Parliamentary Democracy Source: Wikipedia A parliamentary system is a system of government in which the ministers of the e xecutive branch get

their democratic legitimacy from the legislature and are acc ountable to that body, such that the executive and legislative branches are inte rtwined. The Palace of Westminster in London, United Kingdom. The Westminster system orig inates from the British Houses of Parliament. The Westminster system is usually found in Commonwealth of Nations, although it is not universal within nor exclusive to Commonwealth countries. These parliamen ts tend to have a more adversarial style of debate and the plenary session of pa rliament is more important than committees. Some parliaments in this model are e lected using a plurality voting system (first past the post), such as the United Kingdom, Canada, and India, while others use proportional representation, such as Ireland and New Zealand. The Australian House of Representatives is elected u sing instant-runoff voting while the Senate is elected using proportional repres entation through single transferable vote. Regardless of which system is used, t he voting systems tend to allow the voter to vote for a named candidate rather t han a closed list. Western European parliamentary model (e.g., Spain, Germany) tend to have a more consensual debating system, and usually have semi-cyclical debating chambers. Co nsensus systems have more of a tendency to use proportional representation with open party lists than the Westminster Model legislatures. The committees of thes e Parliaments tend to be more important than the plenary chamber. A specific exa mple is sometimes called the West German Model since its earliest exemplar in it s final form was in the Bundestag of West Germany (which became the Bundestag of Germany upon the absorption of the GDR by the FRG). Unlike in Germany however, some West European countries' parliaments (e.g., the Netherlands and Sweden) imp lement the principle of dualism as a form of separation of powers. In countries using this system, Members of Parliament have to resign their place in Parliamen t upon being appointed (or elected) minister. However, ministers in those countr ies usually actively participate in parliamentary debates - the main difference being their inability to vote. There also exists a Hybrid Model, the semi-presidential system, drawing on both presidential systems and parliamentary systems, for example the French Fifth Rep ublic. Implementations of the parliamentary system can also differ on whether the gover nment needs the explicit approval of the parliament to form, rather than just th e absence of its disapproval, and under what conditions (if any) the government has the right to dissolve the parliament, like Jamaica and many others.[citation needed] A Parliamentary system may consist of two styles of Chambers of Parliament one w ith two chambers (or houses): an elected lower house, and an upper house or Sena te which may be appointed or elected by a different mechanism from the lower hou se. This style of two houses is called bicameral system. Legislatures with only one house are known as unicameral system.[citation needed] Parliamentarianism may also be for governance in local governments. An example i s the city of Oslo, which has an executive council (Byråd) as a part of the parlia mentary system.