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Ivaretakelse av brønnintegritet ifm CO2 injeksjon (avrop nr: 6098-06-2007 - 705880) Ensuring well integrity in connection with CO2 injection


Preben Randhol, Karen Valencia, Ali Taghipour, Idar Akervoll, Inge Manfred Carlsen




Petroleumstilsynet (Petroleum Safety Authority Norway) v/ Monica Ovesen



27 December 2007

Preben Randhol


Inge Manfred Carlsen

This report reviews the current practices related to well integrity in the petroleum industry. The relevance of such practices to CO2 storage is discussed in detail. Experience from industrial analogs has shown that the biggest risks from CO2 storage will be from leakage from poor quality or aging injection wells, leakage from abandoned wells and from inadequate monitoring that could have been used for early intervention (Benson, 2005). In view of this, the report cover degradation processes due to CO2, standards on the maintenance of the integrity of wells in the petroleum industry, well abandonment regulations, monitoring approaches currently used by the petroleum industry for early detection of leakage, remediation options that could be used to manage leaking wells and a brief discussion of the safety aspect of CO2 wells.



CO2 injection wells CO2 degradation mechanisms Well integrity Well monitoring Well remediation

CO2 injeksjonsbrønner CO2 nedbrytningsmekanismer Brønnintegritet Brønn-monitorering Brønnutbedring

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Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. Introduction............................................................................................................4 Scope of work .........................................................................................................4 Degradation processes due to CO2 .......................................................................5 3.1 Potential wellbore leakage pathways..............................................................5 3.2 CO2 equilibrium..............................................................................................5 3.3 Cement............................................................................................................6 3.3.1 Portland cement ................................................................................6 3.3.2 Cement additives ............................................................................11 3.3.3 Acid resistant cements....................................................................11 3.3.4 Cement Testing...............................................................................11 3.4 Steel ..............................................................................................................12 3.5 Elastomers ....................................................................................................14 CO2 injection wells ...............................................................................................15 4.1 Well activities ...............................................................................................15 4.1.1 Drilling Operation ..........................................................................16 4.1.2 Completion .....................................................................................18 4.1.3 Production.......................................................................................19 4.2 Methods to ascertain well integrity prior to hand-over ................................20 4.2.1 Hole Stability and formation properties .........................................21 4.2.2 Casing integrity tests ......................................................................25 4.2.3 Cement Evaluation .........................................................................32 4.3 Maintenance of well integrity of injection wells ..........................................34 Permanent abandonment of CO2 wells ..............................................................35 5.1 Proposed abandonment procedure for CO2 wells (Carlsen and Abdollahi, 2007) ...........................................................................................35 5.2 Comparison of proposed abandonment procedure for CO2 wells with NORSOK guidelines for oil and gas wells...........................................38 5.2.1 Material selection ...........................................................................38 5.2.2 Well barrier.....................................................................................38 5.2.3 Completion string ...........................................................................39 5.2.4 Temporary well abandonment........................................................40 5.2.5 Monitoring of permanently abandoned wells.................................40 Well Monitoring ...................................................................................................41 6.1 Pressure and temperature..............................................................................41 6.2 Resistivity .....................................................................................................42 6.3 Geochemical methods and tracers ................................................................43 6.4 Well logs.......................................................................................................44 6.5 Geophysical monitoring ...............................................................................44 6.6 Fibre optics ...................................................................................................44 Remediation of leakage........................................................................................46 7.1 Expandable tubulars .....................................................................................46 7.2 Squeeze cementing, polymer gels etc...........................................................48 Safety aspect of CO2 wells ...................................................................................49 Further work ........................................................................................................52 9.1 CO2 blowout .................................................................................................52 9.2 Component/Material testing for CO2 environment ......................................52




7. 8. 9.

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9.3 CO2 for EOR.................................................................................................52 9.4 Field communication ....................................................................................52 9.5 CO2 reproduction from storage.....................................................................52 9.6 Converting wells for CO2 and abandoned wells...........................................52 9.7 Safety aspect for CO2 well testing/interventions ..........................................53 References .............................................................................................................54

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This report reviews the current practices related to well integrity in the petroleum industry. The relevance of such practices to CO2 storage is discussed in detail. Experience from industrial analogs has shown that the biggest risks from CO2 storage will be from leakage from poor quality or aging injection wells, leakage from abandoned wells and from inadequate monitoring that could have been used for early intervention (Benson, 2005). In view of this, the report cover degradation processes due to CO2, standards on the maintenance of the integrity of wells in the petroleum industry, well abandonment regulations, monitoring approaches currently used by the petroleum industry for early detection of leakage, remediation options that could be used to manage leaking wells and a brief discussion of the safety aspect of CO2 wells.


Scope of work
1. Overview of CO2 degradation mechanisms for the different well barrier components, such as cement, steel and elastomers. a. During injection b. From a permanent plugging aspect 2. Literature study to assess what the industry is doing in connection with CO2 well integrity offshore on NCS and in Europe. 3. Considerations to be assessed in connection with CO2 well integrity for the whole life cycle of the well. How to plug the wells for the future, monitoring of the wells etc... 4. A discussion around the safety aspect of CO2 wells.

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Degradation processes due to CO2
Potential wellbore leakage pathways

Possible leakage pathways through an abandoned well are shown in Figure 3.1 (Celia et al., 2004). It can be seen from the figure that leakage could occur due to poorly cemented casing, casing failure and improper abandonment. Cement that has properly set has very low permeability, in the order of 10-2 m2. No significant flow of CO2 can occur unless the cement has degraded or has not set properly. Casing failure on the other hand could occur due to corrosion, erosion or improper design.

Figure 3.1

Schematic of possible leakage pathways through an abandoned well (a) between casing and cement (b) between cement plug and casing (c) through the cement pore space (d) through the casing (e) through fractures in cement (d) between cement and rock (Celia et al., 2004)

Possible leakage pathways for CO2 injection wells are the same as in Figure 3.1 except that there is no cement plug in place. In addition, as the pressure inside the wellbore is higher than the pressure outside, the preferential flow path will be in the opposite direction. 3.2 CO2 equilibrium

When ordinary cement is exposed to CO2 gas it will react with it especially in a wet environment. CO2 gas will be in equilibrium with the water phase through the equilibria: CO2 (g) = CO2 (aq) CO2 (aq) + H2O = H2CO3 (aq)
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It is therefore very corrosive to materials such as cement and steel. High concentrations of CO2 will lead to a very low pH of the water phase. (2000).3 Cement Cement containing Ca(OH)2 will react with the CO2 in the air or water phase as shown in the two equations below respectively: Ca(OH)2 + CO2 (g) = CaCO3 (s) + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H2CO3 (aq) = CaCO3 (s) + 2 H2O This process is called carbonation and leads to a lower porosity due to the precipitation of calcium carbonate takes up a larger volume than the Ca(OH)2. (1984) that at supercritical CO2 conditions the rate of carbonation was influenced by the partial pressure of the CO2 and the temperature.07 .doc\H\6\27. It is not thermodynamically stable in contact with CO2 and will deteriorate over time. 3. CO2 is therefore in reality a carbonic acid. the reactions above are true for the different types of C-S-H. For CO2 storage over a long time (1000 year perspective) wells with Portland cement will oppose a leakage risk. The second reaction that can occur in air and water respectively are: 3CO2 (g) + Ca3Si2O7*4H2O = 3 CaCO3 + 2SiO2*2H2O 3H2CO3 (aq) + Ca3Si2O7*4H2O = 3 CaCO3 + 2SiO2*2H2O + 3H2O This reaction leads to an increase in porosity due to that the volume of Ca3Si2O7*4H2O is larger than CaCO3(s). However. It is common to generalize the calcium silicate hydrate to the form: C-S-H as the amounts of calcium to silicate to hydrate varies. However when there is excess CO2 with a low pH the CaCO3 will dissolve.= CO32.1 Portland cement Portland cement is the most widely used cement in the industry. The silicate hydrate product from the reactions above is also usually an amorphous phase and not crystalline which gives poorer strength of the cement.3. The net result is the porosity increases and the strength deteriorates and it leads to a further carbonation of the cement. The problem is however that Portland cement is not resistant to CO2. The H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. Krilov et al.-6- s H2CO3 = HCO3. It was found by Onan et al.+ H+ HCO3.12.+ H+ An increase in gas pressure or CO2 content in the gas phase will lead to an increase in CO2 in the aqueous phase and consequently a drop in pH. 3.

1mD which is the API recommendation.07 . Milestone et al.2 Experimental setup for testing cement at supercritical CO2 conditions Barlet-Gouédard et al. 20% silicate is needed to get below the permeability of 0.-7- s water content level was found to be secondary with respect to the rate. Carbonation was only observed in the outer regions of the samples at low temperatures and pressures while complete carbonation was observed at high temperatures and pressures.12.doc\H\7\27. The samples with silicate had a higher strength than the samples without prior to the experiments. For the samples containing lot of silicate the carbonation front was much deeper. Milestone et al. Figure 3. (2006) H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. (1990) did similar but more realistic experiments. After exposing the samples for 10 months to CO2 the samples with silicate had lost 60% of the volume while the samples without had lost 35% of the volume. This may be due to the increase in porosity that occurs when silicate reacts with CO2 thus the CO2 can penetrate the sample further. They found that at 150 C and 8 bar CO2 pressure the samples without silicate had only a small carbonation front around the outer surface. (1986) tested cement slurries with different amount of silicates. However. At low temperatures and pressures it was also observed that dynamic systems lead to more carbonation than static system.

07 .5 respectively. (2006) H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. The carbonation and porosity alteration of the Portland cement can be seen in Figure 3. A drawing of the apparatus is shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. The rate of carbonation in both media can be seen from Figure and Figure 3. (2006) in an autoclave.12.-8- s Portland cement was tested by Barlet-Gouédard et al.3 Rate of carbonation for Portland cement. Barlet-Gouédard et al.doc\H\8\27. Samples were tested in both CO2 saturated water and in supercritical CO2 atmosphere at 90 C.

4.4 The carbonation for Portland cement.doc\H\9\27.-9- s Figure 3. (2006) Figure 3. Barlet-Gouédard et al. Excerpt of Figure 3. Barlet-Gouédard et al.12.5 The porosity alterations in Portland cement.07 . (2006) H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.

al.doc\H\10\27. No obvious proof of direct CO2 interaction with the shale was found. The cement was analysed and it was found that it had been partly carbonated. Generally it was concluded that the structural integrity of the Portland cement was adequate to prevent significant transport of fluids. (2006) at 90 C showed that carbonation is much faster at higher temperatures.12. al (2007) The low temperature in the SACROC field is probably the most important factor for the level of carbonation observed. What the SACROC cores show is that flow paths existed especially at the cement interfaces. al. USA. The cement that was in contact with the shale rock is heavily carbonated. Tests done by Kutchko el al. Shale sample was also collected. CO2 was found to have migrated along the cement casing and cement shale interfaces for some time.. The cementing at total depth was neat Portland cement. In the following years it was a producer for 10 years in low pressure environment.07 . The permeability of the cement was found to be higher than pristine Portland cement. Carey et. The 240 m thick reservoir is located at 2100 m depth and has a temperature of 54C and a pressure of 180 bar. SEM imaging showed that CaCO3 had precipitated in the void spaced. (1984) also found higher carbonation at higher temperatures. However. see Figure 3. One factor can be the slow kinetics of CaCO3 at low temperatures.6. (2007) did a study of the cement from the SACROC unit in West Texas.10 - s Carey et. The reservoir is limestone with 10-100 mD permeability and around 10% porosity. The next 7 years it was an injector (high pressure) and 110 000 tonnes of CO2 passed through the well according to Carey et.6 Photograph of samples recovered from well 49-6 showing the casing (left). The cement close to the casing is pure carbonate like a vein filling. Figure 3. (2007) at 50 C and BarletGouédard et al. (2007) Samples of the casing and cement was taken from about 6-4m above the caprock-reservoir contact. Onan et al. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. The well 49-6 was drilled in 1950 and was first exposed to CO2 in 1975. 5-cm core of gray cement. gray cement with a dark rind adjacent to the casing. and the shale country rock. gray cement with an orange alteration zone in contact with a zone of fragmented shale.

Barlet-Gouédard et al. According to Brothers (2005) testing showed that Thermalock had a 3 % weight loss compared to 50 % weight loss of Portland cement.2 Cement additives According to Beddoe et. Sugama T (2006). Another phosphate based cement has been developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It is reasonable to assume that additives to Portland cement such as silicates. Before and after testing the properties such as permeability and porosity should be measured. The cement can therefore be enhanced in order to reduce the carbonation rate.3.12. Wagh AS (2005a. The Thermalock cement has been used in geothermal wells and CO2 injection wells. and CalEnergy Operating Corporation has developed a phosphate based cement. microsilicate. Test has been performed in H2SO4 solutions of low pH~1. al. Halliburton. It is based on Magnesium Potassium Phosphate. latex. Magensium is less prone to carbonation compared to calcium and should have better resistance to CO2. The cement is claimed to have outstanding resistance to CO2 and acid at brine temperatures up to 320°C. 3. Addition of Microsilica to the Portland Grade G cement gave lower permeability and better mechanical strength according to Noik et al (1998) The CO2 resistance was not tested though. No tests for the resistance to CO2 have been found so how well the cement behaves in a CO2 environment is not known. ICP measurements of the water phase can determine the amount of dissolved ions from the samples.1 with HCO3. but that the level was lower and more homogeneously.3 Acid resistant cements Schlumberger has developed a new CO2 resistant cement which they have tested. but it will not hinder the carbonation from occurring due to that the Portland cement is thermodynamically unstable in contact with CO2. The cement is not described other than that it has reduced amount of Portland cement. The CaP cement is commercialised by Halliburton under the name ThermaLock.doc\H\11\27.11 - s 3. The test revealed that carbonation occurred. 3. SEM and XRD analysis should also be used to determine the alteration of the minerals. The cement is developed for the Arctic conditions with very low temperatures. (2005) adding quartz to Portland cement in order to make it more acid resistant will leave only the cement paste affected by CO2. Scratch test and triaxial tests can also be used to determine the strength of cores. Cement deterioration will still occur but the degree of tortuosity induced by the aggregate particles will decrease the rate.3. 2005b). Comparing to pure Portland cement it was concluded that this cement was more CO2 resistant.3. But the cement should be tested both in supercritical CO2 atmosphere and saturated water solution. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. Brookhaven National Laboratory supported by DOE. polymers.07 . UnoCal Corporation. (2006).. can change the properties of the cement and reduce the amount of Portland cement.4 Cement Testing There is no standard method of testing cement for CO2 wells.as CO2 source.

5. Usually carbon steel is not sufficient for normal well conditions. The pH can be calculated accurately using thermodynamic models and the corrosion rates for carbon steel can be calculated using the NORSOK M-506. According to NORSOK M-001 the limits for stainless steel AISI 316 is max temperature of 60 C and minimum pH of 3. The equipments are quite similar. right: hollow cylinder plugs with steel tubes inside or outside cement bond testing (last plug with cement on top). The equipment used by Schlumberger can be seen in Figure 3. The main reaction in carbon steel is: Fe + 2H+ Fe2+ + H2 The iron dissolves into iron ions in the solution and leaves a corroded surface.12.7.5 while 22% and 25% Cr can have a max temperature of 150 C given critical H2S levels. Possible composite test plugs. H2S. Figure 3. The important factor is the pH of the solution in contact with the steel.12 - s Both SINTEF Petroleum Research and Schlumberger have developed methodology and apparatus for testing cements at supercritical CO2 conditions.07 . The cement is shown in grey. If steel with higher chromium concentrations content is used one can obtain better corrosion protection. Left: plugs for triaxial testing. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.2. By doing this one can prevent that the solution around the core is stagnant and that new solution comes into contact with the core.. The experiments can be run at temperatures up to 200 C and high pressures (1000 bar) to test the resistance to CO2 on cement samples. The samples in the SINTEF apparatus are suspended inside the autoclave due to the agitation.7. Various configurations can be tested some examples are shown in Figure 3. 3. 13% Cr can have a max temperature of 90 C at pH 3.doc\H\12\27. Acids used for acidation. CO2 and oxygen and chloride can all lead to corrosion of the well. One difference to the Schlumberger apparatus is that the SINTEF apparatus can be agitated during the experiment by connecting a motor which rocks the whole contained back and forth.4 Steel Acidic environments can induce corrosion in different types of steel.

Static (mm/y) 13Cr . For both conditions the temperatures were 125 C.482 MPa. During dynamic conditions the flow velocity was 1 m/s.8 0. Moreira et al (2004) H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.12. a layer of corrosion product film appears at 150 C.2 0 125 135 145 155 165 175 Temperature (C) Figure 3. At 90 C and 120 C.6 0. The ratio between the 13% Cr steel and the 13Cr––5Ni––2Mo steel corrosion rates were found to be: 8 times at 125 C. less defect in the corrosion product layer.13 - s Zhang H et al (2005) tested the temperature effects of 13% Cr stainless steel.6 13 Cr . Moreira et al (2004) studied CO2 corrosion of 13% Cr vs 13Cr-5Ni-2Mo stainless steel. the corrosion process primarily composes dissolution and growth of passive film according to the following scheme: Cr + 3H2O Cr(OH)3 + 3H+ + 3e- As the temperature is increased. integrity and compact corrosion product layer covered the passive film.2 Corrosion rate (mm/y) 1 0. 150 C and 175 C with a CO2 partial pressure of 0. there were some visible defects existing in the passive film.4 0.4 1. Possible corrosion process is given by the following reaction Fe2+ + CO32Fe + HCO3FeCO3(s) FeCO3 + H+ + 2e- It was found that there is little corrosion product on the specimen surface at 90 C.. more product deposit at 120 C. but at 150 C. 12 times at 150 C and 44 times at 175 C.07 .Dynamic (mm/y) 1.8 Corrosion rates of 13Cr and 13Cr5Ni2Mo steel for dynamic and static conditions at temperatures 125 to 175 . At 90 C when the specimens are exposed to CO2 environment.Static (mm/y) 13Cr5Ni2Mo . corrosion is high. Both static and dynamic conditions where studied. The static test showed that the 13% Cr steel corroded faster than the 13Cr-5Ni-2Mo.Dynamic (mm/y) 13Cr5Ni2Mo . 1.doc\H\13\27. thereby the passive film is destroyed.

5 Elastomers Searching for literature on behaviour of elastomers in CO2 environment did not give any results unfortunately. It is important not to mix low grade seals with high grade tubing/casing metal for example. 13Cr is also sensitive to oxygen corrosion. Nickel alloys can also be considered if duplex steel cannot be used. Another option could be to use a lower grade steel with an internal coating. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. 13% Cr shows good performance in CO2 environment. 22% or 25% Cr duplex steel is very costly and usually not an option for long pipe sections. It is therefore very important that if using this type of material the operational constraint is not to acid wash the well..12.1 Number of years it takes to corrode through a tubing with OD=9 5/8” and ID=8 ½” based on data from Moreira et al (2004) 13Cr 357 110 13 Static 13Cr5Ni2Mo 2858 1299 550 13Cr 95 17 10 Temperature °C 125 150 175 According to Havlik et al (2007).doc\H\14\27. It needs to be well documented so that it is understood by the different disciplines during the life cycle of the well. However. it is not applicable in higher temperatures and in combination with low amounts of H2S. the coating is not reliable and any breach will lead to rapid corrosion and deterioration of the steel. wellhead. However. This will lead to galvanic corrosion due to the difference in electric potential between the metals.07 . 3.14 - s Dynamic 13Cr5Ni2Mo 238 204 179 Table 3. liner etc should be chosen to be of same steel quality. As metals are prone to corrode it is not suited to be left in contact with CO2 when the well is abandoned. All components: tubing. even if 22% or 25% Cr is better suited at high temperature and H2S content it can suffer severe corrosion during acid treatment. casing. However. It is therefore also very important that one quality checks the materials from the suppliers before installing them in the well as a wrong steel quality of metal seal for example may rapidly lead to a well integrity failure. So the choice of material will largely depend on the conditions expected for the CO2 well. hangers.

When wells are re-used for CO2 injection. production or injection wells in depleted oil/gas fields are also reused as CO2 injection wells. Second. the different activities that may be carried out in the well’’s lifetime prior to conversion as CO2 injector and their possible effect on well integrity are first reviewed. 2005).1 Typical built-for-purpose CO2 injection well (after RITE.1 (RITE. completion and production H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. In most cases. existing guidelines to maintain well integrity of injection wells are covered. Experience with regards to CO2 handling has already been gained from EOR operations and for acid gas disposal (IPCC.1 Well activities The impact on well integrity of the different activities that may be carried out during the well’’s operating life prior to conversion as a CO2 injector is discussed in this section. Downhole configuration of a typical injection well includes a packer. A typical built-for-purpose CO2 injection well and a wellhead are shown in Figure 4. the different methods used to check the well integrity for further use as a CO2 injector are discussed. an on-off tool and a downhole shutoff valve.07 . 2007).15 - s 4.. 2007).doc\H\15\27. These wells are usually equipped with annular pressure monitors to help detect leaks in packers and tubing. CO2 injection wells A CO2 injection well is very similar to a typical gas injection well except that downhole components have higher pressure ratings and corrosion resistance. 4.12. The different well activities include drilling operations. In this section. Figure 4. This is important for taking rapid corrective action. Finally. it is important to review the activities conducted during the well’’s operating life as they affect the well integrity.

12. 4.1 Drilling and borehole stability During drilling. For built-for-purpose CO2 injectors.16 - s operations.doc\H\16\27. all components of casing string including connections. The drilling activity could impact wellbore stability. Keeping the borehole wall intact ensures that the cement column would be properly set during completion.1 Drilling Operation Drilling activity starts with spudding and concludes with preparation of the well for testing. casing integrity and the cement integrity. including overpull to free stuck casing.2 Casing setting There is higher risk of compromising the casing integrity during drilling operations. Prior to landing. potential loss zones. presence of solids/sands. the tubing and accessories shall be reclassified to casing and redesigned to meet drilling loads (NORSOK. completion or suspension/abandonment. The drilling mud also forms a filter cake to prevent wall collapse. inflow or fluid loss while running or pulling string. wax or emulsions are present. presence of H2S. 2004). contingency measures could be to supply heat to the affected area or inject suitable chemical inhibitors. When hydrates. wax and emulsions. the primary pressure barrier is the fluid column.07 .1. The following points should be considered in casing design (NORSOK. 4. sloughing and caving formations and protection of reservoirs Geo-tectonic forces applicable Incident scenarios during drilling which could serve as basis for estimating expected loads should include occurrence of gas kick and dynamic loads from running of casing. hydrates. Borehole cave-ins result in an under-reamed hole which could affect the cementing operation. discussions on the drilling and completion operations are applicable..1.1.1. 4.1. circulation devices and landing string shall be subject to load case verification. For through-tubing drilling operations. 2004): Planned well trajectory and bending stresses induced by doglegs and curvature Maximum allowable setting depth with regards to kick margin Estimated pore pressure development Estimated formation strength Estimated temperature gradient Drilling fluids and cement program Loads induced by well services and operations Estimated casing wear Setting depth restrictions due to formation evaluation requirements Potential for H2S and/or CO2 Metallurgical considerations ECD and surge/swab effects due to narrow clearances Isolation of weak formation. It should be noted that H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.

high alumina cement to reduce the amount of Portland cement. Besides the cementing material. Non-Portland based cements (calcium phosphate cement ThermalockTM) which contain aluminum hydrates. This will not only degrade the strength of the cement. Portland cement is known to be thermodynamically unstable. sour-gas disposal wells and geothermal wells with high carbon dioxide content. the placement of cement is also important in maintaining the wellbore integrity. 2005). 35% carbon dioxide) injection over a 50-year period in Labarge area. After the cement slurry is pumped downhole.17 - s heating the affected area results in thermal loads while injection of suitable chemical inhibitors results in higher internal pressure. It should be noted that the temperature in the Sacroc reservoir was only ~50 C. bow spring centralizers are used. calcium phosphate hydrates and mica-like aluminosilicates are now used as alternatives in carbon dioxide injection wells.1. Centralizers are then used to ensure that the casing is placed in the center of the borehole. In H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. an alteration of 100mm after 20 years of CO2 attack is possible in Portland cements. 2005). Drilling mud is first circulated in the hole to ensure that cuttings and borehole wall cavings have been removed before running the casing.doc\H\17\27.12. It tends to strongly degrade once exposed to such acid gases. Cement bonds to rock by a process of crystal growth while cement bonds to casing by filling the pit spaces in the surface of the casing. For under-reamed or washed out holes.3 Cementing the casing/liner The quality of the cementing operation is also crucial in maintaining wellbore integrity. The most widely used cements in the petroleum industry are the Portland-type cements.07 . 4. In another simulation of downhole conditions for both wet supercritical CO2 and CO2saturated water. (Barlet-Gouedard et al. When it is properly set. but can also create leakage pathways for CO2. An alternative is to use fortified Portland cement where resistance is increased by adding a latex diluent of a specific particle size and adding a non-standard. An EOR site where cements and casing were exposed to carbon dioxide for 17 years (Sacroc reservoir) showed that cement can retain integrity for some decades (Carey. Wyoming (Benge. Well deviation can affect cement as cement sets differently in deviated wells and vertical wells.1.. Relevant cement additives that help to maintain well integrity include hydrazine which is used to control corrosion of the casing and radioactive tracers to assess where the cement has been placed. the cement slurry can become a nearly impermeable and durable material. 2006). The mill varnish is also removed from the surface of the casing to ensure that the cement will bond to the steel surface. by reacting with calcium hydroxide formed from hydrated calcium silicate phases. It is very important to do a thorough clean out of the well prior to cementing in order to prevent mud mixed into the cement causing cavities or channels. In a CO2-rich environment. Good quality cementing will likely protect against cement degradation and casing corrosion. a lighter drilling mud follows. This has been used in the well completion design for acid gas (65% hydrogen sulfide.

This elastic load is considered essential for maintenance of the cement-casing bond and to prevent leakage between the cement and casing. collapse and axial load. 4. Remediation which included injection of high density brine in the annulus and pumping of high density fluid into the casing have little success (Crow. Tubing movements which include piston. 2006).18 - s this way. 2006).1. the casing will always have an elastic load on the cement-casing interface. experience from conversion of a mature oilfield in West Texas into a carbon dioxide injection field showed that recovered metal liners have extensive corrosion (prior to carbon dioxide injection) possibly due to chlorine based attack from the formation water (Power. The main cause is believed to be gas flow through the cement matrix. 2006).12. when the cement sets and drilling or production operation continues. the casing is under compression from a higher differential pressure on the outside of the casing. 2004): Leak testing of the completion string Leak testing annulus Shut in of well Dynamic flowing conditions Shut in of well by closing SCSSV Tubing collapse as a function of minimum tubing pressure (plugged perforations or low test separator pressure) at the same time as a high operating annulus (maximum allowable) pressure is present Injection Overpull Firing of TCP guns H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. Thus. The pitting increased significantly in the year of the CO2 injection and could therefore be the result of corrosion or erosion (Mulders. 2006). This emphasises the importance of material selection when designing well completions. ballooning. the following load cases shall be considered (NORSOK. Collapse and burst pressure should also be estimated.2 Completion A study of a CO2 injection well at the K-12B gas field in the Dutch sector of the North Sea showed that 25% of the tubulars are degraded. When designing for burst. Sixty to seventy percent of the wells in the Gulf of Mexico are affected by sustained casing pressures (SCP).07 .doc\H\18\27. helical buckling and thermal effects should also be estimated considering the different well operations throughout the operating life of the well. This could be due to gas flow through unset cement and due to cement shrinkage after completion. This problem has also been observed after routine well pressure tests. the cementing problems that could cause SCP include: (1) micro annuli caused by casing contraction and/or expansion (2) channels caused by improper mud removal prior to and during cementing (3) lost circulation of cement into fractured formations during cementing (4) flow after cementing by failure to maintain an overbalance pressure (5) mud cake leaks (6) tensile cracks in cement caused by temperature and pressure cycles (Sweatman.. In summary. Aside from this.

2006): Elastomer problems and casing corrosion problem occur after well completion Tubing needs to be replaced at 5-20 year intervals and after 3 replacements the wells should be plugged and abandoned 4.. 2000).1. leaking elastomers and external corrosion.. 2004): Dimensional stability of well as a function of temperature and pressure Sealing capacity of metal to metal seals as a function of wellbore fluids. In the North Sea chalk basin.12. nearly 1000 wells had severe casing damage by depletion-induced compaction (Fredrich et al. which were related to the increase of axial and radial loads on the wellbore caused by compaction of the high-porosity chalk during reservoir depletion (de Silva et al. Figure 4.07 . At the Belridge diatomite field in California. pressure and temperature Stability of explosive and chemical perforating charges as function of temperature/pressure exposure time Clearance and tolerances as function of temperature and differential pressure exposure Deterioration of elastomer seals and components as function of temperature/pressure exposure time and wellbore fluids Common failure occurrences in the North Slope of Alaska are erosion.2 shows the distribution of casing failures for the Belridge diatomite field. Casing deformation occurs due to axial buckling in the reservoir or sub horizontal shear in the overburden.19 - s Artificial lift requirements For HPHT wells.doc\H\19\27. Conclusions from the BP experience in the North Sea and North Slope of Alaska include (Anders.3 Production Reservoir pressure depletion due to production can induce formation compaction.. well subsidence. 1990). more than 90 casing failures had been observed. emphasis should be placed on (NORSOK. The peak zones of failure are at the boundary between the diatomite reservoir and the overlying sand or within the sand itself. Formation compaction can cause casing damage. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.

20 - s Figure 4. 1999). the wellbore is underreamed in order to allow additional shear movement before the rock strata impinges on the casing (Bickley and Curry. 2007). 1992). It is therefore necessary to conduct a pressure test using gas (e. In the overburden. Several efforts to combat casing deformation include water injection (Dale et al.. Maximum allowable sand production and maximum allowable equipment wear loss should be established. In the Gudao reservoir of Shengli oilfield. forty oil production and water injection wells were recently abandoned due to casing failures (Peng.g. 1996). 2001).2 The location and incidence of casing failures at the Belridge field from 1984 to 1994 (Nagel.07 . sand production could also cause casing damage as observed in Canada heavy oil sand (Wagg et al.doc\H\20\27. In the same manner. Even if oil production wells have no leakage during their operating life. 4. the casing damage reached 6860 after 40 years which is 16% of the total wells in the field (Lan et al.. sand production should be continuously monitored... Telescoping joints have also been employed in the reservoir section in order to reduce the build up of axial strain (Eriksen et al. 1998). the well should undergo testing to ensure its integrity under pressure.2 Methods to ascertain well integrity prior to hand-over Prior to converting a well for CO2 injection. CO2) for a period of time before commencing actual CO2 injection. Due to the severity of the consequences. 2000). et al. in China’’s Daqing oilfiled.. For wells which formerly used artificial lift. it is still possible that these wells could leak during gas injection. it is important to ensure that the valves are intact prior to use of the well as a CO2 injector. Aside from casing damage due to reservoir subsidence. Subsurface safety valves should be H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.12. It is also important to seal the valves prior to use of the tubing string for CO2 injection.

21 - s checked and cleaned from deposits.2. South Pass Block 24 & 27.g. et al. excessive reaming. The manifestation of wellbore instability include hole pack off. hole size is increased in certain locations. et al. While unstable/weak formation is in itself a possible leakage pathway. fractured.3 Open hole caliper log showing mud invasion and wellbore wall support (Mohiuddin. 2006).07 . In the following subsections. torque and drag or stuck pipe. Production-induced subsidence/compaction of the formation is also a function of the formation properties. As mud weight increased from 70 PCF to 76 PCF. weak.. the different routine methodologies used to ascertain wellbore integrity are discussed in detail.3 is an example of an open-hole caliper log showing wellbore wall support possible and mud invasion. This covers methods which deals with hole stability. brittle. Figure 4.g. Bolivar Coastal Fields. Venezuela. chemically reactive). 2006). Figure 4.doc\H\21\27. This requires identification of formation intervals where there is leakage risk such as weak formations. Gulf of Mexico.1 Hole Stability and formation properties Information regarding formation properties could give an indication of the possible leakage pathways from the formation to the wellbore. casing and cement integrity. Wellbore instability could be due to complex geological conditions such as intervals with different properties (e. This irregularity could be a problem during casing string cementing and could potentially result in failed cement jobs. Wellbore wall failure results in enlarged and elliptical borehole. overpull.12. wellbore wall stabilization is observed. as it is increased to more than 76 PCF. it can also affect borehole stability hence casing integrity. This phenomenon could result in casing damage (e. However. 4. This is possibly due to mud invasion (Mohiuddin. They must also be checked for compatibility with gas injection. South Belridge H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.

4 Idealized curve bottomhole pressure vs time during injection with constant flow rate (Schechter 1992). Compaction of chalk was suspected to induce buckling (Schwall et.22 - s Field.12. and initiate the fracture. al. Horizontal in-situ stress magnitude and formation breakdown pressure could be estimated from leak-off or fracturing tests (e.4. Propagation pressure: the pressure required to continually enlarge the fracture. A typical bottomhole pressure profile during fracturing is as shown in Figure 4. In Ekofisk Field. it was observed that casing deformations align with high porosity intervals contributing most to production. Estimates of pore pressure and permeability could be obtained from well tests. Instantaneous shut-in pressure: the pressure that is required to just hold the fracture open after the injection is stopped..07 . Vertical stress magnitude on the other hand could be estimated from density logs or seismic data while elastic modulus of the formation could be obtained from laboratory H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.g.2. permeability and in-situ stresses could also help identify intervals which are potential leakage pathways.doc\H\22\27.1. The Figure shows the following important points (Schechter 1992): Breakdown pressure: the pressure required to break down the formation from the wellbore.1 Pressure and formation permeability Review of the formation pressure data. mini frac) which may be calibrated by laboratory testing of core samples. Figure 4. 1996) 4. California).

Borehole breakouts (Figure 4. etc. This entails coupling of geomechanical with production model. and caliper logs. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. Knowledge of the direction of the in-situ stresses is therefore required for planning a well.07 . If during injection.) is significant especially if it is planned to reuse abandoned wells as carbon dioxide injection points. the fracture treatment could be designed in such a way that the resulting fracture will not breach the bounding strata. Directions of horizontal forces are investigated by conducting a borehole breakout analysis.12. Some of the common tools used for this analysis include borehole televiewer logs (BHTV). For instance. Preferential orientation of borehole trajectory for borehole stability is primarily based on the orientation of the principal in-situ stresses. fracturing the pay zone is inevitable.g. fracturing the formation could be avoided by injecting below the formation breakdown pressure. Risk of damage to the casing string due to this phenomenon could then be evaluated.5) will orient themselves in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. If the well trajectory is not preferentially oriented.doc\H\23\27. wellbore instability could be a problem. Knowledge of the rock mechanical properties (e. formation breakdown pressure. production history data is necessary to calibrate the reservoir simulation model. Another important use of information on reservoir properties is to enable estimation of production-induced stress changes and reservoir compaction/subsidence. and hence can be used to determine this direction. stresses. Besides the rock mechanical properties and reservoir properties. There are several tools used to conduct breakout analysis.23 - s rock mechanical testing. dip-meter logs..

4. however.12. unconsolidated formations are particularly vulnerable to instability and possibly loose sand grains could erode the uncemented portion of the casing.doc\H\24\27.5 Example of different types of borehole cross-section elongation as observed from a six-arm dipmeter log (after Jarosinski.24 - s Figure 4. Daily drilling reports (DDR) should also be reviewed and intervals where mud losses/gains are experienced should be noted as possible conduits for fluids. In addition. Drilling dynamics information from mud log data indicates mud inflow/outflow. 2005). In the field.07 . Intervals which pose leakage risk could also be identified from mud losses/gains observed during drilling. For instance. DDRs give details of events and actions taken for the duration of the drilling operation. certain lithologies are particularly suitable as casing seats. the formation selected for the seat is usually the best compromise between the ideal and what is possible. Clean shale for example is the ideal casing seat formation.2 Mud logs Mudlog interpreted lithology description should also be checked in relation to casing stability. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.2.1..

2. 2007). the center line is the original casing axis.12. Wireline tools available for casing observation range from the simple mechanical devices (e.6 shows a 3D casing image and the longitudinal section in a production well.10 (Peng et al..g. caliper) to ultrasonic measurement techniques designed specifically for steel casing and the cement environment.8. Figure 4.25 - s 4. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. 2007). The lines to the left and right of the center axis show the deformed casing outline (Peng et. conventional devices normally measure casing parameters. in a 2D horizontal plane within the wellbore.6 Casing damage observed from an ultrasonic borehole televiewer (a) 3D view (b) longitudinal section of the casing (Peng et al. It can be seen from the figure that the casing is deformed by shearing.. 2007). Figure 4.2 Casing integrity tests Corrosion and cement bond logs are amongst the most common techniques used to evaluate casing mechanical damage. such as internal radius.07 . Figure 4.doc\H\25\27. Various types of casing damage captured by the borehole televiewer are shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. al. In (b). The ultrasonic borehole televiewer on the other hand is able to image the casing accurately in three dimensions. Figure 4.7.9... However.

. Left: 3D view. 2007) H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.doc\H\26\27.26 - s Figure 4. Right: longitudinal outline (Peng et al.07 . Right: cross section (Peng et al.. 2007). Middle: longitudinal view.12. Figure 4. Left: 3D view.8 Casing failure induced at perforations.7 Casing enlargement captured by ultrasonic borehole televiewer..

27 - s Figure 4. Left: 3D view.12. Middle: longitudinal view.2.2. Left: 3D view. 4. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.. 2007). The location of the casing damage is concentrated on the unconsolidated sandstone around the perforated areas. mechanical coupling.doc\H\27\27.. Middle: longitudinal view. It is also imperative to make sure that the casing material is resistant to CO2-brine environment..07 .1 Casing evaluation Casing inspection prior to landing should include visual inspection regarding corrosion. inducing non-uniform pressures around the casing and causing buckling and shear failure (Peng et al. 2007) Figure 4. Cavities were produced around the casing in the unconsolidated sandstone due to sand production. 2007) Field observations in the Gudao reservoir in China show that casing damage is mainly caused by casing buckling and fracturing. micro annulus formation and other casing failures.10 Cracked casing.9 Broken casing.. The casing loses lateral constraints in the location of the cavities. Right: cross section (Peng et al. Right: cross section (Peng et al.

2. wall thickness and physical properties (e. Piston force on the other hand is due to the H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.doc\H\28\27. elastic limit. Pressure test reports should also be reviewed and checked for irregularities. The casing’’s critical collapse strength is a function of its length. bending load and shock load. production). The casing string will exhibit a helical configuration below the neutral point. Differences in the design and the actual well events should be noted as the selected casing may have been underdesigned and could fail earlier than expected. or thread shear. The tensile stress on the other hand originates from pipe weight. Therefore the design is based on the worst case scenario. Severe burst pressure occurs if there is a kick during drilling operations. thermal. partially cemented). burst and collapse loads. Overpressure zones could also subject the casing to high collapse pressure. metal-to-metal seal. The axial force due to pipe weight is its weight in air less the buoyancy force (Archimedes’’ principle). cementing. etc.g. buckling.g. diameter.12. The sudden stoppage when casing is run generates stress waves along the casing string. it is impossible to predict the magnitude of these loads during the life of the casing.). piston and thermal effects.. This could be drilling fluid or cement slurry. When jumpout failure occurs the pin and box separate with little or no damage to the thread element.2. The casing is exposed to different loading conditions during various well operations (landing. The casing joint must also provide an effective seal to prevent leakage of the fluids or gases. In addition to the three loading conditions described above. Thread shear on the other hand refers to the stripping off of threads from the pin and/or box.07 . This results in rapid wear at this point which can eventually lead to casing failure. This requires large interface pressure between the mating threads in a joint. resilient ring or combination seals. Shock load on the other hand is generated by setting of the slips and application of hoisting brakes. In a compression failure.g. piston etc. Burst loading on the other hand is due to the fluid pressure inside the casing. 4. fracture.28 - s It should also be noted that the weakest point in the casing string is the coupling where three types of failure could occur at the joint: jumpout. Collapse pressure is mainly due to the fluid pressure outside the casing. casing design should also consider the likelihood of buckling.2 Casing design Casing design report which includes load calculations (e. drilling. This is done by use of thread interference. The casing rating also deteriorates with time (wear and tear). Buckling results when the casing is unstable (e. Bending force results when the casing is run in deviated wells where the upper portion of the casing is in tension whereas the lower part is in compression.) should be reviewed and compared with the well history. yield point. However. Thus safety factors are used to make sure that the casing could withstand expected loading conditions. It has to be designed to withstand tensile. the pin moves further into the box while in fracturing the pin-threaded section separates from the pipe body or axial splitting of the coupling occurs. Poisson’’s ratio.

2007): 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) production packer expansion joint.doc\H\29\27.g. al.07 . 2002).29 - s hydrostatic pressure acting on the internal and external shoulders of the casing string while thermal effects refer to the expansion or shortening of the casing due to increase or decrease in temperature.. The tool can be run inside the tubing and could detect leak from (Tecwel. The frequency spectrum that a leak produces is a function of differential pressure.12.3 Casing leaks Reported well leaks during the operating life of the well and the corresponding remedial action taken should be examined. These properties determine whether the frequency is audible in the ultrasonic spectrum. Radioactive (RA) tracers can be used to locate leakage in casings or packers. squeeze cementing) should be investigated to determine whether well integrity has been adequately restored.2. The RA tracer could be used both in injection and production wells. The ultrasonic logging tool makes use of a sensor that detects the frequency spectrum produced by leaks. leak magnitude. or any other subassembly tubing Downhole Safety Valve (DHSV) control line to the DHSV any of the casings in the well wellhead H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. and leak geometry. There is no health risk in a tracer survey but alternatively pulsed neutron tool could be used if there is concern for release or storage of radioactive material (Johnson et.2. 4. Ultrasonic leak detectors could also be used to detect casing leaks. It only uses a small amount of radioactive materials relative to the amount of the other fluids therefore there is no measurable surface radiation. Details of workover operations (e.

11 Possible leakage sources that ultrasonic tool can detect (Tecwel. Other conventional leak detection logs (LDLs) include temperature.doc\H\30\27. An example is shown in Figure 4. distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was introduced giving real-time thermal profile of the wellbore.12.07 . 2007).12 (Julian et al.30 - s Figure 4. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. pressure and casing collar locator (CCL) sondes. In 1995. 2007)..

memory temperature and DTS logs showing leak (Julian et al. 2007).doc\H\31\27. The wall thickness can be estimated from the transmitter-sensor transit time and the amplitude of the electromagnetic wave (Readgroup.4 Corrosion and Erosion The simplest method to measure downhole corrosion and erosion is through the use of multi-finger calipers.2.2.07 .31 - s Figure 4. 2007) 4..13) could also be used to measure downhole corrosion/erosion. Typically.12 Comparison of conventional wireline temperature. It then re-enters the pipe where it is intercepted by the sensors. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. Electromagnetic thickness measurement tools (see Figure 4. a low frequency electromagnetic wave is transmitted from a transmitter element inside the tool body.12. The electromagnetic wave travels radially through the well-fluid before going through the tubing wall and traveling along the length of the tubular.

10. Figure 4.2.13 Typical electromagnetic thickness measurement tool (Readgroup. Downhole video cameras (See Figure 4. we review post cementing evaluation tools.2.32 - s Figure 4.1 Temperature measurement Temperature surveys could also be used to locate cement tops.3 Cement Evaluation In this section. Typical images captured by downhole video cameras are shown in Figure 4. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.14) are also useful in imaging downhole corrosion.3. 2007). 2007) 4.6. Figure 4.07 .12. Figure 4.14 Downhole camera (Readgroup. Figure 4. Temperature surveys should be run a few hours after mixing.9 and Figure 4..8. Centralizers are used to position the camera within the wellbore to provide an even spread of light from the LED light source.doc\H\32\27. 4.7. when the heat of the setting cement is distinct.

When the pressure is released.doc\H\33\27. It is the result of poor cement technique rather than poor quality materials as hard-set neat cement has sufficient strength to withstand pressure tests.3 Pressure testing It is customary to pressure test the shoe after drilling out the cement shoe on the surface and intermediate casing strings. This results in creation of microannulus gap between casing and cement.07 .12. 2006). either from the original drilling mud or from the displacement fluid. Failure of cement around the shoe is usually due to contamination. In some cement jobs.. Figure 4.3. In some cases. the CBL can be run with a pressurized casing. If this is the case. The microannulus closes when the casing expands and the CBL will indicate good bonding if the cement job is otherwise successful.15 Example of cement bond log with ultrasonic imaging tool and variable density log (after Boyd et al.33 - s 4. poor centralization of the logging tool could also make the cement appear to have good bonding (Figure 4.2 Cement Bond Logs (CBL) Bond logs may also be used to determine cement tops as well as the quality of the cement-to-casing bond. This involves pressuring up inside the casing until the pressure at the shoe exceeds the maximum hydrostatic pressure expected at that point during subsequent drilling operations.2.15).2. pressure is held on the casing until the cement sets. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. 4.3. This annular space between cement and casing causes the CBL to respond as if the cement had channeled. the casing contracts and breaks the cement bond.

3 Maintenance of well integrity of injection wells A number of standard technologies are available for monitoring the integrity of active injection wells. casing and the injection pipe. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. contingency planning and emergency response training. improved blow-out prevention (BOP) maintenance. The pressure in the annulus can also be monitored during injection to ensure the integrity of the packer.12. the operating pressure should be kept to a minimum to reduce the risk of leakage.2. Proper maintenance of CO2 injection wells is necessary to avoid leakage and well failures. improved crew awareness.. Some of which have already been described in Section 4. Practical procedures that can be used to reduce probabilities of CO2 blow-out (uncontrolled flow) and mitigate the adverse effects if one should occur include periodic well integrity surveys.07 . This maximum allowable injection pressure is also constrained by reservoir properties and surface facilities. During injection.doc\H\34\27. Changes in pressure or gas composition in the annulus should alert the operator to possible leakage.34 - s 4.

A cemented casing with mechanical plugs will not be sufficient. The purpose of which is to see the gaps between the current guidelines and the minimum requirements for CO2 storage. Special care should be taken when constructing these wells. the well should preferably be placed at the flank of the storage anticline for displacement of the CO2 away from the vicinity of the well and avoiding early exposure. cement or a combination.35 - s 5. Shrinkage or expansion of both casing and the cement may create micro-channels in the cement bonding and leakage.07 . 5. Sealing plugs can be mechanical. The sealing elements should provide comply with the following requirements: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Multiple pressure barriers Avoiding underground cross-flow between layers Zero transmissibility Chemically inert Provide sufficient bonding strength Figure 5.1 Proposed abandonment procedure for CO2 wells (Carlsen and Abdollahi. 2007)..1 schematically illustrates a typical CO2 injection well before abandonment in the crest of the storage reservoir. Permanent abandonment of CO2 wells In this Chapter. procedures to carry out permanent abandonment of wells for CO2 storage is described (Carlsen and Abdollahi. The procedure is as follows: 1) Set production casing in the middle of cap rock 2) Minimize liner overlap length 3) Use specialized cement and casing materials H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. 2007) Generally. Bridging this gap will ensure that the integrity of abandoned wells is intact and allow for future use of depleted hydrocarbon fields for CO2 injection. The proposed procedures are then compared with existing NORSOK guidelines on permanent abandonment of oil and gas wells.doc\H\35\27.12. Casing corrosion may create channelling and possible leakage.

Figure 5.doc\H\36\27. The production casing and the liner penetrating the cap rock should be milled out with a casing cutter as potential corrosion of the steel may create leakage channels.36 - s Wellhead and X-mass tree Surface casing Before abandonment Intermediate casing Impermeable cap rock Production casing Perforations Liner Figure 5.1 CO2 storage well before abandonment It is assumed that the sealing qualities of the caprock are generally maintained with zero permeability to gas or injectivity to well fluids or cement..2 schematically illustrates the well after abandonment. The operational procedures are as follows: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Remove tubing and packer Set cement plug at the bottom of the well (sub-barrier) Mill out casing from liner lap to end of perforations Inject cement in perforations and cement the open hole interval Squeeze cement in the lower and upper cap rock formation Set mechanical bridge plug Remove upper free-cement casing Mill out intermediate casing and squeeze cement Remove wellhead and mill out surface casings and squeeze cement H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.12.07 .

37 - s After abandonment Surface barrier Extra barrier Potential secondary impermeable geology layer Non corrosive completion fluid Bridge plug Main barrier Impermeable cap rock Perforations Flushed zone Sub-barrier Figure 5.2 CO2 storage well after abandonment The cement plug will act as the main future CO2 barrier. the wellhead should be removed.3 illustrates a flow chart of the well barriers now in place inside and outside the well. The casing should be milled out also here to seal off potential casing corrosion. bridge plug leakage and possible CO2 migration through the cement to the lower part of the well. A possible fluid could also possible be flushed into the storage reservoir to displace the CO2 and help to improve the cementing quality and bonding to the sealing cap rock. If a secondary geological sealing layer is present this barrier should be positioned here as indicated. the casing strings cut and a last cement plug put in place. Micro channels created near the wellbore by the drilling or milling operations is believed to be closed by squeezed cement.. Figure 5.12. A mechanical bridge plug is set inside the well and the well should be filled with a non-corrosive completion fluid.doc\H\37\27.07 . It is possible that other types of materials such as polymer or resin that are inert to CO2 must be pumped into the near bore well area to prevent direct exposure of cement to CO2. An extra cement barrier should be made higher up in the well. At the surface. One example of such a material is ThermaSet developed by WellCem AS that is H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. The major concern is related to the sealing quality of the cement plug and the bonding quality to the penetrated caprock.

4). have long term integrity. ductile.38 - s claimed to be inert to CO2. Steel and cement quality should be of higher grade so they can handle CO2. The casing will corrode at a much faster rate than that of wells without CO2.07 . 5. no cement plug is placed in the cap rock (Figure 5.2. This is insufficient for wells exposed to CO2. the NORSOK standard for permanent abandonment of wells could serve as a basis for setting guidelines for CO2 storage wells.. This will result in micro channels allowing CO2 H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.1 Material selection NORSOK standard requires that permanent barriers for abandoned wells are impermeable. cement. non-shrinking. more stringent requirements should be set in some areas for CO2 application.12. Any such material should however be tested in supercritical CO2 before approved/deployed. etc.2 Well barrier In the NORSOK guidelines.g. However.). resistant to different substances and have sufficient bonding to the casing. should possibly also be evaluated for possible and alternative abandonment procedures.2.3 Well barriers after abandonment Casing protective materials and alternative casing materials. type of steel. 5. For CO2 applications where material selection is very important. as for example composites. specific material requirement should be set in the guidelines. Surface barrier Surface barrier Extra barrier Extra barrier Bridge plug Main barrier Main barrier Sub-barrier Outside the well Inside the well CO2 migration Figure 5.2 Comparison of proposed abandonment procedure for CO2 wells with NORSOK guidelines for oil and gas wells Fundamentally. The material requirement described by the NORSOK standard is general and do not provide any specific details (e. 5.doc\H\38\27.

Casing cement 6.12. Casing cement 2. Cement plug Primary well barriers: 5. Cement plug Secondary well barriers: 3.2.5) when the well is to be permanently abandoned. this is inadequate.doc\H\39\27. For CO2 applications. this will provide a much better seal than the cemented casing alone. Casing cement 4. Open hole to surface barrier: 1. As cement is more resistant to CO2 than casing. An alternative is to mill out the tubing at the point where the cement plug is to be set. it is good practice to millout the casing within the cap rock and place a cement plug in the milled out section. the tubing can be left in place (Figure 5. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.07 . In which case. leakage pathways will be formed. This can be prevented by pulling out the tubing prior to setting the cement plug. however.. When the tubing corrodes. 2004) 5.3 Completion string According to the NORSOK standard.4 Example case (after NORSOK Standard D010.39 - s migration from the reservoir section upwards. Cement plug Figure 5.

This should be done if the well is exposed to CO2 as there is higher risk of corrosion.40 - s Open hole to surface barrier: 1.2. temporary well abandonment is not regulated to a certain time frame.12..doc\H\40\27. it is important that also permanently abandoned wells are monitored for potential leaks. Casing cement 6. Cement plug Primary well barriers: 3. Cement plug Figure 5. Liner cement 4. Cement plug Secondary well barriers: 5. Casing cement 2.2. 5.07 . For CO2 applications. Different monitoring techniques are described in Chapter 6. the type of completion as well as completion materials used. 2004) 5.5 Monitoring of permanently abandoned wells NORSOK do not prescribe guidelines for monitoring permanently abandoned wells. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.5 Case on the right hand side of the axis where tubing could be left inside the well (NORSOK Standard D010. The duration of temporary well abandonment should be evaluated based on the well fluid composition.4 Temporary well abandonment By NORSOK standards.

Tubing Annulus A Annulus B Figure 6.. across the annular safety valve of annulus A).07 .1 Well Monitoring Pressure and temperature The simplest way to detect leak is by pressure monitoring. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.41 - s 6. Leakage through any of the barriers can be easily detected from the wellhead pressure readings. In some cases leaks can also occur within one volume as across the safety valves (e. Tubing Annulus A Annulus B Figure 6. See Figure 6.1 Leaks between different volumes.2 Leaks within one volume.2 . Leaks could be between the different volumes (e.doc\H\41\27. between the tubing and annulus A) as shown in Figure 6.g. 6.g. pressure sensors at the wellhead and downhole provide real-time pressure readouts in the tubing and in the different annuli. Conventionally.1.12.

A pressure change may be difficult to interpret.3 indicates that a permanently installed pressure sensor with 10 bar full measurement range typically will drift off 0.doc\H\42\27.07 . An observed pressure reduction may be due to sensor drift. The main challenge is to protect the relatively ““soft”” membrane needed for 10 bar measurement range during installation. 6.3 bar.2 No leak Drift <1% over 20 years. or differential pressure monitoring between top and bottom of cap. The drift characteristics are derived from a one month test on permanent well sensors from Weatherford (preliminary data). extended life span? Pressure (bar) 0.3 Permanent pressure sensors and the uncertainty due to drift in output signal. The drift of sensors are normally a portion of full range (<1% for the sensor referenced above). Pressure sensor characteristics 0. so 10 bar full range seem to be a maximum with today’’s sensors.demonstrations are seen via similar sensors available for other applications.12. can be utilized for CO2 monitoring purposes.. CO2 in the formation has isolating electrical properties.42 - s The presence of a CO2 cap in the aquifer will influence the formation pressure. Resistivity or conductivity measurements H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. leak into cap-rock or CO2 solubility in brine. Figure 6.2 Resistivity The formation water in the formation has salinity comparable to sea water. Such sensors will soon be available off-the-shelf and ready for installation. 10bar Full Scale Future sensors: Improved drift characteristics. Pressure monitoring (combined with temperature).1 Leakout in 100 years 50 100 Time (years) Figure 6. A cap of 10 m is estimated to increase the pressure with 0. The measurement should thus be combined with other observations.01bar over a life span of 20 years. .

This technology has been applied in a pilot sequestration study site in the West Pearl Queen depleted oil formation in SE New Mexico. Noble gases are chemically inert. 2007).07 . Two basic sensor principles are available.Archie equation) can be directly applied. Chemical tracers such as SF6.12. PFTs were added as three 12 h slugs at about one week intervals during CO2 injection. Saturation models commonly applied in wire-line logging for estimation of hydrocarbon saturation (i. Permanently installed sensors have the capability of monitoring time developing trends with high resolution. The tracers were analysed using thermal desorption and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. the CO2 leak rate was estimated at about 0. Leakage was monitored using 40 capillary adsorbent tubes left in the soil for periods ranging from days to months.doc\H\43\27. CH3F and CH2F2 can be analysed by laser photothermal spectroscopy or by gas chromatography with electron capture or mass spectrometric detectors. carefully distributed in the well would probably give sufficient lateral resolution. In this study. 2006). 6.43 - s are thus well suited for estimation of CO2 saturation in the formation (when the porosity is known). These characteristics are believed to make xenon a superior tracer to other options such as SF6 and 14CO2 (Nimz and Hudson. 2005). Small amounts of noble gas isotopes can also be dissolved into the CO2 being injected for storage and used as tracers to monitor CO2 movement. An array of 8 sensor nodes. Multiple batches of injected CO2 at the same site could be imparted with different xenon isotopic compositions so that they can be identified with only a single xenon analysis. Moreover. xenon isotopes have commercial costs and availability suitable for use in large CO2 storage operations.. Among the noble gases. When calibrated against wireline logs the saturation estimate will have an accuracy within 5%.3 Geochemical methods and tracers Geochemical tracers such as perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) can be used to estimate CO2 leakage rates. environmentally safe and are stable in the environment. The unique isotopic compositions that can be imparted to the CO2 can be unambiguously identified during monitoring. Expected lifetime of a permanent sensor system is typically 5 years. The spatial resolution and detection range depends on sensor geometry and frequency. CO2 appears to have emanated from the vicinity of the injection well in a radial pattern to about 100 m and in directional patterns to 300 m (Wells et al. A conducting casing will dramatically influence formation electrical measurements from a borehole. 42Ar and 39Ar could be detected by a scintillating grid radiometric gas sensor (Saripalli et al. electrodes in galvanic coupling to the formation or induction sensors. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.0085% of the total CO2 sequestered per annum.. Radiological tracers on the other hand.e.. such as 14CO2.

Figure 6. or monitoring of pipeline temperature change during a shut in.6 An inline through the injection area in Sleipner for the 1994. including the possibility of continuous real-time monitoring for some geochemical parameters.doc\H\44\27.5 Geophysical monitoring Time-lapse seismic surveying has been found to be a highly suitable geophysical technique for monitoring CO2 injection into a saline aquifer.4 Well logs Different well logging techniques as described previously could be routinely used to monitor CO2 leakage in casing and cement. can also be used to monitor continuous pipeline temperature from the well to the platform.12. The effects of the CO2 on the seismic data are large in terms of seismic amplitude and in observed velocity pushdown effects (Arts et al. 6. 1999 and 2001 surveys (Arts et al.4. already in use to measure temperature distribution in landbased wells. According to Wright JP: ““This technology.07 .44 - s Fluid samples can also be analyzed for major ions.. Optical fiber offers the next major step change in sensor technology for the subsea and downhole arenas. alkalinity. Fibre optics Development of fibre optics to use for well monitoring is championed by BP. 6. Standard analytical methods are available to monitor all of these parameters. but most oil companies are testing/developing the technology. 2004). stable isotopes and gases. pH. See Figure 6. This can provide early warning of waxing or hydrate formation. Optical fiber sensors can be used to measure H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.4 6. 2004).

12.doc\H\45\27. inherent in all fiber. using either the Brillouin or Raman scattering effects. (3) Strain in “smart structures”. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. flow. electrical noise (EMI) immune. can be used as a distributed sensor.45 - s effects as diverse as: (1) Position and movement with fiber gyroscopes. as more sensitive detection systems become available. measuring temperature.“ Fibre optics may be used in the future to detect internal or external leakages and be able to accurately localise the leakage in the well. (5) Electrical supply characteristics. (2) Acoustics with fiber hydrophones. pressure.07 . and vibration. to measure temperature and strain over fiber lengths of up to 30 km. environmentally stable communication with multiplexed sophisticated subsea and downhole equipment. Fiber will be used to provide high bandwidth. This length will extend. It can then be used as a permanent monitoring tool.. The fiber itself. Optical fiber will also provide communication to a range of discrete passive optical sensor heads. (4) Chemicals and reactions.

The new completion assembly is run consisting of 9 5/8”” by 13 3/8”” packer assembly. Gels can be used to remediate cement bond failure.07 . a short section of 9 5/8”” casing and the patch (Readgroup. 2007). A metal-to-metal seal is formed.1 Expandable tubulars Casing leaks or corroded sections can be isolated without running a liner hanger using expandable tubulars. Expandable tubulars can also be used (run in a smaller ID pipe and expand against existing well). gels.1 where a 9 5/8”” casing is cut below the corrosion and leak site and the upper casing removed. An example is shown in Figure 7. and the wellbore ID is not reduced significantly as with conventional liners. In cases where it is more economical to replace the casing above or below the damaged section than run several casing patches. Remediation of leakage Materials that can be used to remediate SCP include micro fine cements and low solid density sealants (polymers. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2..doc\H\46\27. This technology has been successfully tested in Wyoming and Texas to remedy leaks due to corrosion (Anders and Winters. 7. 2005). tubing and casing leaks.46 - s 7. resins). Expandable systems can be used externally or internally. Use of different techniques is situation-dependent and mostly for short term application only. The connection principle is based on the elastic/plastic expansion and subsequent relaxation of metals. expandable external casing patch (tie-back) connections could effectively provide a hydraulic and gas-tight connection between the new casing joint and the old casing stub.12. Resins can be used to seal casing leaks and SCP as well as for shutting off gas for abandonment.

. 2007).47 - s Figure 7.12. The patch will conform to the inside surface of the casing/liner/tubing wall resulting in a metal-to-metal seal. Expandable tubulars could also be used internally.1 External expandable casing patch (Readgroup.doc\H\47\27. 2005). The expandable metal sleeve maybe attached to a CT/wireline/tubing-conveyed expansion tool. The patch is plastically expanded using hydraulic pressure. This technology has been successfully used to isolate a casing leak in a 7 3/4”” oil well casing which failed the pressure test in the Gulf of Mexico (Chustz et al.. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.07 . This can be successfully used to repair leaking casing or reinforce corroded liner.

the polymer acts as a filler/buffer of larger voids. The type of polymer depends on the location and severity of the leak and whether or not the polymer will be required to hold a pressure or simply shut-off water production. split casing. joint leaks. squeeze cementing operation forces the cement slurry into casing perforations/leaks under low pressure. For channeling behind pipes and for lost circulation applications.g. parted casing. Cement/polymer combination squeeze on the other hand is suitable for severe casing leaks.48 - s Figure 7. 2007). Acrylic monomer grouts are suitable for tight casing leaks and pressure leak-off situations. 2007). polymer gels can also be used as an alternative to cement.07 . high molecular weight polymers are effective. coats formation surfaces and prevents water loss and cement contamination by formation fluids (Polymergel. Hesitation method of applying pressure (intermittent application of pressure separated by a period of pressure leak-off) is applicable to low pressure cementing. Squeeze cementing. corroded casing). H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.doc\H\48\27.2 Internal casing patch (Readgroup. polymer gels etc. Squeeze cementing can also be used to repair casing leaks (e. In here.2 7. In some circumstances. In general.12.. High concentration low molecular weight polymers are suitable for a variety of leaks such as tight pressure leak-off situations to moderate leaks.

hopefully. With proper training and planning.07 .. Reaction time is minimal and some equipment. The violence of the surface flow is usually not expected by field workers. This flow behavior is almost explosive in its violence. Once the CO2 stream falls below the triple point temperature and pressure of -63°F and 76 psi. eddy currents and friction). L (2003): Response measures to safely handle CO2 blowouts require an awareness that these blowouts are not the same as gas well or oil well blowouts. Not only internal well integrity can be lost. which can injure exposed skin due to high rate blow-by (i. In the US a lot of CO2 wells have been running for decades. two processes occur simultaneously. Rapid cooling of the wellbore and fluid stream occurs due to expansion. CO2 leads to a very corrosive environment which easily can lead to loss of integrity. Several special problems result from the unique CO2 phase behavior: 1. 1. High flow rates complicate surface intervention work and expose workers to gas moving at high velocities.49 - s 8. One experienced well control specialist compared the flow from a CO2 blowout to a BLEVE (boiling liquid/expanding vapour explosion). The result is that more supercritical CO2 flows into the wellbore expanding as it does. When pressure containment is lost. The CO2 (and a fraction of miscible products) converts from a supercritical ““fluid”” to a vapour with significant expansion.. but also external which is much harder to stop. respectively. This vapour continues to expand with decreasing confining pressure as it moves up the wellbore. Flow velocities increase accordingly. only a small volume of supercritical ““liquid”” CO2 in the wellbore is enough to trigger the process causing the well to blowout in a matter of seconds. prevent the recent increase in CO2 blowout frequency from becoming an epidemic. 2. Often. cannot be installed and closed fast enough to avoid complete expulsion of all liquid from the well and total loss of pressure control. solid dry ice particles can form quickly. and a firm knowledge about the peculiarities of supercritical CO2. Safety aspect of CO2 wells CO2 wells are different from normal gas wells due to the nature of CO2. An excellent overview of the specific problems related to CO2 blowouts was written by Skinner. Any mud or other fluid in the well is expelled quickly leaving little hydrostatic pressure to resist influx from the reservoir.doc\H\49\27. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.12.e. particularly manual BOPs and stab-in safety valves. the industry can respond to these events and. A new problem is CO2 blowouts in these old wells as they loose integrity.

5. (2) Injectors have low status compared to producers. Two important reasons for the high number of leakages can be: (1) Large cycling loads on the injector wells due to injection of cold fluids.07 .1 Percent leakage in Producers and Injectors on the NCS H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. This high rate gas flow can rapidly cut grooves in tubular goods. Free oil and condensed miscible fluids swept out of the near-wellbore area can collect on the surface creating a ground-fire hazard. 3. Injectors were found to be much more prone to well integrity failures. In one CO2 blowout.doc\H\50\27.50 - s 2. Injectors are 2 to 3 times more likely to leak than producer wells.1. has done well integrity studies on the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS). Both SINTEF and Petroleum Safety Authorities Norway. Figure 8. The cold CO2 condenses water in the atmosphere resulting in reduced visibility in the white ““cloud”” around the wellbore. This can cause leakages if the well is not designed to manage these loads.to marble-size projectiles that are expelled from the well at very high velocities. 4. damage rubber sealing elements and strip paint off equipment. dry ice can also be a significant cold hazard. see Figure 8..12. Dry ice formation often results in pea. and before it sublimes to gaseous CO2. sufficient to injure workers on location. Once it collects on the ground. CO2 and produced fluids form hydrates that can collect in blowout preventers. the wellhead and other surface equipment and around the wellhead complicating well control intervention methods. a worker got too near the plume and reported bruising on the insides of his calves due to his coverall legs whipping in the induced flow stream near the plume. The plume is also a cold hazard for workers near the well. The two studies were conducted on different fields with only limited overlap.

.12. The proposed well abandonment in this report is not fully covered by the NORSOK D-010 standard. Whether the safety standard need to be upgraded for CO2 wells can be debated. but the well integrity needs to improve from the current well integrity of ordinary injectors. Due to the corrosive nature of CO2 is also important that when abandoning the well CO2 is not in contact with non-acid-resistant cement or steel.07 . Besides thermal loads in HPHT wells are much larger and it may lead to radial fracturing of the cement or internal leakage in the well due to tubing expansion beyond what the well components can handle.51 - s It is important that CO2 injectors are considered as high status wells as well integrity breaches can have serious consequences. Generally it should be noted that HPHT fields are less suitable for CO2 injection as the high temperature and pressure worsens the degradation of cement and steel and may lead to a rapid well integrity problem.doc\H\51\27. H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. For a 1000 year perspective it is important that the materials used are inert to the CO2.

The safety level of producers and level of required monitoring should be assessed.5 CO2 reproduction from storage One scenario that can be of interest is to reproduce CO2 from a CO2 storage in order to use this CO2 for EOR in another field. Subsea leakage monitoring is also an important aspect. it is also important to model the communication between fields in a province or basin. for storage or EOR. subsea wells which traditionally have a very low data coverage compared to platform operated wells. Many fields can share the same aquifer and thus CO2 can end up in a neighbouring field where the production wells are not designed for high CO2 content leading to well integrity failures.2 Component/Material testing for CO2 environment CO2 gives a harsh environment down hole.1 Further work CO2 blowout CO2 blowout is different from normal gas blowout. Some criticism has been raised due to that there seem to be a difference in degradation rate between laboratory results and cores taken from real CO2 wells. What will it take to convert a well to handle CO2. 9.6 Converting wells for CO2 and abandoned wells In order to store CO2 or use it for EOR. There has been some laboratory testing of cement. spreads in a field can be modelled by the field model. it is necessary to consider the status of the wells already in the area either abandoned or not.52 - s 9. Also the producers must be able to handle CO2 as it will reach the producers long before the field is depleted. polymers and similar materials..4 Field communication How injected CO2. 9. Especially. The CO2 injector needs to be designed to handle large amount of CO2 over long time. Currently there is no standardised way of testing well components or materials like cement.07 .3 CO2 for EOR Using CO2 as an EOR measurement can be desirable in that one not only get rid of the CO2 but that it can give increased recovery. The safety procedures for a possible CO2 blowout should be evaluated.12. Test procedures should be developed and verified to assess the CO2 impact on materials/components in a short and long term aspect. However. Do abandoned wells need to be re-abandoned so that they won't start leaking CO2 in the future? H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2. 9. Blowouts in the US have shown that CO2 blowout are more violent and introduces new problems in killing the well.doc\H\52\27. Does drilling and completing a well in a CO2 storage necessitate new procedures compared to traditional well constructions? 9. 9. 9.

has shown that well interventions in old CO2 wells lead to well integrity failures or blowouts.12.7 Safety aspect for CO2 well testing/interventions Experience.07 . H:\tilsyn på nettet\!!desember07\sluttrapport_brønnintegritet_co2\web_sluttrapport bronnintegritet_co2.53 - s 9.doc\H\53\27. mainly from the US.. Testing and intervention procedures should be evaluated to reduce the risk of well integrity failure.

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