280. 31 I. 342.
267. 300. lD. 367,
311. 350. In. 427.
156. 400. 444. 4".
400. 450. 500. 550.
444. 500. 556. 611.
.n. 550. 611. 672.
m. 600. 667. m.
24
26.7
40.0
53.3
66.7
80.0
93.3
107.
120.
m.
147.
160.
173.
1.7.
200.
213.
227.
240.
253.
267.
293.
320.
333.
347.
373.
400.
467.
511.
600.
667.
713.
100.
TABLE C-6 MEGAGRAMS OF MATERIAL REQUIRED PER KILOMETRE
FOR VARIOUS WIDTHS AND KILOGRAMS PER SQUARE METRE
kg/m
2
1 2 3 4 5
5 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
10 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0
20 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0
30 30.0 60.0 90.0 120.0 150.0
40 40.0 80.0 120.0 160.0 200.0
50 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0
60 60.0 120.0 180.0 240.0 300.0
70 70.0 140.0 210.0 280.0 350.0
80 80.0 160.0 240.0 320.0 400.0
90 90.0 180.0 270.0 360.0 450.0
100 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0
200 200.0 400.0 600.0 800.0 1000.0
300 300.0 600.0 900.0 1200.0 1500.0
400 400.0 800.0 1200.0 1600.0 2000.0
500 500.0 1000.0 1500.0 2000.0 2500.0
NOTE: Fonnula used for calculation: M=RWL
where: M = Mass of material, megagrams per kilometre
R= Rate of application, kg/m2
W=Width of application, metres
L=Length of section, 1 kilometre
Width-Metres
6 7 8 9 10 15
30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 75.0
60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 150.0
120.0 140.0 160.0 180.0 200.0 300.0
180.0 210.0 240.0 270.0 300.0 450.0
240.0 280.0 320.0 360.0 400.0 600.0
300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 750.0
360.0 420.0 480.0 540.0 600.0 900.0
420.0 490.0 560.0 630.0 700.0 1050.0
480.0 560.0 640.0 720.0 800.0 1200.0
540.0 630.0 720.0 810.0 900.0 1350.0
600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1500.0
1400.0 1600.0 1800.0 2000.0 3000.0 3000.0
1800.0 2100.0 2400.0 2700.0 3000.0 4500.0
2400.0 2800.0 3200.0 3600.0 4000.0 6000.0
3000.0 3500.0 4000.0 4500.0 5000.0 7500.0
TABLE C-6a TONS OF AGGREGATE REQUIRED PER MILE FOR
VARIOUS WIDTHS AND RATES
Spread
Spread Width (in Feet)
Rate
8 9 10 12 16 18
Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons Tons
20
100.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
1800.0
2000.0
4000.0
6000.0
8000.0
10000.0
20
Tons
Ib/yd
2
Per Mile Per Mile Per Mile Per Mile Per Mile Per Mile Per Mile
5 12 13 15 18 23 26 29
10 23 26 29 35 47 53 59
15 35 40 44 53 70 79 88
20 47 53 59 70 94 106 117
25 59 66 73 88 117 132 147
30 70 79 88 106 141 158 176
35 82 92 103 123 164 185 205
40 94 106 117 141 188 211 235
45 106 119 132 158 211 238 264
50 117 132 147 176 235 264 293
60 141 158 176 211 282 317 352
75 176 198 220 264 352 396 440
100 235 264 293 352 469 528 587
150 352 396 440 528 704 792 880
200 469 528 587 704 939 1056 1173
250 587 660 733 880 1173 1320 1467
300 704 792 880 1056 1408 1584 1760
204
Percent
Depth
Filled
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
TABLE C-7 QUANTITIES AT DEPTHS IN CYLINDRICAL TANKS IN A
HORIZONTAL POSITION
Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent
of Depth of Depth of Depth
Capacity Filled Capacity Filled Capacity Filled
0.20 26 20.73 51 51.27 76
0.50 27 21.86 52 52.55 71
0.90 28 23.00 53 53.81 78
1.34 29 24.07 54 55.08 79
1.87 30 25.31 55 56.34 80
2.45 31 26.48 56 57.60 81
3.07 32 27.66 57 58.86 82
3.74 33 28.84 58 60.11 83
4.45 34 30.03 59 61.36 84
5.20 35 31.19 60 62.61 85
5.98 36 32.44 61 63.86 86
6.80 37 33.66 62 65.10 87
7.64 38 34.90 63 66.34 88
8.50 39 36.14 64 67.56 89
9.40 40 37.39 65 68.81 90
10.32 41 38.64 66 69.97 91
11.27 42 39.89 67 71.16 92
12.24 43 41.14 68 72.34 93
13.23 44 42.40 69 73.52 94
14.23 45 43.66 70 74.69 95
15.26 46 44.92 71 75.93 96
16.32 47 46.19 72 71.00 97
17.40 48 47.45 73 78.14 98
18.50 49 48.73 74 79.27 99
19.61 50 50.00 75 80.39
205
Percent
of
Capacity
81.50
82.60
83.68
84.74
85.71
86.71
87.76
88.73
89.68
90.60
91.50
92.36
93.20
94.02
94.80
95.55
96.26
96.93
97.55
98.13
98.66
99.10
99.50
99.80
TABLE C-8 AREA IN SQUARE METRES OF ROAD
SURFACE FOR VARIOUS ROAD WIDTHS
Per
Road Lineal Per Per
Width Metre 50m Kilometre
2m 2 100 2.000
2.5 2.5 125 2.500
3 3 150 3.000
3.5 3.5 175 3.500
4 4 200 4.000
4.5 4.5 225 4.500
5 5 250 5.000
5.5 5.5 275 5.500
6 6 300 6.000
6.5 6.5 325 6.500
7 7 350 7.000
7.5 7.5 375 7.500
8 8 400 8.000
8.5 8.& 425 8.500
9 9 450 9.000
9.5 9.5 475 9.500
10 10 500 10.000
10.5 10.5 525 10.500
11 11 550 11.000
11.5 11.5 575 11.500
12 12 600 12.000
15 15 750 15.000
20 20 1.000 20.000
25 25 1.250 25.000
TABLE C-8a AREA IN SQUARE YARDS OF ROAD
SURFACE FOR VARIOUS ROAD WIDTHS
Per
Road Lineal Per Per
Width Foot 100 ft Mile
6ft 0.67 66.67 3.520
7 0.78 n.78 4.107
8 0.89 88.89 4.693
9 1.00 100.00 5.280
10 1.11 111.11 5.867
11 1.22 122.22 6.453
12 1.33 133.33 7.040
13 1.44 144.44 7.627
14 1.56 155.56 8.213
15 1.67 166.n 8.800
16 1.78 1n.78 9.387
17 1.89 188.89 9.973
18 2.00 200.00 10.560
20 2.22 222.22 11.733
22 2.44 244.44 12.907
24 2.67 266.67 14.080
25 2.78 2n.78 14.667
26 2.89 288.89 15.253
28 3.11 311.11 16.427
30 3.33 333.33 17.600
32 3.56 355.56 18.n3
34 3.78 3n.78 19.947
36 4.00 400.00 21.120
38 4.22 422.22 22.293
40 4.44 444.44 23.467
50 5.56 555.56 29.333
60 6.67 666.67 35.200
70 7.78 m.78 41.067
75 8.33 833.33 44.000
80 8.89 888.89 46.933
206
TABLE C-g TEMPERATURE CONVERSION CHART
Fahrenheit to Degrees Celsius
OF
°c
of
°c
of
°c
-9 -23 31 -1 71 22
-8 -22 32 0*
72 22
-7 -22 33 1 73 23
-6 -21 34 1 74 23
-5 -21 35 2 75 24
-4 -20* 36 2 76 24
-3 -19 37 3 77 25*
-2 -19 38 3 78 26
-1 -18 39 4 79 26
0 -18 40 4 80 27
1 -17 41 5*
81 27
2 -17 42 6 82 28
3 -16 43 6 83 28
4 -16 44 7 84 29
5 -15* 45 7 85 29
6 -14 46 8 86 30*
7 -14 47 8 87 31
8 -13 48 9 88 31
9 -13 49 9 89 32
10 -12 50 10*
90 32
11 -12 51 11 91 33
12 -11 52 11 92 33
13 -11 53 12 93 34
14 -10* 54 12 94 34
15 -9 55 13 95 35*
16 -9 56 13 96 36
17 -8 57 14 97 36
18 -8 58 14 98 37
19 -7 59 15* 99 37
20 -7 60 16 100 38
21 -6 61 16 101 38
22 -6 62 17 102 39
23 -5* 63 17 103 39
24 -4 64 18 104 40*
25 -4 65 18 105 41
26 -3 66 19 106 41
27 -3 67 19 107 42
28 -2 68 20* 108 42
29 -2 69 21 109 43
30 -1 70 21 110 43
*These are exact conversions.
Examples: 25' F is -4°C (minus four degrees Celsius)
7SoF is 2ftC; 1 0 ~ F is 42°C
207
of
°c
111 44
112 44
113 45*
114 46
115 46
116 47
117 47
118 48
119 49
120 49
121 49
122 50*
123 51
124 51
125 52
126 52
127 53
128 53
129 54
130 54
131 55*
132 56
133 56
134 57
135 57
136 58
137 58
138 59
139 59
140 60*
141 61
142 61
143 62
144 62
145 63
146 63
147 64
148 64
149 65*
150 66
of
°c
151 66
152 67
153 67
154 68
155 68
156 69
157 69
158 70*
159 71
160 71
161 72
162 72
163 73
164 73
165 74
166 74
167 75*
168 76
169 76
170 77
171 77
172 78
173 78
174 79
175 79
176 80*
177 81
178 81
179 82
180 82
181 83
182 83
183 84
184 84
185 85*
TABLE C-10 CONVERSION FACTORS:
To convert from
acre ..... .
acre. . . . . . . . ..... .
Atmosphere Itechnical = lkgf/cm
2
)
barrel (42 gaL) . . . . . .
BTU (Intwnational Table)
bushel ..
dyne .......... .
dyne/centimetre
2
.... .
Fahrenheit (temperature)
foot .
foot
2
.
footJ.
foot·pound·force .
foot/minute ..
foot/second
2
..
galion (U.S. liquid) .
galion/minute ...
gallon/yard
2
..
horsepower (electric)
inch .
inch
2
.
inch
2
.
inch
J
.
inch/second
inch of mercury (60°F)
inch/second
2
.
kilogram (kg) .
kip (1 000 Ibl)
kip/inch
2
..
mile (U$. statute)
mile
2
.....
mile/hour. . .
minute (angle)
ounce· force .
ounce-mass.
ounce· fluid
pint (U.S. liquid) .
poise (absolute viscosity) .
pound· force (lbf) .
pound·force·inch .
pound·forcelfoot
2
. .
pound.force/inch
2
(psi)
pound·mass '"
pound·masslfoot
2
pound·mass/foot
J
pound·mass/inch
J
pound·mass/yard
2
pound·,mass/yard
J
.
pound·mass/gallon IU.S. liquid)
psi ....... .
quan (U.S. liquid)
ton (metric) .
Ion hhorl·2 OOOlb)
ton (long-2 240 Ib) .
ton'mass/yard
J
.
yard .
yard
2
yard
J
U.S. CUSTOMARY TO METRIC UNITS
metre
2
(m
2
) .
hectometre
2
(hm
2
)
To
kilapascal (kPa) .. ..
decimetre
J
(dm
J
) or litre (I)
kilojoule (kJ) ...
decimetre
J
(dm
J
) .
micronewton (pN) .
pascal (Pa) .
Cels,u, fe) .
metre (m) ..
metre
2
(m
2
) .
{
metre
J
ImJ) .
· litre (I) ...
joule (J)
metre/second (m/s)
metre/second
2
Im/,2)
{
decimetre
J
(dmJ) or litre (I)
metre
J
(m
J
) ........ .
decimetreJ/second (dmJ/s) Or Ittre/second (lIs)
decimetre
J
/metre
2
(dm
J
/m
2
) or litre!metre
2
(11m
2
)
kilowan (kW) .
millimetre (mm) .
centimetre
2
Icm
2
) .
millimet,e
2
(mm
2
)
centimetre
J
(cmJ)
metre/second (m!s)
pascal (Pa). .
metre!second
2
(m/5
2
)
ton (metric)
kilonewton (kN) .
megapascal (MPa)
kilometre (km) ..
kilometre
2
(km
2
)
kilometrelhour (kmlhr)
radian (rad).
newton (N) ... .
gram (g) ..... .
{
centimetre
J
(cmJ)
litre (I) ..... .
litre (I) ..... .
pascal·second (Pa·s)
{
newton (N) ....
k il onewton (k N) .
newton·metre (N.m) .
pascal (p.) ...
kilopascal (kPa) ...
kilogram (kg) .. . ..
· kilogram/metre
2
(kg/m
2
) .
{
kilogram/metre
J
(kg/mJ) .•.
· megagram/metre
J
(Mg/m") .
kilogram/decimet,eJ (kg/dm
J
)
kilogram/metre
2
(kg/m
2
) .
kilogram/metre
J
(kg/m
J
)
{
kilogram/metreJ (kg/m
J
)' ...
· kilogram/decimetre
J
(kg!dm
J
)
kilopascal (kPa). ""
decimetr.
3
(dm
J
) or litre (I)
kilogram (kg)
kilogram (kg) •..
kilogram (kg) ....
kilogram!metre
J
(kg!m
J
)
metre (m) ..
metre
2
(m
2
) .
metre
J
(mJ) .
208
Multiply bV
4046.856
· . 0.404 686
· 98.06650
· 158.9873
· 1.055056
35.2391
to.OOO 0
· 0.100 0
. te = 1t,-32)/1.8
0.304 SO
· 0.092903
· 0.02B 317
2B.3170
1.355B18
0.00508
0.30480
3.785412
0.003785
0.06309
4.527314
0.7460
25.400 0
· 6.45160
· 645.1600
.16.38706
· . 0.02540
.3376.85
0.02540
0.00100
4.448222
6.894 757
1.609 344
2.589988
1.609 344
0.000290 89
0.2780139
28.34952
29.57353
0.029574
0.473 1765
0.100 000
4.448222
0.004448
0.1129848
47.88026
6.894 757
0.4535924
4.882428
16.01846
· 0.D16018
27.67990
· 0.542 492
0.593276
· 119.8264
0.119826
· . 6.894 757
· . 0.9463529
. 1000.000 0
. .907.184 7
.1016.0461
.1186.5527
0.91440
0.8361274
0.764554 9
D.Ol SCOPE
APPENDIXD
STANDARD METHOD OF TEST FOR
UNIT WEIGHT OF AGGREGATE
AASHTO DESIGNATION: T 19*
ASTM DESIGNATION: C 29*
0.01.1 This method covers the determination of the usnit weight of fine, coarse, or mixed
aggregates.
Note 1: The values stated in V. S. customary units are to be regarded as the standard,
The metric equivalents of V.S. customary units may be approximate.
D.02 APPARATUS
D.02.1 Balance-A balance or scale accurate within 0.1 percent of the test load at any point
within the range of use. The range of use shall be considered to extend from the
mass (weight) of the measure empty to the mass (weight) of the measure plus its
contents at 1600 kg/m
3
(100 Ib/ft
3
).
0.02.2 Measure-A cylindrical metal measure, preferably provided with handles. It shall
be watertight, with the top and bottom true and even, preferably machined to accurate
dimensions on the inside, and sufficiently rigid to retain its form under rough usage.
The top rim shall be smooth and plane within 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) and shall be
parallel to the bottom within 0.009 radian (0.5 deg.) (Note 2). Measures of the
two larger sizes listed in Table 0-1 or 0-2 shall be reinforced around the top with
a metal band, to provide an overall wall thickness of not less than (5 mm) (0.20
in.) in the upper 38 mm (1 112 in.) The capacity and dimensions of the measure
shall conform to the limits in Table E-l or E-2 (Note 3).
Note 2: The top rim is satisfactorily plane if a 0.25 mm (0.01 in.) feeler gauge cannot
be inserted between the rim and piece of 6 nun (114 in.) or thicker plate glass
laid over the measure. The top and bottom are satisfactorily parallel if the slope
between pieces of plate glass in contact with the top and bottom does not exceed
1 percent in any direction.
Note 3: Dimensional tolerances and thicknesses of metal prescribed here are intended to
be applied to measures acquired after January 1, 1968. Measures acquired before
that date may conform either to this standard or to Section 2(c) of Test Method
ASTM C 29-60.
D.03 SAMPLE
0.03.1 The sample of aggregate shall be dried to essentially constant weight, preferably in
an oven, at 105 to 110°C (220 to 230°F) and thoroughly mixed.
*Note: Only the portion of this test method required to determine the loose weight of an aggregate is reproduced here.
209
TABLE 0-1 DIMENSIONS OF MEASURES*
Thicknesses of Size of
Inside Diameter Inside Height metal, min. mm Aggregate
Capacity, litres mm mm max, mm**
Bottom Wall
3 155 ± 2 160 ± 2 5.0 2.5 12.5
10 205 ± 2 305 ± 2 5.0 2.5 25
15 255 ± 2 295 ± 2 5.0 3.0 40
30 ·355 ± 2 305 ± 2 5.0 3.0 100
*The indicated size of container may be used to test aggregates of a maximum size equal to or smaller
than that listed.
**Based on sieves with square openings.
TABLE 0-2 DIMENSIONS OF MEASURES, U.S. CUSTOMARY SYSTEM*
Thicknesses of Size of
Inside Diameter Inside Height metal, min. in. Aggregate.
Capacity, tt
3
in. in. max. in.**
Bottom Wall
1/10 6.0 ± 0.1 6.1 ± 0.1 0.20 0.10 1/2
1/3 8.0 ± 0.1 11.5 ± 0.1 0.20 0.10 1
1/2 10.0 ± 0.1 11.0 ± 0.1 0.20 0.12 1 1/2
1 14.0 ± 0.1 11.2 ± 0.1 0.20 0.12 4
*The indicated size of container may be used to test aggregates of a maximum nominal size equal to or
smaller than that listed.
**Based on sieves with square openings.
D.04 CALIBRATION OF MEASURE
D.04.1 Fill the measure with water at room temperature and cover with a piece of plate
glass in such a way as to eliminate bubbles and excess water.
D.04.1 Determine the net weight of water in the measure to an accuracy of ± 0.1 percent
D.04.3 Measure the temperature of the water and determine its unit weight, from Table
D-3, interpolating if necessary.
D.04.4 Calculate the factor for the measure by dividing the unit weight of the water by the
weight required to fill the measure.
LOOSE WEIGHT DETERMINATION
n.os SHOVELING PROCEDURE
D.OS.l The shoveling procedure is applicable to aggregates having a maximum size of 100
mm (4 in.) or less.
D.OS.I.l Fill the measure to overflowing by means of shovel or scoop, discharging the aggre-
gate from a height not to exceed (50 mm) (2 in.) above the top of the measure.
Exercise care to prevent, so far as possible, segregation of the particle sizes of which
210
TABLE 0-3 UNIT WEIGHT OF WATER
Temperature
Ib/ft3 kg/m3
Deg.F Deg.C
60 15.6 62.366 999.01
65 18.3 62.336 998.54
70 21.1 62.301 997.97
(73.4) (23.0) (62.274) (997.54)
75 23.9 62.261 997.32
80 26.7 62.216 996.59
85 29.4 62.166 995.83
the sample is composed. Level the surface of the aggregate with the fingers or a
straightedge in such a way that any slight projections of the larger pieces of the
coarse aggregate approximately balance the larger voids in the surface below the
top of the measure.
D. 05. 1.2 Weigh the measure and its contents and record the net weight of the aggregate to
the nearest 0.1 percent. Multiply this weight by the factor calculated as described
in 4.4. The product is the loose unit weight of the aggregate.
0.06 REPRODUCIBILITY OF RESULTS
D.06.1 Results by an operator using the same sample and procedure should check within 1
percent.
211
APPENDIX E
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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No.5, 8th Ed., The Asphalt Institute, College Park, Maryland, 1984
AJOUR, A.M., "Chemical Aspects of the Formulation of Bituminous Emulsion," World
Congress on Slurry Seal, Madrid, Spain, February 1977
ANDERSON, JOHN, "Asphalt Emulsions in Paving Mixes: Open Graded and Dense Graded,"
Second Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, March 4, 1975
AROSURF-CATIONIC ASPHALT EMULSIFIERS, Ashland Chemical Company,
Columbus, Ohio
ASH, ROBERT, "Dust Control and Stage Construction Using Asphalt Emulsion," First
Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Washington, D.C., January
28, 1974
ASPHALT COLD-MIX MANUAL, Manual Series No. 14, The Asphalt Institute, College
Park, Maryland, 1977
ASPHALT EMULSION AND THE CHARLOTTE COLLOID MILL, Chemicolloid
Laboratories, Inc., May 1977
ASPHALT EMULSION SPECIFICATIONS, Elf Aquitaine Asphalt, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri,
1985
ASPHALT IN PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE, Manual Series No. 16, 2nd Ed. The Asphalt
Institute, College Park, Maryland, 1983
ASPHALT MULCH TREATMENT, Information Series No. 161, The Asphalt Institute,
College Park, Maryland, January 1973
ASPHALT OVER LA YS FOR HIGHWAY AND STREET REHABILITATION, Manual
Series No. 17, 2nd Ed. The Asphalt Institute, College Park, Maryland, 1983
ASPHALT SURFACE TREATMENTS-SPECIFICATIONS, Educational Series No. 11,
The Asphalt Institute, College Park, Maryland, 1982
ASPHALT SURFACE TREATMENTS-CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES, Educational
Series No. 12, The Asphalt Institute, College Park, Maryland, 1982
BAN, STEPHEN, and HARDIN, JACK, "The Properties of Asphalt Emulsion Residue,"
Fifth Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Atlanta, Ga.,
March 1, 1978
BENEDICT, C. ROBERT, "Design and Control of Slurry Seal Mixes," Fourth Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1, 1977
BENEDICT, C. ROBERT, "Machine-Laid Travel Plant Emulsion Mixes," First Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, January 29, 1971 .
BENEDICT, C. ROBERT, "Quick-set, Quick-Cure Slurry Seal Systems-State ofthe Art,"
Proc. ISSA R&D Committee Symposium, Atlanta, Ga., February 13, 1978
BENEDICT, C. ROBERT, "An Introduction to the Potential Uses of a Loaded Wheel Tester
for the Traffic Count Design of Slurry Seal," Proc. 13th Annual ISSA Convention,
Las Vegas, February 1975
BERRY, BILL, "Chip Seal With RS-2 and Plio Pave L-170," Region IV Meeting, Asphalt
Emulsion Manufacturers Ass'ociation, Chula Vista, California, July 8, 1975
213
BETENSON, WADE B., "Emulsified Asphalt Pavement at South Holden Interchange Ramps,"
Utah Department of Transportation
"BITUMINOUS EMULSIONS FOR HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS," Synthesis of Highway
Practice Report No. 30, Transportation Research Board, National Cooperative Highway
Research Program, Washington, D.C.
BITUMULS FOR BASE CONSTRUCTION, American Bitumuls & Asphalt Company,
San Francisco, CA
BITUMULS MIX MANUAL, Chevron, U.S.A., Asphalt Division, San Francisco, CA,
January 1977
BURTON, JAMES A., "Seal Coats are an Engineering Challenge," The Asphalt Paving
Workshop, North Platte, Nebraska, March 4-5, 1976
BYRNE, JOSEPH, "Oil Industry Outlook, 1975," Second Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion
Manufacturers Association, San Diego, CA, March 5, 1975
CALDWELL, DONALD L., "Use of Portable Mixing Plants in Asphalt Emulsion Surface
Mixes and Base Stabilization," Second Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
Association, San Diego, CA, March 5, 1975
CHUCK-HOLE PATCHING WITH ASPHALT EMULSION, Phillips Petroleum Company,
Bartlesville, Oklahoma, June 1976
COLD-MIX ASPHALT-STABILIZED BASE MIXER FOR PUG MILL PA VING, Calenco
Equipment Company, Jacksonville, IL
COYNE, L.D., "Design and Construction of Emulsified Asphalt Open Graded Mixes and
Overlays,"Twenty-Third Annual Road Builders' Clinic, Moscow, Idaho, March 17, 1972
COYNE, L.D. and RIPPLE, R.M., "Emulsified Asphalt Mix Design and Construction,"
Annual Meeting of The Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Phoenix, Arizona,
February 1975
COYNE, L.D., "Emulsion Stabilization Mix Design," Transportation Research Board Meeting
Washington, D.C., January 19, 1976
DARTER, MICHAEL I. and DEVOS, ALOIS J., "Structural Analysis of Asphaltic Cold
Mixtures Used in Pavement Bases," Project IHR-505, Illinois Cooperative Highway
Research Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, August 1977
DARTER, MICHAEL I, and DEVOS, ALOIS J., "Structural Analysis of Asphaltic Cold
Mixtures Used in Pavement Bases," Project IHR-505 (Research Report 505-4), Illinois
Cooperative Highway Research Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, April 1977
DARTER, MICHAEL I., WILKEY, PATRICK L., AHLFIELD, STEVEN L., and
WASILL, RICHARD G., "Development of Emulsified Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mixture
Design Procedures," Project IHR-505 (Research Report 505-5), Illinois Cooperative Highway
Research Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, February 1978
DA Y, ALVYN J., "Manufacture and Use of Asphalt Emulsions (Paving)," Ohio Asphalt
Paving Conference, Columbus, Ohio, February 26, 1976
DELP, LARUE, "The Use of Emulsions in The State of Kansas," Third Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto, Canada, April 26-28, 1976
DESIGN TECHNICAL BULLETINS-1984, International Slurry Seal Association,
Washington, D.C.
DO'S AND DON'TS OF ASPHALT EMULSION HANDLING, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
Association, Washington, D.C.
214
DOTY, RO BER TN., "Cal Trans and Emulsions: Past, Present, and Future," Second Annual
Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, San Diego, CA, March 5, 1975
DOUGHERTY, H.D., "Servicing Slurry Seal Construction Using Bitumuls QS-h Emulsified
Asphalt," Technical Paper No. 159, Chevron Asphalt Company, January 16, 1970
DRAPER, HOMER L., "Asphalt Emulsion Mill Setting Versus Particle Size,.· 1978 Annual
Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Atlanta, GA., February 26-March 1,
1978
DUNNING, R.L. AND TURNER, F.E., "Asphalt Emulsion Stabilized Soils as a Base
Material in Roads," Annual Meeting of Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Philadelphia,
Pennsylvania, February 15-17, 1965
DUNNING, ROBERT L., "Rubber in Asphalt Emulsion Systems and Their Rheological
Behavior," Second Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, San
Diego, CA, March 5, 1975
DYBALSKI, JACK N., "Asphalt Emulsions," 1975 Iowa Asphalt Paving Conference, Ames,
Iowa, March 20, 1975
DYBALSKI, JACK N., "Soil Stabilization and Other Cold Mixes with Cationic Asphalt
Emulsions," First Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Wash-
ington, D.C., January 28, 1974
DYBALSKI, JACK N., "The Chemistry of Asphalt Emulsion," Fifty-Fifth Annual Meeting,
Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., January 1976
"EMULSIFIED ASPHALT SINGLE SEAL COAT OR SURFACE TREATMENT,"
Guide Specification 102.0, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association,
Washington, D.C.
EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MULTIPLE APPLICATION SEAL COAT OR SURFACE
TREATMENT (ARMOR COA 1)," Guide Specification 103.0, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
Association, Washington, D.C.
"EMULSIFIED ASPHALT SAND SEAL," Guide Specification 104.0, Asphalt Emulsion
Manufacturers Association, Washington, D. C.
EPPS, JON A., LITTLE, DALLAS N., and GALLA WAY, BOB M., "Use of Asphalt
Emulsions in Pavement Recycling," Fourth Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
Association, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1, 1977
FERGUSON, JOHN, "Emulsified Asphalt Used· for Seal Coats," Third Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto, Canada, April 26-28, 1976
FONG, GENE K., "Mix Design Methods for Base and Surface Courses Using Emulsified
Asphalt-A State-of-the Art Report," Unpublished Report, Paving and Structural Group,
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FOSTER, CHARLES R., An Assessment of the Role of Emulsified Asphalts in Reducing Air
Pollution and Conserving Energy in Pavement Construction, National Asphalt Pavement
Association, Riverdale, Maryland, December 2, 1975
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Pavement Association, Riverdale, Maryland, December 1977
215
GAGAN, PETER, "High Float Emulsion," Fourth Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion
Manufacturers Association, Phoenix, Arizona, March 1, 1977
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U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 1975
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Republic of South Africa, July 29-August 2, 1974
GOODRICH, J.L., FERM, R.L. and ROGERS, E.D., "Practical Quick-Set Slurry Seal
Coats," Technical Paper No. 150, Chevron Asphalt Company, San Francisco, CA,
January 8, 1969
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for Surface Treatments," Fifth Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association,
Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 1978
HALLSTEAD, WOODROW J., "Opportunities and Problems for Increased Use of Asphalt
Emulsions," First Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association,
Washington, D.C., January 27-29, 1974
HA TFIELD, RICHARD D., "Solvent and Solventless Emulsions," Fifth Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27, 1978
HENSLEY, M.J.and EPPS, JON, "The Design and Construction of Heavy Haul Roads,"
Fifth Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Atlanta, Georgia,
February 27, 1978
HERRIN, MORELAND, DARTER, MICHAEL I., and ISHAI, ILAN, "Determination
of Feasible Testing Methods for Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mix Bases," Project IHR-505,
Illinois Cooperative Highway Research Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois,
March 1974
HICKS, R.G., and WILLIAMSON, RONALD, "Use of Open Graded Emulsion Mixes
in the Pacific Northwest," Fourth Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
Association, Phoenix, Arizona, March I, 1977
HOlBERG, ARNOLD J., "A Survey of Asphalts-Types, Composition, Manufacture and
Properties," First Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association,
Sheraton-Carlton Hotel, Washington, D.C., January 28, 1974
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Pavement Maintenance," Second Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
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Asphalt Association, Toronto, Canada, November 24-26, 1975
HUFFMAN, JOHN E., "Emulsified Asphalt Paving-Proper Construction Practices,"
Third Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto, Ontario,
April 26-28, 1976
HUFFMAN, JOHN E., Outline for Technical Training on Emulsified Asphalts, Pacific Coast
Division, The Asphalt Institute, June 1974
HUTCHINSON, C. BRYCE, "Technical Aspects of CRS-2 for Seal Coating," Fifth Annual
Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Atlanta, Georgia, February 27,
1978
216
ISHAI, ILAN, HERRIN, MORELAND, and LEVERENZ, DAVID G., "Failure Modes
and Required Properties in Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mix Bases," Project IH R-505, Illinois
Cooperative Highway Research Program, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, August
1973
JOHNSON, EUGENE M, "Road Programs" Region III Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion
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KANDHAL, PRITHVI, Let's Get Acquainted with Asphalt Emulsions, Bureau of Materials,
Testing and Research Information Report, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation,
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September 11, 1975
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KENNEDY, DOUGLAS 0., "Emulsion Basics-Mixes," Third Annual Meeting, Asphalt
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KENNEDY, DOUGLAS, "Sand Seal," Technical Subcommittee IB, Asphalt Emulsion
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Benefits from Using Emulsions to Replace Asphalt Cutbacks in Certain Paving Operations,"
EPA-450/2-78-004, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C.,
January 1978
KOCH, DONALD, "Emulsion Basics: Seal Coats, Surface Treatments, Slurry Seal, and
Tack Coats," Third Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto,
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LIGNOCHEMICAL EMULSIFIERS AND STABILIZERS FOR ASPHALT, Westvaco,
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LINDBERG, H.A., AND MENDENHALL, W., "Welcome to the Highway Fraternity,"
First Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Sheraton Carlton
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McCONNAUGHA Y, K.E., INC., Emulsified Asphalt Plants and Processes, LaFayette,
Indiana
McCONNAUGHAY, K.E., Improving Asphalts by Means of the Emulsification Process,
LaFayette, Indiana .
McCONNAUGHAY, K.E., Join the Move to Emulsified Asphalts, LaFayette, Indiana
McCONN AUG HA Y, K.E., Inc., Repair Pavement Cracks by Sealing with Asphalt Emulsion,
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217
McCOY, PA UL, "Asphalt Emulsions Manufacture and Use in Road Construction," presented
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McQUEEN, JAMES A., and WALLER, H.F., JR., 'The Use of Emulsion (For 'Drag
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MULLINS, TROY E., "Predicting Mechanical Stability of Emulsions," Fifth Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Atlanta, Georgia, February 28, 1978
O'BRIEN, LOUIS G., "The Use of Motor Pavers in Penndot," Third Annual Meeting,
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PAVING HANDBOOK, Chevron Asphalt Company, San Francisco, CA, 1973
POLLOCK, JAMES, 'The Contractor, The Emulsion Maker, and the Job/' Second Annual
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PUBMILL PAVING WITH PORTA PUGG TWIN 78, Calenco Equipment Company,
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218
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RECOMMENDED PERFORMANCE GUIDELINES, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
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Cozumel Using Only Emulsions," Second Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers
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Coats (Cationic Asphalt Emulsion Type)," Technical Paper No. 151, Chevron Asphalt
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SALE, JAMES P., PARKER, FRAZIER, JR., and BARKER, WALTER R., "Engineering
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Manufacturers Association, Washington, D.C., January 28, 1974
SANTUCCI, L.E., "Thickness Design Procedure for Asphalt and Emulsified Asphalt Mixes,"
Technical Paper No.1 75, Chevron Asphalt Company, San Francisco, CA, September 1, 1976
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Mixes," Technical Paper No. 161, Chevron Asphalt Company, San Francisco, CA
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of Cement-Modified Asphalt Emulsion Mixes," Technical Paper No.1 66, Chevron Asphalt
Company, San Francisco, CA, February 1973
SCHMIDT, R.J., and GRAF, P.E., "The Effect of Water on the Resilient Modulus of
Asphalt-Treated Mixes," Technical Paper No. 162, Chevron Asphalt Company, San
Francisco, CA, February 1972
SCHREUDERS, HANS G., "Basic Anionic Asphalt Emulsion," Third Annual Meeting,
Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto, Canada, April 26-28, 1976
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SLURRY SEALING, Construction Leaflet No. 22, The Asphalt Institute, College Park,
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219
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Treated Base Course Project in Calhous County, Mississippi," Report No. FHWA- TS-77-205,
Federal Highway Administration, March 1977
TENG, PAUL, "Emulsified Asphalt Stabilization of Sandy Soils in Mississippi," Second
Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, San Diego, CA,
March 4, 1975
TERRY, EDWARD, "Working with the Federal Highway Administration," Third Annual
Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto, Canada, April 26-28,
1976
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Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, San Diego, CA, March 5, 1975
THOMPSON, HARRY J., "Future Trends in Highway Construction in North America,"
Third Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association, Toronto, Canada,
April 1976
TOLONEN, WILLIAM J., and PETERS, ROWAN J., "Emulsion Testing Methods and
Specifications," First Annual Meeting, Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association,
Washington, D.e., January 28, 1974
TRUMBULL, JOHN, "Open Graded Mixes," Technical Subcommittee lIB, Asphalt Emulsion
Manufacturers Association Report, Washington, D.e.
WALKER, R.N., "A Method for the Design of Multiple Surface Treatments Based on
the Results of Three Road Surfacing Experiments," First Conference on Asphalt Pave-
ments/or Southern A/rica, National Institute for Road Research, South African Council
for Scientific and Industrical Research, Pretoria, July 1969
WHITNEY, GORDON, F., "Recycling Asphalt Pavements Using the Heater Remix-Slurry
Seal Method," Proc., 15th Annual ISSA Convention and First World Congress on Slurry
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January 26-28, 1959
YOUNG, Model SB-804 Slurry Machine, Slurry-Seal Inc., Waco, Texas
220
------------- -- - --- - -- ------
A
Absorption
coarse aggregate, of, 120
emulsion, of, 15
Acid, hydrochloric, 13
Acids, fatty, II, 13
Adhesion provided by prime coat, 94
Adhesive properties of emulsions, 38
Adsorption of emulsion, 15
Aeraticn of mix, 77, 79, 163
Aggregate
absorption rates of, 15
air-dried, 160
application methods, 60, 61
asphalt content variation, and, 147
Asphalt Institute design, in, 147
bins used for, 80
calcareous, 124
Cape seal, for, 57
characteristics of, 67
choke, 85
choosing the best, 15
cleanliness of, 47
coarse, in Hveem method, 120
coarse, in mixes, 69
coarse, surface area, test of, 117
coatahility, 70, 126
coating requirements in mix, 145
coating test, and the, 31, 32-33, 188
combinations to be avoided, 87
combined, in Hveem method, 121
compatability of, 70
covering of, emulsion, 47
cubical shape ideal, 47
damp, 16
defined, 171
dirty, 16
drying of, 70
drying to constant weight, 125
electrical charges in surface of, 15
emulsion choice, and,S
emulsion coating, 2
emulsion content, and, 114
emulsion mixes, for, 67, 83
emulsion setting rate, and, 16
evaluation of, 70, 71
factors, surface area, 116
field performance, and, 70
fine, in Hveem method, 119
fine, in mixes, 70
gradations in maintenance mixes, 99
grading requirements, 70
hot mixes, in, 87
imported, 72
laboratory evaluation of, 72
laboratory testing of, 54
INDEX
221
local, savings and, 82
loose weight determination, 210
loss of cover, 43, 45, 48
maintenance mixes, in, 98
marginal quality type, 79
Marshall method, in the, 155
mass, table on dry, 199,200
measures for, tables of, 210
moisture content, and, 16, 157
one-size in surface treatments, 54
open-graded mixes, for, 81, 82
pit run, 79
porous, 114
preparation in laboratory specimens, 160
quality tests of, 155
quantity determination in surface treatment, 54
reclaimed, 115
requirements in mix, 67
retention of, 66
selection of, III, 115
shape of, 47
shoveling procedure in weight test, 210
siliceous, 124
size of, 47
slurry seal, for, 57
specific gravity of, 55
spreaders for, 60, 61, 62,172
surface area calculation of, 116
surface treatments, in, 42
tests on, 70
tons per mile requirements, 204
types of, 115
types used in surface treatments, 54, 55
unit weight of, test for, 209-211
water, and, 72
weighing of, 61
weights of, tabulated, 200
wet, tests in, 185
Aggregate emulsion mixes, 67, 88
Air and asphalt calculation, 134
Air bubbles and emulsion stability, 19
Air entrainment, 19
Air jet in crack cleaning, 94
Air voids in mix design, 165
Airport runway recycling, 102
Alligator cracking, 93
Aluminum alloy still, 25
American Association of State Highway and
Transportation Officials, methods of
M 140, 7, 39, 98
M 208, 7, 29, 39, 98
TII,71
T 19, 71, 73, 209
T 27,71
T 37,71
T 40,21,22
T44,31
T49,31
T 50,6,31,32,38
T 51, 31
T 59, 25, 26, 27
T 96, 47,51,71
T 104, 71
T 176,51,71
T 228,31
T 245,109
T 246,109
T 247,109
American Society for Testing and Materials,
standards of
C 29, 71, 72, 209
C 88,71
C 117,71
C 127, 114, 147
C 131,47, 51, 71
C 136,71
D5,31
D 70, 31
D 113,31
D 139,6,31,32,38
D 140,21,22
D 244,25,26,27,151,152,175-195
D 546, 71
D 692, 69, 147
D 977, 7, 8, 9, 38, 39, 98
D 1188, 128, 134, 162, 164
D 1559, 109
D 1560, 109, 153
D 1561, 109, 126
D 2042, 31
D 2216, 125, 157
D 2397, 7, 10,31,39,51,71,98
D 2419, 51, 71
D 2726, 128, 134, 162, 164
D 3910,53
list of standards, 6, 175
Amines, fatty, II
Ammonium salts, fatty quarternary, II
Anionic emulsions, 5
Applications of emulsions, miscellaneous, 89, 96
Applications check methods, 59, 66
Arbor press, 159
Armorcoat, 57
Ash content test, 186
Asphalt
asphaltenes, II
basic to emulsions, 7
chemical properties of, 7
cold-mix described, 79
colloid, as a, 7
contamination causes listed, 20-22
content determination, 7, 151
content, trial of, III
cutbacks,2, 171
222
demand for, 3
dispersion, factors in, 5, 124
droplet size in emulsions, 12
emulsifying procedure, I
field performance of, II
fractions of, II
hardness of, 7
hot mixes, in, I, 87-88
ionic charge in, 7
optimum content determination, I 15, I 18, 168
particle size, 7, 14
personal judgment in selection of, 7 I
pump discharge rate, and, 74
purity test, 26, 31
quantity determination in surface treatments
55, 56, 57, 203
residual, plotted percent, 169
residue characteristics, 7 I
selection of, 71, III
types of, I, 171
varieties and grades of, I
volume checking, 66
Asphalt Cold-Mix Recycling (MS-21), 106
Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance (MS-16), 97
Asphalt Institute mix-design methods, 109, 147-149
Asphalt Institute publications
See Bibliography
B
Base, strong, surface treatment for, 42
Batch plant, defined, 172
Bibliography, 212-218
Bitumeter, 59
Blade mixing, 77, 78, 79, 103, 105
rolling action, and, 78
Bleeding, 44
causes of, 44
surface treatments, and, 41, 55
Bonding, aggregate-emulsion, 15
Breaking and curing of emulsion, 15-16
indications of, 79
premature, 58
Brittle pavements recycling, 102
Broom, power, 64
use before crack filling, 94
Bulk specific gravity determination, 164
Bunsen burner, 25
c
Calcium carbonate dust, 31
Calcium chloride solution, 181
in RS testing, 29
California Division of Highways' tests, I I I
California kneading compactor, 126, 127
Cape seal, 48, 56
asphalt for, 59
curing time, 56
emulsion for, 57
uses of. 40
Cationic emulsified asphalts listed, S, 6
Cement, asphalt, defined, 171
Cement mixing test, 8-10, 182
Central mix plant, 105
Centrifuge, hand operated, 116
Chemical coagulation, 16
Chemical emulsifiers, 11-12
Chemical principles and emulsions, 5
Chemistry, emulsion, 5-16
Chevron, U.S.A., Inc., 26,40
Chip seal, 56, 86
uses of, 40
Choke aggregate use, 85
C.K.E. oil ratio, 129
C.K.E. test, 82, III, 112, 113, 115, 156
equipment for, 115, 123
fine material surface constant, 119
procedure, 117
Classification test, 26
Clays, II
Climatic conditions and emulsions, 7, 37
CMS-2s,6
CMS emulsions, 16
Coagulation of asphalt test, 30
Coalescence, premature, 87
Coarse aggregates in l I I i x e ~ , 70
Coating test, 8, 10, 31, 32, 33, 156, 183-184
Coating
criteria, 149, 168
field, 188
note on, 158, 161
Cohesiometer
calibration of, 141
illustrated, 144
test,68,114. 141. 142. 143.145
Cohesion testing. 135
Cold mixes, 79-87
See also Marshall method; McConnaughay method
advantages of, 79-80
laydown of, 84-85
plant for, described, 80
production of, 80
recycling with, 10 I, 103, 104
seals with, 86-87
Colloid mill, 12
Compaction, 78-79
care to be taken in, 79
cold mixes, of, 84, 85
fluids content, and, 114, 126, 128
hot mixes, of, 88
optimum water content at, 158
roller mark elimination, 79
specimens. of, 161
laboratory, mechanical, 126
Composition of emulsified asphalt. test for. 176-177
Compression testing machine. 126
Conservation and emulsions, 2
Consistency test, 180
Constancy test, 26
Constant-head flow tank, illustrated, 195
Construction characteristics test, 26
Construction equipment, I
Construction practices in surface treatments, 66
Construction system and emulsion type, 5
Containers, sampling, 22
Contamination
asphalt emulsions, of, 20-22
causes of, 20-22
sampling spigot, and, 22
surface, on, 21
unloading line, from, 22
Continuous mix plant, 87
Conversion charts, customary to metric, 207, 208
Coral as aggregate, 115
Corrosion in equipment, 12
Cost savings and emulsions, 2
Cover aggregate
loss of, 43, 44, 45
quantity calibration, 61
spreading, 65
Cracks
causes of, 94
cleaning of, 94, 95
filler for, 39, 92, 174
reflective, 86
types of, 93
Crushed stone, 115
Crushing old pavement, 103
CSS emulsions, 16
Curb depth and recycling, 49, 102
Cured mix stability determination, 151
Curing and breaking of emulsions, 15-16
223
cationic emulsions fastest, 15
mix, Asphalt Institute design, in, 149
rate of, 71
specimen mixes, of, 128
time of, laboratory, 114
Cutback asphalts, 2, 25, 99. 171
emulsions used instead of, 37
o
Defect, pavement, 94
Dehydration of mix, 84
Demulsibility test, 8- 10, 29, 181
Dense-graded mixes, 82, 84
aggregates for, 151
design methods, 82, 84
durability of, 84
emulsion mixes as, 68
materials for, 82
mixing time in, 86
precautions in use of, 86
procedure modifications for, 84
trial batches of, 82
Density
analysis, 166
dry, 88, 165, 167
field, 68, 88
hot mixes, of, 88
voids analysis, and, 163
Desiccator, 135
Design
criteria for emulsion mixes, 45, 147-149
emulsions and, 2
Diesel oil contamination, 20
Dispersion, asphalt, factors in, 124
Distillation test apparatus, 192
Distributor, asphalt, 58, 77, 172
forward speed of, 72, 73, 74
Dolomite aggregate, 15
Do's and don'ts in emulsion storage, 18-19
Double seal, uses of, 40
Double surface treatment, quantities for, 56
Drainage, 81
open-graded mixes, and, 81
recycling, and, 103
Drierite, 129
Drum-mix plant, 87
Dry aggregates mass, table, 199
Dry bulk density, 167
Ductility test, 25, 31, 32, 187
Durability
open-graded mixes, of, 80
test for, 26
Dust binder, 39
Dust laying, 174
Dust palliative, 95
Dust, stockpile, 80
E
Electrical charges and emulsion types, 5
Emissions, hydrocarbons, 2
Emulsifying agents, I, 7, 11-12
process, in the, 12-14
setting rate, and the, 16
Emulsions
adhesive properties of, 38
aggregate mixes, 67, 88
aggregate types, and, 5
application rate checking, 66, 73
applications, typical, 8-10
asphalt heated in making, 12
ASTM tests for, 175-195
behavior predictability, II
breakdown in storage, 17
breaking and curing, 15-16
Cape seal, for, 57
categories of, 5
cationic, 12
cement mixing test, and the, 30
chemical modifiers in, 7
chemical principles, and, 5-16
climatic conditions, and, 7
coalescence of, 6
coating ability test, 31
cold plant mixes, 79-87
composition of, 5
crack filling, for, 92, 94, 95
curing of, 5
design plots for mixes, 169
224
defined, 171
dense-graded mixes, in, 82
design criteria for mixes, 145
diluted, on dusty roads, 96
dilution of, 19
dirty aggregate, and, 16
distributor spraying temperatures, 46
dust palliative, as, 95-96
economic benefit£ of, I
electrical charges and types 5)
emulsifying in, 11-12
use of, 67
equIpment used in making, 7 ....
fog seal, and, 90, 91
forced air not to be used to agitate, 17
general uses of, tabulated, 39
grades of, 81
harder asphalt in, 6
heat, and, 2
heating in storage, 17
high-float, 6
highway maintenance, and, 2
hot mixes, and, 8:-88
increased use of, 2
ingredients of, 5
ingredients' order of addition, 7
laboratory testing recommended, 37
list of types of, 6, 46
maintenance mixes, in, 2, 97-99
major uses of, 67, 68
manufacturers' formulations, II
manufacturing conditions for, 7
manufacturing plant for, 13
Marshall method, in, 155
mass test, 33
materials incompatibility and, 19
medium setting type, 158
miscibility with water test, 30
misconception regarding, 67
mix-design method, 106
mixing ability of, 32
mixing types to be avoided, 19
mixture data sheet, 164
mulch treatment, in, 91, 92
open-graded mixes, 80-82
optimum content determination, 114, 144
overmixing, 18
over-pumping, 18
penetration range of asphalt in, 7
pollution, and, 2
precautions in using, 17
prime coat, for, 94, 95
production of, 12-14
proportioning ingredients, 13
QS grades of, 40
recirculation of, 19
recycling, in, 2, 10 1-106
residue content of, 151
residue examination, 31
retained asphalt test, 30
safety precautions in handling, 23
sampling, 22-23
sand mixes, 84
sand-mixing grade, 6
sand seal, in, 49
selection of amount of, 114, 147
selection of mix type, 79
selection of type of emulsion, 37-40
setting rate factors, 6, 16
sieve test, 30
site storage of, 65
sloshing in transport of, 19
slow-setting, 158
soil stabilization with, 71
solvent content of, 6
solvent-free, 16
specifications for, 6
storage of, 12, 30, 31
studyof,5
substitute for cutback asphalts, 2
success in use of, 38-39
summary of tests on, 26
surface treatments, in, 42
tack coats, 89, 90
tanks' conditions, and, 20
temperatures of, 12, 13
testing data, 175
tests on, 8-10
trial content of, 147
types of, 115
uses of, I, 2, 37-38
variables affecting, 7
viscosity test on, 8-10
volume increase in, I
water in, II
water resistance of, 31
"why and how" of, 3
wide range of uses of, 79
windrowed aggregate and, 72, 73
working time, and, 16
zeta potential test, 33
Engineering practices essential in
emulsion use, 67
Entrapment of moisture, 86
Environmental considerations and
solvents' use, 2, 99
Equipment
C.K.E. test, for, 115
emulsifying, 12, 13
hot-mix emulsion, for, f:8
inspection of, 42
laboratory, 125, 126, 12i, 128, 159
mixing, 125
surface treatment, 58
Evaluation of aggregates, 71
Evaporation, emulsion and, I
F
Face shields, safety, 23
Fat spots, 89
225
Fatty acids, II
FHW A conservation notices, 2
Field coating test, 32-33
Filler, mineral, 51
Filter papers, 116
Fine aggregates in mixes, 70
Flexibility of open-graded mixes, 80
Float test, 8, 10,31,32, 187
Flow tank, constant-head, 194
Flow test, modified, 165, 166
Fluids
compaction, optimum for, 126, 128
content of mix, III, 114
optimum in Hveem method, 124
Fly ash in slurry seal, 51
Fog seals, 39, 86, 90, 173
Freezing destroys emulsion in storage, 17
Freezing test, 184
Fuel and emulsion use, 2
Full-depth asphalt patch, 93
G
Gloves, safety, 23
Granite, specific gravity range of, 199, 200
Grasslands, cold-mix use in, 80
Gravel, 115
specific gravity range of, 31, 73, 199,200
H
Hammer, compaction, 159
Hammermill, 103, 104
Hand spray, 58
Handling emulsions, 17,23
Hauling vehicles' contamination, 20
Heater-overlay recycling, 106
HFMS emulsions, ASTM standards for, 38
High-float emulsions, 6
History of emulsions' use, I
Hopper type tailgate spreader, 60
Hot Mixes, emulsion, 1,87-88
breaking, and, 88
compaction of, 88
density of, 88
emulsion used in, 87
mixing-time critical, 87
recycling with, 101, 102
Hveem, F.N., 115
Hveem cohesiometer illustrated, 144
Hveem mix design, 82
apparatus for C.K.E. test in, 123
coarse material in, 120
combined aggregate in, 121
emulsion content in trial mixes, 124
fine material in, 119
modified, 111-145
oil ratio chart in, 122
outline of method, III
stability value, 84, 151
test method in, 109
testing schedule in, 112
Hveem stabilometer, 67, 136, 138, 153
Hydrated lime, 51
Hydrocarbon solvent, I
Hydroplaning, 81
Illinois mix-design method, 109
Imported aggregate, blending of, 72
Improvement, highway, 3
Ingredients in emulsions, 7
Inspection of equipment, 42
International Slurry Seal Association, 52, 53
K
Kerosene, I
emulsion storage, in, 18
L
Laboratory equipment in Marshall
mix-design method, 156
Laboratory mixes, 70, 125
Laboratory testing recommended, 37
Lansing Instrumental Differential Translator, 129
Laws, conservation, 2
Limestone aggregate, 15
dust, 51
specific gravity range, 199,200
Load-sensing device in hot mixing, 87
Longitudinal cracks, 93
Los Angeles Abrasion Test, 47, 51, 71, 81, 83,147
M
Magnesium sulfate, 71
Maintenance
costs of, 2
defined, 173
emulsions in, 2
importance of, 97
mix for, 39
pavement, 97
Maltenes, II
Manometer, vacuum, 135
Marshall mix-design method, 84, 155-169
outline of, 155
procedure in, 157
Marshall flow meter, 163
Marshall forming molds, 161
Marshall hammer, 153
Marshall stability test, 67, 84, 163, 165
Marshall test method, 109
Marshall testing frame, 163
Marshall testing machine, 163
Mass test, 33
Materials
coverage requirement tables, 201-204
evaluation, 67
surface treatments, in, 45
McConnaughay mix-design method, 84, 109, 151-153
asphalt residue in, 151, 152
criteria in, 153
emulsion determination in, 153
laboratory procedure in, 152
Mechanical aggregate spreader, 60, 61, 62
Mechanical forces, setting rate and, 16
Medium-setting emulsions, 6
226
Micro-distillation test, 25
Milled-in-place recycling, 101
Mineral filler in slurry sealing, 5 I
Miscellaneous applications of emulsions, 89-96
Miscibility with water test, 184
Mix
mold, in, 127
soaked and dry, 168
Mix-Design calculations, 165, 168
Mix-Design Methods/or Asphalt Concrete
(MS-2), III
Mixed-in-place, 39, 71
applications rates for, 73
recycling, in, 10 I
Mixers, rotary, 74, 76, 77, 105
Mixers, traveling, 72, 75
Mixes, cold, 70 ,
defined, 1E:ll3--
dense-graded, 82, 84
design criteria for, 145
maintenance, 97-99
open-graded, 80
patching, 97
sand-emulsion, 85
sand, value of, 84
trial, 70
Mixing
ability of emulsion, 13, 32
blade, 77, 78
coating, and, 78
reaction, cement-emulsion, 30
test, Asphalt Institute design, in, 148
Modifiers, chemical, 7
Moisture
aggregate, and, 70, 125
exposure to, 113, 135
seal against, 81
Molds, Marshall forming, 161
Mr calculation, 133, 149
M r measurements, 130, 131
Mr pressure regulator, 133
Mr recording meter, 133
Mr test, 67, 84, 129, 130, 131, 132
measurements procedure in, 130
yoke in, 131, 132
MS emulsions' uses, 38, 39
Mulch treatment, 39, 91, 93, 174
asphalt's advantages for, 91
patterns of, 91
Mulcher, twin-jet, 92
N
Naphtha, I
NCHRP Report 259. 109, 155
Nonionic emulsions, 5
o
Oil distillate test, 8, 10, 27, 28, 177-178
Oil ratio chart, H veem mix design, 122
Oil ratio, C.K.E., 129
Open-graded mixes, 80
advantages of, 80
aggregates for, 151
design criteria, 147-149
design of, 82
emulsion mix as, 68
field performance of, 80
materials for, 81
mixing time for, 82
research on, 81
toughness of, 86
Ore tailings as aggregate, 115
Oven for specimens, 159
Overlays, I, 79
Ox blood, II
P
Paint striping, 49
Pan, aeration, 161
Particle charge test, 27, 28, 179
Particle charge tester illustrated, 193
Particle distribution in asphalt, 14
Particle-size of asphalt, 14
Patching mixes, I, 97
Pavementrecyding, 101-106
See also Recycling
Pavement texture and surface treatment type, 55
Paving train, 106
Penetration test, 25, 31
Pedestal, compaction, 159
Photomicrograph of asphalt particles, 14
Plant-mix. emulsion used in, 39
Plants
cold-mix, 80
defined. 13. 172
travel, 75, 76, 77
Plow attachments on grader. 77
Pneumatic-tired rollers for breakdown. 85
Pollution
atmospheric, 2
eliminated by emulsion mixes, 80
Portland cement mixing test, 30
Portland cement
sand mixes, in, 84, 85
slurry seal, in, 51
Pothole patching, 65
Power broom
clean air standards, and, 64
use of, 64, 65
Precautions in emulsion storage, 18-19
Prime coat, 94-95
defined, 171, 173
uses of, 94
Primer, asphalt, 171
Problem solving, iii
Procedure in emulsifying, I
Pugmill plants, 172
Pulvimixer,77
Pump
preheating of, 18
speed and pressure in surface treatments, 43
start-up, and, 18
Pugmill mixer, 87
Pulverizing old pavement, 103
Pycnometer used in specific gravity test, 33
Q
QS emulsion
grades of, 40
slurry sealing, in, 51
R
Rain
dense-graded mixes, and, 86
obviating construction, 66
washoff simulating, 149
Rapid-setting emulsions, 6
asphalt classification test, and, 187
Raveling, 42, 86
slurry seal correcting, 51
Recycling, 2
blade mixing in, 103, 105
candidate pavements for, 102
central plant in, 105
cold-mix for, 101, 103
curb depth and, 102, 103
defined, 10 I
drainage, and, 103
emulsion added in, 101-106
experience in, 106
heater-overlay method of, 106
hot-mix type. 101
mixing in, 105
new mix added, 101
rotary mixers in. 105
salvaged materials tests in, 106
softening agent used in, 101. 103
surface type, 101, 106
travel plant in. 105
water added in, 105
windrows in, 103
Reflection cracking, 93
Repairs, pavement, importance of, 97
Residual asphalt content, 155, 169
Residual asphalt in Marshall mix specimen, 160, 162
Residue tests, 8-10, 177-178, 186-187
Residue by distillation test, 25
Residue by evaporation test, 25, 27, 178-179
Residue examination, 31
Retsina Company, California, 129
Resilient modulus
See also Mr
227
Resilient modulus apparatus, 129, 131
Resistance R-Value Test, 136, 137, 138
Ring burners in distillation test, 25, 192
Road oiling, 96, 174 .
Road widths and area requirements tables, 206
Roadway travel, U.S., 3
Rock crusher, 106
Rollers, 63
defined, 172
pneumatic-tired, 63
surface treatments, in, 42
Rolling
See also Compaction
aggregate, 65
slurry sealing, in, 53
Rotary mixers, 105
RS emulsion tests, 29, 32
RS emulsions' uses, 37, 38, 47
Rumble strips, 42
Rumble criteria, 149
Runoff criteria, 149
R-Value, 67, 68, 84, 136, 139, 140, 143, 145
chart for correcting, 140
S
SAE No. 10 oil, 117
Safety in cold mixes, 80
Safety precautions in handling emulsions, 23
Salts, inorganic, in asphalt residue, 27
Samples
contaminated,2l-22
freezing, protection from, 23
preservation of, 23
unit weight of aggregate test, for, 209
Sampling emulsions, 17-23
precautions in, 23
spigot and contamination, 22
Sand, 115
specific gravity range, 199,200
Sand-emulsion mixes, 85
Sand equivalent test value, 51, 71
Sand mixes, 84
Sand seals, 39, 49, 173
uses of, 40
Sandy soil defined, 171
Saybolt Furol viscometer, 180
Saybolt Furol viscosity test, 27, 29
Scalping screen on spreader, 61
Scarification and in-place material, 77
Screed problems with, 85
Seal coats, 86
described, 171, 173
types of, 48
Seeding mulch, 91, 92
Selection of emulsion, 37
Sequence of surface treatment operation, 64-65
Serviceability of roadway system, 3
Setting times of emulsions, 6
Settlement test, 182
Short cuts not recommended, 66
Shoulder definition by surface treatment, 42
Shrinkage cracks, 93
Sieve analysis of aggregates, 71
Sieve test, 183
Skid resistance, 49
surface treatments, and, 41
Skin formation in emulsion storage, 18
Slag as aggregate, 115
Slippage cracks, 93
Slow-setting emulsions, 6
Slurry seal, I, 48, 49, 173
228
advantages listed, 49
aggregates for, 57
application of, 51
drag used in, 53
flow diagram of mixer, 50
joints in, 52, 53
low cost of, 49
mix grading, 52
machine for, 50
multi-course use of, 51
pavement geometrics, and, 53
pneumatic-tired rolling and, 53
publications on, 53
ridging and, 52
rolling and, 53
spreader boxes in use of, 51
streaking in, 52
tack coat. and. 52
temperature and, 53
texture of, 53
uses of, 40
wheel damage to, 53
Smoking and emulsion handling, 23
Soaked ability test, 163
Soaps, II
Sodium hydroxide, 13
Softening agent, 101
Solubility in trichloroethylene test, 187
Solubility test, 25, 32
Solvents, I
emulsions, in, 2
environmental considerations and, 99
evaporation of, 16
Marshall mix design, in, 158
South African procedure, 56
Specific gravity, bulk determination of, 164
Specific gravity test, 33
Specifications for emulsion, 6
review of, 25
Specimens
equipment for laboratory, and, 159
laboratory fabrication of, 141
laboratory size of, 162
Marshall method, in, 158
preparation of laboratory, 159, 162
use of dummy, 137
Split tension test, 67
Spottiness in mix, 126
Spray applications, 5
historic, I
Spray-bars, 43
described, 58
height setting of, 59
Spray-nozzle and surface treatments, 43, 58, 59
Spraying temperatures of emulsions, table of, 46
Spread, uniformity of, 58, 59
Spreaders
aggregate, 60, 61, 62
calibration of, 61
self-propelled, 84
types of, 60, 62
Spreading, 78-79
Squeegee use in slurry sealing, 51
SS emulsified asphalts, 38, 39
cement-mixing test for, 30
Stability
correlation ratios, 167
cured mix, of, 151
emulsion mixes, of, 111
initial, cured, 152
mix, initial of, 84
percent loss of, 167, 168
soaked, test, 166, 167
testing for, 114, 135, 165, 166
Stabilization, 1,71,72
Stabilizer use, 5
Stabilometer, displacement of, 137
StabiJometer values,
chart for correcting, 142
Stage construction, 71
Still, aluminum alloy, 191
Stirring device in storage tanks, 12
Stockpiling maintenance mixes, 98
Storage facilities described, 18
Storage stability test, 8, 10, 30, 31, 185
Storing emulsions, 12, 17-23,
rules in, 17
Streaking illustrated, 43
retained, 84
Strength tests, 67, 114, 129
Stripping, 124
Structure adjustments eliminated, 49
Surface capacity test, 82
Surface, tacky, 86
Surface treatments, I, 39, 40, 41
abrasion-resistant, 41
advantages of, 41, 46, 106
aggregate quantity determination in, 54
aggregate used in, 41, 42
air intrusion, for, 49
application rate checked in, 59
bleeding pavement, in, 41, 44
Cape seal, 48
choosing emulsion for, 42
clean surface essential, 52
cover aggregate loss in, 43, 44, 45
defined, 171, 172
design of, 54
distributor used in, 58
double type, 48, 56
dusty aggregates in, 47
emulsion used in, 45-46, 68
equipment for, 58
interim measure, as an, 48
materials in, 45
multiple type, 56
not a cure-all, 41
pavement evaluation and, 41
performance of, 46
power broom used in, 64
229
preparation for, 65
problems in, 66
procedure in, 64-65
pump speed, and, 43
quality control in, 45
raveling, and, 42, 48
road condition, and, 55
rollers in, 42, 63
rumble strips, and, 42
safeguards in using, 42
salvage of pavement by, 42
sand seal type, 49
shoulder definition, and, 42
single and double types, 47, 48
single type, 48, 54
skid resistance, for, 49
slurry seal, 48, 50, 51
See also Slurry seal
specifications and, 42
spray-bar importance in, 43
streaking in, 43
strong base essential to, 42
temporary, 42
thickness of, 41
triple, 57
types of, 48
uses of, listed, 41-42
voids in, 54
waterproofing, 48
weather, and, 42
weathered surface restoring, 41
Surfactant, emulsion, 14
S-Value testing, 67, 114, 138, 140, 141, 145
T
Tables, miscellaneous, 197-208
Tack coat, 30, 39, 52, 89
defined, 173
fat spots in, 89
patching, and, 89
procedures in, 89
rolling of, 89
vehicles on, 89
Tailgate vane spreader, 60
Tank capacity and linear coverage, 201, 202
Tank, distributor, 58
Tanks, 18
conditions of, 20
emulsions, and, 20
Temperature
conversion chart, 207
emulsion storage, 17, 18
hot-mix, for, 87
laboratory specimens, and, 160
maintenance mixes, and, 97
maximum, emulsion, 27
premature breaking, and, 58
recycling, in, 102
road surface, 66
slurry sealing, for, 53
storage limits, 17, 18
Temperature-volume corrections table, 198
Tests
aggregates, on, 70
data interpretation, 166-167
emulsions, on 25-33, 175-195
salvaged materials, on, 106
summary of, 26
Tie-down emulsion mulch, 91, 92
Traffic control, 37,42
Traffic densification of emulsion, 26
Traffic increases, I
Transducers, pressure-type, 130, 131
Transverse cracks, 93
Traprock, specific gravity range of, 199,200
Travel plants, 75, 76, 77, 105
Trial mixes, 70
Hveem, asphalt content in, 124
Trichloroethylene solubility test, 8-10
Triple seal, uses of, 40
Trucks, 64
with baffle plates, 19
u
Unpaved roads, dust palliative used on, 95
U.S. Forest Service projects, 86
U.S. roadway system, asphalt paving on, 2
User-producer planning, 6
Uses of emulsions, 37-38
V
Vacuum pump, 163
Vacuum saturation test, 135
Vibratory rolling, 79
Viscometer, 180
Viscosity test, 8-10, 27, 180
VMA,165
Voids analysis, 166
Voids in surface treatments, 54
Volcanic cinder as aggregate, 115
W
Washoff test, 149
Water
emulsion, in, II
impurities in, II
intrusion of, 87
pre-mixing, 161
unit weight of, 211
Water bath, 163
Water content test, 176
Water determination apparatus, 190
Water resistance test, 8- 10, 31, 32, 184
Waterproofing, emulsion and, I
Waterproofing pavelT'ent by surface treatment, 41
Wearing surface, temporary, 68
Weather
construction and, 156
dense-graded mixes, and, 86
surface treatments, and, 42, 66
Weight per gallon test, 189
Whipping-off of aggregate, 44
Whirl spreaders, 172
Windrows, 72
230
blade mixing and, 77, 78
flattened, 78
grading variation in, 78
mixed type, 105
moving of, 78
recycled material in, 103
sizer for, 78
travel plants, and, 75
Windshield damage, 48
Wire-screen funnel illustrated, 148
Workability of mix, 84, 126
z
Zeta potential test, 33
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Asphalt Pocketbook of Useful Information (MS-6) "{
Asphalt Paving Manual (MS-8) ~
Soils Manual (MS-10)
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Asphalt in Hydraulics (MS-12)
Asphalt Cold-Mix Manual (MS-14)
Drainage of Asphalt Pavement Structures (MS-15)
Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance (MS-16)
Asphalt Overlays for Highway and Street Rehabilitation (MS-17)
Sampling Asphalt Products for Specifications Compliance (MS-18)
Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual (MS-19)
Asphalt Hot-Mix Recycling (MS-20)
Asphalt Cold-Mix Recycling (MS-21)
Principles of Construction of Hot-Mix Asphalt Pavements (MS-22)
Thickness DeSign-Asphalt Pavements for Heavy Wheel Loads (MS-23)
Model Construction Specifications for Asphalt Concrete (SS-1)
Specifications for Paving and Industrial Asphalts (SS-2)
Specifications and Construction Methods for Asphalt Curbs and Gutters
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Asphalt Technology and Construction Practices-Instructor's Guide
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This manual is based upon the publication of the same title Issued by the Federal Highway Administration of the U.S. Department of Transportation as FHWA· IP·79-1 In January 1979. the contents of which were prepared by The Asphalt Institute under contract to the Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association acting for the Federal Highway Administration.

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PRINTED IN USA

FOREWORD
The primary purpose of this manual is to impart a basic understanding of asphalt emulsions to those who work with the product. Further, it is intended to be useful in choosing the emulsion that best fits a project's specific conditions. And it should be most helpful in evaluating pavement systems for construction and maintenance. The manual is not written in such detail that one can use it to produce asphalt emulsions. Neither is it directed toward the specific features of one manufacturer's products. Rather, it explains the general characteristics of asphalt emulsions and their uses. In times past, lack of information of this type may to some extent have prevented realization of the full potential of emulsions. This new second edition is thoroughly updated and special attention should be paid to Parts II and III for new and revised tests and procedures. A thorough study of the manual, then, should enable one to recommend where, when, and how emulsions should be used. It also should aid in the solving of problems that may arise on projects in which emulsions are used.

The Asphalt Institute can accept no responsibility for inappropriate use of this manual. Engineering judgment and experience must be used to properly utilize the principles and guidelines contained in this Manual taking into account available equipment, local materials and conditions.

iii

CONTENTS
Page Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix

PART ONE: UNDERSTANDING ASPHALT EMULSIONS

Chapter Page I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 II. The Chemistry of Asphalt Emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 A. General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 B. Emulsion Ingredients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Producing the Emulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 D. Breaking and Curing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 III. Storing, Handling, and Sampling Asphalt Emulsions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 IV. Emulsified Asphalt Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

PART TWO: USING ASPHALT EMULSIONS

V. VI.

Selecting the Right Type and Grade of Asphalt Emulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37 Asphalt Emulsion Surface Treatments ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. A. Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Types of Treatments and Seals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. C. Surface Treatment Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E. Construction Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Asphalt Emulsion-Aggregate Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A. Mixed-in-Place . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B. Asphalt Emulsion Plant Mix (Cold) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C. Asphalt Emulsion Plant Mix (Hot) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 45 48 54 58 64 67 71 79 87

VII.

v

CONTENTS (Cont'd)
Page Chapter 89 VIII. Miscellaneous Asphalt Emulsion Applications IX. Maintenance Mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 X. Recycling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JOI

PART THREE: EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIX-DESIGN METHODS
Introduction ...................................................

109 III 147 151 155

XI.
XII. XIII. XIV.

Modified Hveem Mix Design. . .. . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . .. Procedural Outline and Design Criteria for The Asphalt Institute Design Method for Open-Graded Mixes ........................................... Procedural Outline and Design Criteria for the McConnaughay Design Method for Cold Mixtures ................................................ Marshall Method for Emulsified Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mixture Design . . . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDICES

Appendix A Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix B Testing Emulsified Asphalt (ASTM D 244) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix C Miscellaneous Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix D Standard Method of Test for Unit Weight of Aggregate (AASHTO T19; ASTM D 29) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix E Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index

171 175 197 209 213 221

vi

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure
II-I Diagram of an asphalt emulsion manufacturing plant . . . . . . . . Relative sizes and distribution of asphalt particles in an emulsion Distillation test for emulsified asphalts Particle charge lest Saybolt Furol viscosity test Float test . . . . . . . Longitudinal streaking Bleeding asphalt ... Loss of cover aggregate ........ .

Page

Il-2 IV-I IV-2 IV-3 IV -4 VI-I VI-2 VI-3 VI-4 VI-5 VI-6 VI-7 VI-8 VI-9 VI-IO VI-II VI-12 VI-13 VI-14 VI-15 VI-16 VII-I VII-2 VII-3 VII-4 VII-5 VII-6 VII-7 VIII-I VIII-2 VIII-3 VIII-4 X-I X-2 X-3 X-4 X-5 XI-l XI-2 XI-3

Flat particles are covered when enough asphalt is used to hold cubical particles Slurry seal machine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Flow diagram of a typical slurry seal mixer Asphalt emulsion distributor . . . . . . . . . Proper nozzle angle setting . . . . . . . . . Spray bar height must be set exactly for proper coverage Tailgate vane spreader . . . . . . . . Hopper type tailgate spreader Truck-attached mechanical spreader Self-propelled mechanical spreader Pneumatic-tired roller .. . Power broom . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface treatment operation Major uses of emulsified asphalt mixes Volume of windrows Travel plant. windrow type Travel plant. hopper type Rotary mixer. pulvimixer type Blade mixing . . . . . . . . Cold-mix continuous plant .. Applying tack coat . . . . . . Using emulsified asphalt to tie down mulch Completed section of Interstate with emulsified asphalt mulch on median and close-up Filling crack with emulsified asphalt .. . A candidate for recycling . . . . . . . . . Loss of curb depth and draining capacity Cold mix recycling operation Hammermill pulverizing old pavement Heater-overlay methods . . . . . . . . . Testing schedule for dense-graded emulsified asphalt mixes Chart for determining sUlface constant for fine material, Kf Chart for determining surface constant for coarse material, Kc

13 14 28 28 29 32 43 44 45 47 50 50 58 59 59

60 60
62 62 63 64 65 68

72
75 76

77
78 80 90 92 93 95 102 103

104 104
106 112 119 120

(Continued next page)

vii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Cont'd)
Figure

XI-4 Chart for combining Kf and Kc to determine surface constant for combined aggregate . . . . . XI-5 Chart for computing oil ratio for dense-graded asphalt mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. XI-6 Apparatus for Hveem C.K.E. tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-7 Transfer of mix to mold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-S Rodding mix in mold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-9 Mechanical kneading compactor XI-lO Resilient modulus device XI-II Transducers and Mr yoke . . . . . . . . . . XI-I2 Mr yoke on holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-I3 Tightening Mr clamping screws XI-I4 Seating Mr specimen on loading block XI-I5 Adjusting Mr recording meter . . . . . XI-I6 Adjusting Mr pressure regulator XI -17 Vacuum manometer and desiccator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-IS Hveem stabilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-I9 Chart for determining R-value from stabilometer data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-20 Chart for correcting R-values to height of 63.5mm (2.50 in.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI-2I Chart for correcting stabilometer values to effective specimen height of 64mm (2.5 in.) XI-22 Diagrammatic sketch showing principal features of the Hveem cohesiometer. . . . XII-I Wire screen funnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIV-I Typical emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture design plots

Page 121

122 123 127 127 127 131 131 132 132 132 133 133 135 136 139 140 142 144 14S 169

viii

LIST OF TABLES
Table
II-I 11-2 III-I III-2 III-3 IV-l V -I V-2 VI-I VI-2 VI-3 VI-4 VI-5 VI-6 VII-l VII-2 VII-3 VII-4 VII-5 VII-6 IX-I XI-I XI-2 XI-3 XI-4 XI-5 XII-I XIV -I XIV-2 XIV-3 C-l C-2

Page
Requirements and typical applications for emulsified asphalt ........... . .. 8 Requirements and typical applications for cationic emulsified asphalt . . . . . . . . 10 Storage temperatures for emulsified asphalts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Guide for condition of emptied tanks before loading emulsified asphalts . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Possible causes of contamination of asphalt material or samples and suggested precautions 20 Summary of emulsion tests 26 General uses of emulsified asphalt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emulsified asphalt seal coats and surface treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..... Suggested distributor spraying temperatures for various grades of emulsified asphalt Slurry mixture gradings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quantities of asphalt and aggregate for single surface treatments and seal coats . . . . . . . . . . Quantities of asphalt and aggregate per square metre (square yard) for double surface treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quantities of asphalt and aggregate per square metre (square yard) for triple surface treatment (armorcoat) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quantities of asphalt and aggregate per square metre (square yard) for cape seal Coarse aggregates for asphalt paving mixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fine aggregates for asphalt paving mixtures ... . Aggregate evaluation procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Aggregates for open-graded emulsion mixes . . . . . . . . . Aggregates for emulsified dense-graded asphalt mixtures . Sand-emulsion mixes . . . . . . . . . . . Mineral aggregate gradations . . . . . . Selection of emulsified asphalt amount Surface area factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Variables affecting asphalt dispersion Multiplying factors for cohesiometer values . . . . . . . ....... . Design criteria for emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixes . . . . . . . . . . . . Selection of emulsified asphalt amount Emulsified asphalt mixture data sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stability correlation ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture design criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature-volume corrections for emulsified asphalts..... .......................... Mass per cubic metre of dry mineral aggregates of different specific gravity and various void contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 40 46 52 55 56 57 57 69 70 71 81 83 85 99 114 116 124 143 145 147 164 167 168 198 199 200 201 202 202

C-2a Weight per cubic foot and per cubic yard of dry mineral aggregates of different specific gravity and various void contents ......................................... C-3 C-4 C-4a Linear measurement covered by tank of any capacity for various widths and rates of application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear metres covered by 4000 litre tank of asphalt for various widths and litres per square metre. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linear feet covered by looO-gallon tank of emulsified asphalt for various widths and rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix

. various widths and lit res per square metre. . .. .. . 208 210 210 211 x . .. .. ... . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . .. ........ . . . ..... .... . . . . ....... . .... . . . ... . . ... .. 206 Temperature conversion chart. ... . . . .. . .. .. . ... . . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. ..... . .. . .. . . . .. . ... 203 Gallons of emulsified asphalt required per 100 linear feet. . . . .. .. .. .. . ... . .. . . ..... . 207 Conversion factors: U. 204 Tons of aggregate required per mile for various widths and rates . Unit weight of water. . .LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) Table Page C-5 C-5a C-6 C-6a C-7 C-8 C-8a C-9 C-IO D-l D-2 D-3 Litres of asphalt required for 50 linear metres... .. .... . . . ...... . . .. . .... . . . .. .. . . .. .. ..... . .. ... ... . . . . 205 Area in square metres of road surface for various road widths. ... . . .. . .. . .. ... . .. ... . . .. U. . ... ...... .. . . . .S.... . . .. ... customary to metric units . ... .. .. . 206 Area in square yards of road surface for various road widths. .... .. . . . .. .... .. . .. .. . . .. ... . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . . .. . . .. various widths and rates. . . . . .. .. . . . . .. Dimensions of measures. . .. .. . . . . . .. 203 Megagrams of material required per kilometre for various widths and kilograms per square metre . . . . . .. . . ... customary system . . .. . . .. .. . . .. ... .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . ...... . .. ..... 204 Quantities at depths in cylindrical tanks in a horizontal position . . . . ... . Dimensions of measures. .. . .... ... .. ..S. . ... . .. . . . . . ... .. . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. metric . . .

PART ONE: UNDERSTANDING ASPHALT EMULSIONS .

The growth in the use of asphalt emulsions was relatively slow.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. with which virtually any roadway requirement can be met. i. When a petroleum solvent. came into being. traffic loads and volumes increased so much that roadway designers began to curtail the use of these materials. Emulsions were first developed in the early 1900s. or by emulsifying it. It was limited by the types available and a lack of knowledge as to how they should be used. the chemical emulsifier is retained with the deposited asphalt. The major uses of asphalt emulsion in the United States are: Surface treatments Patching and thin overlays Stabilization Slurry sealing 1 .02 ASPHALT EMULSION IN THE PAST The use of asphalt emulsions for road construction and maintenance is not new. When combined with an~. The tiny droplets of asphalt remain uniformly suspended until the emulsion is used for its intended purpose.£riate hydrocarbon solvent the asphalt ceJ. Their early use was confined largely to spray applications and use as a dust palliative. Asphalt is produced in a variety of types and grades ranging from hard and brittle solids to almost water-thin liquids. Continuing development of new types and grades. the cutback hydrocarbon solvent or the emulsion water. Instead. Asphalt cement is the basis of all of these products. But one interesting trend is worthy of note-there has been a steady rise in the volume of asphalt emulsions used. usually takes place to cause the cutback or emulsion to revert to asphalt cement.01 BASIC TYPES OF PAVING ASPHALTS Virtually all asphalts used in the United States are products of the distillation of crude petroleum. Judicious selection and use can yield significant economic benefits. however. Use records reveal a slow but steady increase iii the amount of emulsions used between 1930 and the mid 1950s. evaporation of the asphalt carrier. Following World War II. When asphalt is broken into minute particles and dispersed in water with an emulsifier it becomes an asphalt emulsion. coupled with improved construction equipment and practices. now gives a broad range of choices.D~. It was not until the 1920s. that emulsions. When either type is used in the field.. is added to the base asphalt to make it fluid. the chemical emulsifier is orientated in and around droplets of asphalt cement which influences their dispersion and stable suspension in water. the combined use of other asphalt products has remained almost constant.. In the case of the emulsion. they specified high-type hot plant mixes requiring the use of asphalt cement. In an emulsion.e. While the volume of asphalt cement used has shown a rapid increase since 1953. It can be made fluid for construction uses by heating.nLin.a cutback is in solution. the product is called a cutback. 1. such as naphtha or kerosene. as we know them today. by adding a solvent.

The Federal Highway Administration annual survey shows that the United States has about 6. about 93 percent have asphalt paved surfaces. coupled with improved laboratory procedures.ctor:. will exceed $300 billion over the next 15 years and this does not include money that will be required on the 4. which is another energy saving feature. asphalt emulsions for cutback asphalts.) Also.~aUa. about 1.3 million kilometres (3. Since that time. the Federal Highway Administration (FHW A) issued notices that directed attention to fuel savings that could be realized by using asphalt emulsions instead of cutback asphalts. 2 .9 million miles) in the roadway network.2 million kilometres (2. estimated that over 161. Reduced atmospheric pollution. (However.000 miles) were only in fair condition. even at the current level of performance.000 kilometres (60.The cost of maintaining these roads. Our nation suddenly became aware that energy needs soon could exceed supply unless conservation laws were enactly promptly. to satisfy design and construction requirements.0 million miles) of paved highways. While the substitution was not \ mandatory. all states are \ substituting. Potential cost savings by the use of less fuel.7 million miles) of local roads. In one of the early actions. Other significant findings contained in the report include: . efficient highway network continues and consequently asphalt is essential to meet these requirements. or allowing the substitution of.3 million kilometres (2. surface course mixes and in recycling.03 LOOKING AHEAD The demand for a well maintained. it was strongly suggested that it be considered.000 kilometres (100.~!1yi~~~~~I1. In the past several factors contributed to a nationwide interest in the use of asphalt emulsions. Asphalt emulsion does not require a petroleum solvent to make it liquid.000 miles) were in poor condition and needed immediate repair while another 97. namely: The energy crisis of the early 1970s that prompted conservation measures by the Federal Energy Administration. some medium-setting grades contain limited amounts of solvent to enhance mixing qualities. Both of these contribute to energy savings. There are little or no hydrocarbon emissions from asphalt emulsions. ( Two_maj<?!.Asphalt emulsions also are used in base. I 1.s-energy conservation and atmospheric pollution--caused grave concern and a realization that some type of Federal action was needed. Availability of a variety of emulsion types. asphalt emulsion can be used (in most cases) without additional heat. A 1983 FHWA survey of the nation's major road system. The ability of certain types of asphalt emulsion to coat damp aggregate surfaces.9 million kilometres (1.2 million miles). The survey also shows that of the 3. It estimated that a huge amount of petroleum solvents could be saved annually by such substitution.

000 miles) of Interstate. Because of these tremendous needs.7 percent. every attempt should be made to utilize road materials in an efficient. and the demand for asphalt will continue. Thus.0 to 2. the demands for a well maintained roadway will be high.000 kilometres (636.024.000 kilometres (334.000 miles) of collector roads will require capital improvements to maintain serviceability. As an aid in understanding technical terms that may not be familiar. Total travel between 1984 and the year 2000 is expected to grow at an annual rate of 2. 3 . A clear understanding of the "Why and How" of using asphalt emulsions offers a promise of such an efficient use.000 kilometres (41. by the end of the century. The proper use of asphalt emulsion can result in high performance pavements and thrifty but versatile maintenance systems. approximately 66. conservative manner. America's highways must accommodate 40 to 60 percent more travel than in 1984. a glossary is provided as Appendix A.000 miles) of arterials and 1. 538. This manual is directed toward those ends.- Between 1983 and the year 2000. - Thus.

t<L. prolonged storage. hair dyes.emulsion. The object is to make a dispersion of the asphalt cement in water. The key is to select the right emulsion for the aggregate and construction system involved. Conversely. Throughout this text when the term "emulsionj' is used it is _.' '..~sP~"ill. the emulsion should break down quickly after contact with aggregate in a mixer. durability. --Ii' is well known tbat water and asphalt will not mix.e.GENERAL 2.~that we use in our daily lives. This identification system stems from one of the basic laws of electricity -like charges repel one another and unlike charges attract.03 CLASSIFICATION Asphalt emulsions are divided into three categories: anionic. stable enough for pumping. Some of the same physical and chemical principles apply in the formulation. 2. and mixing. Furthermore.. It is not until a detergent or soapy agent of some type is used that grease can be successfully removed. intended to mean "asphalt . certain mechanical and chemical processes are involved that permit the combining of two or more materials that. and an (emulsifying agefi~.. paints.tw9~S are ~r~i~<:trily_useg jn. An entire scientific field is devoted to the study of emulsification. the _~!.@. . Nonionics. however. under normal conditions. If a current is passed through an emulsion containing negatively charged particles of asphalt they will migrate to the anode. The soap particles surround the globules of grease. or after spraying on the roadbed. and nonionic.l))~f. The blending of asphalt cement and water is somewhat akin to an . positively charged asphalt particles will move to the cathode and the emulsion is known as cationic. will not mix. may be more widely used as emulsion technology advances.i" -. On some occasions the emulsifying agent may cont~in a stabilizer. the emulsion is referred to as anionic. the residual asphalt retains all ofthe adhesion.. cationic. Hence. Neither do you have to understand complex emulsion chemistry to obtain high quality results with asphalt emulsion.(~~~1. In each case.. the asphalt particles are neutral and therefore do not migrate to either pole..maintenanc. -'" 2.01 EMllkS1QNS There are many types of emul1iion produ~t. and allow them to be washed away... and water-resistance ofthe asphalt cement from which it was produced. You don't have to understand how an internal combustion engine works to operate an automobile. 5 . Upon curing. In practice. break the surface tension that holds them.QnstructioD-and.roadW<lYG. and use of asphalt emulsion. When two poles (an anode and a cathode) are immersed in a liquid and an electric current is passed through. With non ionic emulsions. \ --.' ~.02 COMPOSITION OF ASPHALT EMULSIONS An asphalt~mJllsjQn consists of th~e basic ingredieQ!s: . production. The anionic and cationic classes refer to the electrical charges surrounding the asphalt particles.-st.'-. except under carefully controlled conditions using highly specialized equipment and chemical additives. the anode becomes positively charged and the cathode becomes negatively charged.h~llic trying to wash grease from his hands with water only. Some of the more common are mayonnaise.CHAPTER II THE CHEMISTRY OF ASPHALT EMULSIONS A. and ice cream.

as measured by the Float Test (ASTM D 139 or AASHTO T 50). The letter "C" in front of the emulsion type denotes cationic. and(~ have been adopted to simplify and standardize this classification.te.S. some emulsions are made with the water dispersed in asphalt. 2. RS-l is anionic or non ionic and CRS-I is cationic. coarse aggregate seal coats. ITlediu}11~sJ~1. High float emulsions have a specific quality that permits a thicker film coating without danger of runoff. Communication and planning between user and producer helps facilitate service and supply of a given grade. Additionally. -- The emulsions are further subdivided by a series of numhers related to viscosity of the emulsions and hardness of the base asphalt cements. Four grades of high-float medium-setting anionic emulsions.e.nionic or nonionic. that permits a thicker asphalt film on the aggregate particles with minimum probability of drainage. and road mixes. A quick-set type of emulsion (QS) has been developed for slurry . and !g9F_-:-_~~tting. have been added to standard American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specifications. 6 . Standard specifications for quick-set emulsions are under development.Emulsions are further classified on the basis of how quickly the asphalt will coalesce.s. revert to asphalt cement. ~S'. All grades in this lengthy list of emulsions may not be stocked by most producers. imparted by the addition of certain chemicals. As these so-called "inverted emulsions" are seldom used. designated HFMS. and an SS emulsion is designed to mix withfi!le ~~.HfMS-2s '8S-1 SS~J)' /MS-1 ( MS-2 CSS-1 CSS-1h The "h" that follows certain grades simply means that a harder base asphalt is used. The terms if{. an M~~~u!siQn is expected to mix with coarse but . These grades are used primarily in cold and hot plant mixes. An @emulsion has !!!!!~ .­ ting. Some user agencies specify an additional cationic sand-mixing grade designated CMS-2s.04 SPECIFICATIONS ASTM and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) have developed standard specifications for the following grades of emulsions: EMULSIFIED ASPHALT (RS-1 " CATIONIC EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2 CMS-2h 'R.2' ~~~1h/ tHffMS-2 13fMS-2h . i. usually a cutback.3eals. The "HF" preceding some of the MS grades indicates high-float. Its use is rapidly increasing as the unique quick-setting property solves one of the major problems associated with the use of slurry seals. High-float emulsions have a quality. For example. The absence of the "C" denotes a. which contains more solvent than other cationic grades.not fi_n~ aggrega.g. They are relative terms only and mean raQi~~ettiI!. QLnO ab!l!ty to mix wJth an aggt:cgate.. The tendency to coalesce is closely related to the mixing of an emulsion. they are not discussed in this manual.

Tables II-I and 11-2 show the asphalt content specified for ----' various types of emulsions. permit solvent but restrict the amount.05 VARIABLES AFFECTING ASPHALT EMULSION There are many factors that affect the production.cationic emulsion specifications (ASTM D 2397.Manufacturing conditions such as temperatures. the basic requirements of these specifications are given in Tables 11-1 and 11-2. the major ones being asphaltenes and maltenes. between the properties and the ease with which the asphalt can be emulsified..The property of the emulsifying agent .Hardness and quantity of the base asphalt cement .Asphalt particle size in the emulsion . The above factors can be varied to suit the available aggregates or to suit construction conditions. Standard specifications for emulsified asphalts carry ASTM Designations D 977 and D 2397 and AASHTO Designations M 140 and M 208. it makes up from 55 to 70 percent of the emulsion. It would be hard to single out anyone as being the most significant. compatibility of the emulsifying agent ~itii. and emulsifier-is essential to an understanding of why asphalt emulsions work as they do. and performance of an asphalt emulsion. AASHTO M 208). General Uses of Emulsified Asphalts are given in Table V-I. 2."-ih~ asphalt cement IS essential for production of a stable emulsion. however. among the variables having a significant effect are: . water. Although hardness of base asphalt cements may be varied as desired. Chapter V. The colloidal make-up ofthe asphalt depends on thechemical nature and percentage of these fractions and their relationship to each other. use.Type and concentration of the emulsifying agent . In any case. It is always advisable to consult the emulsion supplier with respect to a particular asphalt-aggregate combination as there are few absolute rules that will work the same under all conditions. B.Chemical properties of the base asphalL£~. EMULSION INGREDIENTS 2. There is not an exact correlation. most emulsions are made with asphalts in the 100-250 penetration range.The type of equipment used in manufacturing the emulsion . storage. On occasion. CRS.06 ASPHALT Asphalt cement is the basic ingredient of asphalt emulsion and.!!1ent . in most cases.The ionic charge on the emulsion particles . 7 .The order of addition of the ingredients . Asphalt is a colloid composed of several fractions. For convenience. An examination of the three main constituents-asphalt. only those properties that significantly affect emulsions are discussed.and CMS. on the other hand. and shear .The specifications for emulsified asphalts (ASTM D 977 and AASHTO M 140) make no mention of a solvent in the emulsion. pressures. Because asphalt cement is such a complex material. climatic conditions may dictate that a harder or softer base asphalt be used.The addition of chemical modifiers. But.

200 100 40 97. Saybolt Furol at 77°F (25°C).j Penetration.10 55 0.5 90 em Solubility in trichloroethylene. after spraying Cement mixing test.5 200 100 40 97.\0 55 63 0. % ~u~ibility. % >. 140°F J60 0 C).~ N ~aCI.\0 65 good fair fair fair 0. min 20 Tests on emulsions: Viscosity. s Storage stabili~ test. (25"(:).5 200 100 40 97. 5 s Ductility. % Float test.. % Residue by distillation. 24-h. O. _35 mt. 7i~F. s Viscosity.\0 65 good fair fair fair 0.5 . % T~sts.on> r. 100 40 1 .TABLE 11-1 REQUIREMENTS AND TYPICAL APPUCATIONS FOR EMULSIRED ASPHALT ~nr~ Type 0977 Rapid-Setting RS-I RS-2 max 100 75 400 min max min 20 MS-I max 100 min 100 Medium-Setting MS-2 max min 100 MS-2h max Grade.10 distillation test: .5 200 40 40 97. . % Oil distillate by volume of emulsion. wet aggregate Coating. 5 97. 77°F (25°C).. 5 em/min. % Sieve test. Saybolt Furol at 122°F (SO°C).> - 60 60 00 Coating ability and water resistance: Coating.esidue from goodfair fair fair 0. after spraying Coating. lOOg. dry aggregate Coating.

. .. . Saybolt Furol at 122"F (SO"C).10 57 7 100 40 97.. s 97.10 sion. dry aggresate Coating. 3S mI.. % Sieve test.. (25°C). and the risk of infringement of such rights. .10 65 I good fair fair fair 0. . .. .5 1200 The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity of any potent rights assened in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. % Demulsibility. good fair fair fair 0. . .. s Viscosity. % Oil distillate by volume of emulTall 011 residue/rom distil/ation lesl: Pe~tion. 0. wet aggresate Coating. after spraying Coating. Saybolt Furol at 7rF (2S"C).. 5 em/min....5 1200 200 40 90 40 97.10 65 good fair fair fair 0.5 1200 90 200 40 97.. 24-h.. .0 0. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights. Grade . " 100 40 200 100 40 200 40 40 97.5 2. 5 s Ductility. ..10 55 65 good fair fair fair 0. TTF (2S°C).0 0. 14O"F (6O"C). % Residue by distillation. is entirely their own responsibility. TalS on emulsions: Viscosity.S 1200 97. .. . .5 em Solubility in trichloroethylene... after spraying Cement mixing test. s min 20 Storaae stability test. . 100 g. 77°F. .02 N caO)' % Coating ability and water resistance: Coatina. .10 57 2.TABLE 11-1 REQUIREMENTS AND TYPICAL APPUCATIONS FOR EMULSIRED ASPHALT (Continued) 4~f~ D9n Mcdium-Setting HFMS-I HFMS-2 max 100 min 100 max HFMS-2h min 100 max HFMS-2s min 50 max min 20 SS-I max 100 min 20 Slow-Setting SS-Ih max 100 Type . . % Roat test.

% Tests on residue from distillation test: Penetration... 24-h.. TTF (25"C)....... Rapid-Setting CRS-I min max CRS-2 min max CMS-2 min Medium-Setting CMS-2h min max min 20 CSS-I Slow-Setting CSS-Ih max 100 min 20 max 100 max 0 Test on emulsions: Viscosity....... % Residue. after spraying Coating.. Grade . s Storage stability test.5 ... % Cement mixing test.10 positive 0. 5 em/min..10 2. s Viscosity... % Oassification test Coating ability and water resistance: Coating. Saybolt Fuml at 77"F (25"C)..0 positive 0. . 7TF (25"C)..10 good fair fair fair positive 0.TABLE 11-2 REQUIREMENTS AND TYPICAL APPUCATIONS FOR CATIONIC EMULSIFIED ASPHALT ~~l~ 02397 ....5 250 65 100 40 3 65 250 100 40 97. wet aggregate Coating. Saybolt Fuml at 122"F (50"C). 100 II......5 9i...0 3 60 100 40 97..5 12 65 250 40 40 97.. % I>sillation: Oil distillate... em Solubility in trichloroethylene.... by volume of em uIsion. 5 s Ductility.5 12 57 90 100 40 97. % 20 passes 100 I 100 passes 400 1 50 450 50 450 positive 0.10 good fair fair fair positive 0. dry aggregate Coating. ' Type .....10 2.10 positive 0..5 250 57 40 90 40 97.. after spraying Particle charge test Sieve test.

or flow properties.e. either in solution or colloidal suspension. which can affect the properties of the emulsion. The amines are converted into soap by reacting with acid. A great many chemical emulsifiers are available.. and lignins. Several chemical emulsifiers now are commercially available. Water containing impurities should not be used in emulsion production. The maltenes present have an influence on the viscosity. Each must be appraised for compatibility with the asphalt cement being used. Several analytical methods of asphalt analysis are in use today to separate and evaluate the asphalt fractions. For this rcason. Of particular concern is the presence of positive and negative ions. amidoamines. They have been developed to achieve optimum results with the asphalt cement and emulsifying chemicals that are used.The asphaltenes are the dispersed phase in the asphalt whereas the maltenes are the continuous phase. 2. of the asphalt.08 EMULSIFYING AGENTS Properties of an asphalt emulsion depend greatly upon the chemical used as the emulsifier. The complex interaction of the different fractions makes it almost impossible to predict accurately the behavior of an asphalt to be emulsified. Its contribution to the desired properties of the finished product cannot be minimized. cationic. it adheres to other substances. water may contain minerals or other matter that affect the production of stable asphalt emulsions. The emulsifier keeps the asphalt droplets in stable suspension and controls the breaking time. new and more efficient emulsifying agents were found. clays. The most often used anionic emulsifiers are fatty acids. These are all important factors to the production of a satisfactory emulsion. usually hydrochloric. such materials as ox-blood. Another type of emulsifying agent. The surfactant changes the surface tension at the interface. and soaps were used as emulsifying agents. On the other hand. Water found in nature may be unfit because of impurities. Each emulsion manufacturer has his own formulations and production techniques. it moderates chemical reactions. The asphaltenes are thought to furnish hardness while the maltenes are believed to provide the adhesive and ductile properties of the asphalt. that determines whether the emulsion will be classified as anionic. As the demand for emulsions increased. rosins. Most cationic emulsifiers are fatty amines (diamines. Water wets and dissolves. In the early days of asphalt emulsion production. or nonionic. and. imidazolines.07 WATER The second largest ingredient in an asphalt emulsion is water. Anionic emulsifiers are saponified (turned into soap) by reacting with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide. the area of contact between the asphalt droplets and the water. It may result in an imbalance of the emulsion components that can adversely affect performance or cause premature hrcaking. is used to produce cationic 11 . constant quality control is maintained on emulsion production. fatty quarternary ammonium salts. to name three). commonly called a surfactant. 2. i. which are wood-product derivatives such as tall oils. That chemical is a surface-active agent. There is no agreement among technologists as to how each fraction affects field performance.

they depend upon the emulsification traits of the asphalt cement and the compatibility between the asphalt and the emulsifying agent. Each manufacturer has his own procedure for using his agent in asphalt emulsion production. PRODUCING THE EMULSION 2. From the heat exchanger the emulsion may be pumped into bulk storage tanks. asphalt droplet sizes depend upon the equipment used. concurrent streams of molten asphalt cement and treated water are directed by pumps into the intake of the colloid mill. 2.000 rpm) with mill-clearance settings in the range of about 0. The asphalt.0004 in. thus. The asphalt and emulsifying water are subjected to intensive shear stresses as they pass through the cg. They are water-soluble salts as produced and do not require the addition of acid to make them water-soluble. the agent is combined with the water before introduction into the colloid mill.emulsions. They are stable. In other cases. Extremely high asphalt temperatures are not used because the temperature of the emulsion leaving the mill must be below the boiling point of water. These temperatures vary. The excess h6aiis used to raise the temperature of the incoming emulsifying water just before it reaches the colloid mill. effective cationic (positively charged) emulsifiers. it may be necessary to use a pump made of corrosion resistant materials.10 THE EMULSIFYING PROCESS In the general method of emulsifying asphalts. In most cases.!l0id mill. C. it may be combined with the asphalt cement just before it goes into the colloid mill. Because the emulsifier solution can be highly corrosive. Also needed are an emulsifier solution tank. the base of the asphalt emulsion. is fed into the colloid mill where it is divided into tiny droplets.). and the water temperature is adjusted accordingly. 12 . At the same time.50 mm (0. is heated to ensure a low viscosity. high-shear mechanical device (usually a colloid mill) to divide the asphalt into tiny droplets. however. Some emulsion mills have fixed clearances with no latitude for variation. The colloid mill has a high-speed rotor that revolves at 17-100 Hz (l . A schematic diagram of a typical asphalt emulsion manufacturing plant is shown in Figure II-I. water containing the emulsifying agent is fed into the colloid mill. Heated asphalt cement.000-6.25 to 0. pumps. as it enters the colloid mill. Separate pumps are used to meter asphalt and the emulsifier solution into the colloid mill.02 in.OOt to 0.010 mm (0.00004 to 0. There is a slight variation in mill clearance settings and. heated asphalt tank. and flow-metering gauges. Such settings yield emulsions with asphalt droplet sizes smaller than the diameter of a human hair [about O. The newly-formed emulsion may then be pumped through aheat exchanger. These tanks sometimes are equipped with some type of stirring device to keep the product uniformly blended.01 to 0.)].09 EMULSIFYING EQUIPMENT Basic equipment to prepare an emulsion includes a high-speed.

Figure 11-1. Inc. such as sodium hydroxide. Diagram of an asphalt emulsion manufacturing plant. or with meters. Some emulsifiers. to attain water solubility. must be mixed and reacted with an acid. 13 . The method of adding the emulsifier to the water varies according to the maker's procedure. Others. the outlet temperature of the finished emulsion is calculated from the temperatures of the various emulsion ingredients. Mixing is most typically done in a batch mixer. The emulsifier is introduced into warm water containing acid or alkali and agitated until completely dissolved. to attain water solubility. If the temperature regulation method of proportioning is used. Asphalt and emulsifier solution must be proportioned accurately. must be mixed and reacted with an alkali. such as fatty acids. Courtesy Chemicolloid Laboratories. such as hydrochloric. such as amines. It is done by monitoring the temperature of each phase and the mill discharge.

repel each other.. all having a similar electrical charge..m) ... The particles...S...... IS percent These microscopic-sized asphalt droplets are dispersed in water in the presence of the chemical surface-active emulsifier (surfactant)................ and this permits the asphalt to remain in a suspended state.... Relative sizes and distribution of asphalt particles in an emulsion... Inc.... The surfactant causes a change in the surface tension at the contact area between the asphalt droplets and the surrounding water...m) .... 57 percent 0....Asphalt particle size is a vital factor in making a stable emulsion.. Figure 11-2................. A mi~roscopic photograph of a typical emulsion reveals the following average particle sizes: Smaller than 0.001-0..005 mm (l-5p..... 28 percent 0........... Figure 11-2 is a photomicrograph showing the sizes and distribution of the asphalt particles........A.. which also aids in their remaining in a suspended state.....010 mm (5-IOp. Courtesy Chevron U......... 14 ...005-0....m) ...001 mm (Ip.

es are formulated for delayed breaking.. there is not complete agreement on the subjec.tes after Qeil!L~E. af1!a. or rainfall soon after application can deter proper curing... The theories presented in this manual follow the line of traditional usage.or slow-set material may take ~0l"1~l(ten!Q!Y JQl]gCL . The rate at which the asphalt globules separate from the water phase is referred to as breaking or setting time.s. Asphalt coalescence is commonly referred to as breaking. Perhaps the principal advantage of the cationics is their willingness . or setting.:tu:':.Rlied. The rate of breaking is controlled primarily by the specific type and concentration of the . more time is needed to _~lIow for mixing and '!~O~\ Therefore. For dense mixtures. which may change in the future. such a~_ilggr~gate__ Qr.i:. The theory also holds that cationic emulsions (with a positive charge on the asphalt droplets) perform best with aggregates having mostly negative surface charges-some examples are siliceous or granitic aggregates. gradation and surface area of the aggregate also are significant factors in the rate of breaking. Presently. low temperatures. For example. Although surface and atmospheric conditions are less critical for cationic emulsions than for anionic. As the surface area changes. .L1!re f~rmulated to break upon contact with a Jor~ign su~stance. Those with higher absorption rates tend to accelerate the breaking of the emulsion due to the more rapid removal of the emulsifying water. emulsifying agent llsed. Recent studies have challenged the traditional theories.. both anionic and cationic asphalt emulsions depend on the evaporation of water for development of their curing and adhesion characteristics. In order to achieve optimum results..itio-narjh~orYillOlds that anionic emulsions (with a negative charge on the asphalt cirOR. The asphalt droplets coalesce and produce a continuous film of asphalt on the aggregate or pavement.@) perform best with aggregates having mo~tl)' positive surface charges-limestone and dolomite are examples. But the main bond of strength between the asphalt film and the aggregates comes after the loss of emulsifying water. This water fi!l!l can be 15 . they still depend somewhat on weather conditions for optimum results.Lof electrical charges on aggregatesurface. er:n""Jsig!l.Jl_pav~ment surface. For surface treatments and seals.ns that breaking is also related to the relative absorption characteristics of the aggregate used.12 CURING For paving uses..xWres.D. When using either the anionic or cationic rapid-set emulsion the initial deposition of aspbJll1 develops through an electrochemical phenomenon.. togive Ul? their water a little faster.. whereas a medium. The fact that different aggregate types have differ~!1!rates of absorption (sucking up a liquid) me~. RS rTo 2. asphalt emulsion-aggregate rni.11 BREAKING If the asphalt emulsion is to perform its ultimate function of cementing and waterproofing. a rapid-set e~n will break within ~(~Jive _!]lint~. ~r displacement can be fairly rapid under favorable weather conditions but high humidity. as well as atmospheric conditions. the breaking characteristic of the emulsion also changes because of the altered adsorption (gathering on the surface) of the emulsifying agent by the aggregate. the asphalt must separate from the water phase. emulsionsus~qJorOl. it is necessary to control the sizing of the aggregate or to adjust the emulsion formulation to meet the specific requirements of the aggregate. BREAKING AND CURING 2..

to a limited extent. 7. or by absorption. may 16 . is a major setting-rate determinant.)urse should not be applied until the water (and solvent.~ area. content. 3. " \The above factors must be considered in determining working time after the emulsion has been sprayed or mixed with the aggregate in the field. being more heavily stabilized.displaced by evaporation. p~must be made for the evaporation of the solvent in order for the mixture to be properly cured. 6. the use of ~ightly damp a~s facilitates the mixing and coating process. 4. Moisture content of the aggregate prior to mixing. the water fr. 5. porous aggregate speeds the setting time by absorbing water from the emulsion.and slow-set emulsions. pressure (rolling). Intensity of charge on aggregate versus intensity of emulsifier charge. Where multiple courses are to be placed. depend less on the aggregate type although the same basic principles of electrical charges with respect to selection of emulsion type still apply. While the solvent does not enter directly into the breaking mechanism.. When the MS and SS grades are used for paving mixes. a sllccessive c. 8. Fine aggregate mixes tend to break faster because they possess greater surface area than an equal mass (weight) of coarse aggregate. Some types of emulsions contain slight amounts of petroleum solvent to aid in the mixing and coating process. 2. 2. Solvent-free CMS and CSS emulsions require that the moisture on'the aggregate be at or near optimum for proper mixing and coating. Also. ~hemical coagulation) The emulsion becomes unstable because of a decreased water . The miI1eral composition also affects the speed at which the asphalt emulsion breaks.Q!D the materials. fQ[C~. Medium. some of the factors that affect setting rate of an asphalt emulsion are as follows: 1. The development of strength in the SS types depends mainly on dehydration and absorption \\lith remov~LQL water by ~ither oLthese mechanisms breaking the emulsion. accelerate breaking. The rate that water is absorbed by the aggregate. Size distribution and mineral composition of aggregate. Roller pressure. humidity.13 FACTORS AFFECTING SETTING RATE In general. in combination with surfaq. Mechanical forces brought to bear by roll ing and by traffic. In actual use.hemical reaction between the ~fI)ulsifier_ (ind the aggregate surface. The type and amounfof emulsifying agent used. breaking is usually a function of the combination of these three factors. There may be some type of <:.s. and wind velocity all have l '! b~aring on rate of set. dirty aggregate or excess!~~line£. Weather conditions-temperature. if applicable) has been removed from the preceding course. A rough-textured.

. has outlined some of the safeguards that must be followed. The lower viscosity grades are stored at lower temperatures. neither suited for the intended use.. Store the mixing gradeshat -the\f~wer end of the temperature ranges as shown in Table III-I.-_ . 17 . thereby making it useless.CHAPTER III STORING. the emulsions are stored at higher temperatures than for mixing with aggregate.. Elevated sp~fied ffi_s.01 GENERAL The storage and handling of asphalt emulsions require precaution beyond that used for other types of asphalt materials. depending \ on the use. Low pressure or waste steam also may be used. The result will be two layers in'the tank. Table 111-1 shows the normal storage temperature ranges. 3. When storing emulsified asphalts: DO store as you would fluid water-between 10°C (50°F) and 85°C (185°F).. has both the advantages and disadvantages of t~e_~arrier meqiuIll. temperatures evaporate the water. The Asphalt Institute. DO store at the temperature for the particular grade.. This breaks the emulsion. The safeguards listed by the Asphalt Institute are repeated below to help those who have little or no experience with asphalt emulsions. resulting in an increase in viscosity and an asphalt layer in the tank.) {2. the higher viscosity rapid-set spray grades are stored at 50°C to 85°C (l25°F to 185°F) since they are usually applied il] this temperature range. DO use hot water as the heating medium for storage tanks with heating coils. For example. It may cause the emulsion to break.these simple rules will save time and money by having the material ready for use when needed. Careful study of each item is therefore suggested. Improper handling or storage of the emulsion. being a dispersion of fine droplets of asphalt cement in water. or both..p~ayappIic~~ fP [13.~r. Failure to follow even a single one of them may cause the material to be unsatisfactory at the time of use. and the tank will be difficult to clean.L DO NOT permit the emulsified asphalt to be heated above '~~C (1 85°F)._. AND SAMPLING ASPHALT EI\IIULSIONS 3.R.. DO NOT allow the temperature of the heating surface to exceed 100°C (212°F). StickingJQ. separating the asphalt from the water. This will cause premature breakdown of the emulsion on the heating surface. DO NOT use forced air to agitate the emulsion. it is not intended to give the impression that asphalt emulsions are so delicate as to limit their field use.02 STORING ASPHALT EMULSIONS Emulsified asphalt.. The use of almost any other material would have a long list of admonitions for the uninitiated. with temperature controlled on the coil surface to not more than 85°C (185°F). The materials can no longer be used as intended and it will be difficult to empty the tank. HANDLING. DO NOT let the emulsion fr(!e~~. may cause premature breaking. in recognition of these necessary precautions. wat. However.

It is best. MS-2h. HFMS-2s Maximum 60° 85° 60° 85° (140°) (185°) (140°) (185°) 20° 50° 10° 50° (70°) (125°) (50°) (125°) 3. DO warm the pump to about 65°C (150°F) to facilitate start-up. Avoid overmixing.03 STORAGE FACILITIES For protection from freezing and best utilization of heat. therefore. A void over-pumping. HFMS-1 CMS-2. HFMS-2h. MS-2. °C (OF) Minimum RS-1 RS-2. CRS-2 SS-1. A skin of asphalt can form on the surface of emulsions when exposed to air. DO protect pumps. DO when a pump is to be out of service for even a short period of time. fill it with No. 3. Discourage the use of propane torches. vertical tanks as they expose the least amount of surface area to the air. In tanks not equipped with propellers. Tightly fitting pumps can cause binding and seizing. HFMS-2. and lines from freezing in winter. Secondly. Most fixed storage tanks are vertical but horizontal tanks are often used for short-term field storage. Large diameter. Cathodic protection should be provided to avoid possible corrosion of tank walls and heating coils. a very light film of kerosene or oil on the surface can reduce skin formation. Skinning can be reduced by keeping horizontal tanks full to minimize the area exposed to air. slow-turning propellers are best and should be used to roll the material over. CSS-1h. fuel oil to ensure a free start-up. valves. DO use a mild heating method to apply heat to the pump packing or casing to free a seized pump.04 HANDLING EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS DO when heating emulsified asphalt agitate it gently to eliminate or reduce skin formation. Side-entering propellers located about one metre (three feet) up from the tank bottom may be used to prevent surface skin formation. SS-1h. DO blowout lines and leave drain plugs open when they are not in service. 18 .TABLE 111-1 STORAGE TEMPERATURES FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS Grade Temperature. CSS-1. to use tall. or a circulating system. storage tanks should be insulated. CRS-1. Emulsions that are rolled or circulated generally do not require a layer of kerosene or oil on the surface. Drain pumps or fill them with anti-freeze according to the manufacturer's recommendations. MS-1. CMS-2h. DO use pumps with proper clearances for handling emulsified asphalt. tanks may be circulated top to bottom with a pump.

if possible. and distributors. or otherwise. Never add the asphalt emulsion to a tank of water when diluting. DO place inlet pipes and return lines at the bottom of tanks to prevent foaming. The pump may be damaged and the asphalt may become even harder. DO remember that emulsions with the same grade designation can be very different chemically and in performance. For example. causing the cmulsion to be unstablc.DO when diluting grades ofclllulsified asphalt. always make a trial blend of the newly-delivered emulsion and the stored emulsion before pumping off. See Tables 111-2 and 111-3. and grades of cmulsified asphalt in storage tanks. Also. types. tank transports. DO avoid repeated pUlllPing and /\:cycl ing. DO guard against mixing diffcrcnt c1asscs. no Illix by circulation. as thc viscosity may drop and air may bccomc cntrained. transports. Because it is hard to determine visually the difference between various emulsified asphalts. tank cars. 19 . if cationic and anionic emulsified asphalts are mixed. the blend will break and scparate into water and coagulated asphalt that will be difficult to remove. DO NOT dilute rapid-setting grades of emulsified asphalt with water. but always add water slowly to the asphalt emulsion. or distributors containing remains of incompatible materials. They tend to lose viscosity when subjected to pumping. Check the trial blend for compatibility. DO NOT recirculate emulsified asphalts for too many cycles. DO NOT load emulsified asphalt into storage tanks. DO if possible. DO pump from the bottom of the tank to minimize contamination from skinning that may have formed. Medium and slow setting grades may be diluted. by testing a small quantity." DO NOT apply severe heat to pump packing glands or pump casings. air bubbles may become entrained which would render the emulsion unstable. DO NOT use tight-fitting pumps for pumping emulsified asphalt. check the compatibility of the water with the emulsion. DO haul emulsion in truck transports with baffle plates to prevent sloshing. they may "freeze. use warm water for diluting and always add the water slowly to the cmulsion (not the emulsion to the water). ellluisions that have bcen in prolonged storagc.

Provide a ramp at the unloading point at the plant that will ensure complete drainage of vehicle tank while material is still fluid. TABLE 111-3 POSSIBLE CAUSES OF CONTAMINATION OF ASPHALT MATERIAL OR SAMPLES AND SUGGESTED PRECAUTIONS HAULERS AND HAULING VEHICLES Field observations and studies of test results have indicated that contamination of materials during transportation often occurs. When this is necessary.TABLE 111-2 GUIDE FOR CONDITION OF EMPTIED TANKS BEFORE LOADING EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS LAST PRODUCT IN TANK PRODUCT TO BE LOADED Asphalt Cement (includes Industrial Asphalt) Cutback Asphalt Cationic Emulsion Anionic Emulsion Crude petroleum and residual fuel oils Any product not listed above Cationic Emulsion Anionic Emulsion Empty to no Empty to no Measurable Measurable Quantity Quantity Empty to no Empty to no Measurable Measurable Quantity Quantity OK to load Empty to no Measurable Quantity Empty to no Empty to no Measurable Measurable Quantity Quantity OK to load Empty to no Measurable Quantity Tank must be cleaned Tank must be cleaned NOTE: All tanks to be emptied to 0. Possible Causes (a) Previous load not compatible with material being loaded. (c) Flushing of solvents into receiving storage tank or equipment tanks. and all piping must be drained. and pump are properly cleaned and drained before being presented for loading. If it is. make sure all solvents are completely drained.5 percent or less of capacity. unloading lines. Precautions Examine the log of loads hauled or check with the supplier to determine if pre\lious material hauled is detri mental. (b) Remains of diesel oil or solvents used for cleaning and flushing of tanks. Pump section. Do not allow even small amounts to flush into storage tank as entire contents may be contaminated (Continued on next page) 20 . and pump. lines. unloading line. make sure vehicle tanks.

on the part of the sampler. heated lines and pump. Precautions If sampling device (of type described in ASTM 0 140 or AASHTO T 40 is cleaned with diesel oil or solvent. Possible Causes (a) Contaminated sampling device (commonly called a "sample thief"). make sure that it is thoroughly drained and then rinsed out several times with material being sampled prior to taking sample. If oil level is low. spray bar. If in doubt. or oil has been added. under certain conditions. Extra care. A better solution is to provide insulated. (e) Dilutions from hot oil heating systems.) MIX PLANT STORAGE TANK AND EQUIPMENT Many investigations and test results point to mix plant storage tanks and associated equipment as the source of contamination. suggest providing bypass valves and lines to prevent solvents from returning to tank. thereby eliminating the necessity of flushing. Observe unloading operations. check with your supplier. Possible Causes (a) Previous material left over in tank when changing to another material. (b) Samples taken with sampling device from top of tank where. Be sure all possible cleaning material is drained off or removed prior to loading. If necessary to flush lines and pump. pump.TABLE 111-3 (con't. Note: This sample may come from the top one-third of the tank. and nozzles with solvents. check system for leakage into the asphalt supply. Check reservoir on hot oil heating system. In taking a sample from the top of a tank lower sampling device below the extreme top before opening. To be on the safe side. If possible. (d) Cleaning of distributor tank. (b) Solvents used to flush hauling vehicle tank discharged into storage tank. NON-REPRESENTATIVE OR CONTAMINATED SAMPLE Test results are greatly dependent upon proper sampling techniques. to obtain samples that are truly representative of the material being sampled will do much to eliminate the possibility of erroneous test results by reason of improper sampling. Be sure discharge line connects at low point of storage tank to ensure complete emptying when changing type or grades of asphalt or cleaning tank. (Continued on next page) 21 . (c) Flushing of lines and pump between storage tank and hot-plant witll solvents and then allowing this material to return to tank. provide place for hauler to discharge cleaning materials. contaminants can collect on the surface. Do not take sample from nozzle until sufficient material has been discharged to guard against taking a contaminated sample. caution driver about flushing cleaning materials into storage tank. tank should be drained or cleaned prior to using tank for each different type or grade of asphalt. Precautions Any material allowed to remain must be compatible with new material. Make sure samples are taken only by those authorized persons who are trained in sampling procedures. and the amount remaining in the tank must be insufficient to cause new material to become out-of-specification.

3.06 SAMPLE CONTAINERS Containers for emulsified asphalt materials shall be wide-mouth jars or bottles made of plastic. Drain off sufficient material through spigot prior to taking sample to ensure removal of any contaminant lodged there. (f) Samples taken from unloading line of hauling vehicle. thereby allowing slow withdrawal of material during circulation. If sampling spigot is in suction line between tank and pump. the spigot should be in lines between pump and return line discharge.TABLE 111-3 (Con't. Glass or polyethylene containers should be used. DO NOT take sample without allowing sufficient time for circulation and thorough mixing of material. (d) Sample contaminated after taking. 3. DO NOT take sample while hauling vehicle is pumping into storage tank. this necessitates stopping pump prior to taking sample. or plastic-lined triple-seal friction-top cans. Take sample slowly to be sure it is representative of the material being used.05 SAMPLING ASPHALT EMULSIONS The purpose of any sampling method is to obtain samples that will show the true nature and condition of the material. The standard procedure is detailed in "Standard Methods of Sampling Bituminous Materials." ASTM D 140 or AASHTO T 40. 22 .) Precautions Possible Causes (c) Contaminated sample container. Sample should be taken after one-third and not more than two-thirds of the load has been removed. DO NOT submerge container in solvent or even wipe outside of container with solvent-saturated rag. Make sure container lid is tightly sealed prior to storage or shipment. (e) Samples taken from spigot in lines between storage tank and hot-plant. If necessary to clean spilled material from outside of container. Samples thus taken are by gravity and only representative of material localized in the r.>ipe area of the spigot. Rather. The general procedure is described in the following articles. Never wash or rinse a sample container with solvent. DO drain off sufficient material through spigot prior to taking sample to ensure removal of any contaminant lodged in spigot. DO take sample slowly during circulation to be more rerresentative of material being used. Use only new clean containers. Ship to testing laboratory promptly. or wide-mouth plastic-lined cans with lined screw caps. use a clean dry rag.

The sample container shall not be submerged in solvent. tightly sealed.08 SAMPLES Whenever practicable. Any residual material on the outside of the container shall be wiped with a clean. The samples shall be sent to the laboratory for testing as soon as possible. and shipped in such a manner as to protect them from freezing. Three samples of the emulsified asphalt shall be taken. or vermiculite. 3. (2) Samples of emulsions shall be packaged. (4) Each sample shall be identified with at least the following information: (a) Shipper's name and bill of lading or loading slip number.11 PROTECTION AND PRESERVATION OF SAMPLES (I) Immediately after filling. (4) There shall be no smoking while sampling asphalts. nor shall it be wiped with a solvent saturated cloth. 3. labeled. 3. the ones that follow.3. (3) All samples should be packaged and shipped to the laboratory the same day they are taken. dry cloth immediately after the container is sealed and removed from the sampling device.09 SAMPLING PRECAUTIONS (I) Sample containers shall be new. Top and container shall fit together tightly. If they contain evidence of solder flux or if they are not clean and dry they shall be discarded. 3. should be packed in absorbent material. to reduce the probability of damage during shipment. (6) During sealing and wiping the container shall be placed on a firm level surface to prevent splashing. (3) Face shields should be worn while sampling. excelsior. (b) Date sampled. samples shall be taken from the shipment immediately upon delivery. (2) Gloves shall be worn and sleeves shall be rolled down and fastened over the gloves at the wrist while sampling and while sealing containers. such as sawdust. and cleaning the sample containers shall be properly marked for identification with a wick marking pencil on the container itself. (c) Sampler'S name.10 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS (I) Safety precautions are mandatory at all times when handling asphalt materials. The containers. (d) Product grade. These safety precautions include. the emulsified asphalt shall be sampled at the point of manufacture or storage. (4) The filled sample container shall be tightly and positively sealed immediately after the sample is taken. not on the lid. (3) The sample shall not be transferred into another container. sealing. If that is not practicable. They shall not be washed or rinsed. but are not limited to. Linen tags also may be used for identification if they can be securely fastened to the container in such a manner as to ensure that they will not be lost in transit. . (2) Care shall be taken to prevent the samples from becoming contaminated. (5) The sampler shall stand on the windward side when taking the sample. Linen tags shall not be attached to containers by using the lids to secure them.07 SIZE OF SAMPLES The size of samples shall correspond to the required sample containers. dropping or spilling the material.

storage. tests that apply also to the residual asphalt in the emulsion after the water has evaporated. corresponding advances in emulsion testing have evolved. and by special formulation. mix. Laboratory tests are normally performed for one of four purposes: I. Others deal mainly with the manufacturing process. 4. rather than the base asphalt cement. this chapter is confined to the methods in ASTM Method D 244 and AASHTO Test Method T 59. The equipment is designed to prevent trouble from 25 . and field use. As advances in asphalt emulsion technology have been made through the years. Some of these tests are designed to measure performance qualities. Among them are penetration. 2. To control the quality and uniformity of the product during manufacturing and use. The distillation test procedure for asphalt emulsion is closely akin to that fiJr cutback asphalt.02 ASPHALT EMULSION TESTS Asphalt emulsions are made by taking asphalt cement. Test methods for evaluating properties of asphalt cement are well known. review of emulsion specifications used across the United States reveals a wide variety of requirements.CHAPTER IV EMULSIFIED ASPHALT TESTS 4. 4. Most of the tests are standard procedures and are outlined in "Testing Emulsified Asphalts. ductility. To pred ict or control field performance. To measure properties related to handling. and solubility in trichloroethylene. or handle before it reverts to its original state. Many are directly related to the emulsions produced by specific manufacturers. with details of each test method presented in Appendix B. That makes the asphalt easy to apply.01 REASONS FOR TESTING ASPHALT EMULSIONS Proper interpretation of laboratory test results can greatly aid in determining the traits of an asphalt emulsion.03 RESIDUE BY DISTILLATION The relative proportions of asphalt cement and water in the emulsion can be determined by a distillation test. To provide reference procedures for specifications. A micro-distillation test or residue-by-evaporation test also can be performed to determine the amount of this material in the emulsion. The primary purpose of this chapter is to consider the tests that apply to asphalt emulsion. The major emulsion tests are briefly discussed. Table I V-I is a useful summary of most of the tests. 4." ASTM Method of Test D 244 and AASHTO Method T 59. converting it to a liquid form. Because it is impraticable to discuss the multitude of requirements and test methods. 3. J\. The main difference is that an aluminum alloy still and ring burners are used instead of the glass flask and Bunsen Burner (note Figure IV-I). Additional tests may be made on the asphalt cement residue when the emulsifed asphalt contains an oil distillate.

Cationics are generally acidic with a pH of less than 7. The product must break rapidly and hold aggregate under the action of traffic. The difference in residue between top and bottom is measured. Asphalt must remain flexible at cold temperatures and not deteriorate on long-term weathering in a pavP'T1ent. -----------------------'Consistency: Pumping Stability: Dehydration: B) Rate of Set C) Mixing Stability The product must mix with water and aggregate without balling or breakdown.one day for storage stability test.S. Once mixed. Anionics are generally alkaline with a pH greater than 7. emulsifiers and fillers Asphalt After used to emulsify the asphalt. Adhesion Test: 'Penetration & Ductility After Laboratory Distillation: Specification Tests On Original Asphalt: B) Resistance to Stripping C) Long-Term Service Life Made on job aggregate or a reference aggregate. Job (or reference) aggregate is 'Stone CoatingWater Resistance: mixed with the emulsion to determine coating and early rain resistance. -~--'---------------~---------------------------- Product must have the same handling. Aerosol OT with cationic emulsion. No test in current specifications. Deposition of asphalt on an electrode. Water has a pH=7. shot and slugs retained on #20 mesh sieve. Most emulsions are damaged by freezing. Inc. the mix must cure rapidly to an asphalt film. Amount of oversize particles.ale to handle and capable of being pumped and sprayed without breakdown or run-off.) Residue is measured by dehydrating the emulsion by evaporation or distillation. Miscibility With Water: Ability to mix with water without coagulation. Amount of settlement of asphalt particles in 5 days -. Emulsion viscosity.. (Select proper grade) 'Demulsibility: B) Differentiate cationic from anionic emulsions. Consistency of base asphalt after laboratory distillation.TABLE IV-1 Property Factor CONSTANCY A) Uniformity SUMMARY OF EMULSION TESTS Requirement Test 'Residue: Proportions of asphalt & water.A. (Prevent mixing of grades which could result in breakdown) 'Particle Charge Test: pH: CONSTRUCTION A) Handling CHARACTERISTICS Product must be s. 26 . ASPHALT PURITY A) Ensure Presence of Asphalt Keep to a minimum the 'Solubility 01 The additives. DURABILITY A) Traffic Densification 'Penetration: Properly designed pavements must not bleed under repeated' 'Float Test: load application by heavy 'Residue: traffic.) 'Cement Mixing: Emulsion mixed with cement. (Indication of uniformity of manufacture. Amount of water lost in 96 hours at 100°F. Mixes must not strip when in prolonged contact with water. B) Storage Stability Product must be capable of storage without excessive damage or change. mixing and setting characteristics from shipment to shipment. 'Sieve: 'Settlement: 'Storage Stability: Freeze-Thaw: CLASSIFICATION A) Differentiate mixing grade product from rapid set types. Laboratory Distillation: "Included in ASTM D 244 and AASHTO T 59 Courtesy Chevron U. (Note: Improved test method for Rate of Set is needed. Amount of coagulation on addition of a salt-calcium chloride with anionic emulsion.

Therefore. however. It is perfonned by immersing a positive electrode (anode) and a negative electrode (cathode) into a sample emulsion and connecting them to a controlled direct-current electrical source. the temperature of the system never approaches that observed in the distillation test. Results are and for testing accuracy. 4. Cationic emulsions will migrate toward the cathode. These materials remain in the distillation residue and may alter the asphalt properties. the real purpose of the test-to detennine accurately the amount of asphalt cement in the emulsion-is not always realized. percent by volume of the original emulsion sample. is obtained from the amount of oil in the cylinder at the end of the test for residue by distillation. Thennally-induced changes do not occur in actual usage because the applied emulsion is allowed to break either electrochemically or by evaporation of the water.04 OIL DISTILLATE The oil distillate. the electrodes are observed to detennine if the cathode has an appreciable layer of asphalt deposited on it. In the case of emulsified asphalts the a measure of consistency. 4. which cover the normal working range. Evaporation of the water at subatmospheric pressure and at lower temperatures (ASTM D 244 or AASHTO T 59) provides a more realistic means for defining the properties of the asphalt after it is cured on the pavement surface.06 PARTICLE CHARGE TEST The particle charge test is made to identify cationic emulsions. Similar procedures are now recognized and used by many agencies and emulsified asphalt producers. Saybolt Furol visl:::osity test (Figure IV -3) is used as reported in Saybolt Furol seconds. two testing are used. However. 4. In field use.07 VISCOSITY Viscosity is defined as a flu id' s resistance to flow. Concentration of emulsifying agents and stabilizers (if present) in the asphalt residue. For convenience temperatures. 4.foaming of the emulsified asphalt as it is being heated to a maximum of 260°C (500°F). (77°F) and 50°C (122°F). These temperatures are 25°C 27 . The residue derived from this procedure usually yields lower penetration and lower ductility than that from distillation. Properties of the asphalt base can be altered substantially by: Concentration of inorganic salts from the aqueous phase in the asphalt residue. The usual test method. At the end of a specified period. residue from evaporation can be used for other tests. is not necessarily preferred for recovery of the asphalt residue and for defining the properties of the asphalt base stock used in the emulsion.05 RESIDUE BY EVAPORATION This test is designed to measure the percentage of asphalt cement in the emulsion by evaporating the water. Figure IV -2.

Distillation test for emulsified asphalts.Figure IV-1. Figure IV-2. Particle charge test. 28 .

It is expected to break almost immediately upon contact with the aggregate on which it is applied. 29 . then it is poured over a sieve to determine how much the asphalt globules coalesce. A high degree of "demulsibility" indicates a rapid-setting (RS) emulsion. 4. a very weak solution of calcium chloride and water is employed. In testing rapid-setting (RS) emulsions. Specifications prescribe the concentration of the solution and the minimum amount of asphalt to be retained on the sieve. In the test. a solution of calcium chloride and water is thoroughly mixed with emulsified asphalt.Figure IV-3. Calcium chloride causes the minute asphalt globules present in these emulsified asphalts to coalesce. SayboH Furol viscosity test.08 DEMULSIBILITY The demulsibility test indicates the relative rate at which the colloidal asphalt globules in the rapid-setting type of emulsified asphalts will break when spread in thin films on soil or aggregate.

Article 4. In the cement mixing test.4. The test is a quality measure in addition to indicating whether the emulsion is capable of mixing with. most agencies will accept the storage stability test (one-day settlement). Small samples are then taken from the top and bottom parts. Each sample is placed in a beaker and weighed. a representative sample of emulsified asphalt is poured through a 850 /Lm (No. When the asphalt emulsion is to be used promptly. For anionic emulsions.12 MISCIBILITY WITH WATER This test finds if medium-setting or slow-setting emulsions can be mixed with water. 14) sieve. It is then examined for any appreciable coagulation of the asphalt droplets in the emulsion. 20) sieve. or being diluted with. between the asphalt cement content in the upper and lower portions of the cylinder. 4. the sieve and retained asphalt are then rinsed with a mild sodium oleate solution and finally with distilled water. if any. A prescribed volume of emulsion is allowed to stand in a graduated cylinder for a specified number of days (usually five). distilled water only is used for rinsing. a sample of emulsified asphalt is mixed with finely-ground portland cement and the mixture washed over a 1. The sample is then heated until all water evaporates. 4. Failure of the settlement test indicates that something is wrong or out of balance in the emulsification process. It is used to find the amount of asphalt in the form of rather large globules that may not have been detected in the settlement test and could clog the spraying equipment. forming a water-insoluble salt. This provides a measure of settlement.09 SETTLEMENT The settlement test indicates the emulsion's stability in storage. then the residue is weighed.11 SIEVE TEST The sieve test complements the settlement test and has a somewhat similar purpose.14. The cationic emulsion reacts to portland cement because of surface area. For cationic emulsions. Specifications usually limit the amount of material that may be retained on the sieve. reacts chemically with portland cement constituents. Such globules will not provide thin and uniform coatings of asphalt on the aggregate particles. water. After rinsing. In the sieve test. The SS grades are used with fine materials and dusty aggregates.10 CEMENT MIXING The cement mixing test does the same for slow-setting (SS) emulsified asphalts as the demulsibility test does for rapid-setting grades. After adding and stirring distilled water. 4. Quite often there will be a deposit of heavy emulsion 30 . the emulsion sample is allowed to stand for two hours. The cement mixing reaction for cationic and noncationic emulsions is quite different. in lieu of the settlement test. particularly the anionic type.40 mm (No. It is not applicable to rapid-setting asphalt emulsions. the sieve and asphalt are dried in an oven and the amount of retained asphalt determined by weighing. It detects the tendency of asphalt globules to settle during storage. This test also serves as an indicator of quality even if the emulsion is not to be stored for a period of time. They are normally unaffected by calcium chloride solution as used in the demulsibility test. The weights obtained are used to find the difference. the noncationic.

The remainder of the mixture is sprayed with water and rinsed until the rinse water runs clear. This material is then placed on absorbent paper and inspected for coating. It determines the ability of an asphalt emulsion to: (I) coat the aggregate thoroughly. It is a measure of the permanence of the dispersion as related to time.in the bottom of the beaker. 4. If the deposit in the beaker is minimal.1 mm of a standard needle under a load of 100g for exactly five (5) seconds when the asphalt sample is at a temperature of 25°C (77°F). it signifies that the emulsion is properly formulated and that the dispersed particles are in the desired size range. 31 . and weighed. The solubility test is a measure of the "purity" of the asphalt cement. A measured representative sample is placed in each of two glass cylinders. The reference aggregate is coated with calcium carbonate dust and then mixed with the emulsified asphalt. This test measures the depth of penetration in units of 0. The storage stability is expressed as the numerical difference between the average percentage of residue in the top samples and the bottom samples. Emulsified asphalt is added and thoroughly mixed. allowed to cool. Other aggregates may be used in the test if calcium carbonate is omitted throughout the method. ductility. They are stoppered and allowed to stand at laboratory temperature for 24 hours. D 113. float test. The portion of the asphalt cement that is soluble in specified solvents represents the active cementing constituents. solubility. D 139 and D 70 (AASHTO Methods T 49. The samples are placed for a set time in an oven heated to a prescribed temperature. (2) withstand mixing action while remaining as a film on the aggregates and (3) resist the washing action of water after completion of mixing. A 50g sample from each cylinder is siphoned from the top.13 COATING ABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE This test has a threefold purpose. Inspections are made as described above for the dry-coated aggregates. A sample of job aggregate is similarly coated with calcium carbonate dust. It has been carried over in some viscosity-based asphalt specifications to ensure that materials of an undesirably low penetration are precluded from use. The most common tests run on the residue include penetration. About one-half of the mixture is then placed on absorbent paper for a visual inspection of the surface area of aggregate coated by the emulsified asphalt. D 2042. 4. Then they are removed. T 51. A given quantity of water is then mixed with the dust-coated aggregate. Lower test temperatures are sometimes checked when the asphalt is to be used in an area where very low temperatures are prevalent.15 EXAMINATION OF RESIDUE The same desirable characteristics in the base asphalt cement should show up in the residual asphalt after emulsification and coalescence. A 50g sample of the portion that is left is put through the same procedure as for the top samples. These tests are described in detail in ASTM Methods D 5. After the top sample is removed. 4. and T 228) respectively.14 STORAGE STABILITY The storage stability test is used to determine the ability of an emulsified asphalt to remain as a uniform dispersion during storage. T 44. The penetration test is an empirical test of consistency. all but a small portion of the asphalt emulsion remaining in each cylinder is siphoned off. and specific gravity. This test is not adaptable to rapid-setting or slow-setting asphalt emulsions. T 50. The test is primarily intended to identify medium-setting asphalt emulsions suitable for mixing with coarse-graded calcareous aggregates.

are insoluble.Only such inert matter as saIts.16 CLASSIFICATION TEST FOR RAPID-SETTING CATIONIC ASPHALT EMULSIONS This test identifies rapid-setting cationic asphalt emulsions by their failure to coat a specific Ottawa sand-portland cement (Type III) mixture. The elongation. in centimeters. The ductility of an asphalt cement is its ability to be extended or pulled into a narrow thread. or nonorganic contaminants. a plug of asphalt residue is solidified in a brass collar by cooling to 5°C (41°F). .The ability of the emulsion to withstand mixing. The test is a measure of consistency of the material being examined. The resistance of the coating to wash-off is determined by filling with water and emptying a container of the 32 . Figure IV-4. such as clay or finely divided mineral matter. an estimate is made of the amount of uncoated and coated areas in the mixture. 4. The test is prescribed in ASTM Method of Test D 139 (AASHTO Method of Test T 50). Solubility is determined by dissolving the asphalt cement in the solvent and separating the soluble and insoluble portions by filtering. In many applications. Following a 2Vz minute mixing period. The time required for the water to break through the plug is determined. it is an important characteristic of asphalt cements. It is pulled at a specified rate of speed until the thread connecting the two ends breaks. Measured amounts of the job aggregate and job emulsion are hand mixed. . however. In the test. The float test is performed on the residue from distillation of HFMS emulsified asphalts. Float test. Chapter II).The ability of an asphalt emulsion to coat the job aggregate. free carbon. illustrated in Figure IV -4. is usually of more significance than the actual degree of ductility.The water resistance of the emulsion-coated aggregate. The presence or absence of ductility. 4. The ability of the emulsion to remain as a coating during a five-minute cycle is observed. Values are limited by specifications for the HFMS emulsified asphalts (see Table II-I. The asphalt briquette is then brought to a standard test temperature in a water bath. at which the thread of material breaks is designated as ductility. This test is made by molding a briquette of asphalt cement under standard conditions and dimensions.17 FIELD COATING TEST This test is used at the project site to determine: . An excess of uncoated area over a coated area is considered as a passing rating for rapid-setting cationic emulsions. The collar is then screwed into the bottom of an aluminum float which is placed into a testing bath of water heated to 60°C (140°F).

18 MASS PER LITRE (WEIGHT PER GALLON) This test is used to determine the mass per litre (weight per gallon) of asphalt emulsion. The intensity of charge each droplet or particle inherently possesses.19 SPECIFIC GRAVITY Finding the specific gravity of asphalt cement is not normally a specification item.) at 25°C (77°F). 4.01 lb. Results are reported in kilograms per litre (pounds per gallon) to the nearest 0. The zeta potential is a measurement of the intensity of positive or negative charge of emulsified asphalt and/or aggregate particles. 4.0 to 1. A rating of good means that the aggregate is fully coated (except for pinholes and sharp edges).coated aggregate five times.0 to 1. Asphalt cements fall within a specific gravity range of about 1. A device called a Zeta Meter measures the speed of movement (electrophoretic mobility) of individual emulsified asphalt droplets or aggregate particles when placed in an aqueous medium. It can be helpful.05. The specific gravity is usually determined with a pycnometer. This unit mass (weight) is computed by finding the mass (weight) of an asphalt emulsion in a standard measure of known volume. either positive or negative. can be expressed in millivolts (111000 volt) as the zeta potential. 33 . in making volume corrections at elevated temperatures and determining necessary quantities.005 kg (0. This means that they weigh 1. 4. A rating of fair indicates an excess of coated over uncoated aggregate area. The coating of the aggregate is visually rated as good.20 SPECIAL TEST-ZETA POTENTIAL The measurement of zeta potential is not a standard ASTM or AASHTO test. A rating of poor indicates an excess of uncoated aggregate over coated area. however. or poor.05 times as much as the same volume of water under the same test conditions. fair.

PART TWO: USING ASPHALT EMULSIONS .

QHjo~~ anti~ipated duringC.!!Iatic con.tian. There is no good substitute for a laboratory evaluation of the emulsion and the aWegate-To be used.CHAPTER V SELECTING THE RIGHT TYPE AND GRADE OF ASPHALT EMULSION 5..~~rongly. Guidelines presented in this chapter should help select the specific grade and type of emulsion to be used. Successful performance of asphalt emulsions requires selecting the proper type and grade for the intended use. Aggregate type and availability. Construction equipment availabil ity. An experienced technician can determine the type and amount of emulsion to be used.onst[uc.t~sting. Some other factors that affect the selection are: <. 5. design of mix or treatment.03 GENERAL USES Each grade of asphalt emulsion is designed for specific uses. and the amount of time for breaking to occur. they have a broader range of uses that include many not suited to cutbacks. and in some cases. He can also determine if additional water must be added. They are described in general terms in the following paragraphs. 5. l While general guidelines can be given for selecting emulsions. Rapid-Setting EmuLsions: The rapid-setting grades are designed'to react quickly with aggregate and revert from the emulsion state to asphalt. recommended. and construction equipment depend upon this factor.01 GENERAL Asphalt emulsions can be used for almost any purpose for which cutback asphalts are used.: The selection of emulsion grade. Different types and quantities of emulsion should be tried with the aggregate to find the best combination for the intended use. laborat~y . water availability.:1!.02 CONSIDERATIONS FOR SELECTION The first consideration in picking the right type and grade of emulsion is the kind of construction in which it will be used. Furthermore.Traffic control: can traffic be detoured? 1/-' Environmental considerations. '(.l. Is it a seal coat or a plant mix (central or mixed-in-place)? Is it some type of surface application only? Is it for maintenance? Once this decision is made other project variables must then be considered. That does not mean that they can be used indiscriminately. 37 . Geographical location: hauling distance.

All slow-setting grades have low viscosities that can be further reduced by adding water. p()r.at about 60°C (140°F).he yater.depends entirely upon ev~poratioll 9L!. the probability of good adhesion is greatly improved if the charges are different. is anionic in nature. or migrate. dense-graded aggregates. While regular asphalts have a tendency to flow. The predominating charge on the aggregate surface determines whether anionic or cationic emulsion will produce the best results. The RS-2 and CRS-2 grades have high viscosities to prevent runoff. HFMS-2h and HFMS-2s. Because these grades do not break immediately upon contact with aggregate.Table V-I shows the general uses of standard emulsion types and grades . the high float residues are designed to stay in place up to about 71 °C (l60°F). If a faster setting rate is needed in mixtures.They are used primarily for spray applications. The only way to be sure . - .04 ADHESIVE PROPERTIES Success with any aggregate-emulsion combination depends greatly on t~lectrici!Lsurface c_harges. They are used with high fines content. ASTM D 139 (AASHTO T 50). The American Society for Testing and Materials has standardized four grades of high-float emulsions-HFMS-I. Therefore. They soften less in summer and do not harden as much in winter. such as aggregate (chip) seals. 5. so!!:-asp~~IL~tabilization. when diluted.s. and slurry seal:. The probability of good adhesion is diminished if tl!~ charges are similar. The SS grade of emulsioll.p-!. and <i!:!§l. f()g §. mixes using them remain workable for a few minutes.llU1ltiYe. Their specifications are contained in ASTM D 977 (see Table II-I). sand seals. They are used extensively in t!:~y'e!Jiliints~ The CMS grades have high viscosities to prevent runoff. asphalt surface mixes. high float residues are less susceptible to changes in temperature. It reportedly gives better aggregate coating and asphalt retention under extreme temperature conditions.js to test in the laboratory. and asphalt penetration macadam. ~~e SS emulsions are generally used for dense-graded aggregate-emulsion ba. The major difference between this emulsion and the conventional medium-setting is the high float characteristic..~~ls. as is t~9!~. measured on the asphalt residue by the Float Test.ses. ..Qf the asphalt droplets and the aggregate. Conversely.tland cement or hydrated lime can be added. surface treatments. success with any type and grade of asphalt emulsion system is best ensured by adherence to each of the following steps: 38 .f9f c@1escen~of the.e for slurry seals. HFMS-2. A newly standardized medium-setting asphalt emulsion. These grades... Slow-Setting Emulsions: The slow-setting grades are designed for maximum mixing stability. identified as high float. can also be used for tack coa~s. The SS grades have long workability times to ensure good mixing with dense-graded aggregates.aspbJ!lLparticies'. - Medium-Setting Emulsions: The medium-setting grades are designed for mixing with coarse aggregate.05 GUIDELINES FOR SUCCESSFUL PERFORMANCE In summary.

Laboratory testing using the actual aggregate and emulsion that is to be used on the project.h 00: -7~ "'::c ~. 5.h U ~ ::l! '" ~ . Careful handling of the emulsion to prevent con~ITl}!!ation. or both.. Diluted with water by the manufacturer. 00: U 00: '" U ~ '" r. Following proper procedures will produce a system that should provide a high level of service.. Strict adherence to the specifications and guides for usage.c t"1 r. TABLE V-1 GENERAL USES OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT NOTE-Only those grades of emulsified asphalt in general use have been indicated herein... '" .h . settlem~l1tofJhe_asphalt droplets. ~ .' Dust binder Mulch treatment Crack filler Maintenance mix: Immediate use A XC XO XC XC XC X X X XC XO XC XC XC X X XB) XC X X Grades of emulsion other than FH MS-2h may be used where experience has shown that they give satisfactory performance. U '" . J.h . ASTMD977 AASHTOM208 Type of Construction ASTMD2397 AASHTOM 140 r. or climatic conditions.h ~::c ~ ::c '" r.I.CKCOar] .h '" .r.t~ ~ . Asphalt emulsions as an alternative for use in paving and maintenance operations are now a reality. or premature coatt!~<:~!lce. {' Diluted with water..f11e~()at:penetrable suri~c~ /!!!. 4. Where the use of emulsified asphalt for applications other than those listed in the table are contemplated. Table V -2 may he helpful also. r. 2.02_..phalt applications: Fog seal L~i. Selection of grades in conformance with TabIeV -l~nd Article 5....c . " Mixed-in prime only.c X' X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X"' X" X X X X X X XC XD XC XC XC X X XC XD XC XC A. Consultation with the emulsion manufacturer's representative when special or unusual problems occur.. additional selections might be appropriate. II 39 .h Asphalt-aggregate mixtures: For pavement bases and surfaces: Plant mix (hot) Plant mix (cold) Open-graded aggregate Dense-graded aggregate Sand Mixed-in-place: Open-graded aggregate Dense-graded aggregate Sand Sandy soil Slurry seal Asphalt-aggregate applications: Treatments and seals: Single surface treatment (Chip Sea\) Multiple surface treatment Sand seal ( 00: '" r. It is possible that under certain variations of aggregates..h ~~ . the emulsion supplier should be consulted.

Test track data indicate better studded tire damage resistance than a chip seal. or OS" Grades Seals. provides an easy-to-sweep surface. CAPE SEAL Apply an aggregate single chip seal. CSS-1 h. Enriches dry. knobby surface of a chip seal to reduce hydroplaning yet has a tough sand matrix for durability. CS-1. • The quick-set grades of emulsion (OS) have been developed for slurry seals. RS-1.S. Combines a single chip seal with a slurry seal. CHIPSEAL CRS-2 or RS-2 Single most important low cost maintenance method. renews weathered pavements. reduces raveling. HFMS-1 Construction Hints Spray-applied with sand cover. Two applications of binder and aggregate. In city street work. aggregate cannot be tolerated. The second chip application uses a smaller sized stone. U. Provides the rough. use hard. Levels as well as providing a seal. improves skid resistance. CSS-1 h. Have the strike-off ride on the rock surface to form the matrix. The liquid slurry is machine-applied with a sled-type box containing a rubber-edged strike-off blade. Roll With pneumatic roller. 40 . While not yet standardized. Produces an all-weather surface. provides some leveling. fills minor depressions. Avoid excess bin1er. Typical Emulsified Asphalts CRS-1 .TABLE V-2 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT SEAL COATS AND SURFACE TREATMENTS Type of Construction SAND SEAL Description and Uses Restores uniform cover. CRS-2 or RS-2 Spray-applied. and have properly calibrated spray equipment. DOUBLE SEAL TRIPLE SEAL Three applications of binder CRS-2 or RS-2 and 3 sizes of chips are applied. seals pavement. available in a number of textures. SS-1. RS-2. flexible pavement. maintenance where loose SS-1. Many types of textures availabie. Avoid excess slurry as this destroys the knobby stone texture desired. tough wearing surface. MS-1. Durable. SLURRY SEAL Pretest the aggregate and emulsion mix to achieve desired workability. traffic line visibility. See Chip Seal. as the unique quick-setting property solves one of the major problems associated with the use of slurry seals. Key to success: Coordinate construction. improves street sweeping. Used in airport and city street CSS-1. CRS-2. clean aggregate. Broom and apply slurry seal. Modified table from Chevron.) thick. Calibrate equipment prior to starting the project. Provides up to a 20mm (3A in. setting rate. weathered pavements. RS-2 CRS-2and OS" Grades Spray-applied in three lifts. SS-1 h. their use is rapidly increasing. SS-1 h. than the first.A. lane demarcation. and durability. bulky grained.

usually less than 25 millimetres (I in. as surface treatments and seal coats differ in name only for this type of construction. 2. Pavements that have become slippery because of bleeding or wear and polishing of surface aggregates may be treated with sharp. V~Qhal!~!:f1E. 3. hard aggregate to restore skid resistance. or similar. easy to place.-Mm. The total thickness of the treatment is about the same as the maximum size aggregate particles of the first course. they are treated as a single subject. which is rolled as soon as possible.02 USES OF SURFACE TREATMENTS Surface treatments are primarily used for the following purposes: I. 6. They seal and add life to road surfaces but each type has one or more special purposes. to any kind of road surface. To provide a waterproof layer to prevent the intrusion of moisture into the underlying course. and long lasting. A clear understanding of the advantages and limitations of asphalt emulsion surface treatments is essential for best results. To provide a skid-resistant surface. along with an evaluation of the condition of existing materials and pavement layers. or it may be an existing pavement. This chapter covers surface treatments consisting of asphalt emulsion-aggregate applications only. For multiple surface treatments the process is repeated a second. While a surface treatment can provide an excellent surface if used for the correct purpose.!sion. A single surface treatment involves spraying asphalt emulsion followed at once by a thin aggregate cover. A surface treatment is not a pavement in itself.CHAPTER VI ASPHALT EMULSION SURFACE TREATMENTS 6. be made. Surface treatments applied to an existing pavement surface often are called seal coats. 4. weathered surface. A pavement that has become weathered 41 .) thick. And. or even a third time with the aggregate size becoming smaller with each application. Properly constructed. It is vital that a careful study of traffic requirements. It adds little load-carrying strength and therefore is not normally taken into account in computing the load limit of a pavement. asphalt surface treatments are economical. The maximum size aggregate for each successive application is about one-half that of the previous one. Rather.01 SURFACE TREATMENTS Asphalt surface treatment is a broad term embracing several types of asphalt and asphaltaggregate applications. To give new life to a dry. To provide a low-cost. all-weather surface for light to medium traffic. it resists traffic abrasion and provides a waterproof cover over the underlying structure. The road surface may be a primed granular base. it is not a cure-all to solve all paving problems.!ications without aggr~ate cover are also cal~s .. They are included in Chapter VIII.

. lack of drainage. 7. 8. aggregate spreader. or for planned stage construction. it can serve as an adequate stop-gap measure until a more permanent upgrading can be completed. The surface treatment makes an excellent temporary surface until the final asphalt courses are placed.Make sure that all materials to be used meet the job specifications. The need for a strong base or sound pavement under asphalt surface treatments cannot be overemphasized. 6. These are •'common-sense" items that apply much the same in other types of construction. Three of the most common problems and their causes are discussed in the following paragraphs.e.04 COMMON PROBLEMS Adherence to the simple safeguards will prevent problems that could start during the job. Although the surface treatment has little or no structural strength.) 6.to the point where raveling might occur can be restored to useful service by application of a single or multiple surface treatment. and insufficient strength for the expected traffic. faulty compaction. Check to be certain the existing pavement structure can support expected traffic loads before the surface treatment is appl ied. Select the proper type and weight of rollers. (Emulsions are significantly less tolerant than cutbacks to cool temperature surface treating. If the base or pavement is weak. Will cationic or anionic emulsion work best? Is the aggregate free from dust? Determine the optimum application rate of emulsion and correct amount of aggregate cover.. Adhere to good construction techniques. or stress cracking. To define shoulders so they won't be mistaken as traffic lanes. i. and inspection of spray nozzles is essential. The surface treatment is an appropriate cover for a new base course that is to be carried through a winter. To provide a temporary cover for a new base course. To salvage old pavements that have deteriorated because of aging. shrinkage cracking. Be sure that the asphalt emulsion and aggregate are compatible. To provide rumble strips for safety.03 SAFEGUARDS A few simple safeguards will greatly increase the chance of success when a surface treatment is used. the surface treatment stands little chance of doing its job. Common defects may include unstable materials. 42 . Calibration of gauges and meters. Use proper traffic controls. 5. 6. Do the work only in proper weather conditions. poor aggregate grading. Inspect all construction equipment to be assured of proper operation. warm and dry.

are the wrong size. or by poor governor control of the pump motor.Pump pressure too low. Longitudinal streaking. . by improper pump speed. Transverse streaking. on the other hand. it can greatly reduce service life through loss of cover aggregate. 43 . differ in size. Nozzle on spray bar not set at correct angle. not all set at same angle. This is the non-uniform application of the asphalt emulsion on the road surface. Asphalt emulsion too cold. Transverse streaking is caused by spurts in the asphalt spray from the distributor spray bar. Longitudinal streaking shows up as alternating lean and heavy narrow bands of asphalt running parallel to the centerline of the road. Spray bar rising as load in distributor lightens. runs across the road. These spurts may be produced by pulsation of the asphalt pump due to worn or loose parts. Wrong asphalt emulsion pump speed. It can be either longitudinal or transverse. Some causes of longitudinal streaking are: . some plugged with cold asphalt. or have imperfections.Streaking. A single centerline streak may be caused by too little or too much emulsified asphalt at the joint between two applications. Figure VI-1. Streaking not only leaves an unsightly appearance. Figure VI-I.Spray bar on the asphalt emulsion distributor not set at the correct height for the spray fans to overlap properly.

or water vapor pressure from the base or subgrade causing flow of asphalt upward. This is the whipping-off of aggregate under traffic from a surfacetreated pavement.Bleeding (Flushing). Loss of Cover Aggregate. Several things can cause loss of cover aggregate. hazardous condition during wet weather. If it is not spread immediately after the asphalt emulsion is applied to the surface. resembling the bleeding condition. Bleeding asphalt. Bleeding can cause a slick. Dry. This is the upward movement of asphalt in an asphalt pavement that results in a film of asphalt on the surface. leaving the asphalt. see Figure VI-3. the chip-free asphalt. Figure VI-2. The most common cause of bleeding of a surface treatment is spraying too much asphalt. Other causes are not enough or too small aggregate. see Figure VI-2. This condition can be dangerous because loose chips thrown by the tires of a moving vehicle can fly into the windshield of another vehicle. Also. dusty aggregate may cause premature breaking of the asphalt emulsion and may not leave enough asphalt to hold the 44 . can become a skid hazard. the aggregate may not hold.

this manual is concerned only with the use of emulsified asphalt and the guidelines given will apply only to them. The emulsions offer several advantages over other types of available materials: 45 . A. Figure VI-3. Loss of cover aggregate.06 ASPHALT EMULSION The successful use of asphalt emulsion for surface treatments is well established. durable. too little aggregate embedment. 6. leaving too little to hold the aggregate.05 GENERAL To produce high quality. Although other types of asphalt materials may be used. Other causes include: not enough asphalt emulsion. surface treatments both the asphalt emulsion and the aggregate must meet established quality standards. surface being treated is too wet or too dusty when asphalt emulsion is applied.aggregate under traffic. If it is not rolled immediately after placing. a surface that absorbs part of the asphalt. and a rainstorm that washes away the emulsion. fast traffic too soon on new surface treatment. the aggregate may not become seated firmly enough to hold under traffic. MATERIALS 6. weather too cool when the treatment is applied.

-After application. -After rolling and curing. grade. Table VI-I gives typical application temperature ranges for the various types and grades. -They can be used with aggregate that is damp. not bleed or strip with changing weather conditions. -Cure and develop adhesion quickly. -They set up more quickly than cutback asphalt. hold the aggregate tightly to the road surface to prevent dislodgement by traffic. -They need not be at highly elevated temperatures for proper application. The use of these materials with relatively low temperatures is a significant energy-saving feature. retain the proper consistency to wet the surface being treated and the applied aggregate. One of the keys to good performance lies in the selection of the correct type. -They eliminate the fire hazard that is associated with the use of cutback asphalt. -When applied in the right amount. and application rate of emulsion. the asphalt emulsion for surface treatment will: -When applied. TABLE VI-1 SUGGESTED DISTRIBUTOR SPRAYING TEMPERATURES FOR VARIOUS GRADES OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT -DEGREES CELSIUS (CO) OR FAHRENHEIT (FO) Spraying Temperatures Type and Grade of Asphalt Emulsified Asphalts RS-1 RS-2 MS-1 MS-2 MS-2h HFMS-1 HFMS-2 HFMS-2h HFMS-2s SS-1 SS-1h CRS-1 CRS-2 CMS-2 CMS-2h CSS-1 CSS-1h Road Mixes Surface Treatments (OF) 70-140 125-185 70-160 (0C) (OF) (0C) 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 - 20-60 50-85 20-70 - 70-160 - 20-70 - - - - 50-85 50-85 20-70 20-70 20-70 20-70 70-160 70-160 70-160 70-160 - - 125-185 125-185 - - - 46 .-They can be used with cold or hot aggregate. be fluid enough to spray properly and cover the surface uniformly. Using the correct grade. Table V-I in Chapter V shows the types of emulsified asphalt recommended for surface treatments and seals.

Asphalt emulsion binders used for surface treatment operations are normally the rapid-setting type. Rapid-setting emulsions should be used when heavy traffic makes a rapid rate of cure essential, or when uncertainty about wet weather makes rapid-setting imperative. 6.07 AGGREGATE Any aggregate used in a surface course is subjected to the abrasive action of traffic. If it is not hard enough to resist rapid wear, the pavement may become a skid hazard when wet. Most hard aggregates can be used with success for surface treatments. But all that are considered for use should be tested for abrasion wear, the standard test being the Los Angeles Abrasion Test, ASTM C 131 (AASHTO T 96). For surface treatment use, the abrasion wear should be not more than 45 percent. Angular particles with rough surface texture and relatively low absorption will produce the best results. The aggregate selected, however, also must meet job requirements for size, shape, and cleanliness. Size. The aggregate should be as close to one size as is economically practical, preferably in the range of 12.5 to 6 mm (1J2 to 1J4 in.) for single surface treatments. Larger sizes may be used in multiple treatments. If it is much larger than 12.5 mm (1J2 in.), it can cause objectionable tire noise. If much finer than 6 mm (1J4 in.), it is hard to spread evenly. Also, the finer the aggregate the smaller the allowable range for asphalt application rate becomes. Generally, the largest particle should be no more than twice the diameter of the smallest one. An allowance should be made for a slight amount of oversized and undersized particles. For single treatments, the top size is limited by the amount of emulsified asphalt that can be applied in one pass of the distributor without flowing off the surface. Shape. The ideal shape for surface treatment aggregate is cubical. Flat or elongated particles are undesirable. They tend to become aligned on their flat sides and may be completely covered with asphalt when enough is used to hold the cubical particles in place. Figure VI-4 is an example of this condition. If all particles are flat, it takes so little asphalt to hold them that control becomes difficult . Clealliiness. Clean aggregate is very important. If the particles are dusty or coated with clay or silt, the emulsified asphalt may not stick. The dust produces a fil m that prevents the asphalt from adhering to the aggregate.

VOIDS

AGGREGATE PARTICLES

Figure VI-4.

Flat particles are covered when enough asphalt is used to hold cubical particles.

47

B. TYPES OF TREATMENTS AND SEALS
6.08 SINGLE SURFACE TREATMENT A single surface treatment, often called "chip seal," may be used for one of several reasons: As an interim measure pending application of a higher pavement type. To correct surface raveling and oxidation of old pavements. To provide a waterproof cover over an existing pavement structure. To correct excessive traffic wear beyond that presumed in the original design.

The single treatment approach is expecially suited for light duty traffic and as an interim maintenance procedure. It also may be used following crack sealing operations. The surface treatment is applied to resist the abrasive forces of the traffic. Problems that can be associated with a treatment of this type include: Construction during cool weather. It usually requires about one month of warm weather following construction for the aggregate particles to become reoriented and properly embedded in the asphalt membrane. Possible damage to windshields by loose aggregate not embedded in the asphalt membrane. Possible loss of cover aggregate because of the relatively thin layer and the time required for embedding and bonding to develop. In a single treatment the larger aggregate particles are more prone to be lost. 6.09 MULTIPLE SURFACE TREATMENT A multiple surface treatment can produce a pavement thickness in the order of 13 to 19 mm (Y2 to % in.). Some extra reinforcement may be added with this type of treatment. If properly designed and constructed, double surface treatments give about three times the service life of a single surface treatment for about I Y2 times the construction cost. Because the cover stone for the second layer is smaller, loss of particles from a graded cover aggregate is greatly minimized. In a double surface treatment the largest size of stone in the first course determines the surface layer thickness. The second course serves to fill the voids in the mat of the first course aggregate. The extent to which these voids are filled determines the texture and riding quality of the surface treatment. One type of surface treatment known as "cape seal," involves application of a slurry seal to a newly-constructed surface treatment. Because this system does not have widespread usage, it is not presented in detail~ but refer to Table VI-6, Chapter VI, and Par 6.13. A good, long-lasting pavement can be produced by increasing the thickness with more surface treatments, either single or multiple, as traffic conditions demand.

-

48

6.10 SAND SEAL Sand seal is defined as a spray application of asphalt emulsion followed with a light covering of fine aggregate, such as clean sand or screenings. Although this is a rather simple operation, it can be useful in correcting a number of pavement flaws. The procedure involves an emulsion spray application. Usually, emulsion grades RS-I, CRS-I, MS-I or HFMS-I are used at a rate of about 0.68 to 0.90 litre/m 2 (0.15 to 0.20 galjyd 2). This is followed by about 5.5 to 8 kgjm2 (10 to 15lbjyd 2) of sand, or screenings cover. The sand seal is used primarily for the following purposes: a. To enrich a dry, weathered or oxidized surface. The sand seal will help prevent loss of material from the old surface by traffic abrasion. b. To prevent the intrusion of moisture and air. When an existing pavement surface begins to crack, moisture and air may pass into the underlying pavement structure thereby reducing its load carrying ability. A sand seal can provide a barrier to prevent this intrusion. c. To develop a skid-resistant surface texture. By selecting a sharp, angular fine aggregate, a highly skid-resistant surface can be provided. The sand may also be used to "soak up" spots of asphalt that have appeared on the surface because of an overly rich condition.

6.11 SLURRY SEAL A slurry seal is a mixture of well-graded fine aggregate, mineral filler (if needed), emulsified asphalt, and water applied to a pavement as a surface treatment. It is used in both the preventive and corrective maintenance of asphalt pavement surfaces. It does not, nor is it intended to, increase the structural strength of a pavement section. Any pavement that is structurally weak in localized areas should be repaired before applying the slurry seal. All ruts, humps, low pavement edges, crown deficiencies, waves, or other surface irregularities that diminish the riding quality should be corrected before placing the slurry seal. Slurry seal, when applied to the surface of an older pavement, can be used quite effectively. It will seal the surface cracks, stop raveling and loss of matrix, make open surfaces impermeable to air and water, and improve skid resistance. Its timely appl ication will help reduce surface distress caused by oxidation of the asphalt and embrittlement of the paving mixture. Slurry seal has a number of advantages: some are listed below: -Rapid application. -No loose cover aggregate. -Excellent surface texture for paint striping. --Ability to correct minor surface irregularities. -Minimum loss of curb height. -No need for manhole and other structure adjustments. - In many cases, the relatively low cost of the treatment makes it practical to import aggregates for special effects, such as high skid resistance, color contrast and noise reduction.

49

Figure VI-S.

Slurry seal machine.

Courtesy Slurry Seal Incorporated.

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0)

1\j!llrellate Bin Filler Bin AIlllrellate Flow Gate AIlllregate Conveyor Belt Emulsion Injector Water Injector Pugmill Spreader Box Slurry

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Figure VI-6.

Flow diagram of a typical slurry seal mixer.
Courtesy Scan Road , Inc.

50

as the first course in multicourse applications for heavy traffic. and to improve skid resistance. bins. It retards the set in cationic quick-set emulsions. Type I is used for maximum crack penetration. SS-lh. Type III is used to correct surface conditions. Continuously self-loading machines capable of mixing 15 lane miles per day of coarse slurry are in use in many regions of the United States. and uniform. It is usually used in low density traffic areas such as light aircraft airfields. It also discharges the thoroughly mixed materials on to the prepared surface. The aggregate used in slurry seal must be clean.25 percent water absorption is limited to not more than 50 percent of the total combined aggregate. The recently developed quick-setting (QS) asphalt emulsion is being used when early opening to traffic is necessary. Spreader boxes may be equipped with hydraulically-powered augers to keep the slurry in motion and help keep the mixture uniformly spread across the spreader box width. and loss of matrix. Emulsified asphalt used in the slurry mix may be SS-I. mineral filler (if required). The machine used for production of the slurry seal is a self-contained. The slurry machine has a continuous-flow mixing unit.03). It is used for moderate to heavy traffic. or CSS-lh. portland cement. depending upon the quality of aggregates available and the design. ASTM C 131 (AASHTO T 96) Grading C or D = 35 maximum. These are helpful when quick-set (QS) emulsion is used (refer to Article 2. It is almost always necessary to add a small amount of mineral filler-hydrated lime. to correct severe raveling. Certain basic features are common to all batch type slurry machines. The box is equipped with flexible squeegees and a device for adjustable width. They are truck-mounted units with separate storage tanks. water. Sometimes. aggregate and mineral filler. Type II is the most widely used gradation. parking areas. ASTM D 2419 (AASHTO T 176) = 45 minimum. or shoulders where the primary objective is sealing. One type of slurry mixer unit is depicted in the schematic drawing. Figure VI-5. continuous-flow mixing unit. Correct blending should produce a slurry with a creamy texture that will flow smoothly in a rolling wave ahead of the strike-off squeegee. a small amount of liquid or powdered additive is added to the asphalt emulsion to control the setting time of the slurry mixture. well graded. water.). oxidation. Also. Los Angeles abrasion loss. This additive starts the set in anionic quick-set emulsions. 51 . Also. Figure VI-6. Blending the slurry seal materials in varying proportions in the laboratory is a great aid in selecting the proper mixture.Sand equivalent value. homogenous mass with no emulsion runoff. from which the slurry is discharged into a spreader box. limestone dust. CSS-l. It is used to seal. The three generally accepted gradings used for slurry mixtures are shown in Table VI-2. It is capable of delivering accurately to the mixing chamber predetermined amounts of aggregate. This slurry should be a semifluid. the amount of smooth-textured sand of less than 1. and to impart skid resistance. durable. An individual aggregate or a blend of aggregates to be used in a slurry mix should meet these limits: . or fly ash-to aid in stabilizing and setting the slurry. and metering systems for emulsified asphalt. and asphalt emulsion. It comes directly from a traveling mixing plant into an attached spreader box that spreads the slurry by a squeegee-type action. Water used in the slurry should be potable and compatible with the mix. it makes an excellent pretreatment for hot-mix overlay or chip seal. either single or double pugmill. angular.The slurry is usually applied in a thickness of 3 to 6 mm (Vs to V4 in.

100) 75 flm (No.5mm Wain. highly textured surfaces General Usage Sieve Size 9.5 100 70-90 45-70 28-50 19-34 12-25 7-18 5-15 6.5-13. First. based on mass (weight) of dry aggregate 100 100 90-100 65-90 40-65 25-42 15-30 10-20 10-16 100 90-100 65-90 45-70 30-50 18-30 10-21 5-15 7.TABLE VI-2 Type of Slurry SLURRY MIXTURE GRADINGS* I Crack filling & fine seal II General seal.5-8(10-15) 8(15) or more * Recommended by International Slurry Seal Association. 16) 600 flm (No. the slurry should be removed from the pavement. After mix proportions have been determined in the laboratory it is always advisable to place one or more trial mixes. Aggregate flow should be determined for different gate openings and the amount of emulsion pumped per revolution of the aggregate feed belt. and other foreign matter. two-course slurry. Streaks. It should also be removed if coarser aggregate particles settle to the bottom of the mix.even when starting with a laboratory-determined mixture.4) 2. The trial sections serve a two-fold purpose. Just before applying the slurry.8) 1. such as those caused by oversized aggregate.18mm (No. mud spots. % Weight of dry aggregate Application Rate. should be repaired at once with a hand squeegee.) 4. It is best to make the joint after the: first placed lane is 52 . In this case. medium textured surfaces Percent Passing III 1st and or 2nd application. balling.36mm (No. A tack coat of diluted emulsified asphalt of the same type and grade specified for the slurry may be rC4uircd directly ahead of the slurry application. vegetation. If lumping. kg/m 2 (lb/yd 2 ). The surface should be damp but with no free water in front of the slurry machine. 50) 150 flm (No. It is often necessary to make several trial runs to find the best blend of materials . 200) Residual Asphalt Content. the tack coat may be omitted. 30) 300 flm (No.75mm (No. With relatively new asphalt pavements. Second. to see if the slurry mix proportions are right. the pavement surface should be cleaned of all dirt. the surfuce should be pre-wetted by water fogging.5(6-10) 5. This should be done either at the job site or in a location where small spreads of the slurry seal would not be objectionable. Special care must be taken with longitudinal and transverse joints to prevent excessive buildup of slurry (ridging) or to prevent streaking. or unmixed aggregate is observed. to calibrate the feeding and metering devices on the slurry machine. dust.5-12 3-5.

Hand squeegees and hand drags are used to improve joints and place the slurry in areas inaccessible to the machine. All of these are subject to power steering turns. Rolling can start as soon as clear water can be pressed out of the slurry mixture with a piece of paper. W. Rolling usually is not needed unless the thickness is more than 6 mm (V4 in. Washington. however. If circumstances require placing in a downhill direction. a 4. As with rolling. Quite often a drag is pulled behind the spreader box to improve the joint and overall surface appearance. For rolling. the slurry must be thickened to contain it from flowing ahead of the machine. A newly placed slurry should not be opened to traffic until it has completely cured.) or unless late season work is involved. 20036 "Recommended Guideline for Slurry Seal" Asphalt Emulsion Manufacturers Association 1133 Fifteenth Street. without discoloring the paper. Drags should be changed regularly. must be controlled somewhat as quick stops or accelerations and the turning of wheels while parked will cause damage to the slurry. and intersections of heavily traveled roads. D.5 tonne (5 ton) pneumatic roller with 345 kPa (50 psi) tire pressure will be most effective. one that will produce a slurry with a creamy texture that will flow smoothly in a rollaway wave inside the spreader box. PA 19103 "Recommended Performance Guidelines for Emulsified Asphalt Slurry Seal Surfaces" Al 05 International Slurry Seal Association 1101 Connecticut Avenue Washington. truck terminal yards. For good appearance and durability. On high crowned pavements or superelevated curves. of course. The traffic. Slurry should be placed only when the temperature is at least 10°C (50°F) and rising and when no rain is expected. Rolling a slurry seal is only needed in those areas where pneumatic-tired rolling will improve durability. N. slurry should be diverted to the high side of the spreader box. or acceleration forces. braking.C. as tearing and scarring may result. traffic generally can be allowed on the slurry as soon as a clear water can be pressed out of the slurry mixture with a piece of paper without discoloring the paper. Gravity will keep the low side filled. D. a joint should not be made when the lane to be joined is only partially set.either completely cured or is stilI in a semi-fluid condition. traffic will iron out the slurry and close any hairline cracks of dehydration. runways. In most cases. It is especially important to get a good homogenous mix. A non-homogenous mixture will cause an asphalt rich surface and many ensuing problems. On flat grades. 20005 53 . C. Such areas include taxiways. For slurry seal design the following sources are recommended: ASTM D 3910 "Standard Practices for Design. Spreading slurry in hilly areas is easier if the slurry machine travels in an uphill direction. slurry in the spreader box must be kept at a uniform thickness. Testing and Construction of Slurry Seal" American Society for Testing and Materials 1916 Race Street Philadelphia.

arranging the aggregate so that it fills the pan in the densest condition anticipated to exist in the field after the surface treatment has been subjected to traffic. Determine the mass (weight) of the aggregate required. In order to do this it is necessary to have a good visual image ofthe finished product. in kilograms per square metre (pounds per square yard.) With the aggregate carefully arranged as described. These usually involve determining the average least dimension. Measure this volume of water and use approximately two-thirds of that volume as the asphalt quantity required (adjusted. After compaction and considerable traffic. the particles will become oriented into their densest position with about 20 percent voids between the particles. x 1 in. a rather simple way of determining the quantity of aggregate is simply to spread the aggregate to be used over an area of I square metre (I yd 2). SURFACE TREATMENT DESIGN 6. as this will also allow determination of the asphalt quantity. Because of the meniscus effect of the residual asphalt left on the aggregate upon the evaporation of the water when emulsified asphalt is used. but not so much that it will bleed. Table VI-3 is presented. The quantities and types of materials may be varied according to local conditions and experience. The suggested quantities of asphalt cover the average range of conditions that include primed granular bases and old pavement surfaces. of course. by Note 3 of Table VI-3). This table gives a range of asphalt and aggregate applications with respect to the specific size of aggregate being used.12 SINGLE SURFACE TREATMENTS When a decision has been made that a surface treatment is to be used. the residual asphalt can be reduced to 55 to 60 percent of the voids between the aggregates under average conditions. and that mass (weight) will be the spread rate of the aggregate. Place aggregate in the pan carefully by hand. When a one-sized cover aggregate is dropped by a spreader on an asphalt film the particles will lie in an unarranged position. Rather than herein presenting a complex means of making these determinations. the voids in the cover aggregate and the bulk specific gravity. A typical design will call for 70 percent of the voids filled. A pan I x I metre x 25 mm (3 x 3 ft.C. There are several theoretical procedures for determining the quantity of cover aggregate. The objective is to produce a pavement surface one stone thick with enough asphalt to hold the aggregate in place. fill the pan with water until the surface of the water comes just to the top of the aggregate. However. coupled with laboratory testing. are usually employed in determining the required quantities of asphalt and aggregate. the next step is to find the proper rates of application for asphalt emulsion and aggregate.) deep is suggested. Mathematical calculations. It is desirable to fill these voids about two-thirds to three-fourths full with asphalt. 54 .

-slightly pocked. 16) Sanel Size No.30-0.. 55 . The quantities and types of materials may be varied according to local conditions and experience.... Absorbent -slightly porous. non-porous ... RS-2....27 0.4 to No. 2The mass (weight) of aggregate shown in the table is based on aggregate with a specific gravity of 2....4-2. oxidized ....20-0... 6 7 8 9 AASHTO M-6 Type and Grade of Asphalt RS-2.. oxidized .06) (0.6 (0...65....7-0.. to No..45) 0.5mm (% to 3/a in. . to No.75 to 1..8) 4.. . CRS-2 RS-1.27 DAD **This correction must be made from observations at the jobsite....01 to -0.3 (0.. 3ft is important to E'djust the asphalt content for the condition of the road...0 (0...50) 1......00) (0. 18mm (No... MS-1 CRS-1..15) Line 1 2 3 4 5 Nominal Size of Aggregate 19..00 0. CRS-1 .40-0. CRS-2 RS-1... The higher application rates should be used for aggregate having gradations on the coarse side of the specified limits. increasing it if the road is absorbent.9-1....... HFMS-1 RS-1..75..09) Black. ....8-2.0t09.36mm (3fa in.5t04. -0. -badly pocked..20) 0.55 or higher than 2. badly cracked.7 (0. the amount shown in the table above should be multiplied by the ratio that the bulk specific gravity of the aggregate used bears to 2.... CRS-2 RS-1... Texture Correction** Iitre/m2 (gal/yd 2 ) (-0.RS-2. oxidized . and decreasing it if the road is "fat" with flushed asphalt...15-0.06) (0..9 (0.....5t02.4) 9. porous...04 to -0.... Smooth...... lThe lower application rates of asphalt shown in the above table should be used for aggregate having gradations on the fine side of the specified limits. CRS-1 .10-0.14 0... flushed asphalt . In case the specific gravity of the aggregate used is lower than 2.03) (0......TABLE VI-3 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE FOR SINGLE SURFACE TREATMENTS AND SEAL COATS.. or coarSI~..5-0. . HFMS-1 *These quantities of asphalt cover the average range of conditons that Include primed granular bases and old pavement surfaces. ... MS-1 CRS-1.* 123 Quantity of Aggregate kg/m 2 (lb/yd 2) 22-27 (40-50) 14-16 (25-30) 11-14 (20-25) 8-11 (15-20) 5-8 (10-15) Quantity of Asphalt 11m2 (gal/yd 2) 1..75mm (112 in. porous.35) 0..65..) 12...

8) 4.75mm (% in. it is important that the surface treatment be placed as a single course only.60) 19. For each succeeding course the nominal top size of cover stone should be not more than one-half the size of that for the previously placed course. No allowance is made for wastage.75to 1.8) 1S.3 (0.20-0.50-0.18mm (No. the first course of cover aggregate generally determines the thickness. In a triple surface treatment.50) 1. Also.9-1.] The term "Cape Seal" is attributed to the Cape Provincial Administration of South Africa.9mm (%") Thick 1st Application* 2nd Application 7 9 1. The most critical element to avoid in a Cape Seal is an excess of slurry. [See Tables VI-4 and VI-5.36mm (3fs in to No.13 MULTIPLE SURFACE TREATMENTS There are several arbitrary design methods for multiple surface treatments. 8 9 Quantity of Aggregate kg/m 2 (lb/yd 2 ) 14-19 (25-35) 5-8 (10-15) 16-22 (30-40) 8-11 (15-20) 22-27 (40-45) 11-14 (20-25) 11m2 (gal/yd 2) 0.4 (0. 16) 12.40) 1. during which time regular brooming should occur to remove loose cover material or other foreign material that would prevent the adherence of the slurry.35-0. In order to have a successful Cape Seal project beyond following standard surface treatment and slurry seal specifications and methods. Asphalt quantities for each course are added together and 40 percent of the total should be applied for the first application and 60 percent for the second application in a double surface treatment.18mm (No.5t02.0t09.5mm (3f4 to 3fs in.] TABLE VI-4 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE PER SQUARE METRE (SQUARE YARD) FOR DOUBLE SURFACE TREATMENT Quantity of Asphalt Nominal Size of Aggregate Size No.36mm We in. [See Table VI-6.5 to 2.4-1. each course is designed as though it is a single surface treatment.30) 1. 16) 19.06) 56 .30-0.3-2.6-2.30-0040) 12. as this can destroy the desired knobby surface texture.7 (0.4 to No. In the method described here.) 9. In multiple surface treatments. A Cape Seal can be defined as a single layer surface treatment (chipseal) followed by an emulsion mix slurry seal. no correction is made for underlying surface texture.4 to No.8-2.3 (0.0mm (3f4") Thick 1st Application * 2nd Application 6 8 * If applied on untreated granular (stone) base use penetrating prime in lieu of emulsions (See Par.8 (0.6.Smm (%") Thick 1st Application* 2nd Application 9.4-1.75to 1. to No. 40 percent for the second application and 30 percent for the third application. 8. 30 percent of the total should be applied for the first application. Subsequent courses partially fill the upper voids in the previously placed courses.5t04.4) 4.50) 2. to No.40-0. after the first course.8 (0. A cure time of four to ten days between placement of the surface treatment and subsequent slurry seal application should also be provided for.

20-0. 8 9 10 Quantity of Asphalt 11m2 (gal/yd 2 ) 0..36mm (% in.4 to No.) 9.4) Slurry Seal Type I (See Par.30) 0.75mm (% in. 6.0mm (3f4") Thick 1st Application· 2nd Application 3rd Application 6 8 9 11-14 (20-30) 5-8 (10-15) • If applied on untreated granular (stone) base use penetrating prime in lieu of emulsions (See Par.06) TABLE VI-6 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE PER SQUARE METRE (SQUARE YARD) FOR CAPE SEAL Llm 2-Asphalt (gal/yd2) Kg/m 2-Slurry Mixture (lbs.5 to 4.8) 4.30-0.4-1. CRS-2) Cover Aggregate ASTM or AASHTO Size No.4 to No.5 (6-10) 57 .5t04.6 (0.4-1.40) 1..18mm (No.4 (0./yd2) 12.36mm (% in.6 (0.8 (0./yd 2) 1. 75mm (W'toNo.4 . 7 12..30) 1.20-0.20-0.5 to 2.8) 4.35) 12. 16) 15.TABLE VI-5 QUANTITIES OF ASPHALT AND AGGREGATE PER SQUARE METRE (SQUARE YARD) FOR TRIPLE SURFACE TREATMENT (ARMORCOAT) Quantity of Aggregate kg/m 2 (lb/yd 2 ) 14-19 (25:35) 5-8 (10-15) 5-8 (10-15) 16-22 (30-40) 8-11 (15-20) 5-8 (10-15) 19-25 (35-45) Nominal Size of Aggregate Size No.0t09.5 to 2. 16) 4.8 (0.25-0.11) Kg/m2-Aggregate (lbs.6 (0.30) 1.2.35) 0.75 to 1.25-0.4 (0.9-1.5mm (%") Thick 1st Application· 2nd Application 3rd Application 9.25-0.5mm (% ..20-0.40) 0.18mm (No.1-1.0 (0.35) 1.4) 9. 8.4 (0. 16) 19.4 to No.m (No. to No. to No.9mm (5fs") Thick 1st Application· 2nd Application 3rd Application 7 8 9 19.1 00) 12.30-0.30) 1.5mm (%to%in.1-1.9-1.36mm (% in to No.30-0.8) 4. to No.75to 1.5 to 2. ) Thick Emulsion (RS-2.9-1.18mm (No.4 (0. 75mm to 150.4 to No.9-1.45) 14-16 (25-30) 3-5.1-1.75 to 1.

The distributor tank normally has a capacity of 3.). 6.14 GENERAL The equipment used for surface treatment construction is a major contributor to the quality of the finished product.Figure VI-7. The tank is also equipped with one or more heaters that can be used to bring the emulsified asphalt to spray application temperature. breakdown. A hand spray is included to apply the emulsion to areas that cannot be reached with the spray bar. Its function is to apply uniformly the asphalt emulsion over a surface at the specified rate. Premature breaking of the emulsion may occur if heater temperatures are too high. Extreme care should be taken in the use of these heaters.) in a single pass.52 radians (15 to 30 deg.15 THE ASPHALT DISTRIBUTOR The most important piece of equipment used in surface treatment construction is the asphalt distributor. The distributor consists of either a truck-mounted or trailer-mounted insulated tank with controls for setting the rate at which the asphalt is applied. Asphalt emulsion distributor. depending on the pump capacity. Pressure generated when a noncirculating or un-bypassed spray bar is shut off can cause the emulsion to break and plug the unit with asphalt. EQUIPMENT 6. is from 0. It should be kept in proper adjustment and good operating condition by routine maintenance and frequent inspection for excessive wear. The best results usually are achieved with an exact double coverage. wind distortion of the spray fans may occur. D. If the heaters are to be used. the spray bar must be set and maintained at the proper height above the pavement surface.) see Figure VI-8. The recommended angle. If it is set too high. Etnyre Co.26 to 0. To ~nsure uniformity of spread. At the back end of the tank is a system of spray bars and nozzles.800 litres (800 to 5. Courtesy E. measured from the spray bar axis. A brief description of the major equipment items is contained in the following articles. Attached to the tank is a circulating system that includes the spray bar unit.000 to 20. D. The spray bars cover widths of 3 to 9 m (10 to 30 ft. the emulsion should be circulating in the tank while heat is applied and excessive temperatures in the heaters should not be allowed.500 gal. The angle of the long axis of the nozzle openings must be adjusted so that the spray fans will not interfere with each other. Through this system the asphalt is forced under pressure on to the surface of the road. and calibration. but triple coverage can sometimes be used with spray bars with 58 . Figure VI -7. Two extremely important adjustments are the spray nozzle angle setting and spray bar height.

And the third is a bitumeter with an odometer that indicates the number of metres (feet) per minute and the total distance traveled. The application rate can then be found by the equation below. S. kg/m2 (lb/yd2) M = temperature-volume correction factor. Appendix C. Proper nozzle angle setting. Despite the rather precise controls on the distributor it is always advisable to check the rate of application in the field. Three controls are standard equipment on most distributors.26 TO 0.) s -SPRAY BAR AXIS Figure VI-S.52 RADIANS (15 TO 30 DEQ. a sheet of heavy paper or cardboard can be used. The tray is weighed and placed on the surface to be sprayed. ~- NOZZLE ANGLE SETTING. Customary (R = 0. One is a valve system that governs the flow of material. see Table C-l. yd. litre/m2 (gallyd2) w = weight of emulsified asphalt on tray.100 mm (4 in.) in area. Another is a pump tachometer or pressure gauge that registers pump output. Metric R = wM U. Spray bar height must be set exactly for proper coverage. 0.12wM) where R = application rate. This can be done with a shallow metal tray exactly one square metre (1 sq. If a tray is not available.S. The difference between the two is the mass (weight) of the emulsified asphalt.) nozzle spacing. SINGLE COVERAGE DOUBLE COVERAGE TRIPLE COVERAGE Figure VI-g. the tray is lifted and weighed again. 59 . Immediately after the distributor has passed.l. Figure VI-9 illustrates the heights of the spray bar necessary to achieve these coverages.

Figure VI-IO. Inc. Figure VI-II. Hopper type tailgate spreader. Figure VI-11. Tailgate vane spreader.~16AGGREGATESPREADERS The aggregate spreader is second only to the asphalt distributor in the order of importance of surface treatment equipment.S. Another is a truck-mounted hopper with a feed roller activated by small wheels driven by the the truck wheels. Spreaders range from the simple vane type attached to a truck tail gate to the highly efficient self-propelled type.A. In Figure VI-10. 60 . Tail gate spreaders are usually one of two types. One is a steel plate to which is attached a series of vanes to provide coverage across the lane. Its function is to apply a uniform aggregate cover at a specified rate. Courtesy Chevron U.

The required equipment can be very simple. The truck-attached spreader contains an auger and a roughened spread roll in the hopper that ensures a positive. with minimum stopping to change aggregate trucks. This prevents the freshly applied asphalt from: being picked up by the truck's tires. In both types. the truck backs to spread the stone. One difference is that the self-propelled spreader contains a scalping screen over the aggregate receiving hopper. the aggregate is dumped from a truck into a receiving hopper for spreading. and may consist only of several sheets of canvas each being exactly one square metre (square yard). and a bathroom scale. over which the cover aggregate passes that drops the larger particles into the asphalt film first. uniform feed of material. This system ensures that the larger particles are embedded in the asphalt enough to hold them in place while the fines fall onto the larger particles. the gate opening and aggregate spreader speed required to apply the cover stone at the specified rate per square metre (square yard) can be quickly determined. Mechanical spreaders are either truck-attached (Figure VI-12) or self-propelled (Figure VI-l3). another is a sloped screen. followed by the finer particles which fall through the screen. By making several runs at different speeds and gate openings over the sheets of canvas. Each has a built-in distribution system to ensure a uniform spread of the aggregate across the entire lane width.each case. 61 . Mechanical aggregate spreaders contain hoppers mounted on pneumatic tires. The self-propelled unit has a similar feed mechanism. and carefully weighing the aggregate on each canvas sheet. Mechanical self-propelled aggregate spreaders should be calibrated to apply the quantity of cover stone indicated by the design requirements for any given project. The self-propelled unit has the advantage of being able to follow closely behind the asphalt distributor.

A Inc. 62 .Figure VI-12. Courtesy Chevron U. Truck-attached mechanical spreader. Courtesy Chevron U. Figure VI-13. Self-propelled mechanical spreader.A. Inc.S.S.

after pneumatic-tired rolling. one or two steel-tired roller passes. Pneumatic-tired roller.6. With multiple surface treatments. Rolling presses the cover material into the asphalt binder. thereby promoting better adhesion. For single surface treatments. 63 . will help produce a smoother surface. produce best results. Figure VI-14. The tires are able to press into small depressions to seat the particles. They force the aggregate firmly into the asphalt binder without crushing the particles. Steel-tired rollers tend to bridge over such depressions.17 ROLLERS Unless the cover stone is properly embedded in the asphalt film there is a danger that some may be lost through traffic abrasion. Figure VI-14. pneumatic-tired rollers.

The usual order is as follows: 64 . rate of aggregate cover. but if one is not available a rotary power broom should be used. A power street sweeper.18 POWER BROOM Unless the surface to be covered is completely clean. Figure VI-1S. It is therefore necessary to clean the whole surface before spraying the asphalt emulsion. and result in a non-uniform surface. Power sweepers or brooms are also used to remove loose particles after the treatment is completed. Frequent stops and starts may cause variations in asphalt spray distribution. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE 6. Power sweeper. is recommended to pick up both dust and loose particles.6. 6. Flushing with water may be necessary when brooms are used. E. Figure VI-IS.20 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS The sequence of operations is basically the same for all types of surface treatment construction.19 TRUCKS Enough trucks must be available to ensure that the operation can proceed without interruption. to meet clean air standards. or both. the asphalt may not adhere to the pavement.

The required quantity of asphalt emulsion should also be stored at the job site. Clean surface to be covered with rotary broom or other approved means. Spread cover aggregate at specified rate immediately behind the asphalt spray application (emulsion still brown in color) to achieve maximum possible chip wetting. If not. 6.I.21 PREPARATION The project engineer should be certain that all equipment has been inspected and is in proper working order before construction begins. 2. Figure VI-16. to permit continuous spreading operations. Also. Etnyre Co. 65 . steps 3 through 5 should be repeated once or twice. D. or scheduled for delivery at proper intervals. If a double or triple surface treatment is required. 4. an adequate traffic control plan should be developed. Figure VI-16 shows a proper surface treatment operation. An adequate supply of aggregate should be available on the job site. Surface treatment operation. Roll aggregate cover to seat particles in asphalt membrane. Spray asphalt emulsion binder at specified rate and proper temperature (Table VI-I). Patch potholes and r~pair damaged areas in existing pavement. 3. Courtesy E. delivery arrangements should be scheduled at proper intervals to prevent delays in construction. 5.

(gauge stick reading before spread)--(gauge stick reading after spread) W = Width of spread. This can be done quite simply by using the formula shown below. The emulsion selected should break just after the first roller pass has been made. And that the spreader. good cover aggregate retention when the surface treatment is opened to traffic.- TM WL WL where R = Rate of application.23 CHECKING APPLICATION RATE Checks on the rate of application of emulsified asphalt should be made after each run with the distributor.S. The reason being the emulsified asphalt may not break properly in cold temperatures and the asphalt will not satisfactorily retain the cover aggregate. This assumes that the roller is following as closely as possible behind the aggregate spreader. wet weather. is maintained immediately behind the asphalt distributor. m (ft) M = Multiplier for correcting asphalt volume to basis of 15. Customary R = 9TM --. inferior pavements may result unless fixed guidelines are strictly followed. or construction during bad weather. This sequence should result in good wetting of the cover aggregate by the asphalt emulsion and the development of satisfactory adhesion between the emulsion and cover aggregate-also.e. Best results will be obtained if the air temperature is at least lOoC (50°F) in the shade and rising. Some specifications require that the temperature of the road surface be above 27°C (80°F) before an asphalt spray application can be applied. An attempt at short cuts.. 6. m (ft) L = Length of spread.6°C (60°F) (from Table C-l in Appendix C). S1.6. The water may cause a loss of the partly cured emulsion from the cover aggregate. litre/m2 (gal/yd 2) T = Total litres (gallons) spread from the distributor at spraying temperature. The use of this formula requires that the number of litres (gallons) of asphalt sprayed be known along with the length and width of the spread. or when rain is threatening.22 PRECAUTIONS Most problems with surface treatments are caused by failure to adhere to common-sense construction practices. Surface treatment operations should not be carried out during periods of cold. in tum. will probably result in increased maintenance. Surface treatments should not be constructed in the rain. i. A simple rule of thumb can be cited when rapid-setting emulsions are used for surface treatments. Metric R =- U. 66 . Even when the highest quality aggregates and asphalt emulsions are used.

Aggregate constitutes about 90 to 95 percent by weight of an emulsion mixture. Emulsified asphalt and aggregate mix design methods are descrihed in Part Three of this manual.Value. Another one. After determining the R. A wide variety of types and gradations can be used successfully for both hot and cold mixes. good design procedures.Value. One that is gaining widespread usage is the resilient modulus. as in any other type of construction operation. 7. in general use. and evaluation of the completed pavement structure are in no way diminished when using an asphalt emulsion. Responsibility for proper materials evaluation. This test is performed with the Hveem Stahilometer using 1103 kPa (160 psi) maximum vertical pressure. In this case the test results are related to the displacement of the specimen under various conditions of loading and pressure.Value.03 AGGREGATE REQUIREMENTS Discussion in previous chapters on testing is largely directed toward the base asphalt cement and properties of the finished emulsion. including Marshall Stability and split tension tests. engineers considered emulsion-aggregate mixes to be of inferior quality compared to hot-plant mixes made with asphalt cement. Still another test used for evaulation of stability or bearing capacity is the measurement of a stabilometer S. secondary roads with low traffic loads. They can be used in the whole range of pavement systems from light duty to heavy duty. R. Development work has been done on asphalt emulsion-aggregate mix design using several other procedure~.02 STRENGTH TE~TS Several strength tests are availahlc as tools to evaluatc the structural contribution of the mix to a pavcment section. Figure VII-J lists some major uses of emulsified asphalt mixes along with some suggested design requirements.01 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS Until recent years. is a stability or hearing capacity test (except for open-graded mixes) that measures resistance.CHAPTER VII ASPHALT EMULSION . There was a common misconception that emulsion mixes can be used only on low volume. For acceptable results. the Hveem Stabilometer is used in this test. all involved must follow good engineering practice in every detail. But 67 . Characteristics of the aggregate in any emulsion-aggregate mixture are equally important to good results. Again.AGGREGATE MIXES 7. adherence to established construction practices. Advances in technology make it possible for emulsion mixes to perform as well as other types of asphalt mixes. such is not the case. MR test. 7. the same test specimen is evaluated for cohesion.

Subbase Must meet Resistance Rt Value of 60 minimum.5 to 8%. 68 .5 to 8%.As a construction aid Must meet user agency base requ irements. Major uses of emulsified asphalt mixes. Inc. Drainage 0. Field Density should be 95% of laboratory density.S.5% asphalt maximum.0 to 15% depending on aggregate gradation. Typical emulsified asphalt contents 6. As a temporary Wearing Surface Must meet Resistance Rt Value of 78 minimum plus minimum 50 cohesiometer value at room temperature (Initial Cure) and 100 (Final Cure).5 to 10%. Resilient Modulus and mix void data used to determine lift thickness. Mix Type Must meet minimum requirements as above.5% maximum (where applicable). Courtesy Chevron U. Usual emulsified asphalt range 5. 2-3% emulsified asphalt generally used.Cohesiometer C-value 100 minimum. both measured at 60°C (140°F). Typical emulsified asphalt range 4.0 to 10%.A. Typical emulsified asphalt range 5. To reduce pavement thickness 'v Open-Graded Base and Surface Mixes The mix must not have emulsion run off or be washed off by water. Upgrading marginal aggregate to quality of untreated granular base Must meet Resistance Rt Value of 70 minimum (Initial Cure) and 78 minimum (Final Cure) after vacuum saturation. Figure VII-1. Usual emulsified asphalt range 4. Dense-Graded Wearing Surface Use highest emulsion content consistent with Stabilometer S-value of 30 minimum .5 to 8%. Usual emulsified asphalt range 4. Washoff 0.

4) 19.5 to 19. Weight Percent 63mm (2-1/2 in.5 mm (1 to 112 in.75mm (1/2 in. Nominal Size (Sieves with Square Openings) 50mm (2 in.37.5 to 2.8) 9.) - - 90 to 100 20 to 55 95 to 100 100 100 o to 15 35 to 70.75mm (3/4 in.) 25.8) 12.5 to 4.) 12.0 to 4.36mm (3/8 in.5 to 2. to No. .75mm (No.0 mm (2 to 1 in.0mm (1 in.75mm (2 in. to No. to No.8) 1.0 to 12. to No.) 19.) 4.36mm (1/2 in. to No.8) --- 100 - -.0 to 2.0mm (1-1/2 to 3/4 in.) 9.0 100 o to 10 25 to 60 Oto 5 - - - - o to 10 o to 5 Oto 5 - - 90 to 100 20 to 55 90 to 100 90 to 100 100 100 o to 15 20 to 55 30 to 65 - -- - - o to 10 o to 5 5to 25 - o to 10 Oto 5 7 78 8 - 90 to 100 40 to 70 90 to 100 40 to 75 100 o to 15 5to 25 - o to 10 o to 10 o to 5 o to 5 - - 85 to 100 10 to 30 . to No.75mm (1-112 in.4) 25.5mm (3/4 to 318 in.--~ - o to 5 10 to 30 467 -- 37. to No.4) 19.5mm (3/8 in. 16) 3 357 50 to 25.4) 100 100 90 to 100 35 to 70 95 to 100 100 - o to 15 35 to 70 - o to 5 10 to 30 - - -- - - o to 5 - 4 .0 to 9.5 to 4.36mm (3/4 in.0 to 4.) 25. o to 5 - o to 5 5 57 6 67 68 90 to 100 20 to 55 95 to 100 100 19 -.) 37. to No.) 50 to 4.) 19.4) 2.4) 12.) Size No.5mm (1-112 in.0mm (314 in.36mm (No.. -- .75mm (1 in.5mm (1/2 in.TABLE VII-1 COARSE AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES (ASTM 0692) Amounts Finer Than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings).18mm (No.

18mm (No. 7. Many of the gradings are intended for local aggregates alone.75mm (No. or with a minimum of imported materials.TABLE VII-2 FINE AGGREGATES FOR ASPHALT PAVING MIXTURES (ASTM 0 1073) Amounts Finer Than Each Laboratory Sieve (Square Openings). Percent by Weight Sieve Size Grading No.4) 2. In such cases the use of fine aggregate not conforming to the grading requirements of this specification may be authorized only under special provisions based on field experience or laboratory studies of the possibility of designing a mixture of materials to be used on the job that will yield asphalt paving mixtures equivalent in quality to the job mix requirements.1 9. In several of the following sections.Lm (No. 30) 300f.1 00) 75f. partial drying of the aggregate may be required to attain the optimum moisture content for mixing. workability.Lm (No. and durability requirements.05 TRIAL MIXES It is essential that trial mixes be made in the laboratory with the actual aggregates to determine the type and grade of asphalt emulsion that will be used on the project. 7. well-graded mixtures. 200) Note - Grading NO. skid resistance.04 AGGREGATE TESTS Standard test procedures are used to evaluate aggregate properties. Compatibility of the aggregate with the asphalt emulsion is more critical than in a standard plant mix using asphalt cement. The mineral composition of the aggregate can have a significant bearing on field performance. 16) 600f. gradation ranges are suggested for specific mixtures. certain standards must be maintained if the mixtures are to meet stability.Lm (No. The mineral aggregates should be tested by the m~thods in Table VII-3. Tables VII-l and VII-2 contain ranges for standard mixture designations.36mm (No. flexibility. workability. 70 .Lm (No. and compaction. Alternatively. Others are intended to produce carefully controlled.8) 1.5mm (3/8 in. Moisture in the stockpiled aggregates should also be considered in the design of cold mixes because it may have some effect on the coatability. it is necessary that trial mixes be prepared in the laboratory. An optimum asphalt emulsion content should be found to allow for the water that will evaporate from the emulsion.3 Grading N04 100 80t0100 65 to 100 40 to 80 20t065 7t040 2t020 Oto 10 100 95 to 100 70 to 100 40 to 80 20 to 65 7t040 2t020 Oto 10 100 95 to 100 85 to 100 65 to 90 30 to 60 5t025 Ot05 It is recognized for certain purposes satisfactory results may be obtained with materials not conforming to this specification. 50) 150f.) 4. For this reason.

fine and coarse aggregates Sieve analysis of mineral filler Abrasion of coarse aggregates Los Angeles Machine Plastic fines in graded aggregates and soils by use of the Sand Equivalent Test C 117 C 29 C 136 0546 C 131 AASHTO T 11 T 19 T 27 T 37 T96 02419 T 176 7.06 ASPHALT SELECTION Although general guidelines for emulsified asphalt selection are presented in Chapter .TABLE VII-3 AGGREGATE EVALUATION PROCEDURES Method of Test Characteristics ASTM Amou01t of material finer than 7511m (No. firmness. Also.) some personal judgment must be used.07 STABILIZA nON The Transportation Research Board defines stabilization as "the modification of soils or aggregates by incorporating materials that will increase load bearing capacity. The decision must take into account 'Characteristics of the asphalt residue and curing rate of the emulsion. A. 71 . 200) Sieve in aggregate Unit weight of aggregate Sieve analysis.V. and resistance to weathering or displacement." Soil stabilization with asphalt emulsion is particularly adaptable to stage construction where additional courses may be needed to meet increased traffic demands. the type of pavement and the specific construction conditions have a bearing on asphalt selection. The emulsion serves as an excellent cementing and waterproofing agent. MIXED-IN-PLACE 7.

coastal.Traffic conditions (from both the design and construction viewpoint).Whether imported or in-place aggregate is to be used. ..Climatic conditions. remote . 7..Whether the work will be done by contract or force account. . mountainous.08 FACTORS TO CONSIDER The stabilization operation can be a simple process where the asphalt elllulsion and aggregate are mixed-in-place by a traveling mixer. . .16. The best balance between these various considerations must be worked out.. structural section of the pavement.Type of available construction equipment.. proper mixing and coating for stabilization depends on the proper amount of pre-wetting water on the aggregate.. Type of pavement. It may also involve the more sophisticated batch or continuous central mix plant as described in Par. Aggregate type and gradation. 72 .. Volume of win~Q~.B . the aggregates can be accurately blended with the plant'S hopper system.-.j c Figure VII-2.09 BLENDING IMPORTED AGGREGATE A laboratory evaluation should be made to determine if blending of an imported aggregate will be necessary. 104------.. If a travel plant or mixed-in-place operation is to be used and it is necessary to combine an imported aggregate. and size of the project. source. rural. To obtain the specified final gradation. ). The windrows are then mixed together thoroughly and windrowed again before the emulsified asphalt is added.. .7. and cost. separate windrows of the two materials should be constructed. If a central mix plant is to be used. Some of the factors that must be considered in determining which method to use include: ...--1--+--r-. total mix mass (tonnage).. With some types of emulsion.Project location (urban. A r. the volume of each windrow must be carefully calculated and maintained (Figure VII-2). 7. availability.

determine the volume of aggregate in the windrow: Va = where: (A +2B)C x metres (feet) 3 (1) volume of aggregate in windrow. S. 1) Wa = loose unit weight of dry aggregate. the mass (weight) relationships shown above are approximate and should be used only for general estimating purposes. Customary 8.C. with regard to coating. they must be computed on the basis oftaboratory tests on the specific product.7. The following formulas can be used to find the emulsified asphalt application rate and forward speed of the mixer or distributor: First. Refer to Appendix C for weight and volume relations and temperature-volume corrections.3 I~. (or U.~ ~ (Ib ) ~ I ()() al f kg litre . Most important. 73 .(refer to ASTM Test Method C 29. m m (ft ) ft 3 A. (2) where: Ab = application rate of emulsified asphalt litre (gal) m ft Va = volume of aggregate in windrow (see Eq. even for the same type and grade. The amount of water to produce best results. find the application rate: Cft).B. = dimension of windrow. m Then.6°C (60°F). The approximate data shown above are for materials at lS. Appendix E or AASHTO Test Method T 19) Pb = design percent of emulsified asphalt by dry weight of aggregate in the mixture expressed as decimal Wb ~ weight of emulsified asphalt. the optimum application rate of the emulsified asphalt must be determined. must be determined in the laboratory. Where more precise data are required. *NOTE: As the specific gravity of asphalt materials varies. (Figure VII-2). ~~ G~) .10 APPLICATION RATES FOR MIXED-IN-PLACE It is probable that some mixing water must be sprayed on the aggregate in the windrow.

va = (A + B)C 2 x metres (feet) va = (2. Then.30m (1.2 ft) wide at the base is to be mixed with 7.4 litre/m (5. = 2. is S= S EL Ab = i:'.68x 1~gxO.075 = 73. Needed is the total emulsified asphalt application rate and the forward speed of the mixer. and 2.0m (6. m ft min (min ) Dp = pump discharge rate.5 ft) wide at the top. 2. EXAMPLEA windrow of dry aggregate .0 ft) high.35 ft3/ft) Ab = 0. assuming a constant asphalt pump discharge.0 .5 percent by weight of MS-2 emulsified asphalt.7 rnImin (8. 74 . the forward speed of the mixer.99 gal/ft).2.5) 0.98 gal/ft) Asphalt application rate per pass = 731.8 ftlmin).68 m3/m (7. Wa . is 1 440kg/m 3 (90 Ib/ft 3). Pb' The loose unit weight of the aggregate.5m (8.4 gal/min). Ab lit~e (g~l) mm mm litre (gal) m ft = emulsified asphalt application rate.To determine forward speed: where: S = forward speed of mixture or distributor. D p ' of 100 litre/min (26.4 = 36. One-half of the emulsified asphalt is to be applied in each of two passes of a rotary mixer equipped with a spraying system.3 xl 2 = 0. 7litre/m (2.

One that moves through a prepared aggregate windrow on the roadbed. properly coated. Irrespective of the type of equipment used. the purpose of the travel plant is to leave a uniform. There are two general types of travel plants: 1. 2.7. See Figure VII-3. Travel plant. Figure VII-3. On others the proportioning system is keyed to the travel speed of the mixer. Figure VII-4. picks up the material. and spreads the mix to the rear as it moves forward on the roadbed. 11 TRAVEL PLANTS Travel plants are self-propelled pugmill plants that proportion and mix aggregates and emulsified asphalt in-place as they move along the road. On some types the proportioning devices are interlocked to ensure a constant emulsified asphalt-aggregate blend. emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture on the roadbed. 75 . adds and mixes the emulsified asphalt as it moves forward and discharges at the rear of the machine a mixed windrow ready for aeration and spreading. windrow type. adds and mixes emulsified asphalt. One that receives aggregate into its hopper from a haul truck.

Travel plant. These blades serve a two-fold purpose.Figure VII-4. 7. The chamber is open at the bottom and has a width of about 2. cutting the in-place material 76 . Courtesy Midland Machinery Co.1 metres (7 feet). Inside are one or more transverse rotating shafts on which are mounted tines or cutting blades. Figure VII-5.12 ROTARY MIXERS A rotary type mixer consists of a mobile mixing chamber mounted on a self-propelled machine. Inc. hopper type..

while not as efficient as the previously described systems. the amount sprayed being governed by the forward speed of the unit. Rotary mixers may be used to cut and scarify the roadbed materials (either old pavement or new aggregate) without the introduction of asphalt emulsion. They also may be used for aeration. In some mixers it comes through a spray bar that extends across the mixer chamber. As the machine moves forward it strikes off the freshly-mixed material to a predetermined level. The emulsified asphalt can be introduced either of two ways. Rotary mixer. The emulsified asphalt is applied by a distributor on a flattened windrow of imported or scarified in-place material immediately ahead of the motor grader.13 BLADE MIXING Blade mixing. With the second method an asphalt distributor sprays the emulsion on the aggregates ahead of the mobile mixer. it requires experienced operators. The materials are drawn into the mixing chamber as the machine moves forward. is perhaps the least complicated of all mixing methods. pulvimixer type. Even so.Figure VII-5. to a specified depth and mixing it with the emulsified asphalt. Scarifiers or plow attachments on the motor grader aid in breaking up the material in the 77 . Figure VII-6. The blade on the motor grader mixes the materials through a series of turning and tumbling actions. 7.

the material in the windrow is placed either through a spreader box or by running it through a windrow sizer before adding the asphalt emulsion. close attention should be paid to the appearance of the mix. the asphalt emulsion is applied on the flattened windrow in successive passes of the distributor truck and folded into the windrow immediately after each pass. After mixing has been completed. Mixing should consist of as many manipulations with the motor grader blade as necessary to thoroughly disperse the asphalt and coat the aggregate particles. Blade mixing.Figure VII-6. Too many passes. It is important that uniformity of gradation and moisture content be achieved.14 SPREADING AND COMPACTING The mixture should always be spread to a uniform thickness. The emulsion demand of the aggregate in the windrow must be determined and the amount needed per lineal metre (foot) of windrow calculated. There is a possibility of variation of the grading of the aggregate in the windrow and a resulting fluctuation in asphalt demand. At the same time. the windrow should be moved to one side of the roadbed in preparation for spreading. When a motor grader is used for final leveling of the finished surface. as mixing progresses. though. Then. with certain types of aggregates or emulsions. 7. Also. it should be equipped with smooth. none of the windrow should be lost over the edge of the mixing table. In the usual procedure. may result in stripping of the asphalt coating from the aggregate. slightly more water than is called for by the design is applied to the windrow and thoroughly mixed with the aggregate. Therefore. roadbed. If pre-wetting water is required. care must be used so that extra material is not taken from the mixing table and incorporated into the windrow. When mixing. the mold board of the motor grader should be adjusted to give a rolling action to the material as the blade moves through the windrow. rather than treaded. pneumatic tires. whether in a single pass 78 .

the asphalt mixture exhibits undue rutting or shoving. the moisture content of the mixture is sufficient to act as a lubricant between the aggregate particles. B. vibratory. the mixture should be able to support the roller without undue displacement. As each layer is spread. and then compacted with pneumatic-tired. compaction should follow almost immediately with a pneumatic-tired roller. so that no thin spots exist in the final mat. Blade spreading should be accomplished in successive layers. Mixtures that do not require aeration may be spread to the required thickness immediately after mixing. with no layer thinner than about 2 times the diameter of the maximum particle size. or at the same time as. emulsion mixes can be produced for a wide range of service conditions ranging from light duty. " Asphalt cold mix is a mixture of unheated mineral (iggregate and emulsified. Because the tires of the motor grader compact the freshly-spread mix. The roller should follow directly behind the motor grader in order to eliminate these ridge marks. by this time. thus allowing their reduction under compactive forces. it must then be finish rolled. This operation should be repeated as many times as necessary to bring the road to proper grade and crown. Also. If. widening and overlay courses and are especially adaptable to the upgrading and strengthening of thin pavements. But even in these situations. the availability of aggregates. surface. but is reduced to the point where it does not fill the void spaces. cold emulsion mixes offer some advantages over hot mixes such as: 79 . other courses may be placed on it. until all roller marks are eliminated.or in several thinner layers. or steel-tired rollers. occurring either naturally or by mechanical aeration. They may be used for base. This advantage is diminished somewhat when designing high-strength.15 GENERAL As mentioned previously. the emulsion starts to break (this is indicated by a marked color change from brown to black). rolling should be stopped. Then the kind of mix that will most economically satisfy all requirements can be designated. their tracks will appear as ridges in the finished mat unless there is adequate rolling between the spreading of each successive layer. preferably with a steel-tired roller. About this time. asphalt. Compaction should not be attempted until there is a reduction in diluent content. In selecting the type of mix to be used for a project the weight and volume of traffic. and the location and size of the project should be considered. ASPHALT EMULSION PLANT MIX (COLD) 7. high-quality mixes where quality controls similar to those for hot-mix asphalt concrete are r'. The variety of types and grades of emulsified asphalt that are available is a distinct advantage when designing cold mixes using pit or bank run aggregates or aggregates of marginal quality. at any time during compaction. low traffic volume roads to heavy duty pavement structures designed for off-highway vehicles and equipment. Experience has shown that breakdown rolling of emulsified asphalt mixes should begin immediately before. leveling. After one course is thoroughly compacted and cured.!quired. After the mat has been shaped to its final required cross-section. For a smooth riding surface the motor grader should be used to trim and level as the rollers complete compaction of the upper layer.

Figure VII-7. Batch type pugmills can be used. e. National Forests and Bureau of Land Management Grasslands. Ideally suited for projects in remote areas. Safety-In high hazard fire areas. in some cases. or adjusting the depth of material. This can be controlled by shifting the emulsion spray bar. emulsion metering pump. and surge bin or storage silo. emulsified asphalts and. the mixer should be of a type that permits variation in mixing times of 5 to 30 seconds. emulsified asphalt storage tank. proportioning aggregate feeders. 7. hauling and laydown. Because of the relatively simple plant equipment required. In addition to carefully monitored and controlled blending of aggregate. 7. It may also include one or more aggregate bins. A typical cold mix continuous plant is shown in Figure VU-7. At the very least it should consist of a mixer. Open-graded mixes function somewhat differently when used for surface courses as 80 .With the exception of stockpile dust there are virtually no emissions from cold-mix production. fire hazard is reduced because there is no dryer and no high-temperature mix or asphalt cement used in construction.Economy-High production rates combined with mobility and low investment cost in equipment. piping and spray bar equipment and spray bar for feeding water and additives. Cold-mix continuous plant. Their flexibility and high void contents make them highly resistant to fatigue and reflection cracking. economy of construction strongly favors this type of operation. a conveyor for feeding the aggregate and.. aggregate load-sensing device. this mix production is ideally suited for continuous mixers and these are used almost exclusively. a power source.g.16 MIXING PLANTS Cold-mix plant setups may vary depending on the quality and type of mix being produced. scalping screen. Durability and field performance of the open-graded mixes have been comparable to other types of asphalt paving. or both in a continuous mixer. Non-Polluting. The production of high-quality cold mixes for heavy-duty pavements requires a well-controlled plant setup to ensure success. controls for adjusting and monitoring the various components.17 OPEN-GRADED MIXES Open-graded mixtures with asphalt emulsion have been used for bases and surfaces for many years. Surge hoppers or storage silos are highly desirable since they minimize plant shutdowns and improve mix uniformity. of course. However. water.

HFMS-2h. it contains more solvent than standard CMS grades. A great variety of aggregate gradations have been used for open-graded cold mixes. state and county highways and heavy-duty logging roads.1 mm (1-1/2 in. 16) 0-10 0-5 25 . mix gradations are different.) 12. 200) Los Angeles Abrasion loss 500 Rev.8) 1. HFMS-2s. This automatically means that a good drainage field must be provided to facilitate rapid removal of water. CMS-2 or CMS-2h ·Some lIser agencies specify an additional cationic sand mixing grade designated CMS-2s. TABLE VII·4 Sieve Size Coarse 38.0mm (3/4 in.8) sieve and 5 percent passing the 75J. Further. and when water-susceptible subgrade materials are present.36mm (No.) 4. (ASTM C 131 ) Percent Crushed Faces @ Emulsified Asphalt Grades MS-2.100 Medium Fine AGGREGATES FOR OPEN-GRADED EMULSION MIXES Base Surface 75pm (No.1m (No. Their performance as high-quality base and surface courses has been variable.55 0-10 0-5 0-5 0-2 40 max 65 min 0-2 40 max 65 min 0-2 40 max 65 min 100 95 . 7.) 19.) 25.100 100 90 . 200) sieve and using CMS-2s* emulsified asphalt.compared to base courses.75mm (No.100 100 85 .4) 2. thereby reducing the problem of hydroplaning. MS-2h. 81 .) 9.5mm (1/2 in. they permit the rapid removal of surface water because of their high permeability.0mm (1 in.5mm (3/8 in.36mm (No.60 20 . Most of the research and development work in recent years has centered in the northwestern states where they have been successfully used as bases and surface courses on many miles of Federal. Some attempts have been made to use aggregates with up to 20 percent passing the 2. When an opengraded mix is used as a base course. a positive moisture seal must be provided within or under the open-graded layer to prevent water from entering and weakening the subgrade materials. The CMS-2s is lIsed for sand and silty sand mixes.18 MATERIALS FOR OPEN-GRADED MIXES Samples of all materials for use in the mixture should be submitted to the laboratory for testing in accordance with the procedures previously outlined. HFMS-2. Aggregate gradation and quality requirements vary somewhat but most of them closely approximate those listed in Table VII-4. As surface courses. and with varying degrees of success.18mm (No.

similarly.4 to correct for the water in SS and CSS types of emulsion. 200) sieve] often contain more than 3 percent water which is one reason fines should be kept to a minimum. The optimum fluids (water and emulsion) for mixing is compared to that needed for compaction since a wide variation in these values could cause difficulty in placing and compacting the mixture. The best guarantee of success when using open-graded mixes for heavy duty bases and surfaces is strict adherence to weather limitations and quality controls for all materials and mixing plants. 7.Lm (No. CMS.Lm (No.20 DENSE-GRADED MIXES Dense-graded aggregate mixtures are graded from the maximum size down to and including material passing the 75 f. 7. They embrace a wide variety of aggregate types and gradations and. complete coating of aggregate particles is not considered necessary for dense-graded mixes. 82 .5 to 3.0 percent. The initial asphalt content may be selected from experience or by some test method such as the Surface Capacity test for coarse aggregate (Kc) as determined in the Hveem Method of Mix Design. 7. asphalt and water percentages for open-graded mixes. CSS. Subsequent trial batches are made with increasing quantities of asphalt and at varying moisture contents until the optimum asphalt content is determined. mixing time.21 MATERIALS FOR DENSE-GRADED MIXES Samples of all aggregate intended for use in the mixture(s) should be submitted for testing as previously noted. Usually a minimum of 50 to 75 percent coating is required and moisture contents will range from 0. Ease of mixing. unprocessed aggregates are utilized on lightly traveled roads and in bases for heavy-duty pavements. an attempt is made to use as much asphalt as possible without excessive runoff.19 OPEN-GRADED MIX DESIGN METHODS Individual laboratories have developed their own methods for determining optimum aggregate. This value is multiplied by 1. In general. Stockpiled aggregates with excessive fines [more than 2 percent passing the 75 f. Generally. depending on aggregate quality and equipment. MS.22 DENSE-GRADED MIX DESIGN METHODS The Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent (CKE) method is generally used to determine the initial emulsified asphalt content when formulating dense-graded cold mixes. SS. Recommended aggregate gradation and quality requirements for densegraded mixes are shown in Table VII-5. Conventional strength and stability test criteria are not applicable for these mixtures since they have very little cohesive strength. Moisture contents in excess of 3 percent usually cause mixing and coating problems as well as excessive runoff during hauling and placing. can be used for the full range of base and surface pavement types. Their stability in service is largely dependent on inter-particle friction and confining pressures. percent coating and moisture content will all affect the emulsion content selected. 200) sieve.7. Chapter XII. A procedural outline and design criteria for The Asphalt Institute design method for opengraded mixes are contained in Part 3. Substantial savings can be realized when locally available. and HFMS emulsified asphalts are used generally for dense-graded mixes. Subsequent trial batches are made in much the same manner as open-graded mixes with the exception that considerably more water is added to obtain adequate coating and workability of the mix.

. '" ~ 3-15 30 min.0mm 19. 30) (No. Q> 0- U c . 65 min.36mm 1. 40 max.. 40 max. Sand Equivalent. 200) Semi-Processed Crusher.5 mm 25.5mm 4.75mm 00 Alternative (2 in.. Q> '" 25-60 15-45 45-70 25-55 c w 2. 1-7 35 min. Percent Crushed Faces Emulsified Asphalt 65 min. 65 min..) (1/2 in. 2-8 35 min.Q "0 .Lm .~ ~ . 50) (No.. Percent Los Angeles Rattler 500 Revolutions @ - 40 max. 40 max.) (3/8 in..Lm 75J. 65 min.Lm 150J. I I I . >- 60-80 - .) (No. 100) (No.) (3/4 in.) (1 in. See Tables 11-1 and 11-2 I I 65 min.) (1-1/2 in.0 0> - 25-85 60-80 :20-55 10-40 60-80 35-65 20-50 100 90-100 60-80 35-65 C 0- '" '" ..TABLE VII-5 AGGREGATES FOR EMULSIFIED DENSE-GRADED ASPHALT MIXTURES Sieve Size USA Standard 50mm 37.. 2-9 35 min.4) (No. 2-10 35 min.. 40 max..0mm 12.Lm 300J.5mm 9.c Q> . 16) (No.18mm 600J. Pit or Bank Run Processed Dense-Graded Aspha It Mixtures 100 80-100 100 90-100 100 90-100 100 90-100 100 90-100 - .8) (No. 2-16 3-18 3-20 - 5-20 - t:) 6-25 0-5 35 min.

or Hveem stability values or Resistance (R) Value. SS-lh. Marshall Method for Emulsified Asphalt-Aggregate Cold Mixture Design. The compacted and cured specimens may then be further tested to determine Resilient Modulus (MR). Excessive amounts should be avoided. 3.5 to 2. providing longer pavement life. laydown. The gradations in Table VII-6 have been used successfully. self-propelled pavers 84 . transporting. The cement serves a fourfold purpose: 1. Higher initial mix stabilities are obtained thereby providing better service under early traffic. 4. Chapter XII. The addition of 1 to 2 percent portland cement will aid in the development of early initial strength. 7. Workability is improved during mixing and laying. The latter test is often used with poorly-graded and marginal aggregates used in emulsified asphalt bases.Modifications to the Marshall or Hveem procedures are used to compact specimens for density and voids analysis. 2. A wide variety of fine aggregates throughout the country has produced satisfactory results. 16 and 7. and Chapter XIV. Dense-graded emulsion mixes with SS and CSS emulsions can be improved by the addition of 0. 7. The mixing. CSS-1h or HFMS-2s may be used along with a laboratory-determined amount of mixing water added to the sand. the same basic principles apply for production of sand-emulsion plant mixes as for dense-graded. Many case histories are available revealing high performance levels with limited maintenance cost after several years of use by heavy logging trucks. Strength properties of the asphalt later overcome the early strength attributed to cement. Chapter XIII. Part Three of this manual contains emulsified asphalt-aggregate mix design methods: Chapter XI. However. CSS-l. when high quality aggregates are used and adequate equipment and production quality requirements are met. Base courses may be laid with towed type or self-propelled base spreaders.24. Marshall. McConnaughay Design Method for Cold Mixtures. Retained strengths in a water-saturated condition are higher. aggregates may be necessary to produce the desirable mix characteristics. and compaction procedures parallel those discussed in Articles 7. Thorough mixing is essential to uniform distribution of the cement throughout the mixture. coarse aggregate emulsion mixes. Sand mixes may be used for either base or surface construction.23 SAND MIXES Except for aggregate gradation.0 percent portland cement during mixing. Modified Hveem Mix Design (for dense graded mixtures). Rapid dehydration of the mix occurs permitting compaction to proceed almost immediately. or more. Blending of two. The emulsified asphalt content normally varies within a range of 6 to 15 percent. Procedural Outline and Design Criteria for Open-Graded Mixes. dense-graded emulsion mixes provide strength and durability equal to hot-mix asphalt concrete. Types SS-I.24 LAYDOWN AND COMPACTION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT COLD MIXES Laydown procedures for cold plant mixes are similar to those employed for hot mixes. As with open-graded mixes.

are extremely tough so mat repairs and handwork should be kept to a minimum. however. again. OOmm (No. often necessitates a waiting period until the mixture develops sufficient stability to support the roller(s). The aggregate may be coarse. The choke material will prevent pick-up of the mix by construction traffic or subsequent rolling. the emulsion in densegraded mixes usually does not break until some time after laydown.30 Silty Sands 100 75 .) compacted thickness. Breaking ofthe emulsion in open-graded mixes usually occurs by the time the mix is placed and.100 - 15 . the use of a small amount of cement in the mix will greatly increase the rate of cure. 50) 150l1m (No. The more rapidly the loss of water occurs. Thick lifts may result in non-uniformly aerated layers.or steel-tired rollers may be used for intermediate rolling and steel-tired rollers are generally used for finish rolling. 200) Well-Graded 100 75 . in particular.65 12.75mm (No. Because open-graded mixes are extremely tacky and dense-graded mixes are often low in stability.100 100 75 . NP Sand Equivalent. 100) 7511m (No. pneumatic-tired rollers are used for breakdown. as previously stated. Unlike the open-graded mixes. Either pneumatic.) 4. are not as workable as hot mixes. the problem usually can be corrected at the plant by adjusting mix time or emulsion-water ratio (or content). This. If mix sticks to the screed or tearing of the mat occurs. it has been found advantageous to use static steel-tired rollers for breakdown rolling. 85 . (Installing a diesel spray bar at the leading edge of the screed to apply a light diesel mist when needed has been found helpful. Here.4) 300l1m (No. percent Plasticity Index are recommended for high type or heavy duty surface courses. NP 0-12 30 min. a light application of choke aggregate should be spread uniformly on the pavement surface at the rate of 3-5 kg/m2 (6-1 Olb/yd2). plus the high moisture content usually required for mixing.20 30 min. 10) minus screenings from open-graded aggregate production. and open-graded mixtures.TABLE VII·6 Sieve Size SAND·EMULSION MIXES Total Percent Passing Poorly-Graded 12.5mm (1/2 in. NP 5 -12 30 min.100 15 . the more quickly the mix can be compacted. Sometimes. dry sand or the 2. There is some concern that too much vibratory rolling may cause migration of asphalt and water in dense-graded mixes. generally. Cold mixes. the mixes are tough and extremely stable.) Cold mixes have been placed in lifts of 100 mm (4 in. Heating the screed will not solve the problem but lubricating with diesel oil may help alleviate it. Before the initial or breakdown rolling of open-graded mixes.) or more but compaction and curing proceed much more quickly with courses of 50 or 75 mm (2 or 3 in.

Do not seal emulsion cold-mix surfaces too soon. If the degree of raveling is increasing. if it rains before the mixture is compacted and cured. traffic should be kept off until it cures and the necessary compaction or recompaction accomplished. Too much water may retard curing and delay rollmg. On some U. Forest Service projects where well-crushed dense-graded aggregates have been used in the mix. the use of an asphalt surface treatment will give some degree 86 . then asphalt enrichment of the surface by a very light fogging with an SS-emulsion diluted at a ratio of about 85 percent water to 15 percent asphalt emulsion may be desirable. Use only as much mixing water as is needed to disperse the asphalt emulsion and gain good workability. A dense-graded mixture is more likely to show reflective cracking than an opengraded mixture. If the raveling is due to an already tacky surface. Dense-graded mixes usually have low resistance to raveling under traffic until they are fully cured and the same is always true for sand mixes. Therefore. place asphalt emulsion cold mixes in several thin layers rather than a single thick layer. 7. Overmixing may cause the emulsion to strip from the aggregate or break prematurely. then a light blotting with sand will be necessary. Open-graded mixes are very tough and raveling is unlikely to occur. If raveling occurs under traffic. Do not mix longer than is necessary to disperse the asphalt emulsion. Entrapped mixing water and distillates may create problems. Successive applications of this type of seal have also been used on open-graded mixes in an effort to obtain a better moisture seal at the bottom of the open-graded pavement.26 COLD-MIX SEALS Until the last few years it has been common practice to place a chip seal on new coldmix pavements several weeks after construction is finished.25 PRECAUTIONS Dense-graded mixes normally are resistant to water damage during construction. For faster curing.7. This practice is still adhered to by most agencies but on some open-graded projects the chip seal has been eliminated if a positive moisture seal has been provided within or below the pavement structure. but even here the chip seal was felt to be an advantage. The asphalt emulsion is diluted with water at a ratio of 10 to 20 percent emulsion with 80 to 90 percent water and applied with a distributor or water tanker. But. The intent is to obtain some penetration so as to avoid a tacky surface and potential pickup by vehicle tires. the loose material should be broomed off as soon as possible to prevent further damage to the surface. a fog seal has been used in place of a chip seal.S.

This is achieved by a combination of variable speed belts under each bin and variable gate openings. The procedures are the same as for conventional hot mix. it will help against the intrusion of water. the addition of about 1 to 2 percent portland cement has accelerated development of initial strength and provided some measure of water resistance.27 MIXING PLANTS • The production of hot plant-mix using asphalt emulsion as' the binder is somewhat akin to the production of hot mix using-'as'i:ihalt"·c·ement:. although there may be occasions when a slow-set emulsion could be used. 7.of protection from this condition. ASPHALT EMULSION PLANT MIX (HOT) 7. Regardless of the blending system used. c. 87 . all proportioning is done on a volumetric basis. emulsion plant mixes may be produced in pugmill or dryer drum mixers. the asphalt emulsion and the various aggregate sizes are weighed separately into the batch mixer. Too little mixing results in non-uniform coating while excessive mixing induces stripping and causes stiffening of the mixture from premature coalescence. But. Mixing time is a critical factor. Otherwise. The drum mixer. One is the modification of the residual asphalt by the emulsifier. The asphalt emulsion normally used for hot plant mix is HFMS-2h. The asphalt emulsion normally used for warm plant mix is MS-2h. high quality emulsion mixes require the same degree of quality control in their production that is required for asphalt hot mix.28 AGGREGATE BLENDING Aggregates can be blended accurately using the controls on the cold feed bins. a type of continuous mix plant. the aggregates can be screened and reproportioned. is especially adaptable for this operation. Combinations of aggregates with widely different absorption characteristics should not be used.29 MIXING As pointed out earlier.[ower~-iii1xrng time and operatIng temperatures are employed with the emulsion. In addition. An automatic load-sensing device under the combined aggregate conveyor permits accurate proportioning of the aggregate and the asphalt. 7. Both base and surface mixtures can be produced. When a continuous mix plant or drum mix plant is used.. however. In the latter case. there may be difficulty in getting a uniform coating over all aggregate particles. In addition to reduced mixing temperatures (compared to conventional hot mixes) the high float asphalt emulsion hot mixes appear tO'be superior for two other reasons. The other is that there is less hardening during pugmill mixing because of the high water vapor content that is flashed off when the emulsion water hits the hot aggregate. Either a batch type or continuous mix plant may be used. which may damage the underlying pavement structure. In some cases. if a more precise gradation control is desired (as in a batch plant). Two temperature ranges are employed-between 49°C and 85°C (120°F and 185°F) for emulsified asphalt warm mixes and 104°C and 127°C (220°F and 260°F) for emulsified asphalt hot mixes.

The Asphalt Institute recommends that the following be used until a standard procedure is adopted: Divide emulsified asphalt mixture production into lots. 7. the same procedures that are employed for placement of hot plant-mix can also be used for emulsion mixes. 88 . Therefore. It is recommended that the average of the five field density determinations made in each lot be equal to or greater than 95 percent of the average density of the six laboratory-prepared specimens. The density of freshly compacted material can be determined using a properly calibrated nuclear density device or other procedure. The target density should be reported as dry density. Determine the target density for each lot by measuring the average density of six laboratory-prepared specimens representing two randomly chosen sub-samples from trucks delivering mixture to the jobsite. Determine the compacted density in the field from five randomly located positions in each lot of the compacted mixture. After breaking has occurred and curing has begun. each lot equal to the mix produced during one day. timely placement is essential for satisfactory results. Density determinations made after a period of curing may be determined on samples obtained from the compacted material by a suitable core-drilling technique.7. In order for a smooth mat to be laid. A minimum of delay must be allowed between discharge from the mixer unit and placement. Basically.. and that no individual determination be lower than 92 percent.31 COMPACTION There is no standard procedure for determining the field density of emulsified asphalt mixtures.30 PLACING Asphalt emulsion plant mixes are placed with conventional spreading equipment. All compacted densities should be converted to dry density. the emulsion mixture must remain workable throughout the spreading operation. the mixture may become very difficult to spread without tearing.

02 TACK COAT A tack coat is a ~~" sPF~y ~pn~J!J~pn of diluted aSQh. a condition that is not only unsightly.sl~PllilR~J). In all cases: however. over the entire area.25 to 0. enough time must be allowed for complete breaking to occur before the overlay is placed. It will also help to lessen the probability of fat spo1L.tl1et\V()p~vement cQ!!!].70 litre/m2 (0.~~~~ £2ilt§.yer~a~~!Lare valid reasons for i~s growing use. However.Cl~9. especially before the emulsion breaks. The diluted material is then applied at a rate of 0. Traffic should be kept off the tacked area. A tack coat is also an essential part of ~Q~ pa. \\.. SS-I h. spots" or bleeding(on t e surfa b~t produc~s a c!angerouslyr sl!<... Warm water is used.'ea~her.05 to 0. Too much tack coat may create a plane of . CSS-l. . ~o I!1~E.cavered. 8.. . including the vertical I 89 .. Perhaps the only exception is when an additional course is placed within two or three days on a freshl~-Jaid asphalt surface. Pneumati~~tired rolling of ~ ~k ~"wm ""'\ help spread the asphalt for better coverage. The more common emulsion types for tack coats are diluted ~S-I. ' .First.. the surface must be clean and free of loose material.<JDmay even create---"Jit . bre*i.es as the asphalt acts as a lubricant rather than an adhesive.andthere is no threat of rain.j{.l}g. the area to be patched must be thoroughly cleaned and all loose material removed.Qgq}g..e~ween. a fairly heavy tack coat of asphalt emulsion is sprayed. Figure VIII -I.'. ~esults are obtained if the road surface is dry. Tack coats should not be applied during periods of cold or wet.the . ~mpl~Jion<!l between the two courses should develop without the use of a tack coat. . But. Then. The freshly-tacked pavement may be too slick for safe driving if excessive speeds are permitted. and CSS-l h..kl11llllied ) to_an area Jh. or painted.he .~!LGa. It can also be used for a number of other applications connected with both construction and maintenance of paved surfaces. first. and various types of treatments and seals. mixed-in-place.01 GENERAL Previous chapters in this manual have described the use of asphalt emulsion in plant mixes.Y~. . t. same.. day 's operations. This chapter does not cover every possible use.L) 'After spraying the tack coat.and added slowly. . has Ii.'pavement.CHAPTER VIII MISCELLANEOUS ASPHALT EMULSION APPLICATIONS 8. The emulsion is diluted by adding al!_~qual amouni-of waterl To_prevent premature. it does offer guidelines for the more common miscellaneous uses. a tack coat is advisable. a test dilution is made to be certain that the water to be used is compatible with the emulsion..15 gal/yd2). vehicle speeds should be kept below 32 km/hr (~9 mph). Its energy-saving advantage and ~~. the watec is always added to the emulsion.-The goal is a very th in but uniform coating of asphalt left on the surface when the emulsion has broken. not the ~mulsion to the water. It is used to ensure a bond between a surface being paved and the new course. If that is not possible. In this case. by. if practical.on.~!9 (80°F)..n. .t~hin~-perati.l!lt emu}sjQn.' sur!~ce temperatu~e . ! . For most overlays.

The tack helps hold the patch in place and i.Figure VIII-1. A fog seal can be a Y!ll!!able mainten.mparts a and the surrounding pavemenC w~~~t1ight seal between the patch 8. It can be diluted in varying proportions up to qne part emulsion to five parts water.15 gal/yd2) of diluted material. (Se. or CSS-Ih. SS-l h. The fairly low viscosity diluted emulsion flows easily into the cracks and surface ~ids. The same traffic restraints used with tack coats should be employed with fog seals. may remedy the problem. as this would result in an aspha!. Exact quantities are determined by the surface texture. If an excess of emulsion is applied. 0. This corrective action will prolong pavement life and may delay the time when major maintenance or reconstruction is needed. It ilia' coats aggregate particles on the surface. It is neither a substitute for an asphalt surface treatment nor a seal coat.45 to 0. Applying tack coat. Over-application must be avoided. Photo Courtesy of E. a light dusting of the affected area with aJJ. 90 .!!!<::~__ aid when used for its intended purpose. and degree of cracking of the pavement on which the fog seal is sprayed.70 litre/m2 (0.Lp'~ckup by vehicles and possibly a slippery surface.e Par. dryness. The total quantity of fog seal used is normally in the order of 0. but in most cases a 01!~to one dj!'~ is used.03 FOG SEAL A fog seal is a light application to an existing surface of a slow-setting asphalt emulsion diluted with water. similar to a tack coat. Etnyre and Company sides. CSS-l. 8.T]e §an5!.1 to 0.02) Grades of asphalt emulsion normally used for this purpose are SS-l. It is used to renew old asphalt surfaces that have become dry and embrittled with age and t2-~_eal smaU££~cks and surface voids.

70 to 1. Emulsified Asphalt Mulch Tie-Down Asphalt emulsion can be used for anchoring straw or hay to a seeded area. Special care must be taken to apply the optimum amount of emulsified asphalt. As the young seedlings emerge from the soil they can easily break through the thin asphalt cover. It leaves a thin membrane over the seeded area or holds a hay or straw mulch in place. The asphalt membrane tends to hold moisture in the soil. forming a thin membrane cover. Both approaches have been used successfully. The asphalt cover holds the seeds in place and prevents their loss by the eroding forces of wind and water. especially when the wind velocity is high. Because they differ in procedure each will be discussed separately. CSS-l. which would delay growth. Too little may not hold the soil against erosion by wind and water. 3.ed asphalt. or perpendicular line pattern.45 litre/m2 (0. The area that is to receive the emulsion spray must be reasonably smooth so that a uniform coating can be applied. The most common method of combating this problem is the use of vegetation to stabilize these areas. Too much emulsion may leave a thick membrane. during the period between the time the seeds are planted and germination takes place they are susceptible to being blown or washed away. The emulsion can be applied in a solid pattern or a saw-tooth. A spray application of 0. The membrane eventually disintegrates as the seedlings mature and cover the ground area. It is normally applied at a rate of 0. The thin film of asphalt has three beneficial effects: 1. The solid pattern is most effective.3 to 4.3 to 91 . One of the most effective is the use of emulsifi. Several procedures have been developed to protect the planting until the seeds germinate and a root system forms.35 litre/m2 (0. There are two approaches that can be used. But.10 gal/yd2) of asphalt emulsion follows. 2. In one case the straw or hay mulch is distributed over the prepared area at a rate of 3. Because of its dark color. If the amount of mulch is increased above 3. The emulsion can be applied with a hand-held spray nozzle or with an offset distributor bar attached to an asphalt distributor truck. thereby promoting faster plant growth. Figure VIII-2. Emulsion 'grades commonly used in this operation are SS-l. checkerboard. Depressions in the surface may collect pools of asphalt and ridges may be coated on one side with virtually no asphalt on the other.5 tonnes/hm 2 (1 V2 to 2 tons/acre). SS-l h. or CSS-lh.8.30 gallyd2). Emulsified Asphalt Spray Mulch In this system the asphalt emulsion is sprayed directly onto the seeded area. The exact amount is determined by the nature of the soil and the slope of the area being treated. the asphalt absorbs and holds solar heat during the germination period. The seed is then mixed with water and liquid fertilizer and applied with a hydraulic seeder.04 MULCH TREATMENT Soil erosion caused by water and wind can present a serious problem in the construction of embankments and flat areas adjacent to highways.15 to 0. although both are designed to achieve the same result.

Then. which reduces costs and reduces the time required. Depending upon the location and size of the cracks. It results in better bonding between the emulsion and the hay/straw mulch. Using emulsified asphalt to tie down mulch.) The two materials are mixed in flight. 8. This is the preferred method as it has at least two advantages: The mulch and the asphalt emulsion are applied in a single application. the mulch and emulsified asphalt are ejected at the same time through a special blower equipped with twin jets. Larger cracks. their maintenance may be thought of as corrective or preventive. A second method begins with the hydraulic application of seed and fertilizer directly to the prepared soil. are 92 .5 tonnes/hm 2 (lV2 to 2 tons/acre). 4. Figure VIII-3. or more severely cracked areas.05 CRACK FILLER The average maintenance department spends a large amount of time sealing cracks in pavement surfaces. from small hairline cracks to major cracks that may have an opening of as much as 25 millimetres (I in. The same types of asphalt emulsion can be used as recommended for the emulsified asphalt spray mulch.Figure VIII-2.). (See completed section. In either case the technique for sealing the crack is the same. the amount of emulsified asphalt applied must be increased proportionately. Cracking takes many forms.

Reflection cracks-Cracks in asphalt overlays that reflect the crack pattern in the pavement structure below. Completed section of Interstate with emulsified asphalt mulch on median and close-up.Figure VIII-3. usually with sharp corners or angles. Transverse crack-A crack that follows a course approximately at right angles to the centerline. it is necessary to completely remove the cracked material and replace with a Full-Depth asphalt patch. Slippage cracks-Crescent shaped cracks that point in the direction of the thrust of wheels on the pavement surface. Cracks generally fall into one of the following categories: Alligator cracks-Interconnected cracks forming a series of small blocks resembling an alligator's skin or chicken wire. Knowledge of some of the more common types of crack patterns helps determine the proper maintenance procedure. Longitudinal crack-A crack that follows a course approximately parallel to the centerline. 93 . Shrinkage cracks-Interconnected cracks forming a series of large blocks. Often. Courtesy of Ohio Department of Transportation not always correctable by crack filling.

6---(~ In or¥_for. i. When the cracks have been thoroughly cleaned they are then ready for sealing. Sometimes the crack continues to widen and sealing applications must be continued until the crack is arrested.~~!'? satisfy these criteria it needs to penetta. The prime coat is designed to perfonn several functions: To coat and bond loose mineral particles on the surface of the base. To plug capillary voids. To waterproof the surface of the base. After curing has been completed. Small cracks [less than 3 mm (118 in. should be forced into the crack until it is about 6 to 3 mm (114 to 118 in.yi~~t)'~sph~1t to a granular base in preparation for an asphalt surface course. The surface should then be sprinkled with a light dusting of dry sand to prevent pickup by traffic. 8. reflection. Before the cracks are filled. To harden or toughen the surface. an emulsion slurry. it is unlikely that filling it will be a permanent solution. A steel wire brush or router should be used to remove any foreign material that cannot be removed by blowing. Failure to seal cracks is an invitation to further damage through freeze-thaw cycles or weakened support caused by intrusion of water.e. CSS-l and CSS-lh may be used for crack filling.) or more in thickness. In many cases. especially when the asphalt layer(s)(surface and/or base) is 100 mm (4 in. Good maintenance practice calls for sealing as soon as possible after a crack shows up. in recent years some engineers have eliminated the use of a prime. they should be cleaned in the following manner: A compressed air jet should be used to blowout any loose material in the crack. longitudinal. and transverse. Sealing the cracks with asphalt emulsion is easy and inexpensive. To provide adhesion between the base and the next course. When it is sealed promptly.) width] are difficult to seal effectively. finish the sealing by filling the remainder of the crack area with emulsified asphalt (Figure VIII -4).1!~~~~. At one time it was thought that the use of a prime coat was an essential element of good pavemenfconstruction. SS-lh. the sealing is often the end of the problem. it is necessary to correct the defect in the underlying pavement course to solve the crack problem.If a crack results from a defective condition beneath the pavement surface.) from the surface. For large cracks.06J)I~IME COAT A prime coat is a~i~n <?f 1~_\\. it postpones major maintenance and may avoid it entirely. or emulsion mixed with sand..~as~_~~~rse._tp_~ Pti. The entire crack area should be cleaned by brooming. This manual only addresses the type of cracks that can be repaired with emulsified asphalt..t<? iI. shrinkage. Emulsion grades SS-l. However. 94 .

Also. 8. one vehicle per day creates 560 kg/ km (one ton per mile) of dust per year. the accident rate is twice as high on unpaved roads.07 DUST PALLIATIVE Research at Iowa State University revt!aled that. The gradation of the aggregate.9 to 75 mm (2 to 3 in.. If a layer of base aggregate is to he supplied. The quantity to be used depends upon the nature of the granular base and weather conditions. .s. Filling crack with emulsified asphalt. on an unpaved road.S_:J. The use of emulsified asphalt for this purpose is relatively new. Generally 0. "if in doubt. Lack of money or infrequent use may call for some other way to keep dust down or make a road passable in bad weather.. §Pedal-pr~cautIQij§ are pecessary when emulsi<?nJ is used.-Otherwise. The prime coat is used when a granular base course is to be carried through ari"extended period_(such as the winter months).1 to 0.Most primes in the past have been some type of cutback asphalt. use a prime coat.45 to 1. Perhaps this decision can be summed up by saying. Q].) of . most engineers believe that the cost/benefit ratio of a prime is open to serious questioning.." 1 .Figure VIII-4.~ L 95 .~ must remember that in _ asphalt emulsion tiny particles of asphalt cemeQt are s_usp~nded in water . the emulsion and compaction water can be mixed at the source. and absorption of the aggregate all affect it: -One way to use an emulsion for a prime coat is to scarify the top 5.3 gal/yd2/in. CSS-l or CSS-l h would be used for this purpose. SS~ 1h. size of void spaces.35 litres/m 2/25 mm (0. or when(iVis subjected to ~abIasiveforces of trafflc-!.) __and mix it in-place.

The diluted material is sprayed in repeated light applications on the unpaved surface at the rate of 0. an SS-I. Some penetration is expected. 96 . SS-l h.1 to 0.45 to 2.5 gall yd 2). When used as a dust palliative.25 litre 1m2 (0. The material is applied with an asphalt distributor.The use of emulsified asphalt offers a practical and thrifty solution to these problems. The actual quantity applied depends on the condition of the existing surface. This technique is known as dust laying or application of a dust palliative. A dilute asphalt emulsion is sprayed directly on the unpaved road surface. a greater amount of the dilute emulsion can be applied. Thus. by volume. following the usual spray application technique. CSS-l. if the road surface is penetrable or contains relatively large surface voids. or CSS-l h emulsion is mixed with five or more parts water.

In any case. The Asphalt Institute.02 PATCHING MIXES One of the most time-consuming maintenance functions is the patching of potholes and weak areas that have developed in a pavement surface. Likewise. contains a system of making pavement repairs that.03 IMMEDIATE USE MAINTENANCE MIXES Some systems are set up to make immediate use of maintenance mixtures. Early detection and correction prevent further deterioration and more expensive maintenance at a later date. MS-16. a close inspection of every pavement section should be made regularly to detect the start of trouble. Many maintenance forces.'Alihough small mixing plants. 9. Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance. the mix may remain workable for a few hours. the ability to obtain good compaction also decreases. is still a dream. repairs should never be delayed or left undone. and tamped with the back of a shovel for a permanent patch. Therefore. No matter what type of mix is used.CHAPTER IX MAINTENANCE MIXES 9. 9. therefore. It is generally agreed that the use of high-quality. Maintenance mixes are divided into two types-one for immediate use and one for long-range storage (up to 6 months). be so gradual that the defects are difficult to notice in the early stages. the hot-mix is not obtainable from late fall through ~arly sprhig. are available. Such systems provide more flexibility because either hot or cold mixes can be used. Loads are applied by traffic. By using an insulated cover. A dream mixture that can be thrown into a pothole with no preparation. It is common practice for maintenance crews to pick up truck loads of hot mix at the beginning of a day's operations. 97 . will ensure reasonable success.tockpjle miXHH:~ that mayor may not be heated prior to use. must rely on some type of s.01 PAVEMENT MAINTENANCE Pavement maintenance is a major responsibility of every highway and street department. however. From the time construction is completed. designed specifically for maintenance operations. hot-mixed patching mixtures will produce best results. when highway safety is involved. Temperature and moisture changes cause uneven rates of expansion and contraction of the pavement layers. they have had limited use. weather conditions make temporary repairs advisable to halt further damage until more lasting repairs can be made. the bond between the individual aggregate particles is diminished. In many cases. even though it may cost more. all pavements begin deteriorating. however. there is no substitute for good construction practices. when properly followed. Often. But there is one serious drawback. As its temperature decreases. Pavement weakening may.

The metering system may use either volumetric or weight proportioning. Aggregates should meet quality requirements outlined in previous chapters for asphalt-aggregate mixtures. patches placed near the end of the day may not be as effective as those placed at the beginning. a thin crust. A wide range of local gradations can be used successfully. one of the gradations in Table IX -1 is suggested. They are not designed for long term storage. Emulsified asphalt can be used very effectively in the preparation of a mixture for immediate use. Stockpile life depends on the formulation of the emulsion used and the aggregate characteristics.Therefore. on the other hand. Central mix plants. 9. Emulsified asphalts used for this purpose include HFMS-2s. It is usable for periods up to six months and is easily workable without the use of heat. CRS. The specifications for emulsified asphalts (ASTM D 977 and AASHTO M 140) make no mention of a solvent in the emulsion. A covered storage bin will protect it and will help retain workability. Basic equipment required for mixing large quantities includes a pugmill mixer and system for metering correct amounts of aggregate and emulsified asphalt. Material immediately beneath the crust will possess the characteristics of a freshly made emulsion mix. All mixes described in this article are intended to be used relatively soon after preparation. If small quantities are required. 98 . Some trucks are equipped with a heating device that will keep the mixture warm and workable. The emulsion supplier's guidelines can be most useful in setting operating procedures and in finding the proportions for each material used.04 STOCKPILE MAINTENANCE MIXES During the cold weather months the most widely-used maintenance mixture is a type drawn from stockpile storage. By this means the objection to a rapidly cooling mixture can be minimized. Asphalt emulsions containing small amounts of solvents produce the best cold patch mix. The application of external heat is not necessary since good coating and adhesion can be obtained otherwise. The completed mixture should be stored in a clean area so that there is no possibility of contamination. it may be mixed by hand at the job site. small truck mixers.and CMS. The emulsion-aggregate mixture can be mixed in a pugmill and transported to the area where it is to be used. which can be broken with a shovel. and CMS-2h. Stockpile life and workability at low temperatures is in direct proportion to the amount of solvent used. The amount of asphalt emulsion required for the aggregate gradings specified in Table IX-I nonnally will be in the range of 5 to 10 percent by weight of total mix. CMS-2. or hand mixing can be used in the preparation of these mixtures. The mixture does not gain its full strength until the solvent evaporates. Where practicable.cationic emulsion specifications (ASTM D 2397 and AASHTO M 208). The production of stockpile maintenance mixes is a relatively simple operation. Also. It can be produced in late summer and stored in quantity in remote locations for ready use. Recommended aggregate gradations for stockpile mixes are given in Table IX-I. Its extended workability comes from using emulsion that contains some portion of solvent. pennit solvent but restrict the amount. The amount of emulsion used nonnally is in the range of 5 to 10 percent by weight of total mix. however. will fonn over the surface of the stockpile. Aggregate used in these mixes should meet all quality requirements. patching mixtures should not be placed with an excess amount of mixing water present because that will extend the time before the patch can be opened to traffic. Nonnally. Certain grades of medium-set emulsions are typically used for this purpose.

65 23 .75mm (No.36 mm (No.i. economical maintenance mixture. The Asphalt" Institute Many states have modified these specifications to suit their individual needs. Coupled with good construction techniques. .) 100 90 -100 25. however. Careful selection.) 12. and mixing of materials ensure a high-quality. But improved workability and longer stockpile life justilytlie .8) 300llm (No. 50) 751lm (No. 'ffiaY 99 .5 mm (1/2 in.19 2-8 44 -74 28 .100 55 .10 *From Asphalt in Pavement Maintenance.) 9. To a degree.58 5 .49 5 .0 mm (3/4 in.85 32 .4) 2. 200) - 100 90 -100 100 90 . addition of the solvent.80 35 .0mm (3/4 in.23 2 . the use of solvent in emulsions is contrary to the efforts of EPA and FHW A with respect to environmental al1cl_eO~IgY.~!q~J1!!.0mm (1 in.10 56 . the amount of solvent added is considerably less than the amount required for cutback asphalt mixtures of the same stockpile life. . proportioning.5mm (1/2 in.) 19.) 19.) 4.ons.£Q!!.67 7 .) 12.21 2 . In most cases.5mm (3/8 in. these mixtures can be used as an effective deterrent to the destructive forces of traffic and weather.TABLE IX·1 Sieve Size MINERAL AGGREGATE GRADATIONS Percent Passing by Weight 9. MS-16.5 mm (3/8 in. At least two permit up to 25 percent solvent and several permit up to 15 percent.

a softening agent. asphalt. This chapter is not intended to discuss fully all forms of recycling. other materials. and amount of available funding are determining factors as to which recycling method is most appropriate for a specific situation. and rolled. availability of other materials. The process may also include the addition of new aggregate. is removed. Rather. including in some cases the underlying untreated base material. of a material that has already served its first-intended purpose. Location of the project. Asphalt. The finished product is a hot-mixed asphalt base. softening agents. pavement recycling is classified into three broad categories: 1. structural requirements of the new pavement. Many other publications are available outlining details of the different procedures. Cold-Mix Recycling-One of several methods where the entire existing pavement structure. or surface course. the pavement may be scarified. The finished product may be used as the final surface or may. 2. minimal amounts of new asphalt hot-mix. milled. sized and mixed hot with added asphalt cement at a central plant. is processed in-place or removed and processed at a central plant. The materials are mixed cold and can be re-used as an aggregate base. Additionally. including in some cases. 10. binder. its purpose is to describe methods that use emulsified asphalt. 101 . in some instances. In the latter case. remixed.CHAPTER X RECYCLING 10. relaid. or both. This process requires that an asphalt surface course be used.02 TYPES OF RECYCLING Although there are variations within each method. Sur/ace Recycling-One of several methods where the surface of an existing asphalt pavement is planed. 3. be overlaid with an asphalt surface course. can be added during mixing to provide a higher strength base. the underlying untreated base material.01 RECYCLING DEFINED Recycling is defined as "the re-use." It can take several forms with respect to pavement recycling. Hot-Mix Recycling-One of several methods where the major portion of the existing pavement structure. pavement cross-section. aggregates. or heated in place. or combinations of these may be added to obtain desirable mixture and surface characteristics. usually after some processing. or both.

Figure X-I. an airport runway.04 HOT-MIX RECYCLING If asphalt emulsion is used for this purpose. surface treatment. A candidate for recycling. The need in this case would be to retain or regain draining capacity. 102 . in part. 10.Figure X-l. It can be a city street. Lower mixing temperatures are necessary if emulsion is used. or a parking lot. 10. Recycling may involve. Some components in the asphalt that determine its physical and chemical characteristics may be lost in the process. The cost of resurfacing such a pavement thick enough to prevent reflection cracks could be prohibitive. putting back these components by adding emulsified asphalt. or seal coat) that has become badly cracked because of overstressing. a primary or secondary highway.03 CANDIDATES FOR RECYCLING A candidate for recycling usually is an old asphalt pavement (hot-mix. The asphalts in pavements as described have aged and may have become brittle. Figure X-2. such work should be considered experimental until a satisfactory procedure is developed. Some form of recycling may also be used in a curb and gutter section where repeated resurfacings have resulted in a loss of curb depth and draining capacity. Most of these pavement structures have untreated aggregate bases that can be strengthened and upgraded with emulsified asphalt to meet current traffic loads and volumes.

a softening agent may be used along with the emulsified asphalt. Although not necessarily required. the old asphalt pavement is crushed. Several types of mechanical devices are available for this purpose. This can be done with a portable hammermill that pulverizes the pavement as it moves forward. First. An in-place aggregate base also can be incorporated or new aggregates can be added to the old materials and asphalt emulsion added. The crushed material may be left in place as it is discharged from the pulverizer or shaped into a windrow. the pavement must be crushed or broken into small-size particles. Figure X-4. With especially hard pavement a second pass with the hammermill may be necessary. materials are mixed together. spread to a uniform thickness. No attempt is made to control gradation. Emulsified asphalt is applied with an asphalt distributor directly to the surface of the crushed 103 . Several choices are available. Figure X-3.Figure X-2. 10. Loss of curb depth and draining capacity. The crushed material is now ready for mixing with asphalt emulsion. Perhaps the simplest is blade mixing with a motor grader. Mixed-in-Place One method that has gained widespread acceptance employs a system known as inplace mixing. In this method. only maximum aggregate size. Material beneath the asphalt pavement (aggregate base) may also be crushed.05 COLD-MIX RECYCLING Emulsified asphalt is especially suited for cold-mix recycling. often in place. and compacted. Several different procedures are available to accomplish the same result. Then.

Hammermlll pulverizing old pavement.Figure X-3. Cold-mix recycling operation. Courtesy Koehring Company. Bomag Division Figure X-4. 104 .

emulsified asphalt. Blade mixing should be continued until thorough mixing and coating have been achieved. aggregate storage bins. the recycled aggregate and the asphalt emulsion are thoroughly mixed. It is then drawn into the pugmill mixer. Travel Plant Still another type of mixer unit is a travel plant.material at the specified rate. The process involves 105 . Or. When using this type of mixer the following steps are recommended: Spread the material to be recycled to uniform grade and cross-section with a motor grader. the water has been removed. in many cases. a softening agent may be used with the emulsion to aid in restoring the original asphalt characteristics.12 for a description of these mixers that mix the aggregate and the emulsified asphalt with rotating tiller blades as they move through the material. and emulsified asphalt storage tanks. Another type moves through a prepared aggregate windrow on the roadbed and adds and mixes the emulsified asphalt as it goes. it is necessary that the crushed material be removed from the roadbed. A higher moisture content can be used if laboratory tests show that it will not be harmful when the asphalt emulsion is added. See Article 7. Immediately. The completed mixture is discharged in front of the screed for spreading to the required depth. When ready for the asphalt emulsion. This is a self-contained mobile unit capable of mixing and spreading the mixture on the roadbed. Rotary Mixers A more efficient mixing process makes use of a rotary mixer. a second application of asphalt emulsion can be sprayed and the mixing procedure repeated. and untreated base aggregate. It discharges to the rear a mixed windrow ready for aeration and spreading. the moisture content of the aggregate should not exceed 3 percent. The rapia rotation of the tiller blades provides a vigorous mixing action. determined in the laboratory. If necessary. and the mixture is ready for compaction. One type contains its own pugmill. Central Plant Still another method for the cold recycling of existing pavement structures including. is central plant mixing. Most rotary mixers are now equipped with spray systems for adding the asphalt emulsion at the time of mixing.and SS. Extra water. In some cases water is sprayed on the crushed material before the emulsion application to aid in coating. and the two are mixed. asphalt emulsion is added.emulsions can be used in cold-mix recycling. the underlying base material. It is usually stockpiled away from the job site and transported to the travel plant where it is discharged into aggregate hopper(s). or virgin aggregate may be mixed into the crushed pavement material with this machine. Thoroughly mix by one or more passes of the mixer. Laboratory testing should be performed in advance to determine which type and grade best suits the materials and local conditions. In this case. All types of MS.

Asphalt emulsion frequently is used to enrich the aged asphalt in the scarified surface.). the material may be put through a rock crusher. Samples of the salvaged pavement should be tested in the laboratory to determine aggregate gradations and the amount and consistency of the old asphalt. 21.07 CONCLUSION Experience with recycling is increasing every day.ripping. it should not be used in areas where pavement deterioration has been caused by base failure. 10. Mixing. IDIRECT/ON OF TRAVEL) PAVING TRAIN METHOD Preheater New mix Remixer Roller INTEGRAL METHOD Figure X-5.06 SURFACE RECYCLING In this method only the upper surface of the old pavement is involved. recycling appears to offer the potential for emulsions to be used widely. particularly when utilizing in-place untreated base materials to produce a new base with increased strength. Heater-overlay methods. 106 . The Asphalt Institute. Careful selection of the best procedure to suit conditions can result in ample savings. Manual Series No. Correction of the surface only will be a temporary measure unless the source of the problem is dealt with. placing. Surface recycling offers many advantages. Major equipment items normally required for surface recycling operations are shown in Figure X-5. This gives the basis for deciding if additional aggregate is needed and how much asphalt emulsion must be added to produce a proper. If further crushing is needed. scarifying. Open-flame or infrared heat is applied so that the upper surface can be scarified or planed for complete removal. usually about 20 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 in. stable mix. Additionally. Results to date show it to be a viable alternative to current maintenance and restoration procedures. and pulverizing or crushing the pavement layers. However. Refer to Part Three for an emulsified asphalt mix design test method. see Asphalt Cold-Mix Recycling. 10. and compaction are the same as described in Chapter VII. For additional information.

PART THREE: EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIX-DESIGN METHODS .

which has been in use in the Midwestern United States for over three decades has been added to this second edition. "Design of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixtures. Two mix-design methods contained in the first edition of this manual were (1) The Asphalt Institute's Pacific Coast Division Method. based on a modified Marshall mix design procedure and a moisture durability test. but nearly all of those in use employ some parts. 109 . an outline and design criteria for The Asphalt Institute design method for open-graded mixes. The McConnaughay method for designing cold mixtures. These laboratory methods were evaluated by the Asphalt Institute as a part ofthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Project 9-5. based on the Hveem procedure plus a resilient modulus test. also from NCBRP Report 259. These laboratory design methods will be evaluated periodically as data is accumulated on field performance. of the standard H veem (ASTM D 1560and D 1561 or AASHTO T 246 and T247) or Marshall (ASTM D 1559 or AASHTO T 245) test methods. or modifications. and (2) an Illinois method.PART THREE EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIX DESIGN METHODS There is no universally-accepted emulsified asphalt-aggregate mix-design method. In addition. The methods contained in this edition generally follow the above with certain modifications suggested by NCB RP Report 259." and the results of that evaluation are contained in NCB RP Report 259. are included.

For information on mix-design methods when using paving asphalt (asphalt cement). 11. Procedures for resilient modulus determination are.02 OUTLINE OF METHOD a.E.) is used for estimating the emulsified asphalt contents for trial mixes of aggregates. Ranges of emulsified asphalt content for trial mixes are shown in Table XI-I. Selection of Aggregate and Emulsified Asphalt Aggregates used for emulsified asphalt paving mixtures (Table VII-5) and guidelines for the selection of emulsified asphalt type are shown in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual. the design method is divided into the following parts: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) Selection of aggregate and emulsified asphalt Trial emulsified asphalt content Mixing test (Determination of optimum fluids content at mixing) Detennination of optimum fluids content for compaction Strength testing Moisture exposure and stability and cohesion testing Determination of optimum emulsified asphalt content See Figure XI-l for the testing schedule for this mix design method. b. Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete. refer to the The Asphalt Institute publication. additives and emulsified asphalt for dense-graded mixes for pavement construction. c. It contains California Department of Transportation test methods or modifications of these methods as well as procedures developed within The Asphalt Institute. Manual Series No. proportioning and testing of aggregates. General For convenience. Criteria to determine the suitability of emulsified asphalt mixes are presented.2 (MS-2). however.K. 111 . Trial Emulsified Asphalt Content The Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent Test (C.CHAPTER XI MODIFIED HVEEM MIX DESIGN 11.01 SCOPE This method covers the selection. applicable to mixes using emulsified asphalt or paving grade asphalts.

. >< 'i"" .K...e. portland cement) Add water flllCl'eaSing increments) and Use 1. Emulsion Content l Mixing Test Spoon ~ & Bowl or Mechanical 3" ec Record % Coating --+ 75% + Okay for Surface 50% + Okay for Base en:r ~CD :rOo !!.. Proceed to Step 2 cC [ ~ CD Step 2 c::: 3 Optimum Ruids for Compaction ~ Emulsion Content of 1.E.4 C. en I addtive O...K. ~CD ::::I en CD >< .S1EP 1 Selection of Mix Proportions + Mixing Test (Optimum Ruids at mixing) ec c::: :!! ..c::: tv D)() -cr 3_ -"0 r---+ Record % WOlbbity ~ Reject if Excessively Stiff or Sloppy CD 0. Kneadng Plus DoWIIe Ruids content of mix with highest dry density ~ ~ l Proceed to Step 3 .4 x C..E. 3 Ruids Contents PItmger Static Compaction. 01 Ratio & Min. ~ !!1.

). Oil Ratio for Emulsion Contents Optimum Auids for Compaction (from Step 2) Knealing Plus Double Plunger Static Compaction" STEP 4 Strength Testing Cure One Specimen in Mold 72 Hrs.B'C (140 . 113 .23 :t 1. double plunger. 5'F) CohesIometer C-Value 81 60 ..K. 5'F) R-Value II 23 . One specimen prepared at each emulsified asphalt content for permanent surface mixes.8"C (73 .1.7"C of 1()'2Omm Hg for 4 Days (73. 1.8"C (73 . . 2. r--- For AI Mixes at 23 ~ 2. Testing schedule for dense-graded emulsified asphalt mixes.4.STEP 3 SpecImen Fabrication lor Strength Testfng 1. Figure XI-1 (Cont. and 1. 5'F) H ~N30+1 H~K100+1 R·VaIue II 23 .8"C (73 .8"C (140 :t 5'F) t C-Value 81 23 (73 :t5'F) 1: 2.8"C - I Calculate RT Value Accept H 78+ ~K 100+ I Calculate RT Value Accept H I~H50+1 70+ • Two specimens prepared 81 each emulsified esphaft content lor base mixes. Includes 1()'50 blows (25Ops1) kneedlng and up to 40.8"C (73 .8"C r-- C-Value 81 23 (73 1: 5'F) :t 2. 2. 2.000 lb. 81 23 :t 2.E. 5'F) I Surface Mixes I Vacuum lllunlte Mr specinen (from Step 4) 81 23 ~ 2.7 C.8"C (73 .3'FJ Measure Modulus r--- Proceed to Step 5 STEP 5 MoIsture Exposure and StabIty Testing Base Mixes I + Cure second &pI!Cimen (from Step 3) In mold 24 hIS. 5'F) Test~(fromStep4) lor ter S-Value 81 60 ~ 2. 5'F) Vacuum (Mr) at ~ Desiccate Out of Mold to Pressure f--.

Strength Testing The strength of emulsified asphalt mixes is measured by running a final modulus at a temperature of 23 ± 1. 7°C (73 ± 3°P) after a total of three days mold cure plus four days vacuum desiccation. Base mixes are tested at 23 ± 2.10. g.8°C (100°F). Surface mixes are tested at 60 ± 2. f. is to cure for one day in mold at room temperature followed by one day out of mold in oven at 37.0 4.0 • With porous aggregates the emulsified asphalt content should be increased by a factor of approximately 1. ** This data is used in conjunction with certain project variables (traffic. e.8°C (140 ± 5°F) for Stabilometer S-Value and Cohesiometer C-Value.2. that shortens the laboratory curing time. 8°C (73 ± 5°F) for Resistance R.8.Value and Cohesiometer C-Value. if used.5 . Determination of Optimum Emulsion Content Table XI-5 gives design criteria for the two types of emulsified asphalt dense-graded mIxes. Percent by Weight of Aggregate * Type Processed Dense Graded Sands Silty Sands Semi-Processed Crusher Pit or Bank Run 5.0 .d. •• An alternate procedure. 114 . The amount of mix water is varied to optimize these properties unless job conditions obviously prevent such optimization. regional temperature and curing conditions) and other mix properties (volume percent of asphalt residue and air voids) in determining the pavement thickness requirements. are premixed with the aggregate prior to conducting the mixing test. Determination of Optimum Fluids Content at Mixing Either a spoon and bowl or mechanical mix is made to determine the coating and workability of the trial mixtures. Moisture Exposure and Stability Testing Base mixes have their strength evaluated before and after vacuum saturation. Porous aggregates are those which absorb more than 2 percent water by dry weight when tested by ASTM Method C 127. TABLE XI-1 SELECTION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CONTENT Approximate Emulsified Asphalt Content. Mixing Test. Optimum Fluids Content for Compaction Determination of the optimum fluids content (mixing water plus emulsified asphalt) for compaction and test specimen fabrication are achieved by a light kneading compaction followed by a double plunger static load. h. Additives.

) height. • The development of this method of determining optimum asphalt content is outlined in "Establishing the Oil Content for Dense-Graded Bituminous Mixtures" by F.03 AGGREGATES FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MIXES a. (d) Oil. (2) Equipment The equipment and materials required for determining the approximate asphalt content are as follows: (a) Sample Splitter. 13 mm (V2 in.) top diameter. General Two types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing.oo mm (No. coral. 115 . (b) Pans.K. 10) sieve soldered to bottom of opening.K. 114 mm (4V2 in.N. ore tailings-. 11. for obtaining representative samples of fine aggregate. temporary surfaces are treated as base mixes.04 ASPHALTS a.) deep. 11. (c) Kerosene. blast furnace slag. crushed ledge stone or rock. 4 litres (1 gal. the approximate asphalt content is determined by using a series of charts. General The amount of emulsified asphalt is estimated for trial mixes of dense-graded aggregates using the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent test (C. California Highways and Public Works.) diameter x 25 mm (1 in. gravel. lubricating. July-August. 89 mm (3V2 in. 10. * With a calculated surface area and the factors obtained by the C.) However. (For mix design purposes. (g) Timer. b.E.E. General The types of materials that are suitable for emulsified asphalt treatment include sand. 4 litres (1 gal. Hveem. ASTM specifications for these asphalt materials are given in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this manual. These charts are presented herein. accompanied by typical examples to demonstrate their application. (f) Metal Funnels.05 MIX PROPORTIONS a. b. These are designated as slow setting (SS) and medium (MS). for permanent surfaces. small. the processed dense-graded or open-graded aggregates plus a surface treatment will be required. 1942.). All of these aggregates are acceptable for bases and also for temporary surfaces for at least light traffic. volcanic cinder. SAE No.). (e) Beakers. Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent Test (1) General The first step in this method of mix design is to determine the approximate asphalt content by the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent method.11.) orifice with piece of2. 114 mm (4V2 in.). reclaimed aggregate or other inert material. method for a particular aggregate or blend of aggregates. Selection Aggregates meeting the requirements of Table VII-5 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual are among those suitable for emulsified asphalt mixes. 1500 ml.

14 (30) 12.Lm (No. Evanston. Illinois 60602.4) . The following tabulation demonstrates the calculation of surface area by this method. SO) 150 j. 2205 Lee Street.* ml/kg (ft1/lb.) 9.5) 2. Also.41 (2) .54 (7.6) 1.87 (14) 6.41 (2) . capable of producing 400 times gravity (a power-driven centrifuge is available from Soiltest. (i) Filter Papers.28 (16. Factor .0) Surface Area 9.o) . Catalog No.A. Mt.49 (2. It is important to note that all surface-area factors must be used in the calculation.36 mm mm Maximum Size 1.41 (2) .75 mm (No.5) . Inc.64 (8) 2.74 (3.36 mm (No.) 4.Lm 300 j.31 (1. complete with cups. (3) Surface Area The gradation of the aggregate of blend of aggregates employed in the mix is used to calculate the surface area of the aggregates. Add the products thus obtained and the total will represent the equivalent surface area of the sample in terms of square metres per kilogram (ft2/1b).18 mm 600 j.5 mm (3/8 in. 16) 600 j.82 (4) 1.77 (160) Surface Area .18 mm (No.14 (30) 12.75 2.29 (60) 32. 30) 300 j. different surface-area factors are necessary. 100) 75 j.Lm 150 j.21 (10..8) 3. TABLE XI-2 SURFACE AREA FACTORS Total Percent Passing Sieve No.98 mI/kg (48. 200) Percent Passing S.82 (4) 1.41 (2) ·Surface area factors shown are applicable only when all the above-listed sieves are used in the sieve analysis.Lm (No.0 mm (3/4 in.00 (4.) 4. Eaton-Dikeman Co.29 (60) 32.77 (160) . AP-275 or equivalent).87 (14) 6.7 ftI/lb) x = loo} 90 7S 60 4S 35 2S 18 10 116 . Sieve Size 19.Lm 75 j. Surface Area Factor. or equivalent). Holly Springs.41 (2) .Lm (No.64 (8) 2.8) 1. 611.4) 2. if a different series of sieves is used.Lm (No. 55 mm diameter (No.Lm (~o)(~o) ~~) (~~) (~~) (~o~) (~.9) 1. This calculation consists of multiplying the total percent passing each sieve size by a "surface-area factor" as set forth in Table XI-2. Pennsylvania. hand-operated..(h) Centrifuge.

E. this value is called the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent (C. Procedure (a) Place exactly lOOg of dry aggregate (representative of the passing 4. in which case the test is rerun.).75 mm (No.70 or less than 2.K. (Note: Duplicate samples are always prepared in order to balance the centrifuge and to check results. (c) Drain for 2 minutes. (b) Immerse sample and funnel in a beaker containing SAE No.5mm (3/8 in. values is used unless there is a large discrepancy.) sieve and retained on the 4.) (f) If the apparent specific gravity is greater than 2.(4) C. (Note: Duplicate samples are prepared to check results. (5) Surface Capacity Test for Coarse Aggregate (a) Place into a metal funnel.70 or less than 2.) (e) If the apparent specific gravity of samples is greater than 2. in which case the test is rerun. (d) Remove funnel and sample from oil and drain for 15 minutes at a temperature of 60°C (140°F).60 make a correction to the percent oil retained using the formula at the bottom of the chart in Figure XI-3.E.K.75 mm [No.4) sieve (this fraction is considered to be representative of the coarse aggregate in the mix). The average of the two C.) (d) Weigh sample after centrifuging and determine the amount of kerosene retained as a percent of the dry aggregate weight.E.E. (c) Centrifuge the saturated sample for 2 minutes at a force of 400 times gravity.K. (b) Place bottom of centrifuge cup in kerosene until the aggregate becomes saturated.4] material being used) in the tared centrifuge cup assembly fitted with a screen and a disk of filter paper.60 make a correction to the C. Average value is used unless there is a large discrepancy. 117 .K. 10 lubricating oil at room temperature for 5 minutes. (For the suggested centrifuge this force can be developed by turning the handle approximately 45 revolutions per minute. value using the formula at the bottom of the chart in Figure XI-2. exactly lOOg of dry aggregate passing the 9. (e) Weigh the sample after draining and determine the amount of oil retained as a percent of the dry aggregate weight.

coarse Apparent Specific Gravity.Kf ) is positive and is negative if (Ke .6 1. fine Percent Passing 4.64 6.9 Kf as 1. value obtained and the chart in Figure XI-2.2 percent. Kc as 0. = = = 2. Km = Kf + correction to Kf.25. Sp.(6) Estimated Optimum Emulsified Asphalt Content (a) Using the C.Kf) is negative. The correction to Kfobtained from Figure XI-4 is positive if (Ke . determine the value Km (surface constant for fine-coarse aggregate combined). coarse (corrected for specific gravity. Km as 1. With values obtained for Km. 118 . this value is 1. Apparent Specific Gravity. determine the value Ke (surface constant for coarse material).4) 100 Avg.K.E. (d) The next step is to determine the approximate asphalt ratio for the mix based on cutback asphalts of RC-250. Gr. determine the value Kf (surface constant for fine material).6 m2jkg (32.7 percent.53 ~+~ 2.E. (7) Example To demonstrate the use of the charts in Figures XI-3 through XI-7.75 mm (No. MC-250 and SC-250 grades.45 2. the oil ratio for liquid asphalt as 5. Percent Oil Retained.45 2. See Figure XI-3) From From From From Figure Figure Figure Figure XI-2 XI-3 XI-4 XI-5 determine determine determine determine = = = 5. (c) Using the values obtained for Kf and Ke and chart in Figure XI-4. Surface Area and average specific gravity use CASE 2 procedures of chart in Figure XI-5 to determine the oil ratio.K.15.8. assume the following conditions apply to a paving mix using emulsified asphalt.4 ft 2 flb) Surface Area of Aggregate Grading C. (b) Using the percent oil retained and the chart in Figure XI-3.64 = = 45 2.

K.E. with that used in Fig. gr.E. Chart for determining surface constant for fine material.65 NOTE: Do not confuse this correction to C. Corrected = C.. XI-3 m2 'Surface area.K. x sp.K.E.E. 119 .CHART FOR DETERMINING Kf FROM C. kg = ft2 0.E. Hveem method of design.K.K. C.204816Ib Figure XI-2. Kfl from C. fine 2.

2 u.5 / / V 2 j 3 4 5 6 789 PER CENT OIL RETAINED· CORRECTED FOR SP..8 L / V / .0 2.1.8 2.0 I/) . 4( ~ 1. / V 1. x sp. 1. 120 .3.Passing 9. OF AGGREGoHE Material Used: Aggregate . Chart for determining surface constant for coarse material.0 ~u / L / L 1. GR.SAE 10 % Oil Ret.2 2.75 mm (#4) Sieve Oil. Hveem method of design.6 z 4( !. gr. Corrected = % Oil Ret.4 z o u / / u w 1.4 2. Kc.65 Figure XI-3.6 2. of Coarse Aggregate 2. from coarse aggregate abs_orption.. Ret 4.5 mm (3/8")..8 ~ .

\I 1\\\ 1\ . <b.8 0.I '/ ~~~~ / h~~V~ ~ V V V V ~ ..(. is pos.1 . to K f r/ .= I . / If (K e .4 0.co C\I . \ \ 1\ \ ~ \ \ \ \ 1\ \ '1-' \ 1\ \ 1\ ~ \ \ !l g ca ca ca ~ $ t III I.../ "...CHART FOR COMBINING Kf AND Kc TO DETERMINE Km / /1/ ~./"...:: \ . . i s neg.~ 0. o -e CI) \ \. Chart for combining Kf and Kc to determine surface constant for combined aggregate...1\ \ ~ \ \ \ \ ~ ~~'8 \ \~ \ r\ .) 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 \ ~~\ 1\ 1\' l\j \ ~~ 113.". ~~ 0.2 8 0.~>~~~ .Kfl is pos. \ \ \ \ . Hveem method of design..0V / ~ 'l "/ /~ ~ -0 h 17/ V /~ r/ V~ .::. ~ \ \ \ \ 1 :2 20 10 \ 121 \ ~ \ \ \ 1\' l\ \ \ \ \ \ 1\ \ [\ \ \ \\ \ 1\ ~ ~ ~' l\ ~ Rgure XI-4.z o . corr. Km = K f + corr. If (K e .7 0.. c . corr. \ j 200 .. Q) V /~~V~'i~ V V V / ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ V~ l1 V V ~ ~ ~ ~ ~V V V V V ~ V V ~~~~ / VV / 7 V/ / / / ~~ / / / .~ t/': ~ '/ / ...3 . Km..0 <0 0 ~ 0 II N EI ni Q) ~ Cl .. :e i. o • 300 .Kfl is neg.9 N.. «l 0 «l :J (/) ./ V~ r/ 0. .6 0.5 0./ V / / ....

:: 60 >< ~ « o g - 50 .. Gr... Then down to curve corresponding to Km' Then horizontally to scale B for oil ratio.6 ..t. ~ ~ _.I' . Find surface area on scale D.(..204816ib C *10 :>.. / / / / 0 .. .K. of aggregate and percent passing 4. gr. A correction must be made for heavier cutback or paving asphalts. B 20 15 iU)() 0<-0 a :::1:3 ~CDC ~VV/V vv V VVV"V ..T MIXTURES ca :II ~~- ///V /./ ../ " 20 tv tv o 3 ~ CD :::l. V 1. 40 "/ 9 ~ 3::T !~­ (') Co g . C .I. Find percent aggregate passing 4.2 Sp.~ v ~ / '). D> o 23::l D> ca _~ oCD~ 2.. 100 90 80 > 70 iii 50 40 30 .K. 3.0 2. . of aggregate and applies directly to oil of SC -250 MC .!IIIIIIIIII'I. 10 vVV / 15 v/ 0 Correct C.0 ./. 'i' i " i' i . kg 1.4 2..1 0 0.-:. Given C..6 0.. C ~CDa../]V V cT 70 .. gr. Proceed horizontally to curve corresponding to sp.75mm (#4) sieve on scale C.75mm (#4) sieve.0~ a. on scale A. Oil ratio = Ibs.3 0... ft2 0. -0 ::T = 2 8...250 and RC .. sp.::~~ v:: v.~ 0 3 ::T m ~ 10 ~9 .. 3 "ii tf..E. V rr. i i II. 9. CD =-ca::l g ? j ~ 6 ~«'/ '). ' ./ V 30 ~~vvv ~~~V/ VVV VVVV V Case 1.. / / / . E E ~%~ ~~?::::: ::::/Vt::-~ / / 6 5 4 60 ~ :tI. and Km of aggregate. ... "..1 0.. of oil ~er iOO Ibs... gr. 0 I/) ! ! k:~~~:::::'~/V //V""'" -t roo: & 3 v//:::::VVi ~ V ~///VV ..../ / CHART FOR COMPUT1NG APPROXIMATE BITUMEN RATIO (ABA) FOR DENSE GRADED ASPtW. Given surface area.-::~/ ... as indicated by scale E.5 0... f c: '" 20 . - ~8..5 0./ / ~:..... of aggregate.) « = 8l . Intersection of straight line with scale B = oil ratio.E.3 A H B 2 m2 • Surface Area.8 3. .. 100 & 90 • 0 / /. of Aggregate ./ V ~ ~ ~ 5 4 ~ V" \~ ...2 2./~~/V 1.-: v .8 2.0 ~/'/.K. Find corrected C. V ~~~~~.E..-: . 1. ~ D> '!: ! ~ 6- 8 7 2!.""~ ~~~~V1 ".E..2 :...K. / O'? <::>'/V v ~Oj V~"'·· . V .'/ .IV '!o'.. (+1 1. sp.-:....250 grades.V .// / ::..5 E (Correction to C.. 10 9 ~ * ~ Case 2.".! 0 o « :!! ~ 20JA 15 ~ c"Q''-''..:~~/ .

tests. Apparatus for Hveem C.E.K.Figure XI-6. .

Mixing Test. % = d. TABLE XI-3 Variable Aggregate VARIABLES AFFECTING ASPHALT DISPERSION Factors Influencing Surface area (fines) Porosity Roughness Amount Type To Improve Asphalt Dispersion Decrease Decrease Decrease Increase Use anionics with calcareous aggregates (limestone). Mix Cycle Optimize.4 x CKE Oil Ratio) x 60 Emulsion Residue. 124 . Excessive mixing may induce stripping. Determination of Optimum Fluids Content at Mixing (1) General This test measures the ability of the emulsified asphalt to uniformly disperse throughout the mix.c. Decrease to reduce asphalt runoff. Increase with SS-types.4 x CKE oil ratio. Emulsified Asphalt Mixing Water Amount Mixing Operations Temperature Decrease with SS-types to prevent coalescence during the mixing cycle. Use cationics with siliceous aggregates. Emulsified Asphalt Content for Trial Mixes The trial emulsified asphalt content for dense-graded mixes is equal to 1. Oil Distillate Increase with MS-types. Insufficient mixing may give poor coating. It also allows the laboratory technician to judge the mix workability. and is adjusted to a 60 percent residue as follows: Correct Emulsified Asphalt Content (1. A number of variables have been found to influence asphalt dispersion and these are listed in Table XI-3. Decrease with most MS-types. I ncrease with MS-types.

4) material to match the grading analysis of the whole sample. 125 .75 mm (1 in. (b) Mixing Equipment. Hand mixing. and 4. if used. (d) Prepare the remainder of the aggregate by drying to constant weight at 60°C (l40°F).75 mm (No.) 4. preferably mechanized and capable of producing intimate mixtures of the job aggregate. (e) Weigh out a sufficient number of batches of the job aggregate for mixing tests. 112 in.) metal kitchen mixing spoons.0mm (1 in. The batch weight shall be based on the nominal maximum size particle in the aggregate .0 mm. water and asphalt. 19. Normally this is just enough to darken the aggregate.5 mm.. must be sufficiently thorough to uniformly disperse the water and emulsified asphalt throughout the aggregate. and No. cement) if specified... (d) Supply of round bottom mixing bowls (approximately 5 litre (5 qt. (3) Procedure (a) Obtain representative samples of each emulsified asphalt to be considered for the project.. 5. Note: In areas where the addition or removal of water is uneconomical.000 grams minimum 1.OOOg minimum capacity and accurate to within ± 0.5 mm (1/2 in. 9. (b) Obtain representative samples of the job aggregate or aggregate blend.) capacity).5 mm.see below: Nominal Maximum Particle Size 25.5 g. ([) A one-hundred millilitre glass graduate. (e) Supply of 250 mm (10 in.(2) Equipment (a) Balance.4) Batch Weight 2. (c) Determine the moisture content on the aggregate according to ASTM D 2216 procedure and record. (g) Add and incorporate the minimum amount of mixing water required to achieve coating.200 grams minimum 750 grams minimum 500 grams minimum Note: These batches should be prepared by reblending exact fractions of plus 4. (f) Put one batch of aggregate in the mixing bowl and incorporate the additive (Le. Separate into sizes using the following sieves: 25.4).0 mm.75 mm (No.0mm (3/4 in.75 mm (No. 12. 3/8 in. mixes should be made at the in-<)itu moisture content.) 19. (c) Hot Plate or 110 ± 5° C (230 ± 9° F) oven.4) material with minus 4.) 12. 3/4 in.

1 mm (1. It is expressed as weight percent of dry aggregate. in an amount as detennined by the "correct emulsified asphalt content" of Par. b.5 in. Compactor accessories.05 (c). ' .6 mm (4 in. 11. mixing process and anticipated rate of the emulsion mixture cure will also influence the selection of the type and grade of emulsified asphalt.06 OPTIMUM FLUIDS CONTENT FOR COMPACTION a. * Mixing time may be shortened to 30 seconds if segregation in the mixture is noticed.) high.2 mm (. Special/eeder trough.) diameter x 127 mm (5 in. Mixes which are excessively stiff or sloppy should be rejected.(h) The emulsified asphalt. Mixes will be considered suitable if they have a minimum of 75 percent coating if used as a surface and 50 percent if used as a base. added mixing water and natural water content of the aggregate. 100 mm (4 in.000 lb. Mixes which strip or stiffen excessively on mixing are also considered unsatisfactory.) high. meeting the requirements of ASTM Method D 1561. re-run a new batch with an additional increment of water and observe for suitability as before. 2) Workability.) wide and 405 mm (16 in.) long.7 mm (5. Repeat until a satisfactoryappearing mix is obtained.) outside diameter x 139. Judge the suitability of the finished mix by the unifonnity of the color (best judged by drying a small portion of the batch on a hot plate). Equipment (1) Mechanical compactor. Mixes which become excessively soupy with additional water and segregate on standing are considered unsatisfactory.985 in.2 mm (3. 101. is added to the damp aggregate and mixed. 3) Job Conditions.) high stainless steel molds. and the other ram 101. 11.) capacity. The availability of water at the construction site. and a mold holder. This optimum fluids content at mixing is used for establishing weight proportions of subsequent batches. The mix cycle should simulate field mixing operations (generally a I-minute cycle* with a laboratory mechanical mixer or a 2-minute spoon bowl mix is sufficient). 126 . As close as possible to 100 percent coating is preferred. If unsatisfactory. (i) Selection of the emulsified asphalt for the project shall be based upon the following considerations: 1) Coating. "Com- (2) (3) (4) (5) paction of Test Specimens of Bituminous Mixtures by Means of California Kneading Compactor. The mix should be workable.) outside diameter x 38. Tw%l/ower rams.5 in. General The optimum fluids content for compaction is detennined as well as the fabrication of all test specimens using a light kneading compaction followed by a double plunger static load.985 in. Compression testing machine.3. one ram 101. 222 kN (50. Spottiness denotes an unsatisfactory mix (usually due to insufficient water or improper mixing properties of the emulsion). (j) The total fluids content at mixing of the satisfactory mix is computed by adding percentages of the asphalt emulsion.

Transfer of mix to mold. Figure XI-S. 127 . Rodding mix in mold. Mechanical kneading compactor. Figure XI-g.Figure XI-7.

200 grams each of this mix for the fluids-density curve specimens.5 mm (3/8 in. (7) Bullet-nosed steel rod. One batch will be compacted immediately with the remaining batches loose-cured (aerated) prior to compaction so as to produce lower fluids contents (minimum of 3 points required to establish optimum). Rod the mix 20 times in the center of the mass and 20 times around the edge with a bullet-nosed steel rod 9. in which a free-fitting plunger is placed below the sample as well as on top.). it may not be possible to accomplish compaction in the mechanical compactor because of the undue movement of these mixtures under the compactor foot.(9)] under the bottom edge of mold.) diameter. In some instances with sandy or unstable material. 9. Optimum Fluids for Compaction ( 1) Prepare a mix at the fluids content as developed by the procedures of Par. 7 M Pa (250 psi) pressure to accomplish preliminary consolidation of the mix. push one-half of the mix into the mold.7 M Pa (250 psi).) long.) or if fluids exude from the base of the compaction mold. The exact number of blows to accomplish the initial compaction shall be determined by observation. stop the compactor and clean the foot. (6) Remove the mold from the holder and apply a 178 kN (40.5 mm (l /4 in.5 mm (% in. c. Reduce the level of the static load if excess fluids exude from the compaction mold and proceed to step (7).(6) Metal paddle to fit feeder trough. the mix may adhere to the compactor foot.) long (Figure XI-8). The fluids content resulting in the highest dry density is optimum for compaction. (8) A plot is made of dry density versus fluids content at compaction. (9) Metal plate. 6.) diameter by 405 mm (16 in. Using paddle.5 mm (21/2 in. When this occurs. Load at a rate of about 1. (3) Place a mold in the mold holder. 128 .4 mm (1/4 in. Slide the metal insert plate [Item 11. Use heat on the compactor foot only if necessary to prevent sticking.lmin) and maintain the full load for one minute and release. (2) Weigh at least three batches of approximately 1. Note: This is used to give temporary support during the preliminary compaction step. 11. depending upon the type of material. Note: Occasionally. (4) Place the mold holder containing the mix into the kneading compactor (Figure XI-9).5 mm (3Js in. As a first step in the compaction of all specimens. 405 mm (16 in. After extrusion.06 b.000 lb. Apply approximately 20 tamping blows at 1. (5) Start the compactor and adjust the tamper foot pressure to 1. and proceed to step (6). Then.01 in. (7) Specimens shall be cured for one day in the mold at room temperature and then extruded. approximately 9.) static load by the double plunger method. push the remainder of the mix into the mold and repeat the rodding procedure.05 in.25 mm (0.) thick. the bulk specific gravities of the specimens are determined by displacement in water (ASTM D 1188 or D 2726). (8) A devicefor measuring the height oftest specimens to the nearest 0. The number of blows may vary between 10 and 50.) wide and 63.05.) long.3 mm/min (0. Discontinue compaction if the compactor foot penetrates more than 6. the mix will be spread uniformly on the feeder trough as shown in Figure XI-7.

The curing procedure used in defining this strength is given. Procedure ( 1) One of the two specimens compacted at each asphalt content using the procedures of Par. Calibration details are supplied by the instrument manufacturer. General The rate at which emulsified asphalt mixes cure or develop tensile strength is important. 11. (2) Remove the specimen(s) from the mold and vacuum desiccate for 4 days (Figure XI-II). The horizontal response to the applied load is measured by a pair of transducers mounted in a yoke that is clamped to the specimen (Figure XI -II).150 grams) to fabricate each 101.K. California 94607. Oakland. Equipment Resilient Modulus apparatus and support equipment as manufactured by Retsina Company. and loose cure (aerate) the mix to the optimum fluids content determined by the procedures of Par. Mr. Adjust the total pressure to 10-20 mm of Hg.SoC (73 ± 5°F). This would include trial mixes at emulsified asphalt contents of 1.) in height. 1.) diameter specimen.E. Specimen Fabrication for Strength Testing (1) Use approved mix as developed following the procedures of Par.1 second pulsed load every 3 seconds across the diameter of the test specimen (Figure XI-IO). A number of factors including the aggregate gradation. (b) Calibration Primary calibration of the instrument is made with a Lansing Instrument Differential Translator. 63. 11. b. type and amount of emulsion.5 in. replace with fresh Drierite and desiccate for an additional day. while only one specimen for each trial emulsified asphalt content is required for permanent surfaces.07 STRENGTH TESTING a. The equipment used for determining M r consists of a repetitive loading device which applies a 0. indicated by pink color.06c. (Note: Fill the bottom of the desiccator with Drierite to facilitate removal of water.05 for strength test specimens. If the Drierite is spent. Oil Ratio adjusted to a 60 percent residue.5 mm (2. This procedure measures one strength parameter of the mix using the Resilient Modulus Test which is the final modulus (M f ). 11.6 mm (4 in.7 times the C. 601 Brush Street. The electrical output from the transducers is amplified and shown on a recording meter designed to hold the deflection long enough for the operator to record the reading.06 will be cured by placing the mold in a horizontal postion for a total of 72 hours at a temperature of 23 ± 2. c.7°C (73 ± 3°F) as outlined below.) (3) Determine the specimen's final modulus (M f ) at 23 ± 1.d.1. (2) Weigh sufficient mix (approximately 1. type and amount of additive. 11. 129 . (a) Resilient Modulus Test.4 and 1. Secondary and load calibration is made with a proving ring. construction and climatic conditions must be assessed by the engineer in determining the rate of tensile strength development. Two specimens will be required at each of the trial emulsified asphalt contents selected for bases and temporary wearing surfaces.

3. Reset the zero knob if one of the zero indicator pilot lights is on and make another measurement. If the reading is out of range change the multiplier to a higher or lower value. Deflection readings should normally agree within 10 percent.) 4) Lift the loading shaft and place the top loading block on the specimen. However.45 x 104 kPa (5 x 103 psi) can be measured. MR values as low as 3. Adjust the zero control until the meter reads just above zero (Figure XI-15).(c) Temperature Control The Mr of an asphalt treated mix is dependent on the stiffness of the asphalt binder. (d) Me Measurements 1) Place the yoke assembly on the holder (Figure XI-12). 130 . (Note: Do not lift by the yoke. keeping the sample centered and square in the yoke. 7°C (73 ± 3°F) before testing. 12) Rotate the sample 1.) is used on sound dry specimens having modulus values ranging from 6. Consequently the M r is quite dependent on the temperature of the specimen. Allow the shaft to seat against the ball on top of the loading block (Figure XI-14).. Sometimes a specimen is non-isotropic and a larger difference exists. 3) Place the assembly in the loading device and align on the centering strip. Gently tighten the four clamping screws. Equilibrate all specimens and the yoke assembly at least 2 hours at the temperatures of 23 ± 1. i. Back out the four clamping screws and gently insert the 100 mm (4-in. 5) Zero the recording meter. Usually 0.89 x 105 to 3. 7) Set the pressure regulator to the desired load (Figure XI -16).0 is obtained. until both the high and low pilot lights are out. 9) Set the mode switch to operate.14 radians (180°) from the bottom centering strip. Set the multiplier knob to 100 and tum on the meter.0 is obtained on the meter.33 kN (75 lb. lower pressures may be required to minimize specimen damage. Tighten the advancement screw on the other transducer until an additional increase of 1.) diameter sample into the center of the yoke. Place the sample squarely on the centering strip. Choice of load depends on the strength of the specimen.57 rad (90°) and repeat measurements. Use only enough pressure to keep the yoke from falling off the sample (Figure XI-13).e. Some instruments use manometers to measure the air pressure--others use pressure transducers.45 X 107 kPa (105 to 5 X 106 psi). 10) Record the deflection in microinches on the meter. 11) More complete operating details are supplied by the instrument manufacturer. 2) Back out the thumb screw so that the transducer levers are clear. 6) Tighten one of the transducer advancement screws until an increased meter reading of about 1. 8) Reset the zero knob to just above zero.

Transducers and Mryoke. Resilient modulus device. 131 . Figure XI·11.Figure XI·10.

Tightening Mrclamping screws. Seating Mr specimen on loading block. 132 .Figure XI-12. Figure XI-14. Mr yoke on holder. Figure XI-13.

4K. Metric 1000 P ('Y + 0. A = o ~\\\ ~0 ~\ \ \ .. Adjusting Mr recording meter. Figure XI-16. tA tA dynamic load in kN (lb) U.l I///h 4 6 ~~/ 10 MICROINCHES WESTON Figure XI-1S. Customary P ('Y + 0. mm (in.13) Calculate the M r as follows: S.S. 133 .\ \ \ \ \\ \ IIIIII1111111II 111. tA P = 'Y = 0.2734) = tA Mr = Mr = o 6234R.35 (assumed for Poisson's ratio) t = thickness of specimen. .) deflection in I-Lm (microinches) obtained by multiplying the meter reading by the multiplier.1. .2734) = 623. Adjusting Mr pressure regulator.

15 micro inches Mr Mr = = 0. = 3.5mm -7 6.WeRe b . (5) Calculate the volume of air and asphalt as follows: Va Vb Vsa = = 100 . 100 Gsa Vmb Wm Gmb = Ws = Vmb W Where: Va Vb Vsa Vmb Wb = .333 616 6kN = = = 75lb 2.5 in.S.6234 x 75 6 2.246. Metric U. = 63.81 x 10Mr P t = 0.5 x 3. Customary P t 6.100 Volume of air (percent of total mix) Volume of asphalt in mix (percent of total mix) Volume of aggregate (by apparent specific gravity percent of total mix) Bulk volume of compacted mix Weight of asphalt = = = = 134 .4 x 0.800psi (4) Measure the bulk specific gravity of the specimen according to ASTM D 1188 or D 2726.(Vb + Vsa> Wb.5 x 15 x 10- = 8596383 kPa 1.3 336 166 Mr= 7 63. 100 Gb Vmb .1.81 x 10 ~m 623.Sample Calculation: S.

= = = = = = 11.Gb Ws Wm Gmb Gsa We Re = Specific gravity of asphalt Weight of dry aggregate Weight of dry compacted mix Bulk specific gravity of dry compacted mix Aggregate apparent specific gravity Weight of emulsified asphalt Percent residue of emulsified asphalt. Figure XI-17.08 MOISTURE EXPOSURE AND STABILITY AND COHESION TESTING a. 135 . (2) Equipment (a) Vacuum apparatus shown in Figure XI-17. expressed as a whole number. General Dense-graded mixtures used in the base course or as a temporary wearing surface are evaluated for early strength and fully-cured strength after vacuum saturation. Vacuum manometer and desicator. b. Vacuum Saturation (1) General This test simulates the effect of prolonged exposure to subsurface water on densegraded base mixtures.

(b) Place the specimen into the vacuum apparatus and cover with water (desiccant should be removed from the vacuum apparatus before filling with water). (d) Slowly release the vacuum and allow the specimen to soak in water for one hour. Resistance R-Value Test (1) General This test is used to measure the stability or bearing capacity of dense-graded base mixtures at a test temperature of 23 ± 2.) capacity. by the specimen during vacuum saturation as follows: Aw _ AB P = AD x 100. this test is performed on the "fully cured" specimens that are vacuum saturated as described in Par.000 lb. 11. 136 . P. (b) Testing machine.8°C (73 ± 5°F) (no moisture exposure). (g) Dry the entire specimen to constant weight at 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°F).(b) Vacuum pump capable of pulling 100 mm of Hg. of the specimen from the resilient modulus testing. (f) Determine the Stabilometer (R-value) and Cohesiometer (C-value) as subsequently described. (2) Equipment (a) Hveem stabilometer and accessories (see Figure XI-I8). Record this weight as AD. (3) Procedure (a) Record the weight. (e) Remove the specimen. Also. surface dry. Hveem stablometer. (c) Evacuate the desiccator to 100 mm of Hg and hold for one hour. An early Resistance R-value is determined on "early cure" specimens fabricated by the procedures of Par. reweigh and record this weight as Aw . (h) Calculate percent Moisture Pick-up. 11. AB.06 after curing in the mold in a horizontal position for a total of 24 hours at a temperature of 23 ± 2. Figure XI-18. cool to room temperature and weigh. 222 kN (50.8°C (73 ± 5°F).08 (b). c.

(b) Transfer the specimens to the stabilometer. Tap the stabilometer dial lightly with fingers in order to be sure the needle is resting on 34.54 mm (0. Set the turns displacement indicator dial to zero. The turns indicator dial should then read 2.000 and 2. During this operation.) and each 2.224. (g) Record the number of turns indicated on the dial as the displacement of the specimen.0254 mm (0.5 kPa (5 psi). If it does not.80 and 160 psi). [Vertical pressures are 276. the air in the cell must be adjusted by means of the rubber bulb.05 in.3 mm (0. 2) Put a metal dummy specimen in place in the stabilometer. Tum pump handle at approximately two turns per second until the stabilometer reads 689 kPa (100 psi).000 lb.) (f) Tum the displacement pump so that the horizontal pressure is reduced to exactly 34. 1.] (d) Start vertical movement of testing machine platen at speed of 1.448 kN (1.05 in. 3) Adjust testing machine to give a constant movement of 1. The turns indicator dial reads in 0.1 in. Crank the pump to a pressure of exactly 34. and the displacement measurement must be repeated after each air change until the proper number of turns is obtained. Thus. and 1.) is equal to one tum. Apply a load of from 0.5 kPa (5 psi) pressure should be exact as a deviation of only 7 kPa (l psi) has considerable effect on the final value. Release horizontal and vertical pressures and remove dummy specimen.5 kPa (5 psi) pressure.) per minute with no load applied. the vertical load registered on the testing machine will increase and in some cases exceed the initial 4. these changes in testing machine loading are characteristic and no adjustment or compensation is required.) load.448.000 lb. and 8. [The 34.5 kPa (5 psi).) per minute.89 kN (100 to 200 lb. This will result in a further reduction in the vertical loading reading which is normal and for which no compensation is made. a reading of 6.00 + 0.5 kPa (5 psi).896 kN (2.) on the testing machine dial to the dummy specimen to make certain the dummy is held firmly in place. As before. Perform all tests at this stage setting.50 turns were made with the displacement pump. and record the stabilometer gauge readings when the vertical forces are 2. 4.] (e) Stop vertical loading exactly at 8.000 lb. Adjust the turns indicator dial to zero. The stabilometer is now ready for testing specimens.552.103 kPa (40.05 turns.250 in. 137 . Tum pump handle at approximately two turns per second until the stabilometer gauge reads 689 kPa (100 psi).896 kN (500.) indicates that 2.001 in.) and immediately reduce to a load of 4.448 kN (1.(3) Procedure (a) Calibrate the displacement of the stabilometer by the following procedure: I) Adjust bronze nut on stabilometer stage base so that the top of the stage is 89 mm (31/2 in.) total load.000 lb.) below the bottom of the upper tapered ring.3 mm (0.445 to 0. The hydraulic machines must be run several minutes before oil warms sufficiently to maintain a constant speed.35 mm (0. (c) Place follower on top of specimen and crank pump to give a horizontal pressure of 34.

69 kN (6. remove the specimen and immediately test for cohesiometer value (Par.(h) Calculate the Resistance R-value from the following formula: R = 100 _ 2.448 kN (1.).3 mm (0. Set the turns displacement indicator dial to zero. (c) Transfer the specimen to the stabilometer. Stabilometer S-Value (1) General This test measures the stability or bearing capacity of compacted fully cured permanent dense-graded surface mixes (no moisture exposure).).448 and each 4. and record the stabilometer gauge readings when the vertical forces are 2. 222 kN (50.) thereafter up to 22. (i) Every attempt should have been made to fabricate test specimens having an overall height between 62 mm (2.000 lb.). d.224. if for some reason this was not possible.5 kPa (5 psi).000 lb. the R-value should be corrected as indicated on the chart for correcting R-values to height of 64 mm (2. (e) Stop vertical loading exactly at 26. 4. Tum pump handle at approximately two turns per second until the stabilometer gauge reads 689 kPa (100 psi)..08f).000 and each 1.) capacity. (f) Tum the displacement pump so that the horizontal pressure is reduced to exactly 34.5 in. This will result in a further reduction in the vertical loading reading which is normal and for which no compensation is made.) per min.000 lb.24 kN (5.) and immediately reduce the load to 4. (Figure XI-20.55 in. 138 . (b) Calibrate the displacement of the stabilometer (see Par. 11. (b) Testing machine. However.45 in.05 in. 11.5 D (P 100 v_ Ph 1) + 1 Where: P v = 1 103 kPa ( 160 psi) vertical pressure D = turns displacement reading Ph = horizontal pressure [stabilometer gauge reading for 1 103 kPa(16Opsi ) vertical pressure)] The chart for determining R-value from stabilometer data (Figure XI-19) is normally used to solve the above formula. (2) Equipment (a) Hveem stabilometer and accessories (see Figure XI-18).8°C (140 ± 5°F) oven for 2 hours before testing.000 lb. (3) Procedure (a) Place the specimens for test in 60 ± 2.000 lb. 1.448 kN (500.). (d) Start vertical movement of testing machine platen at speed of 1.08d (3».) (j) Upon completion of R -value determination.) and 65 mm (2.

.... 0 0 where Py = 160psi .894 757 to obtain kPa. . ..5 4 5 150 140 4. GI 70 60 50 40 30 . a: . E . Chart for determining R-value from stabllometer data. E i.. C II III .... . ..:. multiply psi by 6..0 100 R = 100 10 130 1) + 1 120 110 30 100 90 80 ::(~d Ph 20 3.:.0 5 Figure XI-19.. GI GI '" Q.5 20 90 10 2. 139 ..0 1..5 ....5.g... II c. GI CI. 2..0 2 3 155 4. o .s= ..!e ct: 0 . I'tl CI.s= . I ii !J I :I ..

5 mm (2. by 25..250 in. (g) Record the number of turns indicated on the dial as the displacement of the specimen.). multiply in.001 in.000 lb. This measurement is known as turns displacement of the specimen.J > I Q:.0254mm(0.) is equal to one turn.35 mm (0.50 turns were made with the displacement pump.) and each 2.) load.1 in.4 to obtain mm During this operation the vertical load registered on the testing machine will increase and in some cases exceed the initial 4. Q:. ILl c( :::> .54 mm (0.) indicates that 2. Thus. 140 . The turns indicator dial reads in 0.80 o ILl o ~ ILl o o Q:. these changes in testing machine loading are characteristic and no adjustment or compensation is required.50 in.448 kN (1. R-VALUE BEFORE HEIGHT CORRECTION Figure XI-20. Chart for correcting R-values to height of 63. As before. a reading of 6.

) total load] Ph = horizontal pressure . (3) Procedure (a) Cohesiometer tests are performed on the same specimens previously tested in the stabilometer.) (Figure XI-2I).) lever arm at the rate of 1800 ± 20gperminute.222 Where: S = stabilometer value D2 = displacement on specimen (turns) Pv = vertical pressure [typically 2 758 kPa (400 psi) = 22.24 kN (5.8°C (73 ± 5°F) for testing base and 60 ± 2.8°C (140 ± 5°F) for surface mixes.55 in.stabilometer pressure gauge reading taken at the instant Pv is 2 758 kPa (400 psi) or 22.. centered. (d) Lock device in position with release pin. iffor some reason this was not possible. and with top plates parallel with top surface of specimen . Clamp firmly in position. (j) Upon completion of S-value determination. However. remove specimen and immediately test for cohesiometer value (Par.) and 65 mm (2. (b) Calibrate cohesiometer device so that the shot (or liquid) will flow into the receiving bucket at the end of760 mm (30 in. (e) Pull release pin and allow shot flow to continue until the specimen breaks. Permit temperature in cohesiometer cabinet to equilibrate to the desired temperature before starting the test.08f). (2) Equipment (a) Cohesiometer (see Figure XI-22).(h) Calculate the stabilometer S-value from the following formula: S 22. II. e. Cohesiometer Test (1) General This test provides a measure of the cohesive resistance or tensile strength of the compacted mixture.45 in.000 lb. 141 . (c) Adjust heating unit in cabinet of cohesiometer device to maintain a temperature of 23 ± 2. indicated by a sudden drop of beam.5 in.).2 + 0.000 lb.) total load (i) Every attempt should have been made to fabricate test specimens having an overall height between 62 mm (2.24 kN (5. the S-value should be corrected as indicated on the chart for correcting S-values to a height of 64 mm (2.

.'-'-'+-~~~~~~-?~--~--~--~--1 • .. . • ••• t .60 (2.-. Q) 30~·_·_·_·~t. • • .. •• f • • •• : : : : I : : :: :::: j : : : : ... t .•••• f •••• .... -g - ....• • • • j .'-+--' . . ...-. .r._.•• 1 •••• u .••. . .) Height correction should be made using the table and chart below. . .....• ...) in.---+--. ..--_ . • ..CHART FOR CORRECTING STABILOMETER VALUES TO SPECIMEN HEIGHT OF 64 mm (2... -I I... . .-.19 in.-. •• . .•. .• . ' .-_... .._...-~.39 2.. •••• I ..~..._-~~~ .-. . .•.) in.. . in..-. • ... . · ..._.• + • . ~ · . ...-..) Correction Curve A B C D E ABC 0 E 50r-------~------~------~------. I •. Q) ~ .. •• t ••• ·l-:-· . ....~.. •.-.. . I .74 in..-. · ..... .• • ••• + . ...-. .... . in._~_.50 in.•• t····~ - ~~ .- . ::::::::: ::::I:::: 10 20 30 40 50 Stabilometer Value Before Height Correction Figure XI-21.. ! . . ~-~ --t--------.-.~.._.••• • .... . . .•. ! . • ••• t •••• : : : : I : : :: ····1···· • .-... . • • • •••••••... · .. .... ... .' -- en I0 r---+--:~~~-ifI'C---+---t----+-.-.•• t • • ••• ---. Stabilometer value uncorrected 35 Stabilometer value corrected 38._. t • . . .------t----' o U ~ ·. ..) select correction curve "B".. . +..r....--+---+----r--.-. in. t .--.--. ... ..• t .-.80 (2. . ' · .--. . in..-.•. to to to to to 3.. • ... I ... t • • •• .-..r_~_r~--1 • • • • •. . .-.. E o .. t· .40 (2.• . .59 2.. I ._. . . 71 mm 66mm 61mm 56mm 51mm to to to to to 76mm 70mm 65mm 60mm 55mm (2...•• t ~. .. t ••• I · ... ~ t I • • • . .. .....'-.. .).-..'~.----+-.• j •••• .....••.. Chart for correcting stabllometer values to effective specimen height of 64 mm (2..--.-'_. . • • ...-~.-. • .'. Q) •. • ••• • • ••• •.. .'_'.•.+-~~~~--~~~~------~ . I' ..) in.. • • .. Example: Overall height of 69 mm (2.. . ... I .--... .•• - •• - Q) ~ 20~..) in. .~-+---_+_~~ i .-~.. . t·' .. .• .t .•• -+ ._.-...•• • ••• .5 in. ••. .~.. .j • . .-t-. • ••• 1 • • • • • ••• t ••. . · . . 60 142 .00 2..r---~~~~+-~+-..00 in. . ..20 (2. .. ... • ::J · .-·-._.• ••.:...79 2.•. • . . = = Overall Specimen Ht. •• - ~ ~ ----+_. •._.-. •••• ~ 40~. •••• ~... t .. t •••• ::::I:::: · . ..-.•. . t ..

(h) Calculate cohesiometer value. as: C = _______________ L W (0.8°C (73 ± 5°F)] .45 64 65 66 67 69 70 2.) width corrected to a 75 mm (3 in.360 0.340 0. Resistance R t Value Calculate the Resistance R t Value for base and temporary wearing surfaces according to the following formula: Rt R C = R + 0.322 0.) Cohesiometer values may also be obtained by mUltiplying the weight of shot necessary to break the specimen by factors established for various heights of 100 mm (4 in.75 Example: Assume that it takes 600 g of shot to break a certain specimen which has a 100 mm (4 in.40 2. Factor 0.35 2. C.50 2.) height.30 2.50 in.) from horizontal.297 0.55 2.313 0. TABLE 4 mm MULTIPLYING FACTORS FOR COHESIOMETER VALUES Factor 0.t in.382 0.044H2) Where: C = cohesiometer value (g per mm (in. Cohesiometer value = 600 x 0.371 0.60 2.283 56 57 58 60 61 62 2. Height in.05 C = Resistance R-Value [23 ± = Cohesiometer C-Value [23 143 2.) height L = weight of shot in grams W = diameter or width of specimen in mm (in.) H = height of specimen in mm (in.290 0.) diameter (or width) specimens.8°C (73 ± 5°F)] ± 2.322 = 193.349 0. the flow of shot is stopped when the end of the 760 mm (30 in.25 2.20H + 0.) beam has lowered 13 mm (112 in.331 mm Heigh.70 2.) diameter and 64 mm (2.(f) In the event that the specimen is flexible or ductile rather than brittle.305 0. The factors used are shown in Table XI-4.65 2. g. (g) Weigh shot caught in receiving bucket to the nearest gram and record as shot weight.20 2.

09 DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CONTENT An optimum emulsified asphalt content is established on the basis of the best combination of stability. :::::::1«:: IllUSTRATION Of MANNEI IN WHICH SPECIMEN BlEAU 11.~L- SHOT CONTIOI Figure XI-22. density and maximum resistance to water in addition to meeting the minimum requirements of Table XI-5.STATIONAlY PlATES r---."'OVAllE PlATfS SHOT SVPl'tY WEIGHT . TEST __~--VSPECIMEN 1~~~~rr==~===~=======. Diagrammatic sketch showing principal features of the Hveem cohesiometer. 144 . COUNTEI.

8°C) ( 73 ± 5°F) EarlyCureB Fully cured and water immersed b 70 min.8°C) (140 ± 5°F) COHESIOMETER C-VALUE at (23 ± 2. 100 min. Test Property RESISTANCE Rt-VALUE at (23 ± 2. 75min.8°C (73 ± 5°F) vacuum desiccated for 4 days followed by water immersion for one hour under vacuum and one hour without vacuum. Cured in mold for total of 72 hours at temperature of 23 ± 2. NA 100min. Surface Mixtures NA NA 30min. 78 min. NA 50min.TABLE XI-5 DESIGN CRITERIA FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIXES Base Mixtures EarlyCure B Fully cured and water immersed b STABILOMETER S-VALUE at (60 ± 2. NA 50min.8°C (73 ± 5°F).8°C) (73 ± 5°F) COHEISIOMETER C-VALUE at (60 ± 2. N A Not Applicable NOTE: Besides meeting the above requirements.A. not too stiff or sloppy).. N. the mix must be reasonably workable (Le. 145 .8°C) (140 ± 5°F) AGGREGATE COATING (%) a b Cured in mold for total of 24 hours at temperature of 23 ± 2.

0 . 12. 2.03 ASPHALTS Two types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing.0 6. Chapter VII. 147 . Specifications (ASTM) for these asphalt materials are given in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this manual.6. Porous aggregates are those which absorb more than 2 percent water by dry weight when tested by ASTM Method C 127. Not less than 65 percent by weight of material must have at least one fractured face. Percent by Weight of Aggregate· Open Graded Coarse Medium Fine 4.0 • With porous aggregates the emulsified asphalt content should be increased by a factor of approximately 1.01 SCOPE This outline covers the design of open-graded emulsified asphalt mixtures for base and surface courses.02 AGGREGATES Aggregate for open-graded emulsified asphalt pavements should be sound. The selected aggregate may be any mineral that meets the requirements of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard D 692. 12. Design criteria for open-graded mixtures are also presented.5 . Recommended gradations for open-graded emulsion mixtures are shown in Table VII-4. Trial mixes should be prepared to determine the maximum emulsified asphalt content that can be used within the range that meets the mix-design requirements. 12. clean and free from flat and elongated pieces. These are designated as slow setting (SS) and medium setting (MS). Loss when subjected to the Los Angeles Abrasion Test must not be greater than 40 percent. of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual.04 SELECTION OF TRIAL EMULSION CONTENT The emulsified asphalt content for trial mixes for open-graded aggregates shall be as specified in Table XII-l.8.CHAPTER XII PROCEDURAL OUTLINE AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE DESIGN METHOD FOR OPEN-GRADED MIXES 12. TABLE XII-1 SELECTION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT AMOUNT Type Approximate Emulsified Asphalt Content.0 -7.5 5.2. with the following amendments: 1.

Tared Weight x 100 Batch Aggregate Weight If the three characteristics (coating. increase the water content in fixed increments until a satisfactory mix is obtained. add enough water to just darken the aggregate (the amount of which is a function of nominal maximum particle size).05 MIXING TEST This test measures the ability of the emulsified asphalt to uniformly disperse throughout the mix.) 148 . It also allows the laboratory technician to judge the mix workability. % = Final Weight .) Allow the mix to drain for 30 minutes. Place the container with the runoff in a 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°F) oven and dry to a constant weight. (See Figure XII-I. For a given emulsion content. The process is repeated for each trial emulsion content. Remove the mix from the funnel and judge it for coating and workability. Then add the selected amount of emulsion and mix for 30 seconds using a mechanical mixer.Figure XU-1. 20) mesh wire screen funnel that has been positioned over a tared litre (quart) container. The objective is to determine the maximum emulsified asphalt content that can be used within the range that meets the mix design requirements.Lm (No. A number of variables have been found to influence asphalt dispersion and these are listed in Table XI-3 of Method A. (Note: The mixing fluids content [asphalt and water] for open-graded mixes is assumed to be at optimum for compaction. Determine the final weight and compute the runoff as: Runoff. 12. Immediately pour or spoon the mixture into an 850 J. Wire screen funnel. workability and runoff) arejudged to be unsatisfactory.

and then pouring 200 cm 3 of water over the sample and collecting the washoff in a tared container. on a 125 mm (5 in. 0.06 MIX CURING AND RESILIENT MODULUS TESTING Prepare two specimens at the emulsion and water content established as optimum in the mixing test. percent Runoff. Surface Mixture * 75. percent Combined (runoff & washoff). * Usually requires a surface treatment.) 12. 12. " The percent of washoff is computed as: Washoff.) The second specimen. percent Washoff. from Par. 20) mesh wire screen supported by a pedestal. percent 50. Damage from washoff as a result of rainfall is generally not a problem after 24 hours under favorable curing conditions. It may be used for establishing pavement layer thickness.5 max. 11.5 max.0 min.000 lb. After allowing the specimen to drain for 30 minutes. (The Mr is not part of the actual mix design since criteria have not been established. This involves placing the specimen. of Aggregate in Specimen 12. while still in its mold.) 149 .) square 850 fJ.07.5 max.0min. This specimen is then tested for diametrial resilient modulus. 0. Compact them using the kneading compactor followed by a 178 kN (40. See Par. Strength Testing. 0. Mr. The residue weight after drying is computed as the' 'residual asphalt washoff.) double-plunger static load (see Par.08 DESIGN CRITERIA To be acceptable. (See Chapter VII.12. One specimen is cured for 72 hours in the mold at room conditions and then vacuum desiccated (with a residual pressure of 10 to 20 mm of Hg) for four additional days.m (No.5 max. is cured for 24 hours in the mold at room conditions and subjected to the washoff test. 0. the washoff is dried to a constant weight in an oven at a temperature of 110 ± 5°C (230 ± 9°P). % = Wt.5 max. 11.06 above. the mix must satisfy the design criteria as follows: Base Mixture Coating. of Residual Asphalt Washoff x 100 Wt.5 max. Method A. 0.07 WASHOFF TEST (Open-graded mixes are evaluated for damage by surface water if rain is a possibility on a project within a short period after laydown. 0.06c).

151 . and Table VII-4.) For open-graded mixtures. 13. successful results with local aggregates yielding lower H veem stabilities have been experienced on low volume roads. A A b.02. Hveem stability values above 30 are recommended.CHAPTER XIII PROCEDURAL OUTLINE AND DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THE McCONNAUGHAV DESIGN METHOD FOR COLD MIXTURES 13.07 x B + (0. 12. 13.04 PART A-DETERMINATION OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT CONTENT AND CURED MIX STABILITY This procedure is used to determine the emulsified asphalt content and to indicate the H veem * stability of the mixture in its cured state. The McConnaughay method. aggregates should conform to the requirements of Par. The Asphalt Institute." (See Appendix B. this manual.A) X 100 R * For a description of the Hveem and Marshall test. For average traffic conditions.03 x C)] x 100 A 1(1. 1. Generally well-graded aggregates will develop Hveem stabilities in the 35 to 45 range.00 .) 2. E = (Base Mix) = [(0.2.01 x C)] x 100 OR (Surface Mix) = [(0.06 x B) + (0. gradations containing appreciable fines may require aeration. Specifications (ASTM) for these asphalt materials are given in Tables II-I and II-2 of this manual. However.and dense-graded emulsified asphalt cold mixtures.03 ASPHALTS Two types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing. Estimate an initial emulsified asphalt content based on dry aggregate weight as follows: a. These are designated as slow setting (SS) and medium setting (MS). Manual Series No. Determine the residue content of the emulsion to be used by ASTM D 244. 13. "Residue and Oil Distillate by Distillation. (Generally. A minimum of three (3) emulsified asphalt contents should be tested. has been applied for the most part to mixtures made with high float (HFMS) type of emulsion. while not limited. see Mix Design Methods for Asphalt Concrete and Other Hot-Mix Types.01 SCOPE This outline covers the design procedure and criteria for open.02 AGGREGATES Dense-graded aggregates meeting requirements of Table VII-5 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual are among those suitable for emulsified asphalt mixtures.

Step 2)." 2. Place the sample while still in the mold in an 60°C (140°F) oven for 2 hours. that is. A (Base Mix) = [(0. Determine moisture content of the aggregate. weigh the required amount of emulsion on to the cold pre-weighted aggregate. 3. it may be necessary to aerate the mixture prior to compaction.) • ASTM D 244. Estimate the initial emulsified asphalt content (Par. proceed to Step 4. 7.4) sieve R = Percent residue by distillation (Step 1) E = Percent emulsion based on dry weight of aggregate Note: This procedure is for obtaining an estimate only and does not apply to open-graded aggregates.05 PART B-INITIAL STABILITY (PARTIALLY CURED) The following procedure is used to determine the initial strength of the mixture.0.4 sieve and (2) the residual content of the emulsified asphalt is 68%. As noted in the procedure. This part of the procedure may be omitted if past experience has shown that the mix has sufficient stability to carry initial anticipated traffic without undue distress. a.01 x (1.75 mm (No. * Test for water resistance with a small portion of the resulting mix.04.06 xO. " 13. Section on "Coating Ability and Water Resistance" 152 .68 After determining the asphalt emulsion content required for the aggregate. Heat this mixture to 121°C (250°F) with continual mixing. (Dry weight plus moisture content.4) sieve C = 100 minus percent passing 4. Mix the emulsion and aggregate by hand for 30 seconds.) The aggregate should be used at its natural moisture content.0% b. 4.04/(1. (Apply 50 blows to each side of the specimen. Residue and Oil Distillate by Distillation.00 . after the mixture has been placed and compacted. if the moisture is excessive. Determine the residue content of the emulsion to be used by ASTM D 244. "Residue and Oil Distillate by Distillation. 13.04) x 100 = 6. * If coating and water resistance are satisfactory for the intended use of the mix.0. E = 0.60) + (0.60»] x 100 = 4. After determining the emulsified asphalt content required for the aggregate. Evaluate the aggregate coating. Compact the mixture at 110°C (230°F) using the Marshall hammer. 5.13% 0. If not. weigh the required amount of emulsion on to the cold aggregate. another emulsion should be selected. 8. 3. (The aggregate should be used at its natural moisture content.00 . Example: Estimate the initial emulsified asphalt content for a base mix where: (1) the graded aggregate has 60% passing the No.Where: A = Percent residue based on dry weight of mix B = Percent passing 4. 1. Allow the sample to cool in the mold for a minimum of 1 hour.75 mm (No.) 6. Test the specimen in the Hveem stabilometer in accordance with ASTM D 1560 "Resistance to Deformation and Cohesion of Bituminous Mixtures by Means of Hveem Apparatus.

Allow the sample to cool in the mold for a minimum of 1 hour. 6. apply a static load of 178 kN (40. Test the specimen in the Hveem stabilometer in accordance with ASTM D 1560.4. (Apply 50 blows to each side of the specimen.8°C(140 ± 5°F) at 23 ± 2.) and maintain the full load for one minute and release. 13. After removal from the oven and while the specimen is still at 60°C (140°F) temperature. Continue mixing for an additional 21/2 minutes.06 DESIGN CRITERIA To be acceptable for average traffic conditions the mixture must satisfy the following criteria: Par. Mix the emulsion and aggregate for 30 seconds.lmin. (0. 13. except that the test is performed at ambient* temperature.000 lbs.05 (Part B) Minimum ** * 23 ± 2. Load at the rate of about 1. 5.SOC (73 ± 5°F) The water resistance may be waived/or slow setting (SS and CSS) emulsions. it may be necessary to aerate the mixture prior to compaction.04. 153 . Note the percentage of the aggregate that is coated.3 mrnlmin.04 (Part A) Minimum Hveem Stabilometer.8°C (73 ± 5°F) Aggregate Coating (%) Water Resistance ** 30 Fair Fair 30 Fair Fair Par.). 13. 7. Remove the base plate and paper discs and place the mold containing the compacted specimen on a perforated shelf in a forced draft oven at 60°C (140°F) for 48 hours.05 in. Compact the mixture at ambient temperature using the Marshall hammer. 13. Determine the proper emulsion which will provide for satisfactory coating ability and water resistance on the aggregate. in which a free-fitting plunger is placed below the sample as well as on top. S-Value at60 ± 2. 9. by the double plunger method. as per Par. 8. Step 3.) If moisture is excessive.

Selection of emulsified asphalt type and grade for use on a particular project is based in part on the ability of the emulsion to adequately coat the job aggregate.CHAPTER XIV MARSHALL METHOD FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALT·AGGREGATE COLD MIXTURE DESIGN 14. (4) Water content at mixing and at compaction.01 SCOPE This design method for cold-mix emulsified asphalt-aggregate paving mixtures is based on research conducted at the University of Illinois using a modified Marshall method of mix design and a moisture durability test. The optimum asphalt content is chosen as the percentage of emulsified asphalt at which the paving mixture best satisfies all of the design criteria. 14.Render the mixture sufficiently insensitive to moisture effects.02 OUTLINE OF METHOD The design procedure involves the following major parts: (1) Aggregate quality tests.) or less. ore tailings.Give required strength or stability to withstand repeated load applications (compressive and flexural) without excessive permanent deformation or fatigue cracking. These are designated as slow setting (SS) and medium setting (MS). "Design of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixtures. Thorough testing of the aggregate therefore is necessary. silty sand.03 OBJECTIVE Provide an adequate amount of residual asphalt to economically stabilize granular materials to: . A wide range of materials are suitable for use with emulsified asphalt including crushed stone. ASTM specifications for these asphalt materials are given in Tables II-I and 11-2 of this manual.05 EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS Two general types of emulsified asphalt are used for mixing.04 AGGREGATES FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MIXES Aggregate properties are the determining factor in many of the choices made concerning the optimum mixture. Some factors which affect this selection are: 155 . rock. (2) Emulsified asphalt quality tests. sand. This design is recommended for road mixes or plant mixes prepared at ambient temperatures. sandy gravel. 14. . gravel. The procedures contain certain modifications suggested by NCHRP Report 259. Aggregates meeting the requirements of Table VII-5 of this Basic Asphalt Emulsion Manual are among those suitable for emulsified asphalt mixes. (6) Selection of optimum asphalt content. The method and recommended test criteria are applicable to base course mixtures for low traffic volume pavements containing emulsified asphalt and dense-graded mineral aggregates with maximum sizes of 25 mm (1 in. (5) Variation of residual asphalt content. (3) Type and approximate amount of emulsified asphalt. or otherinert materials. slag. 14. reclaimed aggregate." 14.

11. Hand mixing. 11. equipment is not available.5 g. if used. (b) Laboratory mixing equipment. Additional factors that cannot be evaluated at the time of design of the mixture. 156 .05A + 0.5e where P = Percent* by weight of emulsified asphalt. This is especially true for aggregates containing a high percentage of material passing a 75 IJ. (1) Equipment (a) Balance 5.36 mm (No. but which should be accounted for at the time of construction are: (1) Anticipated weather at the time of construction. 200) sieve. must be sufficiently thorough to uniformly disperse the water and emulsion throughout the aggregate. and the selection should be based on mixture properties determined by comparative mixture designs. where insufficient pre-mixing water results in balling of the asphalt with the fines and insufficient coating.36 mm (No. (2) Aggregate gradation and characteristics of the fines. 200) sieve.8) sieve and retained on 75 Il-m (No.).E. (4) Avail ability of water at the construction site.8) sieve B = Percent* of mineral aggregate passing 2. The trial residual asphalt content as determined in Par. If C.000 g minimum capacity and accurate to within ± 0. The equipment and procedures for running the C. For this reason. An emulsified asphalt's ability to coat an aggregate is usually sensitive to the premix water content of the aggregate. an approximation of the emulsified asphalt content for trial mixes can be made by the following formula: P = 0. Emulsified asphalts which do not pass the coating test are not considered further.06 is combined with the job aggregate. based on weight of graded mineral aggregate A = Percent* of mineral aggregate retained on 2.K.K. preferably mechanized and capable of producing intimate mixtures of the job aggregate.06 APPROXIMATE AMOUNT OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT The amount of emulsified asphalt is estimated for trial mixes of dense graded aggregates using the Centrifuge Kerosene Equivalent test (C. (c) Hot plate or 100° ± 5°C (230° ± 9°F) oven. and coating is visually estimated as a percentage of the total area. test are contained in Chapter XI "Modified Hveem Mix Design. water and emulsified asphalt. *Expressed as a whole number. (2) Type of mixing process.1 B + (j. 14.E. 14.(1) Aggregate type." Par. More than one emulsified asphalt type is often acceptable for a given aggregate.05 band c. Detailed procedures for the coating test are listed below.. 200) sieve C = Percent* of mineral aggregate passing 75 Il-m (No. (3) Construction equipment selected and field procedures used. the coating test is performed at varying aggregate water contents.E.m (No.07 COATING TEST Preliminary evaluation of each emulsified asphalt selected for mixture design is accomplished through a coating test. (3) Anticipated water content of the aggregate.K.

air dry condition).). Medium setting (HFMS.). 2. approximately 200 x 355 x 50 mm (8 x 14 x 2 in." and record.5 mm (112 in.5 mm(l/2 in. Often require a higher water content to produce satisfactory mixes.) and 4. Slow setting (SS and CSS) asphalt emulsions. CMS and other solvent containing asphalt emulsions). 12. (t) A one-hundred millilitre glass graduate.75 mm(No. and 4. (Sixty seconds of mixing time is sufficient. 19.0 mm (3/4 in. 157 . (e) Prepare a sufficient number of batches of the air-dried job aggregate for trial mixes.4) sieve.. (d) Detennine the moisture content on a combined sample of the air-dried aggregate according to ASTM Test Method D 2216. 9.). (f) Place one batch of aggregate in the mixing bowl of the mechanical mixer.(d) Pans.). the aggregate should be placed in a sealed container for a minimum of 15 hours prior to the addition of emulsified asphalt. "Laboratory Detennination of Moisture Content of Soil.». Any suitable means of drying which does not heat the aggregate in excess of 60°C (140°F) or cause degradation of the particles may be used. The aggregate should be stirred frequently to prevent crusting or fonnulation of hard lumps. Initial trial may be mixed without the addition of any water (i. it should be sufficiently thorough to disperse the asphalt throughout the mixture. Incorporate X percent of water by dry weight of aggregate in excess of the air dried water content. These batches should be prepared by reblending exact fractions of material retained on 25. 19.4) sieve has a free-flowing consistency.75 mm (No.06.5 mm(3/8 in. The batch mass should be approximately 1200 g (oven dry basis).).0 mm (1 in.) Select the initial X percentage water by the following criteria: 1. Dry until the portion passing the 4.75 mm (No.). 12. Water should be added in a thin stream and the aggregate mixed until the water is thoroughly dispersed. (e) Supply of metal kitchen mixing spoons (approximately 250 mm (10 in.e. *Mixing time should be shortened to 30 seconds if segregation of asphalt-fines mixture from coarse aggregate is noticed. With aggregates containing clay. A one-minute mixing process* is usually satisfactory. 14. (2) Procedure (a) Obtain representative samples of each emulsified asphalt considered for the project.0 mm (1 in.4) sieve to match the grading analysis of the whole sample. The emulsion should be added in a thin stream to minimize the tendency of the asphalt to ball up with the fine aggregate. (c) Prepare the aggregate by air drying until it is easily separated into sizes using the following sieves: 25. metal.). 9. (g) Add the amount of emulsified asphalt (percent by weight of dry aggregate) as determined in Par. 4) sieves with material passing 4.75 mm (No. (b) Obtain representative samples of the job aggregate or aggregate blend.0 mm(3/4 in.). start the coating test at about 3 percent added water. (h) Calculate the free water content of the aggregate at mixing by combining the moisture content of the aggregate as detennined in Step (d) with the percentage of water added in Step (f).5 mm (3/8 in. If hand mixing is used.

(1) Slow setting (SS and CSS) asphalt emulsion mixtures generally exhibit increased coating as the pre-mix water content is incrementally increased.5 percent.08 OPTIMUM WATER CONTENT AT COMPACTION Mixture properties are closely related to the density of the compacted specimens. Aggregate coating in excess of 50 percent shall be considered acceptable (see Note 1). Mixes which become soupy or segregate on standing are considered unacceptable. triplicate specimens are prepared for each water content at compaction. sufficient water is available for optimum dispersion of the asphalt and additional increments of water do not improve coating. excessive premix water may cause stripping of the asphalt from the aggregate. use sufficient premix water to give optimum dispersion of the emulsified asphalt. CMS and other solvent-containing asphalt emulsions) emulsions. To obtain reliable results. When this occurs proceed to Step (j). The mixture design procedure utilizes standard Marshall specimens in the evaluation of compacted mixture properties. For each pre-mix water content at mixing. the mixture may be evaluated by the full mixture design procedure. use only as much water as needed to give at least 50 percent coating. This result shall be the minimum pre-mix water content required for mixing. Prepare a new batch by repeating Steps (t). (g) and (h) with an additional increment of 1 percent water by weight of dry aggregate. (i) Allow the mixtures to air dry with the aid of an electric fan.Example: Water content of [air dried] aggregate = 0. Sufficient asphalt to produce 100 percent coating may result in an excessively high asphalt content. the emulsion shall be rejected from further consideration. record the estimate of the coating as a percentage of the total area. If the mixture does not attain 50 percent coating at any water content. mixing may be allowed at or above the optimum water content as determined for compaction. All subsequent mixing in the design process shall be done at the minimum pre-mix water content. Where this occurs. In these cases. If the coating appears borderline. (j) Rate the appearance of the surface dry mixtures by visually estimating the total aggregate surface area that is coated with asphalt. Thus. This must be done for each combination of emulsified asphalt.5 percent Percentage of water added prior to addition of emulsified asphalt = 3. and aggregate type considered for each project. (k) For medium setting (HFMS.0 percent Total premix water before mixing with emulsified asphalt = 3. it is necessary to optimize the water content at compaction to maximize the desired mixture properties. type and grade. In some cases. 158 . NOTE 1: It is important to recognize that 100 percent coating common to hot-mixed materials is desirable but not required. All subsequent mixing shall be done at the water content that produces maximum coating without stripping (see Note 2). 14. NOTE 2: Some combinations of aggregate and emulsified asphalt are not significantly affected by a variation of water content at mixing. At some point.

The steel cap should be firmly fastened to the post. Prepare three specimens for each water content at compaction to be evaluated.) height of drop. (12) (13) b. the base plate and collar extension are designed to be interchangeable with either end of the forming mold.4 mm (3% in. *(8) Compaction pedestal consisting of an 200 x 200 x 460 mm (8 x 8 x 18 in. and collar extension. armored. *Marshall test apparatus should confonn to requirements of ASTM test method D 1559. sensitive to ± 1 g for aggregate and aerating mixtures. (2) Preparation of molds and hammer. metal.a. (15) Pans. forced draft. The forming mold has an inside diameter of 101. rubber.) diameter and equipped with a 4.) steel plate. Gloves. large. the cap level.) for batching aggregates. consisting of spring tension device designed to hold compaction mold in place on compaction pedestal.8°P) for determining moisture contents. three increments of water content one percent apart are sufficient to define the stability (density) / water content at compaction curve. sensitive to ±0. (14) Marking crayons for identifying test specimens.1 g for compacted specimens and bulk density determination. for batching aggregate.). and the entire assembly is free from movement during compaction. (7) Mechanical mixer. gloves. yellow pine or other wood having a density of 673 to 769 kg/m 3 (42 to 48 Ib/ft3). capable of maintaining a temperature of 110 ± 2. (5) Mixing spoon. capacity to handle 2500 g. glass or dial type with metal stem. small and large. The wooden post should be oak. Place a piece of waxed paper cut to size in the bottom of the mold before placing mixture in the mold.5 kg (10 Ib) mass constructed to obtain a specified 457 mm (18 in. for removing specimens from oven.6 mm (4 in. (16) Oven. forming mold. *( 11) Mold holder. Generally. welders. EQUIPMENT The equipment required for the preparation of test specimens is as follows: (1) Scoop. The wooden post should be secured by four angle brackets to a solid concrete slab. PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS (1) Number of specimens. (4) Balance. (3) Balance.) wooden post capped with a 305 x 305 x 25 mm (12 x 12 x 1 in. 10 kg capacity. approximately 200 x 355 x 50 mm (8 x 14 x 2 in. *( 10) Compaction hammer consisting of a flat circular tamping face 98. 0 Extrusion jack or Arbor press for extruding compacted specimens from mold.) and height of approximately 76 mm (3 in. 2 kg capacity. 159 . (6) Spatulas. (2) Thermometer. lOoC (500 P) to 65. The pedestal should be installed so that the post is plumb. Thoroughly clean the specimen mold assemblies and the face of the compaction hammer. *(9) Compaction mold consisting of base plate.8°C (230 ± 2.5°C (150 P). for handling hot equipment.

The following formulas are used for the calculations. Recombine each size fraction of the aggregate to produce a total aggregate mass of 1.3.0 .5 percent desired residual asphalt content = c = 4. 100 = 1206 g.5 _ 35 x 4. Four calculations are required for each combination of aggregate and asphalt: mass of aggregate.2 kg for each batch.7°C (72 ± 3°F) prior to mixing.d f = percent pre-mix water content at mixing (mass dry aggregate) g = percent water content at compaction (mass dry aggregate) Example: mass of dry aggregate = a = 1200 g percent water content of air-dried aggregate = b = 0.a(fl00-g) where a = mass of dry aggregate b = percent water content of air-dried aggregate c = desired residual asphalt content. emulsified asphalt. Appropriate input values for the previous formulas are discussed in subsequent sections. 4.5) 100 = 18 g.0 percent percent water content at compaction = g = 3. Place the pans in a well ventilated area and determine the temperature of the aggregate. (d) Mass of water loss for compaction = 1200(5.2 ± 1.(3) Preparation of aggregate.5 percent (a) Mass of air-dried aggregate added (b) Mass of emulsified asphalt = 1~2~~.0 percent percent residual asphalt in the emulsified asphalt = d = 65 percent percent water in emulsified asphalt = e = 35 percent percent pre-mix water content at mixing = f = 5. The temperature should be adjusted to 22.0.0 6 = (c) Mass of added pre-mixing water 1200(5. added pre-mixing water and water loss for compaction. (4) Calculations.0)1100 65 = 28 g. = 1200 . percent weight dry aggregate d = percent residual asphalt in the emulsion e = percent water in emulsified asphalt = 100 .0 . (a) Mass of air dried aggregate added (b) Mass of emulsified asphalt a 100 _ b x 100 = a: c (c) Mass of pre-mixing water added = a~ - b _e . C) 100 (d) Mass of water loss for compaction -. 160 .5 x = 74 g.

Add the emulsified asphalt to the moistened aggregate in a thin stream as the material is mixing. The required loss is subtracted from the recorded mass of mixture and pan and that mass recorded. reverse the mold and reassemble. Excessive mixing tends to strip the asphalt from the aggregate and should be avoided. Add the water in a slow stream and mix for 1 ± 0. NOTE: If coating of the aggregate is not sensitive to the water content at mixing as determined in the coating test (Par. Spade the mixture with a small spatula 15 times around the perimeter and 10 times over the interior. Place the air dried aggregate in the mechanical mixer. Repeat the process for the remaining mold assemblies.08b (1). 14.). Place a second piece of waxed paper cut to size over the top of the mixture. and paper from all specimens. The mixture is now ready for compaction. 14. Measure the volume of added water in a graduated cylinder. Repeat this process for the remaining mold assemblies. Reweigh the emulsified asphalt container periodically to ensure the required mass of emulsified asphalt is not exceeded. 14. Apply the same number of compaction blows to the face of the reversed specimen. Specimens are now ready for curing. (Par. The temperature of the water shall be 22. Distribute the mixture in the pan such that the depth does not exceed 25 millimetres (1 in. Remove all material from the mixing bowl and blade and place in an aeration pan. the aggregate may be mixed at the desired water content at compaction. Place the first mold assembly on the compaction pedestal in the mold holder and apply 50 blows with the compaction hammer.5 minutes or until the water is thoroughly dispersed throughout the aggregate. emulsion added. Assemble the base plate. aeration is required. Determine the mass of emulsified asphalt container and record. and the mixture compacted immediately. Marshall forming mold. A fan may be used to aerate the mixture. 161 . Remove the collar and base plate. Record the mass of the mixture and pan. If the desired water content at compaction differs from the optimum mixing water content.5 minutes until the calculated required water loss is complete. (6) Aeration to reduce the water content of the mixture to get maximum density (see Par. (7) Compaction of specimens. 7°C (72 ± 3°F). Stir and weigh the mixture every 10 ± 0. Remove the collars. Cover the base plate with a piece of waxed paper cut to size and place mixture in the mold assembly (see Note). A one minute mixing time using a mechanical mixer should be sufficient.2 ± I.07).(5) Addition of pre-mixing water. The required loss to reach the desired compaction water content is calculated by equation (4)(d). Calculate the total amount of free water that needs to be added to achieve the optimum pre-mixing water as determined in the coating test. base plates. For aggregates containing clay the material shall be placed in a sealed container for a minimum of 15 hours (see Note below). For specimens to be tested in the modified Marshall stability test use standard Marshall forming molds.07). and collar extension.

After extrusion.S ± 6 mm(2. batches with an additional water content at compaction may be prepared.08a. the bulk specific gravities of the specimens are determined by displacement in water (ASTM D 1188 or D 2726). 162 . Par. increments farther away from the trial residual asphalt content are prepared.) obtained) (8) Curing of specimens. with molds on their edge for equal ventilation on both sides. 14.06. a. If further definition of test results is required. a series of test specimens are prepared over a range of residual asphalt contents. 14. Test mixtures are prepared in one percent increments of residual asphalt content with two increments on either side of the trial asphalt content determined in Par. the amount of mixture per specimen may be adjusted as follows: Adjusted mass of aggregate per specimen = 63. Additional instructions and clarifications presented below correspond to the appropriate Sections of 14. (See "Mix Design Calculations" for use with Table XIV-I). b. EQUIPMENT The equipment required for preparation of specimens is listed under Equipment. 14. If further definition of results is required. Cure for 1 day in the mold at room temperature. (9) A plot is made of dry density versus fluids content at compaction.08b.). 14. and then extrude.08b. Customary Units: Adjusted weight of aggregate = 2.5 ( mass of aggregate used) (specimen height (mm) obtained) or for U. The optimum water content at compaction shall be used on all subsequent compaction regardless of the residual asphalt content. The fluids content resulting in the highest density is optimum for compaction.5 ± 0. Should the height of the extruded trial specimen fall outside thelimitsof63.251n.09 VARIATION OF RESIDUAL ASPHALT CONTENT In determining the optimum residual asphalt content for a particular aggregate and emulsified asphalt combination.S. using the previously established optimum water contents for mixing and compaction.5 (weight of aggregate used) (specimen height (in. PREPARATION OF SPECIMENS Use the Procedure for Preparation of Specimens listed in Par.NOTE: Generally it is desirable to prepare a single trial specimen for each type of aggregate considered for the job prior to compacting the test specimens.

A compression testing device.(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Number of specimens. Thus. (7) Compaction of specimens. cloth for drying samples during bulk density determination.) and thermostatically controlled at 22. Use a total aggregate mass of 1. vacuum desiccator and manometer. (5) Towel. a. 14.0S. No change. 1°C (72 ± 2°F). Cure for 1 day in the mold at room temperature.) height speci mens is as follows: (1) Marshall Testing Machine.10 TEST PROCEDURE To complete the mix design. Par. (S) Curing of specimens. Preparation of molds and hammer. Addition of mixing water. (See Chapter XI. Note that the optimum total compaction water is used for all asphalt contents. It is equipped with a calibrated proving ring for determining the applied testing load. Calculations. It is designed to apply loads of test specimens through semicircular testing heads at a constant rate of strain of (50. 11. the following tests and analyses are made from data obtained from the compacted specimens: Bulk Specific Gravity. the amount of pre-mix water added will be reduced as the residual asphalt content is increased.2 kg for each specimen batch. Preparation of aggregate. At least 610 x 915 x 155mm (24 x 36 x 6 in. As the residual asphalt content increases. Table XIV -1 is a detailed data sheet that can be used to record pertinent data and perform calculations. Soaked Stability and Flow after vacuum saturation and immersion. Prepare six specimens for each residual asphalt content. (4) Balances 1500g capacity equipped for bulk density determination.) 163 . No change. No change.) deep capable of containing failed specimens for moisture content determination. extrude and cure for 1 day out of mold in oven at 3SoC (100°F). (3) Pans. either 229 x 229 mm (9 x 9 in. No change. Moisture Absorption. the amount of water contributed by the emulsion increases.) in diameter and 25mm (1 in. Vary the residual asphalt content on successive batches to yield five one-percent increments (the trial residual asphalt content and one and two percent increments both sides of the trial).2 ± 1. (6) Vacuum pump. (6) Aeration to reduce the water content of the mixtures. A universal testing machine equipped with suitable load and deformation indicating devices may be used instead of the Marshall testing frame.) diameter x 64mm (2-112 in. (2) Water Bath.) or 254mm (10 in.) per minute. EQUIPMENT The equipment required for the testing of the 102mm (4 in.Smm) (2 in. Modified Marshall Stability and Flow of Dry Specimens at 22. Density and Voids Analysis.1 0 C (72 ± 20 F).2 ± 1. a Marshall stability testing head for use in testing the specimen and a Marshall flow meter for determining the amount of strain at the maximum load for the test.

compacted mix Thickness Stabil ity Dial Load Adjusted Stability (S) Flow Moisture Content Mass of specimen (H) Mass of oven-dry specimen (I) Tare (J) Moisture content (K) Moisture absorbed Maximum Total Voids .compacted mix (G) Dry BSG . "Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Using Saturated Surface-Dry Specimens" or ASTM D 1188. (B) Residual Asphalt in Mi xture (A) MIXING AND COMPACTION Total Mix Water Added Mix Water Water at Compaction Compac t i OJ) Da te COMPACTED SPECIMEN DATA 1 AGGREGATE % Source rd. Date Soak Spec. Grav." TABLE XIV-1 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT MIXTURE DATA SHEET (Use for specimens containing a single residual asphalt content) ASPHALT Type &Grade Asphalt in Emulsion Asphalt Spec. Test Date Rotate Soak Spec. "Bulk Specific Gravity and Density of Compacted Bituminous Mixtures Using Paraffin-Coated Specimens. BULK SPECIFIC GRAVITY DETERMINATION The method used for determination is ASTM D 2726.% >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< >< 164 XlXX . Test Date Dry 2 Soaked 3 4 5 6 Bul k Density Mass in Air (D) Mass in Water (E) Mass SSD (F) BSG . (C) % TESTING % 9 % Dry Spec. Gra.b. Type Apparent Spec.

The testing head temperature is maintained between (21.1 and 23. The specimens are removed after 24 hours." The mass of the water is corrected by su btracting the mass of water absorbed during bulk specific gravity determination.2 ± 1.) (I) Determine mass of cured specimens and record in column' 'Mass of Specimen (H)" (2) Thoroughly clean the guide rods and inside surfaces of the test heads prior to making the test. hold the flow meter firmly in position over the guide rod and remove it the instant the maximum load starts to decrease. g f d' X (100 mass 0 ry mixture. Kg/m2 = 1.[(100 +GA+K .(100 + G + K)] X 100 % _ V (total voids). MODIFIED STABILITY AND FLOW TESTS After determining the bulk specific gravity on six cured specimens.3°C) (70 and 74°P) using a water bath when required.Ii + (100 + A + K)] G X 100 Air Voids. % A = [( 100 + G + K - 100 A) C . g + A) 100).4) mass of water. and lubricate the guide rods so that the upper test head slides freely over them. and the masses recorded under the heading "Mass of Oven Dried Specimen. (5) While the stability test is in progress. Place the flow meter over marked guide rod. a water content at testing is determined. The mass of the water absorbed can be determined by subtracting the mass of the dry specimens from the mass of the SSD specimen.c.7< . Check the load measuring device for zero "adjustment.C -:. test three of them for stability and flow as follows: (In the selection of test specimens. Prom the data obtained above.01 in.25mm (0. (4) Apply testing load to specimen at constant rate of deformation of (50. the three retained for water conditioning should have the same average density as the three tested dry. " (3) Place one of the three specimens on the lower testing head into position and center complete assembly in the loading device.1°C (72 ± 2°P) shall be recorded as its modified Marshall stability value.) per minute until failure is obtained. reweighed. % = K 62. A VMA .) (6) Place the failed specimens in tared pans taking care to make sure all of the of the specimen is put into the pan. Note and record the indicated flow value in units of 0. K (water content at testmg)..000 Gd (lb/ftJ = Gd . % =V- [( K X 1(0) + (100 L +G + K)] A 165 .8 mm) (2 in. The total number of newtons (pounds) required to produce failure of the specimen at 22. The specimens are broken up and put in an oven at 93 + 6° C (200 + 10° F). MIX DESIGN CALCULATIONS POR USE WITH TABLE XIV-I G (bulk specific gravity) = _p D -E 'fi') (100 + A) G d (dry bulk Specl IC gravity = G X (100 + A + K) Dry density.

E = mass of specimen in water. (2). g. 11. B = specific gravity of asphalt.11 INTERPRETATION OF TEST DATA The stability. bulk density. Applicable correlation ratios to convert the measured stability values are set forth in Table XIV-2. and covered with water (desiccant should be removed from the vacuum apparatus before filling with water).08b. A = asphalt residue as percent of dry aggregate mass.4 (for unit weight in kg/m 3 multiply by 1000). F = mass of specimen in saturated surface-dry (SSD) condition. e. (4) The specimens are then tested in modified Marshall stability and moisture content determination as outlined in Section c. (2) Evacuate the desiccator to l00mm of Hg and hold for one hour.5mm (2-1 /2 in. asphalt specific gravity. 166 . flow. and moisture content data are prepared as follows: (1) Measured stability values for specimens that depart from the standard 63. aggregate apparent specific gravity. (2) After detennining water content at testing. L = specific gravity ofwater. g. g. C = apparent specific gravity of aggregate. Note that the conversion may be made on the basis of either measured thickness or measured volume. (3) Slowly release the vacuum and allow specimen to soak in water for one hour. (1) Each specimen is separately placed into the vacuum apparatus (See Chapter XI.Percent stability loss - 3 3 x 100 Moisture absorbed = where: D mass of specimen in air.5mm (2-1/2 in. Any values that are more than 50 percent from the average of the three specimens should not be used. 14.and S = adjusted stability = Note: Letters A through S refer to identical letters in parentheses in Table X/V-J d. " Voids are calculated for each specimen. the remaining three specimens are subjected to vacuum saturation and immersion. and mix bulk specific gravity. SOAKED STABILITY AND FLOW TESTS After testing three of the six cured specimens for each residual asphalt content.) value by means of a conversion factor. voids. voids can be calculated as shown under' 'Mix Design Calculations for use with Table XIV-I. DENSITY AND VOIDS ANALYSIS A density and voids analysis is conducted as follows: (1) Detennine each unit weight by multiplying the bulk specific gravity by 62.) thickness shall be converted to an equivalent 63. from Par.

5 64. The measured stability of a specimen multipled by the ratio for the thickness of the specimen equals the corrected stability for a 63. TRENDS AND RELATIONS OF TEST DATA The test property curves as previously plotted have been found to vary copsiderably between aggregate types and gradations.89 0. (3) Prepare a separate graphical plot for the following factors as illustrated in Figure XIV-I. (3) Dry bulk density usually peaks at a particular residual asphalt content. (a) Dry and soaked stability versus residual asphalt content. (e) Percent total voids (air plus moisture) versus residual asphalt content.86 I. General trends are described as follows: (1) Soaked stability will generally show a peak at a particular residual asphalt content while dry stability will generally show a continually decreasing curve with increasing residual asphalt content.3 2 114 25/16 2 3/8 2 7116 2 112 2 9/16 2 5/8 211116 2 3/4 Correlation Ratio 1. but typical curves are shown in Figure XIV-I. (b) Percent stability loss versus residual asphalt content [calculated by (Dry Stability -Wet Stability) lOO/Dry Stability] (c) Dry bulk density (corrected for moisture) versus residual asphalt content. 57.) specimen. Volume-thickness relationship is based on a specimen diameter of 101. (d) Percent moisture absorbed versus residual asphalt content.00 0.0 65.). 2.7 68.93 0.3 61.96 0. (2) Percent loss of stability (computed by [dry stability . which indicates the increased beneficial effect of additional asphalt content on soaked stability.9 63. 167 . Values that are obviously in error shall not be included in the average.S mm (2 1!2-in.19 1. (2) Average the flow values and the converted stability values for all specimens of a given asphalt content.09 1.2 58.04 1. a.soaked stability] tOO/dry stability) generally decreases as residual asphalt content increases.1 66.14 1. connect the data with a smooth curve that provides the best fit for all values.6 mm (4 in.7 60.TABLE XIV-2 Volume of Specimen cm 3 457 to 470 471 to 482 483 to 495 496 to 508 509 to 522 523 to 535 536 to 546 547 to 559 560 to 573 NOTES: STABILITY CORRELATION RATIOS Approximate Thickness of Specimen mm in. Some mixes may show a continual increase in soaked stability over the range of asphalt content evaluated. In each graphical plot.

(3) The total voids within the mixture should be within an acceptable range to prevent either excessive pennanent deformation and moisture absorption (for too high void content). If no peak in residual asphalt content versus soaked stability or other properties is developed. or bleeding of the residual asphalt from the mixture (for a low void content). it is selected as the optimum asphalt content. DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM ASPHALT CONTENT (1) Mixture must provide an adequate stability when tested in a "soaked" condition to provide adequate resistance to traffic load during wet seasons. percent loss of stability. total voids. The optimum residual asphalt content for the paving mixture is determined from the data obtained as presented. Design criteria for each of these values is given in Table XIV-3. (5) Percent total voids (air plus moisture) decreases as residual asphalt content increases.(4) Percent moisture absorbed during the soak test decreases with increased residual asphalt content. (4) Moisture absorption into the mixture should not be excessive to minimize the potential of stripping or weakening the bond between residual asphalt and agregate. A high loss is indicative of the mixture having high moisture susceptibility and may cause disintegration during wet seasons. This value must meet minimum stability requirements. TABLE XIV-3 EMULSIFIED ASPHALT-AGGREGATE MIXTURE DESIGN CRITERIA Test Property Stability. b. with particular attention to the effects of water on specimen properties. The optimum residual asphalt content is chosen that provides maximum soaked stability. percent stability loss and dry density. the mix should be considered inadequate. and coating of aggregates. but is adjusted either up or down depending on moisture absorption. the optimum emulsion content should be established based on the best combinations of such properties as Marshall stability of both cured and immersed specimens. (2) The percent loss of stability of the mixture when tested "soaked" as opposed to "dry" should not be excessive. If one or more criteria cannot be met. (5) Residual asphalt should provide adequate coating of the aggregate and should be resistant to stripping or abrasion. however. or the mix is rejected. N (Ib) at 22. If the residual asphalt content at the peak of the soaked stability curve provides for adequate moisture absorption. percent loss of stability. total voids.2°C (72°F) Paving Mixtures Percent Stability Loss After vacuum saturation and immersion Aggregate Coating (percent) 50 Minimum Maximum 2224 (500) 50 168 . as given in Table XIV-3. and aggregate coating.

% (a) I . Typical emulsified asphalt-aggregate mixture design plots. Residual Asphalt.J . Residual Asphalt.. ~ 0 ~ -0 II ~ Cl ·0 :! ~I ~ CD " Residual Asphalt. % (d) Residual Asphalt.J::.-_ _ _ _ _.. % (e) Figure XIV-1. % (b) .II Optimum ilo Ci5 eft.. a ~ c o t C) o :: L .J . . % (c) .. 169 .. Residual Asphalt.

.

with or without a cover of mineral aggregate. Dense-Graded Aggregate: Aggregate that is graded from the maximum size down through filler with the object of obtaining an asphalt mix with a controlled void content and high stability. Sand: Fine aggregate resulting from natural disintegration and abrasion of rock or processing of completely friable sandstone. 171 . Open-Graded Aggregate: Aggregate containing little or no mineral filler or in which the void spaces in the compacted aggregate are relatively large. slag.8) sieve. or sand.APPENDIX A GLOSSARY AGGREGATE Aggregate: A hard inert mineral material. 2(0) sieve. It requires heat to make it fluid. that produces an increase in thickness of usually less than 25mm (1 in. industrial. Sandy Soil: A material consisting essentially of fine aggregate particles smaller than 2. Asphalt is a constituent in varying proportions of most crude petroleums. Asphalt Seal Coat: A thin asphalt surface treatment applied to an existing asphalt surface. Emulsified Asphalt: An emulsion of asphalt cement and water which contains a small amount of an emulsifying agent.00mm (No. Coarse Aggregate: Aggregate retained on the 2. Asphalt Cement: Asphalt that is refined to meet specifications for paving.36mm (No. Asphalt Primer: A fluid asphalt of low viscosity (highly liquid) that penetrates into a non-bituminous surface upon application.8) sieve.lm (No. Asphalt Prime Coat: An application of asphalt primer to an absorbent surface. It is used to prepare an untreated base for an asphalt surface. such as gravel. crushed rock. 10) sieve and usually containing material passing a 75 J. Asphalt Surface Treatment: Application of asphalt materials to any type of road surface. The prime penetrates or is mixed into the surface of the base and plugs the voids.) Cutback Asphalt: Asphalt cement that has been liquefied by blending with petroleum solvents. Fine Aggregate: Aggregate passing the 2.36mm (No. Emulsified asphalt droplets may be of either the anionic (negative charge) or cationic (positive charge) type. This material usually exhibits plasticity characteristics. ASPHALT Asphalt: "A dark brown to black cementitious material in which the predominating constituents are bitumens which occur in nature or are obtained in petroleum processing" (ASTM Designation D 8). and special purposes. depending upon the emulsifying agent. hardens the top and helps bind it to the overlying asphalt course.

and two hoppers. or three-wheel. TYPES OF ASPHALT SURFACE TREATMENTS AND MIXES Asphalt Emulsion Mix (Hot): A mixture of emulsified asphalt materials and mineral aggregate usually prepared in a conventional hot-mix plant or drum mixer at a temperature of not more than (127°C) (260°F). Aggregate Trucks: Trucks equipped with hydraulic lifts to dump the aggregate into the spreader.Tired Rollers: Rollers. The distributor is made to apply asphalt to a surface in an even spread and at a uniform rate for the whole load. The spreader pulls the truck as it dumps its load into the receiving hopper. with an insulated tank and a heating system. Travel Plants: Travel plants are self-propelled pugmill plants that proportion and mix aggregates and asphalt as they move along the road.EQUIPMENT Aggregate Spreaders: Machines for spreading aggregate evenly at a controlled rate on a surface. Steel. The spreaders are attached to. Batch mixing units. Power Sweeper: A power operated rotary broom used to clean loose material from the pavement. which attach to and suspend from the tail gates of dump trucks. Whirl Spreaders: Spreaders that attach to or are built on to dump trucks. Aggregate is fed on to the spreader disc through an adjustable opening and the speed of the disc is adjustable to control the width of spread. the dump trucks. It is spread and compacted at the job site at a temperature above (93°C( (200°F). with a number of tires spaced so their tracks overlap while giving kneading compaction. adds and mixes asphalt. and spreads the mix to the rear as it moves along the roadbed. and are pushed by. Asphalt Distributor: A truck. Pavement Base and Surface: The lower or underlying pavement course atop the subbase or subgrade and the top of wearing course. Tail Gate Spreaders: Boxes with adjustable openings. 172 . The aggregate is moved forward by conveyor belts to the spreading hopper. or a trailer. Self-Propelled Spreaders: Spreaders with their own power units. One that receives aggregate into its hopper from haul trucks.Tired Static Rollers: Tandem. usually two-axled and self-propelled. There are three general types of travel plants: 1. adds and mixes the asphalt as it goes and discharges to the rear a mixed windrow ready for aeration and spreading. 3. One that moves through a prepared aggregate windrow on the roadbed. such as slurry machines. rollers with cylindrical steel rolls that apply their weight directly to the pavement. 2. Mechanical Spreaders: Spreader boxes mounted on wheels. Pneumatic. that haul materials to the site then mix and apply the materials.

A single surface treatment is used as a wearing and waterproofing course. Asphalt-Aggregate Applications: Applications of asphalt material to a prepared aggregate base or pavement surface followed by the application of aggregate. It is used to prepare an untreated base=Tor an asphalt surface. Maintenance Mix: A mixture of asphalt material and mineral aggregate for use in relatively small areas to patch holes. It is used to fill cracks and sealed areas of old pavements. depressions. Multiple Surface Treatment: Two or more surface treatments placed one on the other. The prime penetrates into the base and plugs the voids. The thickness of the treatment is about the same as the nominal maximum size aggregate particles. and sand seals.) or more in thickness. Seal Coat: A thin surface treatment used to improve the texture of and waterproof an asphalt surface. to restore a uniform surface texture.Plant Mix (Cold): A mixture of emulsified asphalt and mineral aggregate prepared in a central mixing plant and spread and compacted at the job site when the mixture is at or near ambient temperature. hardens ~e". Appropriate hand or mechanical methods are used in placing and compacting the mix. a multiple surface treatment may be a series of single treatments that produces a pavement course up to 25mm (1 in. Fog Seal: A light application of slow-setting asphalt emulsion diluted with water. and it adds some strength. mineral filler. The aggregate maximum size of each successive treatment is usually one-half that of the previous one. Emulsion Slurry Seal: A mixture of emulsified asphalt. fog seals. Aggregate Seal: Usually the same as single surface treatment. Asphalt Application: The application of sprayed asphalt coatings not involving the use of aggregates. and distressed areas in existing pavements. Prime Coat: An application of\low viscosity fluig asphalt to an absorbent surface. Single Surface Treatment: A single application of asphalt to any kind of road surface (ol1ow~d immediately 12Y-a single layer of aggregate of as uniform size as practicable. It is used to ensure ~9r!d)etween the surface being paved and the overlying course. emulsion slurry seals. A mUltiple surface treatment is a denser wearing and waterproofing course than a single surface treatment. Sand Seal: An application of asphalt material covered with fine aggregate. well-graded fine aggregate. seal coats mayor may not be covered with aggregate. It is used to renew old asphalt surfaces. and the total thickness is about the same as the nominal maximum size aggregate particles of the first course. to seal the surface to prevent moisture and air intrusion into the pavement. Depending on the purpose. Tack Coat: A very light application of asphalt emulsion diluted with water. seal small cracks and surface voids and inhibit raveling. It may be used to improve the skid resistance of slippery pavements and to seal against air and water intrusion. see above. 173 . and water. and to provide skid resistance.top and helps ~!lg)j/ to the overlying asphalt course. Or. The main types of seal coats are aggregate seals.

Crack Filler: Asphalt material used to fill and seal cracks in existing pavement. This treatment also is called dust palliative. The asphalt penetrates and coats the fine particles to relieve the dust nuisance temporarily. Mulch Treatment: A spray application of asphalt material used to temporarily stabilize a recently-seeded area. Road Oiling: Similar to dust laying except that usually it is done as a part of a planned build-up of low-cost road surfaces over several years. sprayed on an untreated surface to prevent dust. Each application of asphalt may be mechanically mixed with the material being treated or allowed to penetrate. The asphalt material can be applied to the soil or to a straw or hay mulch as a tie-down. 174 .Dust Laying: Diluted slow-setting emulsion.

water.42 on Emulsified Asphalt Tests. 9 to 13 Identification of Oil Distillate by Micro 14 to 16 Distillation 17 to 21 Residue by Evaporation Particle Charge of Emulsified Asphalts . copyright American Society for Testing and Materials. . 1916 Race Street. . .2 This standard may involve hazardous materials.26 T. Stability.03.85. . A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. 55 to 61 Examination of Residue. 79 to 85 Weight per Gallon of Emulsified Asphalt 86 to 91 2. Current edition approved March 27. 49 to 54 Storage Stability of Asphalt Emulsion .01. I Annual Book of ASTM Standards. 36 to 40 Sieve Test .. operations.. Last previous edition D 244 . 32 to 35 Cement Mixing. Originally published as D 244 . A superscript epsilon (tl indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. . . PA 19103 Standard Methods of Testing EMULSIFIED ASPHAL TS 1 ~t Designation: D 244 . .. Vol 05.01. . Vol 04. 48 Coating Ability and Water Resistance . .. 1 Annual Book ofASTM Standards.86 This standard is issued under the fixed designation D 244: the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or. . Vol 04. .01..APPENDIX B TESTING EMULSIFIED ASPHALT (ASTM D 244) Reprinted with permission. . . 28 to 31 Settlement . • Annual Book of ASTM Standards. 68 to 73 Emulsified Asphalt. in the case of revision. and equipment. 25 to 27 Stability: Demulsibility . . . 1. 175 . This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. and Examination of Residue cover the examination of asphalt emulsions composed principally of a semisolid or liquid asphaltic base. 41 to 44 Coating 45 to 46 Miscibility with Water 47 Freezing. Philadelphia. . . . Referenced Documents 2... l Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vols 05. Consistency.1 ASTM Standards: C 150 Specification for Portland Cementl C 190 Test Method for Tensile Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars 2 D 5 Test Method for Penetration of Bituminous Materials 3 D6 Test Method for Loss on Heating of Oil and Asphaltic Compounds4 D 70 Test Method for Specific Gravity of SemiSolid Bituminous Materials) D 86 Method for Distillation of Petroleum Products 5 D 88 Test Method for Saybolt Viscositl D 113 Test Method for Ductility of Bituminous Materials) D 128 Methods for Analysis of Lubricating Grease 5 D 139 Method of Roat Test for Bituminous Materials) D 140 Methods of Sampling Bituminous Materials 3 D 2042 Test Method for Solubility of Asphalt Materials in Trichloroethylene 3 D 3289 Test Method for Specific Gravity or Density of Semi-Solid and Solid Bituminous Materials by Nickel Crucible) E I Specification for ASTM Thermometers6 1. . 1986. 1986. Published May. Residue by Distillate. . . .1 The methods given under the headings titled Composition. • Annual Book of ASTM Standards. . Vol 04. 22 to 24 Consistency: Viscosity (Saybolt Furol) . 62 to 67 Classification Test for Rapid Setting Cationic .. from the Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Field Coating Test on Emulsified Asphalts 74 to 78 Emulsified Asphalt/Job Aggregate Coating Test . 1 These methods are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee D-4 on Road and ~aving Materials and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee D04. It is the responsibility of whoever uses this standard to consult and extablish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability ofregulatory lim itat ions prior to use. .03 and 14...04.. the year of last revision. Scope 1. . and an emulsifying agent. The methods cover the following tests: Test Sections Composition: 4 to 8 Water Content..

trap. (400 mm) in length. place it about 3 in. When the material contains more than 25 % water. % J = (AlB) x 100 Annual Book o/ASTM Srandards. 6.5 to 12. This distillation shall be conducted in accordance with Method D 86. preferably brass or copper.3 When the ring burner is used with the metal still. The end of the condenser shall be ground to an angle of 30 ± SO from the vertical axis of the condenser.3 lIeat Souree. 5. use a 50 ± O. (25. Sample Conditioning for Testing 3.I-g sample. 176 . I(a)) shall be a vertical cylindrical vessel. and gradually lower it as the distillation proceeds. Sample 5. and in 0. Vol 14. and condenser by means of tight-fitting corks as shown in Fig. (9. Adjust the end of the condenser in the trap to a position which will allow the end to be submerged to a depth of not more than 0.2 Connect the still. 4. 6.Hetal Still-The metal still (Fig. The head shall be made of metal.1 When the material to be tested contains less than 25 % water. Continue the distillation at the specified rate until no water is visible on any part of the apparatus and a constant volume of water is obtained in the trap.5 Trap-The trap shall be made of annealed glass constructed in accordance with Fig. and having an approximate capacity of 500 mL.1 Obtain a representative sample of the material for test using standard procedures as specified in Methods D 140.2 Glass Still.4 Condenser-The condenser shall be a water-cooled reflux glass-tube type. preferably of copper. between the lid and flange before attaching the clamp. (76. round-bottom flask. made of well-annealed glass. 7. 6.0244 E I I Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes 2 E 145 Specification for Gravity-Convection and Forced-Ventilation Ovens7 of 122°F (50°C) should be heated to 122 ± SOF (50 ± 3°C) in the original sample container in a 160°F water bath or oven.Tl)e glass still (Fig. The container should be vented to relieve pressure.1 All emulsions with viscosity requirements COMPOSITION WATER CONTENT NOTi I-The ditriculties in obtaining representative samples for this determination are unusually great. The heat source for the glass still shall be either an ordinary gas burner or an electric heater. Regulate the heat so that the condensate falls from the end of the condenser at a rate of from 2 to 5 drops per second. After the sample reaches 122 ± 5°F (50 ± 3°C).4 mm) in inside diameter.6 Solvent-Xylol or other petroleum distillate conforming to the following distillation requirements: 98 % distills between 248 and 482°F (120 and 250·C). place 100 ± 0.02. 4. insert a heaVy paper gasket.IO-mL divisions from o to 2 mL. Apparatus and Materials 4. Remove any persistent ring of condensed water in the condenser tube by increasing the rate of distillation for a few minutes.1 .1 Calculate the water content as follows: Water content. with an inner tube 3fs to III in. (100-mm) inside diameter or an electric mantle heater. I(c) and shall be graduated in O. moistened with the solvent. having a jacket not less than 15 3/4 in. and shall be provided with a tubulation I in. so that the importance of sampling cannot be too strongly emphasized. Calculation and Report 7. having a faced flange at the top to which the head is tightly attached by means of a clamp.20-mL divisions from 2 to 25 mL. (I mm) below the surface of the liquid in the trap after distillation conditions have been established.04 in. Procedure 6. Thoroughly mix the sample to be tested with 200 mL of solvent by swirling. I (b)) shall be a short-neck. I(a) or (h). taking proper care to avoid any loss of material. 4. When using the metal still. 4.1 g of sample in the still. 4.2 mm) above the bottom of the still at the beginning of the distillation.The heat source used with the metal still shall be a ring gas burner of 4-in. 4.7 mm) in outside diameter. stir the sample to achieve homoger eity.

1 This method can be used for quantitative determination of residue and oil distillates in asphalt emulsions for specification acceptance. capable of weighing 3500 g to within ±O. and Humboldt Mfg. g..8 (see Fig. 12. 7302 w. Catalog No. Similarly results obtained with as-in. • Available from P & H Electronics. This method can also be used to obtain residue and oil distillate for further testing. • Available from Humboldt Manufacturing Co . and B = original weight of sample. control.4 Place the ring burner around the still about 6 in.3 Insert a thermometer through a cork. Chicago.. NOTE 2-Residue by distillation results obtained with iron stills in accordance with Method D 244 .1 mm) from the bottom of the still. graduated either in Fahrenheit or Celsius degrees as specified. or grind the joint to a tight fit.0244 where: = volume of water in trap.5 Balance.0 11. having a range from 30 to 580·F or . Also apply just enough heat from a bunsen burner to the connecting tube to prevent condensation of water in this tube. 8. 11. Apparatus 11. 7. IN 4790 I. Precision 8.0 mL. (127-mm) ring burner as in subsequent issues of D 244 are acceptable.. clamp. 4.4 mm) from the bottom of the still.1.. if gasket is used).1. weight % 30 to 50 Repeatability. 7300 w. 442 Columbia St. Inc. Chicago.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Water Content. service evaluation. 3). weight % 2. ASTM D 244. Scope 9.3 Graduated Cylinder. in each of the small holes provided in the cover. Increase the temperature to 500 ± 10°F (260 ± 5°C). water weight percent.. Apply heat by lighting this burner and adjusting to low flame.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 % probability): 8. thermometers and gasket. (165. Significance and Use 10. water. weight % 30 to 50 Reproducibility. see Fig. RESIDUE AND OIL DISTILLATE BY DISTILLATION 9. Securely clamp the cover on the still. 12. Complete the total distillation in 60 ± 15 min from the first application of heat. NY 11433..9 having holes on the inner periphery and having three spacers. lOO-mL. II. NOTE 3-For details of the assembly of apparatus for the distillation test. tin shield. 177 .. to ensure centering of burner around the still (see Fig.1 g of a representative sample of the emulsion in the previously weighed aluminum-alloy still (including lid. 168-56 Douglas Ave. (152.2 Connection Apparatus.3 mm) in height by 3% in.2 Use a gasket of oiled paper between the still and its cover. IL 60656. respectively. Procedure 12.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Water Content. Co . Adjust these thermometers so that the end of the bulb of one is 1/4 in..8 11. H-1876. approximately 420°F (2 I S·C).1 Weigh 200 ± 0.I g. Koehler Instruments.3 mm) in inside diameter with one 43/~_ in. Lafayette. with graduation intervals of 1. and an emulsifying agent.1 This method covers the quantitative determination of residue and oil distillate in asphalt emulsions composed principally of a semisolid or liquid asphaltic base. 11. (241. and watercooled glass condenser tube with a metal or borosilicate glass jacket. IL 60656. 2). 12. and conforming to the requirements for Thermometer 7F or 7C as prescribed in Specification E I. weight % 0. maintaining it at this temperature for 15 min. consisting of a glass connecting tube.4 Thermometer-Two ASTM Low-Distillation Thermometers. Agatite Ave . 12. A 8. Jamaica. mL. Agatite Ave. (6.1 Aluminum-Alloy Still.66 are acceptable.2 Report the result as " . approximately 9 1/2 in. (95. and research.5 Move the ring burner approximately level with the bottom when the temperature can be read on the lower thermometer. 10. (l21-mm) inside diameter ring burner.4 mm) from the bottom of the still and the bulb of the other is approximately 6 1/2 in.. 12.2 to +300·C.

Precision 13. IDENTIFICATION OF OIL DISTILLATE BY MICRO-DISTILLATION 12. with the following exceptions: 14.1 Redistill a JO-mL sample of the oil disti1Iate under prescribed conditions of Method D 86. borosilicate glass. weight % 50 to 70 Reproducibility. uncovered. % 2. Correct for this error by adding 1. 10 Arthur H. not above ambient not above ambient 16. NOTE 6-Better identification of the solvent contained in the emulsion is possible if a larger condenser is used with ice water for the cooling medium during the distillation of the emulsion.8 mm) in length. 3906 condenser has been found satisfactory for this purpose. the material shall be poured through a No.1 Beakers.5 Sieve-A No. It may be raised to decrease chance of foam-over or lowered to middle of still for emulsion containing no solvent.1.75 (19) 12. Procedure 15. Calculations and Reporting 16.2 Weigh 50 ± 0.5 g more than at 500°F (260°C). 17. 50 (300-llm) sieve prior to pouring into the test molds and containers. Apparatus 17. made of borosilicate glass or aluminum. weight 17.2 Graduated Cylinder. low form. IOO-mm jacket. with flame-polished ends.0 13. conforming to Specification E 145.The location of the burner at the start of the test is flexible.I g. 18. graduation interval 1/10 mL. 17. Calculate and report the percentage residue by distillation. Type lB.2 The precision for penetration of residue from distillation by this method is the same as that shown in Section 69.0244 NOTE 4 . Apparatus 14. 17.7 Remove the cover from the stilI. and thereafter test as described in Sections 66 to 71.1 Use procedure A when determination of the percentage of residue only is required. Calculate and report the oil distillate as a volume percentage on the total emulsion. in. NOTE 5-The aluminum-alloy still at room temperature (9. Thomas Co.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Residue by Distillation. using Group 2 Test Conditions in Table I with the following exceptions: Diameter of hole in flask support.4 Oven. Catalog No. 14.1 Flask.1 Apparatus shall be in accordance with Method D 86. stir. to room temperature.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 % probability): 13. 10-mL. 1/4 in. 50 (300-llm) sieve conforming to Specification Ell. Thomas Co. Record the volume of oil distillate to the nearest 112 mL.6 Immediately at the expiration of the heating period. 17. weight % 1. J. 5395 flask has been found satisfactory for this purpose. IS.4 mm) in diameter and 7 in. lOOO-mL capacity. and immediately pour suitable portions of the residue into an 8-oz tin or into suitable molds and contail1ers for making the required tests. 1O 14.1 Calculations and reporting shall be in accordance with Method D 86.3 Balance.1) weighs 1. Procedure A 18. " Arthur H.3 Condenser.6 prior to calculating the percentage of residue by distillation. capable of weighing 500 g to within ±O. 11 15. Remove heat until foaming ceases.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Residue by Distillation. JO-mL.1. Permit the residue in the molds and containers to cool. where applicable. (6.1.1 g of thoroughly mixed. RESIDUE BY EV APORA TION 13.2 Glass Rods. Save this oil distillate if identification is desired. 14. (mm) Temperature at start of test: Flask and thermometer Graduate and 10-mL charge 0. Catalog No. weight % 50 to 70 Repeatability. again weigh the stilI and accessories as described in 12. (177. If there is foreign matter in the residue.1. A sudden change in temperature reading of upper thermometer indicates foam on bulb.0 13.1. 178 .5 g to gross weight obtained in 12.

) 22. 20. 50 (300-~m) sieve into suitable containers and molds for making such tests as desired. (25. which have been cleaned and dried.1 Calculate the percentage of residue on each beaker as follows: Residue. 150 or 250-mL. with the rods.2 Proceed in accordance with IS. (25.2 Report the percentage of residue by evaporation as the average of the three results. Non 8-As the method for residue by evaporation described in Sections 17 to 20 tends to give an asphaltic residue lower in penetration and ductility than the distillation method described in Sections II to 13.4 When the current drops to 2 rnA. Precision 21. tests shall be rerun using the distillation method.2 using four 50 ± O. followed by oven treatment at 32s o F for I h. and B = tare weight of beaker and rod. 5 and 6. Replace in the oven for I h. 5.4 21. If residue from evaporation fails to meet the requirements for properties specified for residue from distillation. Procedure 23.1 Current Source. of 12-V direct current.0244 emulsified asphalt into each of three beakers. 50 (300-~m) sieve (usually requiring 15 to 30 min).1 Pour the emulsion to be tested into the 150 or 250-mL beaker to a height that will allow the electrodes to be immersed I in. discon- 179 . 23.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 % probability): 21. rod. Apparatus 22.2 Connect the electrodes.I-g samples. as described in Sections 66 to 70. insulated from each other and rigidly held parallel 1/2 in.6 mm). 23. g. and residue. weight % 0. each beaker having previously been weighed with a glass rod. a milliammeter. the placing of beakers and emulsion samples in a cold or warm oven and bringing the oven and sample up to a temperature of 32s o F (l63"C) together is permissible.7 mm) apart. or both. g. (See Fig.2 Plates-Two stainless steel plates I in. After the calculation for percentage of residue. weight % 50 to 70 Repeatability. 7 -Care must be taken to prevent loss of asphalt from the beaker through foaming or spattering. weight % 0. (25.1. allow to cool to room temperature. At the end of this period remove each beaker and stir the residue thoroughly. (See Figs. % = 2(A . 23. weight % 50 to 70 Reproducibility.B) PARTICLE CHARGE OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS NOTE 9-This test is made to identify cationic emulsions. (101. whichever occurs first. (12. NOTE 10-The 8 rnA is a minimum current valuehigher current levels may be specified. Procedure B 20. replace the beakers in the oven until the asphalt residue is sufficiently fluid to pass through a No. If preferred. on data obtained by evaporation. preliminary evaporation of water may be accomplished by careful heating on a hot plate. Current used shall be reported.) 22.3 Beaker.3 Adjust the current to at least S rnA with the variable resistor and start timing with a suitable timing device equipped with a second hand. and a variable resistor.1 Use procedure B when tests on the residue from the emulsion are required.S"C).1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Residue by Evaporation. and weigh.4 mm). NOTE 21. where: A = weight of beaker. Pour the residue through the No.1.4 mm) by 4 in. Place the beakers containing the rods and sample in the oven. 23. the temperature of which has been adjusted to 325 ± 5°F (163 ± 2. material may be accepted but shall not be rejected as failing to meet specifications containing requirements for determination of residue by distillation. or at the end of 30 min. for 2 h. Calculation and Report 19.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they diff~r by more than the following amount: Residue by Evaporation. then remove the beakers from the oven.4 mm) in the emulsion. Positively charged particles are classified as cationic.8 19. 19. 22. 20. Also. to the doc current source and insert them into the emulsion to a depth of I in.

OS"C). Quickly remove the excess emulsion from the gallery with a suction pipet.1 Tests at 77"F (25"C}-Stir the sample thoroughly without incorporating bubbles and pour it into a 4-oz (118-mL) bottle.3"e). OF 77 122 Viscosity. Place the bottle in the water bath at 77°F (2S°C) for 30 min and mix the sample in the bottle by inverting it several times slowly enough to prevent bubble formation. CONSISTENCY TEST VISCOSITY 25. Determine the viscosity as described in Test Method D 88. Immediately pour the emulsion through the No. Apparatus 2S. 20 (8S0-jlm) sieve or a 20mesh strainer of wire cloth.5 Observe the asphalt deposit on the electrodes. determine the viscosity as prescribed in Test Method D 88.S. and then pour approximately 100 mL into a 400-mL glass beaker. 27. Report 24. 17F or 17C for tests at 77°F (2S°C) and ASTM No.4 ± O. 2S. Stir the sample thoroughly without incorporating bubbles. 19F or 19C for tests at 122°F (SO°C). framed or unframed.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (9S % probability): 27. this instrument is satisfactory for testing emulsified asphalt when the time of flow is not less than 20 s. Heat the emulsion sample to 122 ± SOF (SO ± 3°C) in a 160 ± 5°F (71 ± 3°C) water bath or oven. Precision 27.soF (S1.4 Water Bath.loF (SO ± O. NOTE II-While the Saybolt Furol viscometer is not used for petroleum products and lubricants when the time of flow is less than 25 s.0244 nect the current source. allowing a small portion to flow through the outlet tube to waste. % of the mean 15 21 180 . s 20 to 100 75 to 400 Repeatability. Immerse the bottom of the beaker containing the emulsion approximately 2 in.S ± O.2 Tests at 122"F (50°C}-Clean and dry the viscometer and insert the cork. fill the viscometer and.8 mm) below the level of a 160 ± SOF (71 ± 3°C) water bath. Heat the emulsion in the water bath to 124. and gently wash the electrodes in running water.1. Pour the sample into the viscometer through the No. Report the results to t:le nearest full second. Hold the beaker upright and stir the emulsion with a wide circular motion at a rate of 60 rpm with the thermometer to obtain uniform temperature distribution. capable of maintaining the required testing temperature within the limits specified in Table 2 of Test Method D 88. "F 77 122 Viscosity.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Test Temperature. Procedure 26. 26. 2S.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the fOllowing amount: Test Temperature. (SO. Adjust the bath temperature until the emulsion temperature remains constant for I min at 122 ± O. 20 (8S0-jlm) sieve or 20-mesh strainer. Stir the emulsion in the viscometer at 60 rpm with the thermometer until the test temperature is attained. Avoid incorporation of bubbles. conforming to the requirements of Specification E I.1 Report the test results in terms of the determined polarity (positive or negative) as defined in 23. avoiding bubble formation. 2S. without again stirring the sample. 20 (8S0-jlm) sieve or 20-mesh strainer into the viscometer until it is above the overflow rim. 26. s 20 to 100 75 to 400 Reproducibility. 24. Withdraw the thermometer. A cationic emulsion will deposit an appreciable layer of asphalt on the cathode (negative electrode) while the anode (positive electrode) will be relatively clean.6 27. Place the cork in position.2 Sieve-A No. 23.3 Thermometers-ASTM No.1 Viscometer-A Saybolt Furol viscometer conforming to the requirements specified in Test Method D 88. % of the mean 5 9.1.

1.55 g/L)Dissolve 5. stir the contents of the beaker continuously and vigor.1 N ± 0.1 The following criteria should be used for 29. weight % mearr reagent with the emulsion.00 g of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate in 992 g ofwaler.2 The results submitted by each of two CaCh solution (5.1 Wire Cloth-Three pieces of No.1.40-mm) wire cloth approximately 5 in.4 Decant the mixture of any unbroken emulsion and reagent onto the wire cloth. rod.unless they differ by more than the following ously.4 Buret-A 50-mL glass buret graduated in O. Apparatus and Heagents 28.5 Calcium Chloride Solution (I. Calculation 30. unframed. Bring the weighed sample of should not be considered suspect unless they emulsion and the proper reagent to a temperature differ by more than the following amount: of 77 ± I.I g. 28.11 g of calcium chloride (CaCh) in water and dIlute to I L.I-mL intervals.1 Duplicate results by the same operator weighed assemblies. and continue washing the beaker. Calculate the demulsibility as follows: Demulsibility. 29. Place the wire cloth enclosing the asphalt in the beaker with the metal rod.55 giL) for mixing-type emullaboratories should not be considered suspect sions. 28.00 I normal solution of calcium chloride in water.9 mm) in diameter. asphalt into each of three 600-mL beakers in the 31. or 50 mL of 31. 35 mL ofCaCh solution (1. capable of weighing 500 g to within ±O. Procedure 31.02 N ± 0.0 mm) square.2 Record the weight of each assembly of NOTE 13-Precision does not apply when using dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate solution in the testing of beaker.2 Beakers-Three metal beakers of 600mL capacity each.3 Weigh 100 ± 0. weight % a buret.00 g/L)-Dissolve 8. and wire cloth until the wash water drains clear. and B = weight of residue by distillation in 100 g of the emulsified asphalt. kneading any lumps against the sides of amount: the beaker to ensure thorough mixing of the Reproducibility.11 giL). Precision 29. 29.5°C).1 Determine the percentage of residue by judging the acceptability of results of tests on RS emulsions (95 % probability): distillation as described in Section 12.1 Subtract the tare weight of the beaker. Knead and break up all lumps. rt g/L)Dissolve 1.8 %) instead of 35 mL of CaCh solution (1. Place the assembly in a 325°F ( 163°C) drying oven and dry to constant weight. (127. and wire cloth. % of the Demulsibility. 30. 28. % of the approximately 2 min. 29.1 g of the emulsified cationic emulsions for demulsibility. 31.7 Dioctyl Sodium Su/fosuccinate Solution (8.00 I normal solution of calcium chloride in water. rod. The 55.55 g ofCaCh in water and dilute to I L.11 giL) (Note 30 to 100 5 14) for rapid setting emulsions. (7.5 gil calcium chloride solution shall be standardized to be a 0. having wire diameters and openings that conform to Specification Ell.3 Rods-Three metal rods with rounded ends. Rinse the beaker containing the sample and metal rod with distilled water. 28. 28. use 35 mL of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate solution (0.6 Calciwn Chloride Solution (5. 28. Over a period of Repeatability.11 giL calcium chloride solution shall be standardized to be a 0. NOTE 12-When testing cationic emulsions.8 Balance.O°F (25 ± 0. 14 (1. and wire cloth from the weight of the dried assembly to obtain the demulsibility residue. Continue kneading any lumps for an additional 2 min after the 30 to 100 30 181 .4t OEMVLSIBILITY 0244 STABILITY TESTS addition of the CaCh solution. % = (A/B) x 100 A where: = average weight of demulsibility residue from the three tests of each sample of emulsified asphalt. add to each beaker. 28. 28. rod. While adding the CaCh solution. The 1. from mean Demulsibility. approximately 5/16 in.

(13 mm) in diameter.4 weight % 5 % of the mean o to 1. Apparatus 36.1 Place a 500-mL representative sample in each of the two glass cylinders.0 above 1.3 Stirring Rod-A steel rod with rounded ends. At the end of the I-min mixing period. 33.I g. % (5 days) =B - A where: A = average of the percentage of residues from the top samples. 35. Determine the asphaltic residue of these samples in accordance with Section IS. 38.2 Dish-A round-bottom iron dish or a kitchen saucepan of approximately 500-mL capacity. Cement 37. After standing for this period. Thoroughly mix the emulsion remaining in the cylinders and weigh 50 g into separate weighed IOOO-mL low-form beakers. 36. remove approximately the top 55 mL of emulsion by means of a pipet or siphon without disturbing the balance. 32.1 Sieves-A No. Balance. Mix each portion thoroughly.2 Glass Pipet-A 60-mL siphon glass-tube pipet of optional form. Procedure 33. 36. and determine the asphaltic residue by evaporation in accordance with Section IS. Apparatus 32. as measured by the Wagner Turbidimeter. the settlement value may be calculated from the difference in the percentage of water content between the top and bottom samples as determined by the procedure described in Section 6. 36.Two. using a circular motion at a rate of 60 rpm.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 % probability): 35.1 High-early-strength portland cement conforming to the requirements for Type III portland cement in Specification C 150 and having a minimum specific surface'area of 1900 cm 2/ g.1 Dilute the emulsion with distilled water to a residue of 55 %.0 35.2-mm) diameter No. Weigh 50 ± 0. having an outside diameter of 50 ±5mm.0 above 1.1 Cylinders. siphon off approximately the next 390 mL from each of the cylinders. add 150 mL of distilled water. made of wire cloth conforming to Specification Ell. as determined by distillation or by evaporation for 3 h at 325°F (163°C).2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Settlement. Calculation 34. SO (IS0-llm) sieve.1 g of the cement passing the No. 36. weight % Reproducibility 0. 14 (1.2 After removal of the top sample.1.4 Graduate-A 100-mL graduated cylinder. Add 100 mL of the diluted emulsion to the cement and stir the mixture at once with the steel rod. 32.I g. approximately 1/2 in.0 CEMENT MIXING 36. 38.3 Balance.3 Bring the ingredients and apparatus to a temperature of approximately 77°F (25°C) before mixing. capable of weighing 500 g to within ±O. Weigh 50 g of each sample into separate weighed IOOO-mUow-form glass beakers. capable of weighing 500 g to within ±O.8 weight % 10 % of the mean o to 1. for 5 days.:. Stopper the cylinders and allow them to stand undisturbed at laboratory air temperature. and continue the stir- 34.1 Duplicate results by the same operator 182 . with pressed or molded glass bases and cork or glass stoppers. NOTE 14-lf the emulsion contains appreciable amounts of oil distillate as determined by distiJlation (see 12. 37. (76.1. SO (ISO-Ilm) sieve and a 3-in.500-mL glass cylinders. Procedure 3S.6). 3S.0244 SETILEMENT 32. 33. should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Settlement. weight % Repeatability 0. SO (IS0-llm) sieve into the iron dish or saucepan. and B = average of the percentage of residues from the bottom samples. Precision 35.1 Calculate the settlement as follows: Settlement.2 Sieve a portion of the cement through the No.40-mm) sieve.

2 40.1 The following criteria should be used for jUdging the acceptability of results (9S % probability): 44. 43. weight % Repeatability.4 Balances.1. Procedure 42. For those materials whose viscosity is 100 s or less at 77°F (2S°C). 42. % = (B .0-mm) and 183 . and weigh the sieve. (I9. 45. and SOO g to within ±O.08 41. in grams.2-mm) frame conforming to Section 3.A)/IO o to 2 0. pan. 44.4 mm) until the water is clear. It is not applicable to the rapid-setting type of emulsions. g.0244 ring for 3 min. use a test temperature of 122 ± SOF (SO ± 3°C). IS-Replace sodium oleate solution with distilled water in testing cationic emulsions. 20 (8S0-l1m) wire sieve cloth.1 Calculate the percentage of sample retained on the sieve as follows: Sample retained. Precision 40. Repeat the heating and weighing until successive weights differ by no more than 0.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Cement Mixing. 41. weight % OtoO. g. Report 39.1 Report the weight.I g.4 where: A = weight of sieve and pan.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Sieve Test. Place the pan under the sieve and heat for 2 h in a 220°F (lOS°C) drying oven.1 Repeatability. weight % Reproducibility. 14 (1.1 The temperature at which the sieve test 16-This test is applicable only to emulsions containing an asphalt base of semisolid consistency.40-mm) sieve.1 Sieve-A sieve having a 3-in. of the material retained on the sieve and in the pan as the percentage of break in the cement mixing test.1. 41. Cool in a desiccator. Place the sieve in a weighed shallow pan. Weigh 1000 g of the emulsified asphalt into a suitable container and pour it through the sieve.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (9S % probability): 40. Wash the container and the residue on the sieve with the sodium oleate solution until the washings run clear.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Sieve Test. and residue.4 of Specification E II. capable of weighing 2000 g to within ± I g.1. NOTE 0. weight % Reproducibility. weight % o to 2 SIEVE TEST 41. (IS2. 42. may be placed in an oven or water bath. Pour these over the sieve.2 Pan-A tin box cover or shallow metal pan of appropriate size to fit over the bottom of the standard sieve. and rinse the sieve using distilled water held at a height of approximately 6 in. Calculation 43. pan and residue. perform the test at room temperature.1 g.1 Sieves-Standard 3/4-in. Use repeated washings to completely remove material from the mixing bowl. Apparatus and Material 4S.1 COATING TEST NOTE 0.1.3 Sodium Oleate Solution (2 %)-Dissolve 2 g of pure sodium oleate in distilled water and dilute to 100 mL. weight % 0. and having a No. 38. and weigh. Precision 44. For those materials whose viscosity is more than 100 s at 77°F (2S°C) and those whose viscosity is specified at 122°F (SO°C). followed by stirring to achieve homogeneity. If heating is necessary the emulsion.4 Pour the mixture through a weighed No. and B = weight of sieve. 40. weight % o to 0. heat at 32soF (163°C) in an oven. 39. Apparatus and Reagents 41.03 44.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Cement Mixing. in a closed container.2 Record the weight of the sieve and pan and wet the wire cloth with the 2 % sodium oleate solution. weight % should be performed is related to the emulsion viscosity. (76.

1 Weigh 465 ± 0. The method is primarily intended to aid in the identification of asphalt emulsions suitable for mixing with coarse-~raded calcareous aggregates. (2) withstand a mixing action while remaining as a film on the aggregate. the source of which is not apt to change: this is to obviate rapid changes in the character of reference stone used in anyone laboratory.5 Thermometer-An ASTM low Softening Point Thermometer I:'F (or 15C).0244 1/4-in.7 Pipet.2 Expose the emulsion in the closed con- 50. and mix vigorously with the spatula for 3 min. (31.5 Balance. tainer to an air temperature of O°F (-17. A 10-in.9-mm) steel blade with rounded corners. then examine it for any appreciable coagulation of the asphalt content of the emulsion.6 Report the result of this test as either "Homogeneous" or "Broken.0-mm) screen and not more than 5 % shall pass through the 1/4-in. Materials 50. 48.1 g.2 Mixing Blade-A putty knife with a 11/4 by 3 Ih-in. 48. trap rock. 45.4 Constant-Head Water Spraying Apparatlls-An apparatus for applying tap water in a h spray under a constant head of 2 ft. with constant stirring.4 Repeat the freezing and thawing periods until the emulsion will have been subjected to three cycles of freezing and thawing.1 Gradually add 150 ml of distilled water.8°C) for 12 (or more) consecutive hours. Non l7-Each laboratory shall select its own reference stone supply. MISCIBILITY WITH WATER NOTE 18-This test is not applicable to the rapidsetting type of emulsions. (203. 49. having a blade approximately 8 in.4 (4. (See Note 20 for application of the method to other aggregates. 49. 7 and 8). 49. The water shall issue from the apparatus in a low-velocity spray.0-mm) kitchen mixing spoon may be used as an alternative. 48. 47.1 Aggregate-Standard reference aggre- 184 .3 Dish-A round-bottom iron dish or a kitchen saucepan. permit the emulsion to thaw by exposure of the container to ambient temperature." COATING ABILITY AND WATER RESISTANCE NOTE 19-This method covers the determination of the ability of an asphalt emulsion to (/) coat an aggregate thoroughly. such as a I-pt (500-ml) press-top can.0-mm) and No.2 Record whether or not there is appreciable separation of the asphaltic base from the water of the emulsion. 48. (6. 6 1 in.3-mm) sieves conforming to Specification E II. of IO-ml capacity. or other type) which has been washed with water and dried before using.1 g of stone into the metal pan. 46. having a range from 30 to 180°F (or -2 to 80°C) and conforming to the requirements in Specification E I.1 Mixing Pan-A white-enameled kitchen saucepan with handle. 49.5 After the third cycle. of approximately 3-qt (3l) capacity. Add 35 ± 0.8 by 88. to 50 ml of the emulsion in a 400-ml glass beaker. Procedure 46. capable of weighing 1000 g to within ± 0.2 Spatllla-A steel spatula or its equivalent. the emulsion may be homogeneous or may have separated into distinct layers which cannot be rendered homogeneous by stirring at laboratory temperature. 48.1 Place approximately 400 g of the emulsion in a clean metal container.4 St one-A suppl y of reference stone (hard limestone. capable of weighing 1000 g to within ± 0.3 Sieves-Standard %-in. (19. Allow the mixture to stand for 2 h. and (3) resist the washing action of water after completion of the mixing.3 At the expiration of the freezing period. (774. (254.6 Balance. of approximately l-qt (I-l) capacity.) 45. (l9.1 g. All stone shall pass through the standard %-in. (6. 46.3-mm) screen. 45. Procedure 48.2 mm) in length. 49.1 g of the emulsion to the stone in the pan.7 mm) (Figs. The temperature should be between 70 and 77°F (21 and 25T). FREEZING TEST 49. Apparatus 49.75-mm) sieves conforming to Specification Ell. and whether or not the stone is uniformly and thoroughly coated with the emulsion. 45. Procedure 47. 49. 48.

Continue spraying and pouring ofT the water until the overflow water runs clear. 52.5 Remove approximately one half of the mixture from the pan and place it on absorbent paper and evaluate the coating. A fan may be used for drying if desired.1 The sample shall be representative of the asphalt emulsion to be tested. 54. 52. graded reference aggregate in the mixing pan. record the coating of the total aggregate surface area by the asphalt emulsion as good. or poor. fair. NOTE 20-Aggregates other than limestone may be used provided calcium carbonate is omitted throughout the method.2 Weigh 461 g of the air-dried. 50. The distance from the sprayhead to the sample shall be 12 ± 3 in. fair. water. 52.1 At the end of the mixing period. 50. record the coating of the total aggregate surface area by the asphalt as good.9 ± 5SC). and a rating of "poor" applies to the condition of an excess of uncoated area over coated area. If no calcium carbonate is included.75-mm) sieve.3. 54. 53. 52. fair.0 g ofCaC0 3 dust in the mixing pan and mix with the 461 g of aggregate for approximately I min by means of a mixing blade to obtain a uniform film of dust on the aggregate particles. Then carefully pour ofT the water. a rating of "fair" coating applies to the condition of an excess of coated area over uncoated area. 54. has been found suitable as reference agrepte. At the end of the mixing period. where a rating of "good" means fully coated by the asphalt emulsion exclusive of pinholes and sharp edges of the aggregate.1 to 52.8. 52.4 Comments about the results of the test may be included in the evaluation. SI. and an emulsifying agent.2 Pipet 9.0244 gate l2 shall be a laboratory-washed and air-dried limestone aggregate graded to pass the )/4-in.4 to 52. precipitated calcium carbonate (CaCO) shall be used as a dust to be mixed with the standard reference aggregate. It is applicable to asphalt emulsions composed principally of a semisolid or liquid asphaltic base. 52. to absorbent paper for evaluation of coating retention in the washing test. of Monon. (19. Laboratory washing and air-drying of such aggregates shan also be omitted. (305 ± 75 mm). Procedure for Tests with Dry Aggregate 52. record the coating of the total aggregate surface area by the asphalt as good. S2.3 After air-drying in the laboratory.0-mm) sieve and be retained on the No. tilt the pan and permit any excess emulsion not on the aggregate to drain from the pan. NOTE 21-The total weight of aggregate and dust shall equal 465 g.3 Weigh 4.8 Repeat the evaluation by visual estimation of the coating of aggregate surface area by asphalt after the mixture has been surface airdried in the laboratory at room temperature.1.1.1 Proceed in accordance with 52. the weight of aggregate alone shall be 465 g. or poor.4 (4.2 Calcium Carbonate-Chemically pure.1 This method relates to the ability of an asphalt emulsion to remain as a uniform disper.4 Weigh 35 g of the asphalt emulsion into the aggregate in the pan and mix vigorously with the mixing blade for 5 min using a tossing action created by a back-and-forth motion in an elliptical path of the mixing blade or spoon.3 Water-Tap water of not over 250 ppm CaCO) hardness for spraying over the sample.2 After spraying with water.1.1 Evaluate and report the following information for tests with both dry and wet aggregate: 54. 54. Procedure for Tests with Wet Aggregate 53. Scoop the mixture from the mixing pan on SS. 12 Limestone from the Monon Stone Co. IN.3 mL of water to the aggregate and CaCO) dust mixture into the mixing pan and mix thoroughly to obtain uniform wetting. S3. Carefully drain ofT the water in the pan. 185 . or poor. sion during storage. Scope 55. Sample 51.3 Continue in accordance with 52. 53. Interpretation of Results 54.1..6 Immediately spray the mixture remaining in the pan with tap water from the conStanthead water spraying apparatus to cover the mixture. STORAGE STABILITY OF ASPHALT EMULSION 52.1 Carry out the test at 75 ± 10"F (23.7 Evaluate the mixture immediately by visual estimation as to the total aggregate surface area that is coated with asphalt.

2 %. with the rods (see Note 7).3 Balance.1 Repeatability-The repeatability standard deviation is 0. obtained by the same operator with the same equipment. Determine dIe asphaltic residue of these samples in accordance with 59.2 0.1 g of each sample into separately weighed lOOO-mL glass or aluminum beakers. 59. % Standard deviation Average difference Suspect criterion 0.1 Bring the asphalt emulsion to room temperature.6 %. Summary of Method 56.1 Determine the ash on a representative portion of the residue in accordance with the rapid routine method of ash determination.2 %.1 Cylinders-Two 5OO-mL glass cylinders. % Standard deviation Average difference Suspect criterion Reproducibility.5 %. After standing for this period. 58.3 0. 59. NOTE 22-lf this method of test is performed using only one cylinder instead of two for each determination as specified in the method. 58. Calculation 60. 6 J. capable of weighing 500 g to within ±O. for 24 h. 63. but it is not to be construed to have significance as a measure of other stability aspects involved in use. each beaker having previously been weighed with a 1/4-in.8°C).S 0. It is a measure of the permanence of the dispersion as related to time. allow to cool to room temperature. Precision 61.1 The method determines the difference in asphalt content of samples taken from the top and bottom of material placed in undisturbed simulated storage for 24 h. 59. At the end of this period remove each beaker and thoroughly stir the residue. Adjust the temperature of the oven to 325 ± 5°F (163 ± 2. siphon off the next 390 mL (approximate) from each of the cylinders. and weigh. Thoroughly mix the emulsion remaining in the cylinders and weigh 50 g into separate weighed lOOO-mL glass or aluminum beakers.3 O.0244 56.2.2 Reproducibility-The reproducibility standard deviation is 0. Specific Gravity 62. Significance and Use 57. Stopper the cylinders and allow them to stand undisturbed.2 %. The average difference between two results.1 Determine the specific gravity on a representative portion of the residue in accordance with Test Method 070 or Test Method 03289.3 %. Thoroughly mix each portion. (178-mm) glass rod. and having 5-mL graduations. at laboratory air temperature 70 to 80°F (21 to 27"C).3 After removal of the top sample. Ash Content 63. Two such values should be considered suspect (95 % confidence level) if they differ by more than 0. Two such values should be considered suspect (95 % confidence level) if they differ by more than 0.2 0. remove approximately 55 mL from the top of the emulsion by means of the pipet or siphon without disturbing the balance. will be approximately 0. then remove the beakers from the oven. Then place the beakers containing the rods and sample in the oven for 2 h. then the following precision criteria should be used: Repeatability. but not concurrently. as 186 . with pressed or molded glass bases and cork or glass stoppers.I g. 58. having an outside diameter of 50 ± 5 mm. 61.2 Weigh 50 ± 0. The result is expressed as the difference between the average percent of residue from top and bottom samples taken from two storage cylinders. (6-mm) diameter by 7-in.2 Glass Pipet-A 60-mL siphon glass-tube pipet of optional form. 70 to 80°F (21 to 27"C). 60. Replace in the oven for I h. Place a 500mL representative sample in each of the two glass cylinders. Apparatps 58.6 EXAMINATION OF RESIDUE 62. Procedure 59.1 This method is useful for determining in a comparatively short time the storage stability of an asphalt emulsion. The average difference between two results obtained by operators in different laboratories will be approximately 0.1 Calculate the storage stability as the numerical difference between the average percentage of asphaltic residue found in the two top samples and that found in the two bottom samples. 57.

4 Weigh 35 g of the asphalt emulsion into the Ottawa sand-portland cement mixture. points 30 66. I AK. Solubility in Trichloroethylene 64.2.l?lh Porlland Cement. 15 65.1 g. 72. At the end of the mixing period. Scope 6S. Sample 71. reheat it to 500°F (260°C) with stirring and pour into the collar.1 Test at 77 ± 9°F (25 ± 5°C).3 Thermometer-An ASTM Low Softening Point Thermometer 15F (or 15C) having a range from 30 to ISO°F (or -2 to SO°C) and conforming to the requirements in Section 3 of Specification E I.1 Determine the solubility in trichloroethylene on a representative portion of the residue in accordance with Test Method D 2042.1 Mixing Pan-A white enameled kitchen saucepan with handle. (250-mm) kitchen mixing spoon.0 g of Type III portland cement in the mixing pan.2 Mixing Tool-A IO-in.2 Precision-The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 % probability): 65. capable of weighing 200 g to within ± 0. conforming to Type III portland cement in Specification C 150.2 of Method D 139 as follows: Pour the residue into the collar at or near 500°F (260°C) preferably. range 80 to 200 Repeatability. 69. of approximately 3-qt (3L) capacity. 65.1 Obtain a representative sample of the cationic emulsion for test. I This method covers a procedure for distinguishing rapid-setting cationic emulsified asphalts from other types by their failure to coat a specific Ottawa sand-portland cement (Type III) mixture. 69.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Penetration of Residue.1 Determine the float test on a representative portion of the residue in accordance with Method D 139 except revise Section 3. Materials 70. 71.3 Weigh 4.I?re. Visually 70. 67. 70.2 The results submitted by each of two CLASSIFICATION TEST FOR RAPID SETTING CATIONIC EMULSIFIED ASPHALT 68.1 Determine the penetration on a representative portion of the residue in accordance with Test Method D 5. tilt the pan and drain from the pan any excess emulsion not on the aggregate. 72. Float Test 67. Ductility 66. 72. Mix vigorously with the mixing spoon for approximately 2'12 min using a combined stirring and kneading action. 69. 72. Apparatus 69. 20 to 30-mesh Standard Ottawa Sand in the mixing pan. 69. and having a minimum specific surface area of 1900 cm 2/g. directly from the still. 64. 187 .l?h-Early Slren.2 Hi.l?ale-Standard reference aggregate shall be 20 to 30-mesh Standard Ottawa Sand (see Test Method C 190). points laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Penetration of Residue. range 80 to 200 Reproducibility. Mix with the 461 g of 20 to 30-mesh Ottawa sand for approximately I min using the mixing tool to obtain a uniform distribution of the cement on the sand particles. If the residue has been allowed to cool below SOO"F (260°C).5 Place a representative quantity of the completed mixture on absorbent paper. 65.2 Weigh 461 g of air-dry.4 Balance. Penetration 65. 72.0244 described in Section 5 of Methods D 12S. Procedure 72.2. I Determine the ductility on a representative portion of the residue in accordance with Test Method D 113.

75.3) into the porcelain saucepan.1 Report the observations made in 77.4 Serving Spoon. The ability of the emulsion to remain as a coating during a 5-min mixing cycle is observed. to identify the adequacy of emulsified asphalt.1 Derim the I-pt (lh-L) can.1 This test method may be used to identify the adequacy of slow setting grade of emulsified asphalt to mix with and coat a dense and finegraded job aggregate. Interpretation of Results 73.1 The conditions of the test are designed 81.6 and 77. fair or poor-a rating of good means fully coated by the asphalt emulsion exclusive of pinholes and sharp edges of the aggregate. An excess of uncoated area over a coated area shall be considered as a passing rating for rapid setting cationic emulsions. Significance and Use 80.8 Set the can of coated stone upright in the porcelain saucepan. 50-mL capacity. Summary of Method 75. 76.5 Hand mix vigorously for 5 min with the long-handled spoon. and (2) the presence. and a rating of poor applies to the condition of an excess of uncoated area over coated area.1 A weighed amount of dry job aggregate is hand-mixed with a weighed amount of water for prewetting the aggregate.6 Observe (1) whether the stone is fully coated with the emulsion and rate the coating as good.6 and record.5 at the FIELD COATING TEST ON EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS 74. and (3) the water resistance of emulsion-coated aggregate. Summary of Method 81. 77.7 Refill the I-pt (l12-L) can with the coated stone.1 A measured amount of the job aggregate is hand-mixed with a measured amount of the emulsion supplied to the job. if any. (2) the ability of the emulsion to withstand mixing. 80. 12 76. 77. Procedure 77. EMULSIFIED ASPHALT/JOB AGGREGATE COATING TEST 79. 76. The resistance offered by the coating to wash-off is determined by repeated filling with water and emptying a container of the coated aggregate. in. 77. slow-setting grade (CSS-D2397 and SS-D977) for mixing with and coating dense-graded aggregate and fine-graded aggregate. 2112 to 3-qt (2 1 to 3-L). long-handled. 77. Apparatus 76.2 Fill the can level with the job aggregate deleting any sizes above 3/.10 as the results from this test. (19 mm).2 Metal Porcelain Saucepan.9 Fill the can with water and pour off. Report 78. 77. end of the mixing period. Repeat this step five times. 73. Repeat the observations made in 77.2) and the emulsion (77.1 This test is proposed for use at the project site to determine (1) the ability of an asphalt emulsion to coat the job aggregate. 77. 77. preferably plastic.4 Dump the aggregate (77 . 77. Scope 74. 78.3 Measure out 50 mL of emulsified asphalt. equipped with a handle. 77. 76. I-pt W2-L) capacity (friction-top pint cans). Scope 79. It is a laboratory test method of screening emulsion candidates for mixing with and coating job aggregates and is not to be construed as a mix design test method.1 From the evaluation made in 72. record the coating of the total aggregate surface area by the asphalt emulsion.10 Dump the contents of the can onto newspapers.0244 estimate as soon as possible the amount of uncoated and coated area in the mixture. The wetted aggregate is then hand-mixed with a weighed amount of emulsified asphalt of known asphalt-cement 188 .1 Metal Containers. a rating of fair applies to the condition of an excess of coated area over uncoated area. 77. of free water which denotes breakdown of the emulsion.3 Dispensing Graduate.

3 Balance. 82. fair. fair. or poor in accordance with Section 54.3 If mix appears to be too dry and insufficiently coated repeat 83.1 Weight-per-Gallon Clip-Stainless steel measure of known standard volume (83. Precision 85.1 The usual methods of analysis for precision cannot be applied to this test method because it is only semiquantitative.2 Mixing Tool-A steel spatula or its equivalent. 2 to 8 % water for dense-graded aggregate and 4 to 12 % water for fine-graded aggregate). Procedure 83. NOli: 23. Procedure 88.2 Add the emulsion and immediately begin to mix vigorously. or poor using the ratings as defined in Section 54.) The adequacy of emulsified asphalt for mixing with job aggregate is determined by using various amounts of water and emulsified asphalt until a maximum coating of the job aggregate is obtained. fair. strain through a No. for 15 to 120 s or until maximum 84.3 Water Bath. or both.8 % asphalt cement residue in the mix. maintained at 77°F (25°C).The calculation of Imperial Gallon Weight may be made by using proper conversion factors.1 This test method is used to determine the weight per gallon of emulsified asphalt used in highway construction.O-L) friction-tip metal can. 87. capable of weighing 1000 g to within ±O. 88. and zero the balance. basis dry weight of aggregate. 83. Scope 86.2 using an increased amount of water or emulsified asphalt. 87.I g. 83. having a blade approximately 8 in. or lOOO-mL stainless steel beaker or bowl. 82. (Mix time is usually 15 to 120 s. scraping sides and bottom of container. Apparatus coating has been attained (as a guide. repeat 83. Apparatus 87. 85. 189 . The natural moisture in a job aggregate may be used in the test if predetermined. 83. Example: 8 % emulsion at 60 % solids would be equivalent to 4.1 and 83.2 Report the maximum coating achieved as good. 87.1 Weigh 300 g of dry job aggregate into the container and add water basis dry weight of aggregate. 83.3 Remove the emulsion sample from the bath and stir. a I-qt (I.1 Containers-A IOOO-mL glass beaker. to obtain the desired level of water to be used for prewetting the aggregate. or both. 84. tare. Report 84. 82. using care to avoid trapping air in the sample.2 and 83. 82.2 using less water or emulsified asphalt.2 ml).2 Place the measure and its cap on the balance. 88. If necessary.5 Rate the best coating as good.3 relating to amount of aggregate prewetting water and residual asphalt needed for best obtainable aggregate coating.2 mm) in length. or both. if necessary. constant-temperature. 83. 88. Additional water may then be added. This unit weight i!> computed by determining the weight of an asphalt emulsion contained in a standard measure of known volume. accurate to 0.4 For each job aggregate mix observe and record the amount of aggregate prewetting water and asphalt cement residue from the emulsified asphalt and note the one mix which provides the best aggregate coating. Immediately begin to mix vigorously for I min or until all aggregate surfaces subjectively appear to be wetted (as a guide.1 Stir the emulsion sample and place in a constant-temperature water bath maintained at 77 ± 1°F (25 ± OSC) for approximately I h.1 Report the observations made in 83. or poor. WEIGHT PER GALLON OF EMULSIFIED ASPHALT 86. 3 to 7 % Asphalt Cement (A/C) residue for dense aggregate and 4 to 8 % AIC residue for fine aggregate). If mix appears to be too wet from excessive water or emulsified asphalt.0244 content until maximum coating of the job aggregate is obtained. This coating is rated as good. 20 (850-l1m) sieve to remove any skin or film that might be present in the emulsion.2 Balance.1 and 83. (203.01 g.

Calculation 89.0 I g.186 to 194 mm B . and record. Precision 91. the excess emulsion oozing through the orifice in the cap.4 Bring the measure to approximately 77°F (25°C) and pour the emulsion into the measure. 88. pounds per gallon to the nearest 0.019 89. --r.235 to 255 mm FIG.6 When the cap is placed on tightly. with a clean dry rag or paper.6·C) by using a multiplier of 1. 91.00475.14 to 16 mm H-18tol9mm C-12to 16mm D . 88. clean the measure carefully. and G = weight of emulsion in measure. 91.2 The results submitted by each of two laboratories should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Unit Weight Pounds per gallon at 77'F (25'C) NOTE Reproducibility 0.1 Duplicate results by the same operator should not be considered suspect unless they differ by more than the following amount: Unit Weight Pounds per gallon at 77'F (25'C) Repeatability 0. Report 90. weigh on the tared balance to the nearest 0. I Apparatus for Determinioa Water A -45 to 55 mm 190 .1 Report the unit weight of emulsion in 24-Weight per gallon at 77'F (25'C) may be translated to weight per gallon at 60'F (15. Ib/gal. filling it completely.1 Calculate the weight per gallon of emulsion as follows: W= G/IO where: W = unit weight of emulsion. g.1 The following criteria should be used for judging the acceptability of results (95 % probability): 91.0244 88.034 90.5 Start placing the cap into the measure and remove.1.1. : (6) E" 25 to 38 mm F .0 I Ib at 77°F (25°C).

2 4.S IS4.5 57.S 9.H 14 __ Standard 4"A1umlr'lum Tube Alloy 3003.3 44. 2 Aluminum-Alloy Still 191 .6 130.~~ 0244 I"l o rI 0 .2 241.2 Hoi .3 NOTE-The still cover may be machined from Rolled Aluminum Plate Alloy 3003-H 14.7 14.2 15S..9 19. Clomp - f Center Drill "-.um Plote Alloy 3003-H14 I I 4"~ I Metric Equivalents in.2 63. FIG.3 15.Cost Aluminum AllOY 319 r 2·r 0 x Alloy 319 Lon9 Steel Rod COSI Aluminum t~ Aluminum Plote 9t' I Alloy 3003 .5 101. mm 3.5 12.1 25.H 14 I f' Atumlf.4 41.

... (I21-mm) Inside Diameter .4 1/..."'M"'" \ L£mm_:_-- ~r'l I r-- 13{ -------1 f-------..1 6 'h 91f.. 6f U~l.0 FIG.".4 16~. 6" . 6.1 2 SO..6 S 127. mm 'I. 19.1 2~.-in.I Finilh: BriQht Nlck'i SPECIFY TYPE OF GAS FOR PROPER ORIFICl FIG.0 6 IS2.4 IS 381.8 9h ' 241. 3S2.. Metric Equivalents in. 4 Apparatus Assembly for Distillatioa Telt of Emulsl8ed Asphalts 192 .-=-....8 3 76.3 13'/.4t 0244 Mat'flol: erO..2 4 101. 231. J Rinl Burner with o4 1/.4 Jlh 38. 'f~~ DETAIL OF TIN SHIELD -1~ .

. '/..Ml=-.L_ _ _~ To CATHODE 1A 1>-_--. I-W .4~ 0244 FIG... 6 Particle Charge Tester Circuit Diagram 193 .-W resistor R4-meter shunt (determined by type of meter used) SI-2-pole.T1 + TO ANODE C1-S00 IIF 2S-V capacitor D I-silicon diode RI-47 n.esistor R2-5000!l potentiometer R3-6800 n. 5 Particle Charge Tester o Low R o-f.6-V filament transformer M 1-0 to 100mA milliameter FIG. 3-position rotary switch T 1-12.

The J/. The tank shall be placed on a suitable stand.7 mm - 230.2 304. All joints and litting attachments shall be soldered and shall be watertight. 2 ft 6'11 in.4 mm). Valy' Male Coupling I in. (0. in. 6 in.4 mm 50. '" 2 in. 7lf.8 mm 152.. so that the distance from the bottom of th~ spray head to the top of the test sample is 3 ft ± I in. FIG. All couplings shall be standard brass garden hose littings.4 mm 196. I ft I ft 10J/. (19-mm) pipe valve shall be placed as close as possible to the bottom of the tank. - 25. in.2 mm mm mm mm NOTE-Use galvanized steel sheeting for the tank.4IDtt 0244 Inl't :S/. '" 774.9 m ± 25.9 650.Pip. 2 ft I'll in.9 mm 8 in. 7 Conslanl-Head Flow Tank 194 .8 577. in. allowing space to shut ofT the valve.

c: C7I ~ o c: ~ ~ ~~~~~ Knurled Fittinq ~ Female Couplino :0 ~ Spray Nozzle 11\ NOTE I-A Speakman. all brass. and the risk of infringement of such rights. Spacing as Shown. PA 19103. FIG. are entirely their own responsibility..3 mm) in Diameter. 195 . Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM Headquarters. H= lr ~"NiPPle )1 Coupl i ng and Nipple to be E Inserted Between Flange-Nipple E and 3/4" Pipe Valve to Lower Valve O'l Handle for Eas'ler Regulation ~ . This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical commillee and must be reviewed every five years and if not revised.6 mm) (.. Philadl'lphia. either reapproved or withdrawn.r:. .4~ 0244 BOTTOM VIEWS Flange Sol dered to Bottom of Tank / %. 1916 Race St.6-mm) diameter shower heads may continue to be used.05"( 1. If you fl'elthat your comments havl' not rl'cl'ivl'd a fair hl'aring you should make your views known to the ASTM Commilll'l' on Standards.. (10 1. NoT!' 2-Existing 4·in. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights.!! N ~ It) z 4--_ o N '0 4" Dia (101.. ~ ~ . fixed shower head has been found acceptable. Your comments will rl'ceive careful consideration at a ml'l'ting of thl' rl'sponsibll' tl'chnical commilll'l'. 8 Valve and Nozzle Assembly for Constant-Head Flow Tank The American Society for Testing and Materials takes no position respecting the validity ofany patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard.¥ (l) Holes in Spray Nozzle Approximately 0. Model 235S. 'II I I I I _ 3/4" Pipe to Adopter from Male Garden Hose Coupling I I I e E o E (l) o . which you may alll'nd.

APPENDIX C MISCELLANEOUS TABLES 197 .

9 64.9 19.98225 0.8 48.7 67.TABLE C-1 TEMPERATURE-VOLUME CORRECTIONS FOR EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS Oct OF M* Oct of M* Oct of M* 10.00100 1.97025 0.99950 0.1 21.1 81.97575 0. .97775 0.99200 0.99525 0.98375 0.99025 0.97125 0.99625 0.7 12.98525 0.99075 0.2 62.97400 0.98200 0.97100 0.6 46.4 45.4 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 0.98250 0.8 18.99250 0.98400 0.8 28.1 51.4 25.98975 0.98475 0.98750 0.96975 0.99400 0.99500 0.98900 0.8 43.3 23.99650 0.6 16.6 76.2 52.0 30.98575 0.99300 0.8 53.00250 1.98150 0.00075 1.6 41.0 80.6 56.99425 0.4 65.1 31.96900 0.97725 0.1 56.97000 0.97525 0.00125 1.98300 0.98775 0.97875 0.2 12.97150 0.97325 0.4 15.98025 60.4 50.9 24.97700 0.4 40.99700 0.99375 0.99925 0.7 47.98275 0.7 62.00000 0.6 51.99350 0.7 52.97550 0.99800 0.8 78.1 26.6 61.97425 0.3 38.8 68.99900 0.1 11.7 32.3 53.99850 0.2 27.3 83.97600 0.9 29.99750 0.97475 0.6 31.97625 0.97800 0.6 36.97350 0.97300 0.0 75.97225 0.9 69.8 63.7 17.2 42.2 22.0 45.6 26.9 59.9 74.98725 0.98500 0.6 21.99225 0.8 38.0 60.98125 0.99275 0.8 73.99600 0.99000 0.2 37.98950 0.8 23.7 77.3 18.0 55.9 49.3 63.0 70.7 82.99550 0.3 33.4 30.99150 35.97925 0.9 79.3 68.98350 0.97275 0.97675 0.97950 0.0 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 0.98700 0.3 13.99875 0.4 75.0 40.8 58.98925 0.00050 1.0 25.7 42.2 67.1 76.8 83.6 71.0 15.4 85.4 70.98675 0.99175 0.7 27.98050 0.99125 0.97375 0.3 28.97900 0.2 77.00025 1.97650 0.98000 0.1 16.1 66.9 44.1 36.97050 0.7 22.98100 0.8 33.97850 0.99675 0.0 10.97450 0.1 46.98425 0.96875 = observed temperature in degrees Celsius (Fahrenheit) M = multiplier for correcting volumes to the basis of 15.4 Legend: t 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 1.2 82.98825 0.98450 0.97750 0.99725 0.98850 0.2 57.3 43.98875 0.98625 0.99975 0.97825 0.97250 0.99325 0.97075 0.3 73.4 80.9 54.3 78.9 39.4 20.8 13.99450 0.0 65.ft C (60°F) 198 *Multiplier (M) for °C is a close approx imation.3 58.00175 1.98600 0.98550 0.6 11.6 66.99775 0.0 35.00150 1.0 20.98800 0.2 17.9 14.97175 0.9 34.99825 0.1 71.4 55.99050 0.2 47.9 84.7 57.97500 0.00200 1.6 81.98650 0.97975 0.7 72.98325 0.97200 0.1 41.2 72.0 50.98175 0.00225 1.98075 0.99100 0.99475 0.2 32.1 61.96925 0.7 37.99575 0.3 48.96950 0.

5 2.2 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 1.0-2.7 2.0-2.1000 x .V) W .5-2.6-2.Weight per cubic metre G == Specific gravity V