This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
A relationship-management assessment tool: Questioning, identifying, and prioritizing critical aspects of customer relationships
Adam Lindgreen a,*, Roger Palmer b, Joelle Vanhamme c, Joost Wouters d ¨
Department of Organisation Science and Marketing, Faculty of Technology Management, Paviljoen R 00.07, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands b Cranfield School of Management, United Kingdom c RSM Erasmus University, The Netherlands d Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands Received 27 February 2005; received in revised form 21 July 2005; accepted 1 August 2005 Available online 19 September 2005
Abstract With customer-relationship management (CRM) no longer a buzzword among trendsetters, organizations in all types of industries initially rushed to embrace it. Although a seductively attractive concept, the implementation of CRM proved difficult, however, and organizations are struggling with realizing their vision of a CRM organization. To help managers assessing the stage of relationships between their organization and the organization’s business customers we consider the automotive industry. Based upon our case organization and its relationships with numerous business customers we develop a practical tool to question, identify, and prioritize critical aspects of customer-relationship management. First, we identify key areas in CRM. Secondly, we investigate how the chosen case organization has managed each of these key CRM areas over a broad range of business-customer relationships. Thirdly, we acknowledge that many organizations simultaneously have different types (transaction-relationship continuum) of business customers. We finish the article with a discussion of the study’s limitations, and suggest avenues for future research. D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Customer-relationship management; CRM; Relationships; Transactions; Assessment tool
1. Introduction In the 1950s and 1960s, the challenge for businesses could largely be seen as putting in place the means of production to satisfy growing demand, and using marketing techniques to capture customers entering the market (e.g., Brookes & Palmer, 2004; Gummesson, 1999; Parvatiyar & Sheth, 2000). Manufacturers of goods today, however, are competing in a very different environment, and transaction marketing (product, price, place, and promotion, the 4 Ps) alone is believed to be insufficient (Denison & McDonald, 1995; Tapscott & Caston, 1993). Instead, relationship marketing is proposed for building more unique relationships with customers and for adding more value to goods and services than what is possible through transaction marketing (Gronroos, 2000; Lindgreen & Wynstra, ¨ 2005). Relationship marketing, then, is not only about the 4 Ps but also long-term relationships, reflecting a transaction* Corresponding author. Tel.: +31 40 247 3700; fax: +31 40 246 8054. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (A. Lindgreen). 0019-8501/$ - see front matter D 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.indmarman.2005.08.008
relationship continuum (Webster, 1992). Whereas the literature has investigated the theoretical development of relationship marketing, to our knowledge it has been silent on how to assess the management of relationships between an organization and its business customers. This is despite the fact that such a tool would be of great managerial interest to practitioners, for example by providing a valuable platform for managers to further advance and improve on relationship marketing. Reporting how one organization practically developed a tool for assessing its relationship-management activities, our article addresses this gap in the literature. The remainder of the article is organized as follows. First, the literature on relationship management is reviewed, identifying key areas. Subsequently, the managerial implementation of these areas is investigated through in-depth interviews with key informants from our case organization. Then the findings, in the form of the relationship-management assessment tool, are discussed and the study’s managerial implications are considered. The article finishes with a discussion of the limitations to the research, and suggests avenues for future research.
Often the profitability of long-term relationships is higher than that of individual and discrete transactions (Dowling & Uncles. customer satisfaction Individual Substantial strategic importance Integral to product Anglo-Australian approach Service/quality/marketing Long term Six markets Cross functional process based Perceived value Function of value and cost of ownership Customer satisfaction Customer value and retention Integral to the concept Basis for differentiation . Dwyer et al. 2002). ‘‘contributes in unique ways to the understanding of this phenomenon [CRM]’’. 2000). CRM. strategy. Bellenger.: Brodie. If assumptions and beliefs can be made explicit and questioned. therefore. Reichheld. ‘‘The role of relationship ¨ marketing is to identify. is to address the leading schools of thought (c. or a technological tool. & Little. and between 35% and 75% of CRM programs fail (Rigby. so that the objectives of all other parties involved are met. capability. Table 1 Comparison of main components of major schools of relationship marketing versus transaction marketing Key component Basis Time frame Market Organization Basis of exchange Product/quality dimension Measurement Customer information Internal marketing Service Transaction marketing Exchange 4 Ps Short term Single. although this is not always so (e. Each conceptualization. 2000). Zablah.. A tool to assist in assessing the management of customer relationships is therefore particularly important. there is a firm conceptual basis on which relationship development can be understood. relationships with customers typically change in character as they develop. information. is ¨ the management of relationship marketing applied to (a business’s) customers (Lindgreen.. (2002) suggest that companies are prone to making unquestioned assumptions and building on implicit beliefs. Millman and Wilson (1994) presented a relational development model that demonstrated the progression of relationships from transactional to relational. philosophy. Also. 1994. each of which demonstrates identifiable characteristics. (1987) proposed that buyer and seller interactions are not discrete and independent of one another but interact with time. Reinartz & Kumar. 1990). long-term relationships demonstrate a higher degree of cooperation and collaboration between an organization and its customers. 1996). As has been discussed. the authors contend (p. For example. and mutual commitment to projects and processes is achieved at the relational level. & Cathey. Coviello. because of their purchasing of goods and services. Brookes. is on both the long-term relationship and the short-term transaction (Gummesson. 1996). and Johnston (2004a) note that conceptualizations of CRM have defined it as a process. Managing customer relationships At the center of relationship management is the concept that customers. & Oh. 1997. Ford. This is in agreement with Zablah. Reichheld. 1992). 1987. 1990). An early definition of relationship marketing is provided by Gronroos (1990: p. however. Actively managing relationships to achieve a desired transactional/relational state is problematic. This in turn may have implications for the underpinning culture. 2004a). especially when these are changing from one state to another. As a result the management of customer relationships becomes one of the single most critical issues. Johnston. then this would suggest that more relationship-management strategies can be developed. maintain and enhance relationships with customers and other stakeholders. as it works to develop relationship-management strategies. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 2. when seeking to identify the key elements of relationship management. Zablah et al. Bellenger. network N/A Product/service. Planning and managing positive interventions in turn becomes problematic. To achieve relationship benefits an organization needs to know its customers (Sheth & Parvatiyar. Dabholkar. Hence. and that this is done by a mutual exchange and fulfillment of promises’’. Reviewing how CRM has been advanced in the literature. it should be appreciated that not all relationships develop into relational ones but stay transactional thus reflecting a continuum of customer relationships (Webster. 2002).f. Ford. and Johnston (2004b) who define the purpose of CRM as ‘‘building and maintaining a profitmaximizing portfolio of customer relationships’’ (p. Schurr. and as such operationalized via CRM programs.g. demonstrating increasing levels of customer involvement to the extent that shared information.. For example. Various stages of relationships can be identified. 7). and values of the organization.. and social Technological Customer profitability Varies by relationship stage N/A Close seller – buyer relations Nordic school Service Long term 30 markets with four categories Functional and cross functional Less sensitive to price Interaction quality Quality. and Woodburn (2000). the Nordic school (e. 2004). The focus. This includes the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing group (e. 281).g. Again. at a profit. 2002). 1997. value. establish.g. 2002. Managers therefore have come to give a low priority to CRM programs (Rigby et al. joint working. Our approach. and the parties are more dependent upon each other (e. attitude. Sheth & Parvatiyar.58 A. customer Hierarchical functional Price Product/technical/ output quality Revenue market share Ad hoc N/A Augmentation to core product IMP group Relationship between firms Short and long term Multiple. Dwyer. 480).. however. This has been further expanded by McDonald.. Explanations of how and why many business-to-business relationships evolve over time have been proposed by various authors (e. Developing further the concept of relationship evolution. when applied to Gronroos’s definition. Lindgreen et al.g.g. programs not only fail to deliver in economic terms. financial. provide organizations with an income. & Schefter.. The reasons for program failure proposed by Rigby et al. Hunt. Rogers. but also damage the organization’s relationships with its customers.
with its headquarters and technology development center in Northern Europe but operating globally. importers. Based on a literature review (see shortly) a primary checklist was assembled containing relevant issues pertaining to relationship management. As a result. therefore. This provided an opportunity to examine exchange relationships that had not been successful or relationships in term of duration. was selected because of its high perceived successes. 3. Yin. distributors. relative to larger. although the most recent customer satisfaction survey shows that the organization is performing adequately its customers do not perceive the organization as a preferred supplier. 1995). the development of an appropriate scoring system. The automotive industry. wholesalers. Building and effectively managing relationships by offering personalized goods and services is therefore essential. Table 1 provides an overview of the main components of each of these schools. The elements are reported in the methodology. The organization of these elements into 10 different key areas helped to guide us when finding codes. & Mead. and dealers). Weick. car makers. The organization operates in a highly competitive business-tobusiness environment and is one of the world’s leading suppliers of lighting solutions for vehicles. remains a major contributor to national economies. and the Anglo¨ Australian approach (Payne. are the results of analyzing how this organization manages its exchange relationships with different types of many business customers (i. Since the boundaries of the relationship-management elements were not clearly evident at the outset of the research.A. rather than relying on mere frequencies or incidents. For the purposes of our study. The case organization. Within this case study. and patterns in the interview transcripts (Dubois & Gadde. A single-case approach was chosen due to the complex nature of relationship management and its practical implementation. among other things. The use of qualitative methods is appropriate when the aim is to study complex processes (Eisenhardt. is often taken as a bellwether for manufacturing. 1993). Goldstein. original equipment manufacturers are looking to suppliers to bring these attributes to their goods (Beecham. is that researchers can move to probing questions relating to Fhow_ and Fwhy_ type questions. One of the main benefits of this method. and together with its network of suppliers provides leading examples of relationship development and practice. identify. and prioritize critical aspects of customer relationships (transactional/relational). Pine. each lasting an average of three hours.. Toyota. The purpose of the relationship-management tool is to make explicit and to help managers to question. it was possible to compare and contrast relationships with regard to how successfully they had been implemented. 1994). seeking to become the number one supplier in lighting solutions to the automotive industry. Lehtinen. 2003). 2001. the organization’s relationship-management program had largely been developed and implemented. in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants within the focal business group of the organization. Following that. 1987). the methodology ensures that the essential attributes of the relationship-management assessment tool will not be excluded during the design state. 1979). Also. the name of which has been suppressed for confidentiality reasons. we conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify elements pertaining to relationship management. themes. made this case attractive. we examined one case organization. Kotler. For example. These questions deal with operational links that may need to be traced over time. according to Miles and Huberman (1994). 1991). 1989. more complex manufacturers. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 59 Gummesson. Also. The methodology contains the following attributes: the development of relationshipmanagement elements and the scoring system. Also the simplicity of the case’s competitive scenario and strategic response. which we identified from the mapping of 60 customer-contact points. Seven interviews were held in all. Lastly. demonstrates its ability to build and manage a network of relationships producing goods of high quality delivering enviable levels of reliability and satisfaction (Kotler. it should be appreciated that although the article reports on a single case organization the codes. More in particular. Supply arrangements can often be secured by building cooperative and collaborative relationships levering new goods and key technologies. and to shift between different relationship types. and manufacturers are under pressure to bring out new and innovative models with greater levels of individuality. Methodology We chose to examine the automotive industry that is global in scale. with information on satisfaction levels and complaints. 1991. as well as with key figures from other business groups of the organization. This presents important challenges for the organization. in order to reduce the negative effects of what Easton (1995: page 379) terms Fquasi-deductive theory testing_. Despite criticism that such a process may result in only surface-level insights (Dyer & Watkins. 2004. the study involved a contemporary set of analyses over which no experimental control or manipulation was used (Benbasat. 1997). and in Western Europe currently one third of manufacturing capacity is not utilized (Brookes & Palmer. This required that a large number of variables would be taken into account in order to describe how relationship management was being managed. in short. the use of secondary data and multiple interviews in the case helped develop rich insights and also provides the basis for greater transferability of the findings to other contexts (Eisenhardt. for example.e. Lastly. Buyers of vehicles are increasingly demanding. The case organization also kept archival records of past customers. Lindgreen et al. 2003). 1999). per element. themes. Although this organization defined and executed its relationship-management strategy it proved difficult for the organization to assess the current status of its relationship-management activities. To do so an interpretative research approach was used (Klein & Myers. from pure transactional to pure relational. and an assessment of how it was being managed was needed. & Gronroos. All . some had been customers for a longer time than others. that is partial support of a theory. 2002). Lee and Quazi (2001) provide a generic methodology for developing a self-assessment tool. and patterns. The focus is on the identification of the relevant relationship-management elements and. retailers.
several intermediate scores (between 0 and 10) were determined. as well as an extensive list of scale items per element. Next. with the interviewer and two industry experts involved as researchers as well as participants in the phenomenon under review (i.1. This method reinforced reliability of the findings. The volume of data was condensed through coding and memoing and by finding themes. Key informants were presented with a sorting task in which the items were listed on separate cards to be sorted based upon maturity and sophistication within each element. Informants were asked to do the sorting randomly in ascending or descending order. 4. as previously indicated.. 1998). 11 scale levels per element in all are distinguished ranging from 0 to 10. The iterative rounds of involvement and reflection. clusters. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 interviews were taped and transcribed. ISO handbook and customer satisfaction surveys). In the subsequent analysis step. Perry. All items were ranked systematically with the cumulative scale construction. the key informants did a systematic ranking of the scale items. The whole approach is depicted in Fig. Eventually a list of 10 relationship-management elements was obtained. The same approach as described above was adhered to for the other elements of the tool.e. following that. 2001: p. see also the special issue of European Journal of Marketing. 4. From experience this number of levels provides an optimum regarding sufficient detail and meaningful interpretations of the levels. Again. which was incorporated into the final analysis. the results were grouped and analyzed. consulting the original interviewees and. it should be appreciated that ’high-level’ relationships are not always the best interaction design. The management of all of these touch points was analyzed and discussed with key informants. Stepwise approach to the assessment-tool development of relationship-management elements. The number of scale levels per element was determined in advance to match with other tools used within the case organization. 1. but resulted from the data analysis. Following that. 1985. Additional material and evidence was brought in using appropriate literature and company documents (e.g. 1946). The level 0 represents a minimum level and would indicate an immature and non-sophisticated relationship-management structure. The number of relationship-management elements was not predetermined. and patterns (Miles & Huberman. The resulting 10 scales have been included as Appendix A. and final comments were given and incorporated in the assessment tool. a customer touch-point analysis was made identifying all the customer-contact points in time and throughout the organization. whereas level 10 represents a maximum and indicates a situation with a mature and wellmanaged relationship-management program. the scale items referring to a maximal and minimal score were determined. with a cumulative scale construction per element. Element 1: customer strategy If a customer strategy is not created prior to implementation of the relationship-management program there is a real risk that Fig. reflects an action-research approach (Lewin. approximately 60 in all. Following that. Following this.60 A. 1994). During this procedure some items were deleted altogether. edited by Chad Perry).. Also. Strauss & Corbin. a draft version of the relationshipmanagement assessment tool was presented to the key informants. When necessary the position of some items was estimated. helped improve the validity of the research (Yin. & Grønhaug. The same interviewer conducted all the interviews in order to reduce the likelihood of bias (Lincoln & Guba. 2001). Also. Ultimately. Touch-point communication and information flows were mapped. 158. the evolving nature of key CRM elements of the assessment tool). The entire procedure was conducted iteratively. This allowed for a more thorough analysis. industry experts throughout. 1994). per element.. the interviewer and two industry experts performed the similar task. with Fwork processes_ being the relationship-management assessment tool in this case. Again. Gilmore. Discrepancies were discussed until consensus was achieved. Discrepancies were discussed until consensus was achieved. Lindgreen et al. the results were grouped and analyzed. . using the outcomes for one of the elements (customer strategy). 2004. The process described above. where the purpose is for ‘‘a group of people [to] work together to improve their work processes’’ (Carson. the process of scale development is illustrated. Findings A brief discussion will be presented for each of the relationship-management elements. and the use of multiple sources of evidence. Action research is particularly useful as a methodology when the perception of variance is strong between how a phenomenon has been conceptualized at a general level and how the practice of said phenomenon is approached pragmatically (Carson et al. 1. The interviewer and two industry experts performed the similar task. an initial report was written and sent to each interviewee for review and feedback. This will be discussed in more details in the section on managerial implications. Following this.
2001. Also. A strong brand makes an organization more attractive and creates a relationship of trust with external and internal stakeholders thus strengthening the organization’s market position (Doyle. 1999. 2001). Various approaches are presented in the literature that try to capture the sophistication of the value-creation process (e. and Reast (2001) found that in an industrial setting branding generates more confidence in the purchase decision. Doyle. Reichheld. 2002). 4. Beverland & Lockshin. A well-defined value-creation strategy offers superior value to individual customers. 2000). & Foss.. and how to act to achieve that identity.5.2. The strategy positions the brand as perceived by customers and shareholders to occupy defensible positions in various marketplaces. King. 1997). All touch points must be effectively and cost-efficiently used to distribute various goods and services and to communicate with customers (Peppers & Rogers. 1989.. 1999). 1997). The purpose is to get to know when and how customers want to interact with the organization (Prahalad & Ramaswamy. employees. ¨ 1994). & Gilbert. 2002). The more an organization can break down its valuable customers into different groups with different needs and expectations the better it can serve them (Day. Element 5: culture Relationship management requires a strategic change from a product or process-focused culture towards a customer-focused culture (Christopher et al. When a customer ¨ strategy builds trust and commitment it drives the growth in the organization’s profitability (Gronroos. Rigby et al.. if not impossible. Retaining the most valuable customers will increase the organization’s profitability (Lindgreen & Crawford. 1994. 1980). 2002. and at the same time maximizes profitability from each relationship. It should provide answers to questions like: how to create and deliver value to customers. segment-specific treatments have to be developed and must be executed for each customer in a customized way. there are a number of ways to interact with them. The customer segmentation process should therefore take place in two stages. & McDonald. 1989). and offers more scope for competitive advantage thus creating barriers for competitive entry. & Ballantyne.g. Indeed. 4. customer interactions must be well coordinated and managed across all functions and levels in the organization (Ford. 2000. 2003. 1995. 2001) or seek to identify the value drivers in relationships (e. 4. 2001). 2000. 2000. and distribution channels. 2001. 2001). A customer strategy focuses on how to attract new customers. Culture is ´ perhaps the most important element in successfully managing the implementation of a relationship-management strategy .3. first rank the customers by their value and then differentiate them by their specific needs (Brown. This includes all the interaction processes. Wilson. Segments. Customer interaction refers to how an organization interacts with its customers and how it delivers goods and services to them (Brown & Gulycz. The lifetime-value is an estimate of the net present value of the stream of benefits from a particular customer less the burdens of servicing the account or managing the relationship (Dwyer & Tanner. 2002). 2003). Daniel. Ryals & Knox. Managing relationships requires that the most profitable customers are identified (Kenyon & Vakola. 2003). 1991. Successful brands achieve higher levels of customer loyalty (Doyle. Payne. 1991. Michell. 2001). 2002). Gronroos. The interaction strategy should be developed so all channels create synergy and a competitive advantage (Peppers & Rogers. 2003). Value creation is the main purpose of the existence of these relationships and must be seen as a condition for defining marketing strategies (Anderson & Narus. Kothandaraman & Wilson.. 1991. 1994. Stone. who it wants to be. 2002). 2002). / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 61 managing the program will fail (Brown & Gulycz. Element 2: customer-interaction strategy Once the organization has identified the customers with whom it wishes to have a durable relationship. Zikmund.. The brand strategy describes what an organization’s brand stands for. Evans & Berman. To meet the objectives set by the program. Ulaga. and how to maintain and develop relationships with existing valuable customers (Christopher. Morgan & Hunt. All interactions during the customer lifecycle must be well coordinated and customized through all touch points. enhances corporate reputation. 1996). Element 3: brand strategy Brands are a major determining element in the repeat purchase of an organization’s goods and services (Christopher et al. Element 4: value-creation strategy Relationship management is a value-adding activity through mutual interdependence and collaboration between an organization and its customers and other stakeholders (Sheth & Parvatiyar. Any strategy must focus on creating value for both the organization and its stakeholders (Hamel & Prahalad. McLeod. Woodcock. and how to maximize customer lifetime value in order to increase customer profitability. for competitors to copy this capability (Day & Wensley. 1988. Organizational culture is operationalized as ‘‘the pattern of shared values and beliefs that help individuals understand organizational functioning and thus provide them with the norms for behavior’’ (Deshpande & Webster.4. 2003). 1998). 2003).A. This must be in relation to the customer’s individual profile that has been developed by using data gathered from past contacts. Lindgreen et al. Peck. This means that effective relationship management is based on traditional customer-segmentation analysis (Rigby et al. 2001. 1985). Hart & Murphy.. 4. Jackson. are based on the lifetime-value of customers for which qualitative or quantitative objectives are set (Ryals & Knox. This implies that interaction with low value for customers should take place through low-cost channels. Zikmund et al. Lederer & Hill. Masters. touch points. 2002). in turn..g. delegating responsibility and empowering staff to handle customer contacts is essential for relationship management (Eriksson & Mattson. Delivering superior value to customers will strengthen the organization’s competitive advantage and it becomes difficult.
Reichheld & Sasser. Lindgreen et al. 2000). To support these processes a well-organized information-technology infrastructure and architecture is needed to communicate effectively through the whole organization (Zikmund et al. 1989).. Ryals & Knox. Campbell (2003) found that organizations often spent more effort on generating customer knowledge than on integrating this knowledge in their core processes. It helps to gather and . including analyzing customers’ purchasing behavior (Woodcock et al. Importantly. Gummesson. Lastly. 2002. They are the ones who manage business issues. Payne. and maximizing the value to the organization by focusing on higher-value customers. and how information systems interact with each other. a customer´ oriented culture is essential for the quality and extension of customer-knowledge creation and dissemination (Tzokas & Saren. 2002. Element 8: information technology The role of information-technology tools in relationship management is to facilitate the different customer processes. accelerate processes. Some argue that they are the most important asset an organization can have (Berry. Organizational structure affects the performance of all the organization’s activities. 2003). 2003). Ryals & Knox. 2002. The information-technology architecture determines which information systems support and manage business processes. Sisodia. 2001). skilful. Besides this. This again will require well-defined policies and procedures. Also. and analyzing accurate data on customers. 4. Also.. 2002). 2002).. 2001). This includes front-office applications and back-office systems.. marketing. Employees should have market sensing and an ability to understand customers.g. and build relationships with customers (Christopher et al. 2003). and customer service functions but also non-marketing functions (Sheth. coordinating. 1995. To meet customer expectations it is necessary to develop a culture that is customer oriented. Tellefsen and Thomas (2005) demonstrated that within service firms a representative’s personal expertise and power within the organization increase personal commitment and. 2001). 1997. Deshpande. the organization must have knowledgeable. and motivated employees and teams. 2000). 2002). Every department in an organization should realize that customer satisfaction is a component for building strong relationships. they must be able to gain their customers’ trust and respect. Brown. Managing a relationshipmanagement program requires commitment from top management. all technology selections must have been validated by customer-oriented processes (Peppers & Rogers. All employees in the organization must understand their roles and meet required skills and orientation defined in recruiting programs (Brown & Gulycz. Georgiadis & Lane. Kracklauer. Integration of enterprise resource-planning systems is necessary to support business processes effectively (Brown & Gulycz. & ´ Webster. 2003. Often employees are required to demonstrate appropriate leadership (Day. 1996. 2001. 2002). This calls for a high degree of cross-functional collaboration to provide customers with a high service level (Clark. 2004).6.. Rigby et al. and facilitate implementations of activities. 1986. 2003.. the whole organization must possess a flexible character to support customer-oriented decision-making and should have the flexibility to anticipate and respond to customer requests (Gronroos.. relational exchange increases. 4. organizations must have prioritized their analytical needs before making major investments in information technology (Gartner Group. 2003).8. Peck.62 A. Information-technology systems tools (e. Georgiadis & Lane. data mining tools) allow organizations to analyze information and identify unseen patterns or trends in markets and purchase behavior of customers (Brown & Gulycz. The key principles involved in relationship management are gathering. Furthermore. 2003). as personal commitment increases. Mills. 2001). 1993). & Seifert. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 (Rigby et al. Rationalization of the organization’s data can lead to greater operational efficiency by avoiding the high costs of maintaining different information systems with redundant data (Sawhney. Element 7: organization Understanding the organization is important for succeeding with relationship management (Brown & Gulycz. Customercentric organizations will not only integrate the sales. 1995. developing marketing strategies that personalize the relationship. Woodcock et al. communication and collaboration between departments are eased. communicate throughout the organization. A change in employee attitude to businesses is often inevitable. 2001). 2003. 1990). By integrating and synchronizing the customer-information flows of the different information systems and touch points.. It has been contended that a customer-oriented culture positively affects customer satisfaction (Conrad. Cross-functional collaborations create enthusiasm.7. 1991). which in turn is a pivotal concept in relationship marketing (see also Element 10). ¨ 4. Employee satisfaction has a positive impact on customer retention (Reichheld. To achieve excellent business performances and relationships with valuable customers. such as segmentation of customers based on their value or prediction of customer behavior (Clark & Smith. 1997). information-technology system tools and data warehouses must be accessible to all employees to allow them to analyze customer data accurately. & Christopher. Reichheld & Kenny. To retain valuable employees they must receive recognition and be rewarded for their performance and customer-focused behavior (Clark & Payne. & Sharma. Internal communications must work seamlessly and smoothly among customer-facing employees and between them and the rest of the organization. 1990). 2001). Woodcock et al. and that this depends on the delivered quality of the value-added goods or services (Kenyon & Vakola. Farley. and different departments must work closely together to maximize return on customer information (Foss & Stone. Customer orientation is a type of organizational culture and it makes organizations more responsive to customer needs (Deshpande & Webster. & Harmon. Element 6: people People are indispensable in every organization.
Employees can learn from each other through exchange of knowledge and best practices. Note the following level: Level 5: We rank customers by their value in order to define customer segments. share of wallet. 1991). which are mainly focused on acquiring new customers. sales practices and business processes are examples of knowledge resources. The experts were not part of the case organization. When the business processes become highly knowledge-intensive an organization’s long-term success and growth is dependent on the management of its corporate knowledge across its business processes (Bose & Sugumaran. Sinkula. refined to reflect the customer-relationship stages.A. & Boynton. True relationship management is said only to be possible when knowledge management is integrated. To adapt the organization to the fast-changing environment. task schedules. For ranking of the remaining items we worked forwards from lower levels to higher levels to avoid errors of ranking. Disagreements would be resolved by bringing together the key informants and three experts on CRM who would reach consensus. and have a strong focus on customer satisfaction (Pine. These two extreme levels were relatively easy to determine. It is important that organizations are resourced in such a way that exchange of knowledge is stimulated (Zikmund et al. Several authors (e. 2002.11. 2002). and services. at the lowest level. Element 10: knowledge management and learning Knowledge management implies the facilitation of knowledge creation. Management of processes involves the procedures. as well as distribution channels and communication channels to customers. the customer strategy is sophisticated and drives the growth in the organization’s profitability. customer lifetime value. 2003). 2000). however. Note the following two levels: Level 0: We sell our goods to customers who are willing to buy.. First. and routines by which a product or service is delivered to the customer (Christopher et al. knowledge sharing. It was more challenging to determine the intermediate levels that had to be ranked over nine levels. At the highest level. and drive the growth in our profitability. and key performance indicators (e. goods. 2003). which create customer trust and commitment. is simplistic and lacks any criteria by which to select customers. Victor. Note the following levels: Level 1: We have a customer strategy to select customers. 2004) offer frameworks for knowledge generation and management. specific relationship-marketing objectives. mapped. Tzokas & Saren. trust and commitment are built.. In the subsequent prioritization of these items their wording would be discussed further with the key informants and. Processes should be built. The strategic and business processes must produce clear objectives for improvements. Level 2: We define customer strategies. and customer satisfaction) Formal feedback and formal evaluation of relationship-management strategies and processes are important for continuous improvement (Brown & Gulycz. Baker. and understood to realize process improvements (Brown & Gulycz. processes need to be reviewed regularly for acceptability from both the customers’ and the organization’s perspective (Woodcock et al. & Noordewier. We have no criteria in place to select customers. with data being transformed into knowledge (Bose & Sugumaran. This item was therefore positioned on Level 5. Also. The organization sells goods to customers willing to buy. 4. Someone in our organization is responsible for this strategy. for example. . Element 9: relationship-management processes Monitoring of relationship-management processes like complaint management or service management is an important activity to meet the objectives of the organization and improve relationships. We are the number one strategic supplier of our most valuable customers. 1997. 4..g. activities. retention rate.g. 2003).. Lindgreen et al. Level 3: We base our customer strategies primarily on the needs of prospective and existing customers. creating and sharing of knowledge is needed (Ballantyne. In the next step we characterized the minimum and maximum levels of relationship-management stages. Woodcock et al.. 2003). Customers with similar lifetime value are allocated to the same customer segment. This can be facilitated by appropriate information-technology systems. Segmentation based on the life-time values of individual customers was a central issue for the customer-strategy element. Level 10: We develop excellent customer strategies.9. The availability of appropriate knowledge is an essential component for the development of strategies. Organizations must set measurable. The customer strategy. which led to the final levels of the scale. Items were ranked systematically in a cumulative manner. training and education are necessary for development of employees’ knowledge. rather than on (potential) customer-lifetime value.10. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 63 analyze information derived from different locations. Knowledge about customer behavior and employees’ knowledge on. 1993). and knowledge application processes (Grotenhuis & Weggeman. 2003). which affect the learning capabilities of the organization. the literature review and the subsequent indepth interviews with key informants from different business groups resulted in a list of stages in the relationship between the organization and its business customers. 2002). In order to develop the most value-adding goods and services in the marketplace we collaborate closely with our customers to exchange knowledge. if necessary. 4. This analysis of information may be used to provide customized communications and goods offerings. Assessment-tool development We move on to describe how the scale was developed for Element 1. mechanisms. Furthermore. Also. which means that the organization and its customers are prepared to exchange knowledge with each other.
In whatever format this would provide a simple and easily accessible means of monitoring the implementation of a relationship-management program. Organizations routinely form. hence a portfolio of business customers requires a range of CRM solutions. The gap between actual and target then forms the basis for a focused discussion as to how the gap is to be filled. and some organizations adopt multiple styles of relationships to their business customers (see. The suppliers should recognize and interpret the interaction style of the buyer and adapt their own behavior accordingly (Boorom. The debate should not be about whether to emphasize or de-emphasize relationships under certain conditions (Achrol & Etzel. and Coviello. 5. and also lends itself to presentation in electronic format in a variety of ways. Beverland and Lindgreen (2004) identified a relationship between changes in market dynamism and the form and intensity of business exchange relationships. Each organization will have different approaches as to how they wish to manage and report on strategic implementation. 2004). Our customers prefer our organization to do business with rather than our direct competitors because we excel in creating value-adding opportunities. Also. over achievement against target leads to a discussion as to whether or not there is over provision of resource that might be more usefully allocated elsewhere. Also. This may provide some explanation for the above findings.1. Within an industry implicit understandings will develop as to the nature of customers and the appropriate level of relationship. We build unique relationships with our most valuable customers. Danaher. expressed visually as a radar diagram. Brodie. characterize marketplaces. for example. what the ’Contemporary Marketing Practice’ research group has found is that different types of organizations have different types of practices.64 A. these authors propose that a range of relationships. We continually analyze their potential. varying around the marketplace norm. In each segment customers have the same lifetime value. the assessment tool could be adapted as a form of scorecard. which are more or less transactional or collaborative. early work by Jackson (1985) suggests that buyer/supplier relationships can be considered as spanning a continuum from transactional to relational with suppliers occupying a position along that continuum (see also Webster. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 Level 4: We analyze the lifetime value of individual customers to understand their importance to our organization. 1997). The tool could be leveraged further by agreeing target levels of achievement by segment. The assessment tool also provides a means whereby cross comparisons can be made on an organization basis. Anderson and Narus (1999) discuss the concept of the relationship continuum. & Ramsey. We develop a corresponding value proposition that is consistent with these objectives including. Brookes & Palmer. and our value propositions regularly exceed their expectations. and we take actions to transform unprofitable customers into profitable ones. The reasons for program failure proposed by Rigby et al. (2002) suggest that companies are prone to making unquestioned assumptions and building on implicit beliefs. Similarly. 2003). but less detail with regard to the monitoring of implementation. Transactions or relationships? Or transactions and relationships Not all business customers necessarily want or require a relationship. Level 8: We retain our most valuable customers by understanding loyalty drivers and by introducing appropriate value-adding propositions. Comstock & Higgins. Again. 1992). and propose that different industries can occupy different bandwidths along the transactional/collaborative continuum. For example. Authors on service marketing including Garbarino and Johnson (1999). Anderson and Narus (1999). which gives comprehensive guidance on strategy development. This in turn may have implications for the underpinning culture. a selling and pricing strategy. Level 9: We meet the specific needs of our customers. Goolsby. for example. 2003. Level 7: We build and develop relationships with our most valuable customers. If assumptions and beliefs can be made explicit and questioned then this would suggest that more considered relationshipmanagement strategies can be developed. and exit out of relationships in response to a changing environment and changing strategic needs. 5. For example. but are differentiated from each other by their needs. Joshi & Campbell. and Johnston (2002) supported the proposition that what takes place is one of co-existence of transactional and relational relationships rather than the application of one or the other. 1998. Moreover. but should rather focus on which business relationships to invest in further or divest oneself of. We increase our customer retention by offering valueadding propositions. and which business relationships to keep on a transactional level. We review our customer strategy continually. 2004). we know why some customers defect and how to win these customers back. attitude. Different approaches including for example activitybased costing are used to calculate the value of individual customers. This would provide a comfortable fit with an extension to more formalized planning processes such as the 10-step marketing planning process (McDonald. Managerial implications The relationship-management assessment tool provides a means by which the implementation of a CRM program can be analyzed. They refer to this as the industry bandwidth. Rather than proposing a continuous or incremental change in the nature of relationships from purely transactional to purely collaborative. build upon. Lindgreen et al. and . Level 6: We set clear business objectives for each customer segment. The case organization has adopted the assessment tool with alacrity and demonstrated the strategic role of such a tool in their specific context. at the organization level there is the opportunity to link the assessment tool to other measures in order to give more comprehensive relevant summary of performance and the interim process steps.
A. Also thanks to the case organization for its cooperation. A limitation of our study can be found in the singleorganization approach. In order to develop the most value-adding goods and services in the marketplace we collaborate closely with our customers to exchange knowledge. We develop excellent customer strategies. We review our customer strategy continually. Different approaches including for example activity-based costing are used to calculate the value of individual customers. (2004a). and customer retention. Although information was obtained from a business group other than the focal business group with which we conducted in-depth interviews it still reflects the same organizational culture. for example. We develop a corresponding value proposition that is consistent with these objectives including. but are differentiated from each other by their needs. For example. the editor. which create customer trust and commitment. We build unique relationships with our most valuable customers. additional evidence. Our customers prefer our organization to do business with rather than our direct competitors because we excel in creating value-adding opportunities. rather than on (potential) customer-lifetime value. Subsequently. We retain our most valuable customers by understanding loyalty drivers and by introducing appropriate value-adding propositions. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 65 values of the organization. surveys of additional case organizations would help to establish which elements are common across all types of organizations. 10 relationship-management elements. and therefore acknowledge its contribution to strategy and organization performance. were identified. a selling and pricing strategy. and drive the growth in our profitability. Follow-up studies are also required covering a different range of organizations. Acknowledgments Thanks to the reviewers. and feedback loops. The objective was to develop a tool for assessing and further improving the organization’s capabilities regarding relationship management. The extensive criteria could be abstracted further to increase the focus of managerial attention and ease of use. Customers with similar lifetime value are allocated to the same customer segment. which included in-depth interviews. implementation. Obtaining direct customer input. and our value propositions regularly exceed their expectations. We set clear business objectives for each customer segment. There is also the opportunity to further refine the assessment tool and the number of scale points. Appendix A. Chun Wu for assistance in data collection. Relationship-management assessment tool Element 1 Customer strategy Level 0 1 2 3 We sell our goods to customers who are willing to buy. 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . covering the full scope of relationship management. and which elements are specific to particular organizations. and we take actions to transform unprofitable customers into profitable ones. for example those offering different goods and services. We define customer strategies. We meet the specific needs of our customers. Someone in our organization is responsible for this strategy. We build and develop relationships with our most valuable customers. we know why some customers defect and how to win these customers back. Lastly. Using an interpretative approach. Our relationship-management helps managers to question. We continually analyze their potential. and Michael Antioco for their constructive feedback on previous drafts of this article. It can lead the discussion to what relationship management should do rather than what it consists of. In each segment customers have the same lifetime value. although the identification of the 10 relationship-management elements were identified from interviews with the case organization and from reviewing the literature we realize that there is some overlap between the different elements. Lastly. which are mainly focused on acquiring new customers. 6. including for example Zablah et al. Such studies should obviously be consulted in any future research. We also acknowledge that since we undertook our research other studies in a similar way have identified critical success factors of CRM. For the case organization a study was conducted to develop a relationship-management assessment tool. We have no criteria in place to select customers. and performance measurement. Conclusions The concept of CRM is still diffuse. Moreover. 11 point scales were worded for each element. customer loyalty. Also. the value of the tool will only become apparent when it can be linked with desired organizational outcomes. it can provide a useful format for creating more customer value. We rank customers by their value in order to define customer segments. Our study contributes to our understanding of the concept by providing a framework that makes CRM a more Ftangible currency_. as well as financial performance indicators like profits and acquisitions costs. The various limitations can be addressed by replicating the study in different organizational contexts and developing further the linkages between strategy development. customer input was only indirectly achieved through customer satisfaction surveys and customer touch-point analysis. We base our customer strategies primarily on the needs of prospective and existing customers. Thanks to Mr. We increase our customer retention by offering value-adding propositions. Also. particularly on the items. identify. Therefore it is important to link the tool to outcome variables like customer satisfaction. could increase the tool’s validity. An assessment of an organization_s current position regarding relationship management is a valuable platform for managers to further advance and improve on relationship management. and prioritize critical aspects of relationships in order to move beyond the industry bandwidth. We are the number one strategic supplier of our most valuable customers. In this way we hope to have moved from the concepts of relationship management to the managerial realities of relationship management. We have a customer strategy to select customers. We analyze the lifetime value of individual customers to understand their importance to our organization. as it works to develop relationship strategies that stretch bandwidth beyond the industry norms. Lindgreen et al.
These propositions create added-value benefits and are superior to those of our competitors. We review continually our customer-interaction strategy. benchmarked awareness of our brand promise. We are one of our customers’ preferred and selected suppliers. distribute goods and services. Each interaction with a customer has a clear objective. We can provide the best offering in the marketplace by excelling in specific value-adding activities. of our brand image and the attractiveness our goods relative to that of direct competitors. Our brand’s relative position versus that of our competitors’ brands is consistently checked. transaction. as well as the quality and the services that are related with those goods. However. Our customer-interaction strategy is translated into competitive advantages. Low-value customers are served through low-cost channels. and market-introduction policy needed to realize the targeted brand positioning in the marketplace. We have validated the plan as being effective in the marketplace in driving a profitable growth. This makes it possible to apply premium prices for our goods and services. We minimize our customers’ inconveniences by developing interaction channels. resolve problems and complaints. and this interaction is not coordinated between the different levels and functional departments in our organization. We learn this through market research (ad hoc qualitative market research). We dominate the market by improving our value-adding activities continuously. This promise is relevant. but we do not systematically capture a record of these interactions using an information system. Our employees in all functional areas know how best to respond quickly to a customer request. which results in small margins. We develop all communications (i. responsiveness. convenience. and the business processes behind.. This influences our customers’ behavior so that they choose our organization. distribution. We track the effectiveness of our interaction channel(s). We formulate a plan in our business unit to close the gap between actual and targeted brand image. 5 6 7 8 9 10 Element 4 Value-creation strategy Level 0 We sell goods that meet customers’ requirements. The marketplace is characterized by price competition. This understanding is consistently deployed in communication briefings. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Element 3 Level 0 1 Brand strategy We describe the brand positioning for the goods that our business unit is producing. We have employees whose responsibility is to capture customer information provided by each customer interaction. the management and all people in direct contact with the market. Customer satisfiers and dissatisfiers are tracked all the time. We have a basic understanding. We regularly measure customers’ and other targeted groups’ awareness of our brand. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 4 We. and apply the brand positioning.e. We identify added-value opportunities by understanding our customers’ specific needs and preferences. within our business unit. perceivable.. functionalities. and use customer feedback for improvements. This means that we serve customers through appropriate channels. Services. integrity. these customized interactions are still not well coordinated. and education are all part of customer value. We make the brand positioning an integral part of our business plan. speed. We base our competition for market share mainly on the quality of our goods. We develop comprehensive value-adding propositions that our customers trust. The characteristics of each touch point are described.g. We analyze and understand customer-touch points in terms of their differences. We interact only rarely with our customers. We seek actively opportunities to create more value by regularly analyzing the results of customer satisfaction surveys. We use market researches and value models for gaining more insight into customer requirements. 7 8 2 3 9 . ease of access. distribution/sales channel strategy. for example e-mail rather than face-to-face interaction. Lindgreen et al. and make transactions possible (e. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 We provide contact details so our customers can ask for information. We have a good understanding. The brand positioning has been validated as being capable of achieving long-term profitable growth for our company. and service. We map these touch points for different processes including information/ communication. We make an inventory of existing customer-touch points. We do this through all relevant attributes in a quantitative way. These propositions are the reason why we can change from short-term transactions into long-term relationships with profitable customers. which is aligned with our customer strategy. This brand positioning is based on the translation/amplification of the brand positioning for our goods. We base the customer-interaction strategy primarily on our customers’ needs. Gaps between actual and targeted brand image are identified. This plan also guides the definition of our product portfolio. Customer value comes in many forms and is beyond the immediate value of purchased goods. trust. We learn this through regular qualitative market research. We have achieved maximum. know. We coordinate and manage across all levels and functional departments in the organization each single customer interaction. order entry and online payment). importance. All channel opportunities are developed to create channel synergy. We describe the brand positioning for our goods. and attractive to the targeted groups. We translate the brand positioning into the brand promise to the customer and other targeted stakeholder groups. We know when and how our customers want to interact with us. of our brand image among a defined customer-target group and the attractiveness our goods relative to that of direct competitors. and is distinctive from that of our competitors. We do this with a profit. We add value through our customer-interaction strategy. understand. This helps us to provide information. We achieve consistency in customer interactions. costs. Interaction channels are used in an effective and efficient way to avoid waste of resources. Every customer contact is recorded to get more insight into this customer’s preferences and needs. We define a customer-interaction strategy. We are aware that selling goods and related services only is not enough to win valuable customers.66 Element 2 Level 0 Customer-interaction strategy A. There are many competitors in the market who are able to offer the same goods at competitive prices. We formulate value propositions that meet specific customers’ requirements. We focus on selling the features of our goods. from packaging over backing cards and TV spots to public relations campaigns) using the brand positioning. We perform regular checks relating to consistency. within our business unit.
We. and to show determination. This includes people in departments such as product. which affect the customer’s experience. We request our leaders to understand the market. and deliver effectively to their own customers. Our employees possess the capability to create value-adding activities for our customers. are acknowledged by our customers as the most careful. We emphasize on seeking new. Our employees are competent to communicate in a customer-oriented way. if not impossible. knowledgeable. Our employees are able to win concessions without damaging customer relationships. maintain. We focus primarily on customers and long-term relationships rather than on goods and short-term transactions. and for being unique. 3 67 4 5 Element 5 Culture Level 0 1 We request our sales people to focus on single sales rather than on customer retention. We introduce a number of contacts between the selling and buying parties to replace the traditional relationship between sales and purchasing departments. We have a dedicated key account manager to coordinate the development of our customer relationships. coaching. We identify and describe different roles in our organization including competencies and accountabilities. to reduce costs of hiring and training. and continue to monitor external developments. finance. they have excellent skills like business and product knowledge to convince customers to select our organization. marketing. Also. We ensure that our employees have a sound market sensing. We react quickly to customer requests and demands. There is hardly any internal resistance to organizational or cultural change. 6 7 2 8 3 4 9 5 10 6 7 We select and recruit people with the right skills and orientation in accordance with job descriptions. and enhance customer relationships by gaining their trust and respect. and a capability to establish. 9 1 2 10 3 Element 6 People Level 0 We have a high employee turnover in our organization. We. Our employees understand the difference between added-value and value-adding activities. as well as an organizational change for building relationships with our most valuable customers. These competencies are requirements in our job descriptions. Our employees are committed and dedicated to satisfying our customers. administration. Our profits result from creating and delivering superior. we define procedures to manage customer complaints. We delegate the coordination and management of customer relations to middle and senior management. employees or departments. Negative effects including lack of knowledge of customer details and loss of information are visible. especially sales people. an ability for understanding our customers (show empathy). we continuously try to exceed customers’ expectations and requirements. operations. and ensure that incentives and rewards encourage a customer-focused behavior. We require each employee to take whatever action appropriate to ensure the satisfaction of our valuable customers. We adapt the way of working in our organization: we now anticipate rather than react to our customers’ requests and demands. We are paying more attention to goods and competitors than to customers. We are aware of the necessity of a customer-focused mindset. We make customer-focused behavior a significant part of performance appraisal criteria. and to increase productivity. innovative solutions to our customers instead of selling generic goods and services to them. A certain degree of autonomy in decision making allows our employees to manage customers. produce. which is correlated with customer retention. but it is still not optimal. Employees feel responsible for the end result and act with the customer in mind. and information-technology departments. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 10 We are acknowledged as the leading company.A. 8 Element 7 Level 0 Organization We see the functional departments in our organization as autonomous units. We constantly think from the customer’s point of view in order to improve business performance. It is difficult. our organization and our employees. Also. We seek to reinforce customer loyalty. services. and skilful professionals to trade with. Our experienced employees deliver high-service quality at low costs. We delegate clear responsibility and authority to leaders in our organization in order to realize a customer-focused culture. and providing required resources. We manage customer relationships only through the sales department. We focus on creating value-adding opportunities for our customers. act in a more customer-centric way. We have the expertise and knowledge of our customers_ value chains to help them source. Employees in our organization are our most valuable assets. We ensure that functional departments collaborate to meet our customers_ needs and wants. logistics. We understand the essence of employee satisfaction and commitment. in the market. Development and training plans are implemented to enhance customer-management skills. Honesty and openness characterize the way of working. Lindgreen et al. We involve in an early stage our customers and suppliers in product and service development. sales. Their role is to help customer-facing employees by supporting. Their style and methods of managing in turn are encouraging a customer orientation. finance. We lack an understanding of our customers’ needs and wants. We manage the relationship with our customers through different departments in our organization. as well as our employees’ service mindedness. A customer-focused mindset is part of recruiting and training programs. and how this structure affects the performance of our customer management and other activities. 4 5 1 2 6 . for our competitors to copy our capabilities. These contacts represent the marketing. and technical support. The accountabilities and procedures for several customer processes are written down clearly. and possess the required interaction skills. The focus is on short-term sales targets. Also. Customer focus and commitment are parts of our corporate vision and mission. innovative ways of working to serve our customers individually. We regularly assess the skills of our employees’ to identify competency gaps. We instill a customer-focused culture in our organization. We increase the retention of our skilful employees. We understand how the organizational structure is designed. We constantly try to meet customers’ expectations by delivering appropriate goods and services and by solving their problems quickly. We reward our employees based on their individual performance and productivity. Communication between departments has been improved. We ensure that our employees understand their roles and possess the basic skills and knowledge to identify our customers’ needs and preferences that are of value to them. There is a lack of communication between departments. Appropriate leadership and customer management competencies are essential characteristics for customer-facing employees.
are able to identify profitable customers and their characteristics. We determine which data is required to support customermanagement processes. cross-functional. customer contact. Front-office applications such as portals pull information from the back-office system such as enterprise resource planning systems. Key performance indicators of relationship-management processes are measured and analyzed. customer segmentation. customer-lifetime value. We set up separated information-technology systems in our organization to hold important information about our customers such as transactions information. We prioritize analytic needs of our organization before making major information-technology investments. for example database marketing. interaction/channel analysis. Before analysis. We do this next to the measuring of key performance indicators. the reviewing of such processes is not structured. This way of working reduces the time to market. and service management. We realize the integration of customer-contact channels. We ensure that we fully understand present processes before implementing improvements to these processes. and completeness. We make sure that our employees are strong team players in cross-functional teams. The intent of process improvement is to minimize variation around high performance levels. Our selection of technologies is validated by a customer-oriented process. However. This data is collected within a particular business unit using several informationtechnology systems. which support activities such as sales force automation. Some data is collected on paper rather than in an information-technology system. They can do this themselves. and have defined system requirements. which is based on customer values. and order and supply-chain management. but integration of customer-contact channels is still not fully realized. We realize strong process improvement by eliminating activities that do not create an output. It allows the sharing and usage of information about our customers. for example data mining. The quality of the data is determined by the following criteria: accuracy. Such data includes historical data for customer transactions and customer contacts. We achieve this by the integration of consistent customer data and applications.g. grouped. 1 3 4 2 5 3 4 6 5 7 6 7 . and have the flexibility to anticipate and respond to our customers’ value-adding requests. consistency. still occurs. Someone in the organization is given the responsibility for the quality and the management of data within the context of a single business function or process. The goal is to bring the specialized knowledge of different functions and task groups together to develop goods and services that meet our customers’ needs and wants. evaluate marketing-campaign effectiveness. In our organization there is a focus on managing and improving the performance of relationship-management processes. telephone. customer-response analysis. predict customer-buying behavior (by purchase analysis. order processing. We are a flexible organization that supports a customer-oriented decision making. Key performance indicators are linked to relationship-management processes such as retention rate. and to grow our business. These information-technology system tools.68 7 A. customer-service management. We use innovative technologies including. The effectiveness of employees related to relationship-management processes is measured as well. These relationship-management processes support added-value activities. however. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 We adapt the organizational structure by setting up cross-functional teams.. Customers perceive us as a well-organized company. which is valued by the customer. estimate customers_ potential. Information-technology system tools allow our organization to analyze and look for patterns in customer data. We determine standards and criteria of measurement for each relationship-management process. E-mail. to update customer data in real time to provide each system and channel with the most recent customer information. We integrate front. we lay the foundation for continuous improvement. and transformed into a consistent and usable format. and customer satisfaction. reliability. and market analysis). multiple-channel (contact channel) view of our customers. We avoid data fragmentation problems by consolidating all customer information collected from various customer-contact channels: face-to-face such as sales representatives. We map and document relationship-management processes for each stage of the customer lifecycle. campaign management. complaint management. Established teams have the authority to set coordinated value-adding customer strategies. mail. The integration of information systems is extended to our key partners and suppliers. This comprehensive customer intelligence allows us to manage each customer relationship efficiently and effectively.and back-office systems. We understand how technologies will support our business processes. 8 We develop insights into our customers by analyzing customer and market data extracted from our databases. The internal communication works seamlessly and smoothly among customer facing employees. and reveal factors that cause customers to remain loyal to our organization. accessibility. and are able to maximize returns on customer information. consolidating other partially redundant customer activities. We implement tools or framework for continuous improvement of relationship-management processes. and Websites to allow E-technology applications such as online billing. Data fragmentation. Lindgreen et al. provide opportunities for cross and up selling. and learning from each other within our organization how to improve customer activities. and configuration. The visibility and accessibility of customer data (obtained from a variety of customer-touch points) among customer-facing employees and other employees have been increased. We design and build a common data store such as a data warehouse or data mart. We manage consistently across different organizational levels and functional departments our customer relationships. Data is sourced from our customers_ legacy systems and external data sources. and more frequently and accurately. 8 9 10 9 10 Element 8 Information technology Level 0 We usually work with stand-alone systems. By setting concrete and measurable process targets. We define in detail terms in databases to avoid differences in meanings by departments or user groups. We evaluate each campaign to apply the learning in the development of new activities. 1 2 Element 9 Relationship-management processes Level 0 We identify relationship-management processes such as contact planning. There is no structured way of working to collect and use customer data. E-technology also makes it possible for our customers to validate or refresh supply chain data or customer data. We measure the performance of channels and campaigns of value-adding projects. for example mobile devices. We achieve an integrated. We capture customer feedback regarding goods and services by conducting customer satisfaction surveys to identify and eliminate process failures. order entry. eliminating duplicated or irrelevant data). share of wallet. as well as between them and the rest of the organization. customer data must be cleaned (e. fax.
& Johnston. We base our strategies on knowledge creation and management. Knowledge and Process Management. J. The case research strategy in studies of information systems. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 383 – 406. applications.. Building the foundations for effective CRM. D. How firms relate to their markets: An empirical examination of contemporary marketing practices. and is updated when it is necessary. & Lindgreen.A. G. Boorom. (2002). W. Sloan Management Review. Customer relationship management. Ballantyne. S. 9 10 Element 10 Level 0 1 Knowledge management and learning We are ignorant about the relevance of knowledge management. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 44(3). 1 – 20. We extend across the organization a network to connect people to each other. & Grønhaug. L. 130 – 145. Beverland. Johnston. (1988). M. Brown.. Brown. M. R. The dynamics of long-term business-to-business exchange relationships. (2000). A.. J. (2002). Industrial Marketing Management. & Etzel. D. The structure of reseller goals and performance in marketing channels. California’ Sage Publications. Business market management. Danaher.. Knowledge is regularly reviewed for validity. Advances in relationship marketing (pp. A. 14(7). V. (1997). J. We facilitate knowledge management using informationtechnology systems.. & Harmon. customers. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. 18(6). M. A. J. Beecham.. & Wensley. R. (1995). application of organizational learning. Brookes. 34(4). This enables collaboration. We possess the knowledge to create value-adding activities for our customers. S. Coviello. S. 13(5).). H. S. 3(2)... Customer satisfaction and corporate culture: A profile deviation analysis of a relationship marketing outcome. Payne. The strategic and business processes produce clear objectives for improvements. 22(2). and recognition are provided to encourage the leveraging and generating of knowledge. We create sustainable competitive advantage by creating knowledge assets. London’ Kogan Page. (2003). Creating customer knowledge competence: Managing customer relationship management programs strategically.. M. A. & Lockshin.. L. which contribute to improvements of competences within our organization. Creating a superior customer-relating capability. information. 663 – 674. Big ideas in services marketing. (1986). N. (2003). Journal of Marketing Management. A. (2003). Bose. (1999). 146 – 163. We define procedures to instill knowledge into our organization. Towards a paradigm shift in marketing? An examination of current marketing practices. A.. We make customer-relationship process improvements a closedloop system in our quality management. R. (1995). Day. London’ Kogan Page. D. Sydney’ Prentice Hall.. 15 – 17. S. 77 – 82. Goolsby. (2004). Psychology and Marketing. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 8 We review and manage in a routine structure the performance of our relationship-management processes. Relationship marketing. M. V. there is no structured way to manage and leverage knowledge. M. 375 – 383. 53 – 63).. R. Management Focus. This is required for continuous improvement. & Mead. goods. (2000). Journal of Consumer Marketing. Dabholkar. Payne. Appropriate relational messages in direct selling interaction: Should salespeople adapt to buyers’ communicator style. M. 33 – 46.. Carson. A. 825 – 858.. (2004). A. linking Fknowledge seekers_ with Fknowledge providers_. (1997). and have a strong focus on customer satisfaction by enhancing the flexibility of customerrelationship processes.. Knowledge management is a part of our organization’s culture. This is realized through participation in training programs. reward. Oxford’ Butterworth-Heinemann. We apply and re-use knowledge to accelerate learning processes. A. A. Implicit knowledge is transferred into explicit knowledge and vice versa. We ensure that our employees increase their knowledge through continuous learning.. Achieving long-term customer loyalty: A strategic approach. and services. Comstock. G. R. Beverland. 10(1). & Sugumaran... G.. (1994). Lindgreen et al. and competitors. Goldstein. Incentives like motivation..). The new global marketing reality. P. (1987). (2001). M. 5 – 9. 32(5). B. W. Benbasat. Brown. 11(3). J. 52(2). Relationship marketing: Towards a new paradigm. Coviello.. Journal of Marketing Management. goods. We map the process of knowledge creation. J.. However. E. P. We selectively benchmark organizations and participate in forums for development of new knowledge. Clark.. & Narus. Our relationship-management processes are the benchmark in the industry. business processes. & Ramsey. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. Global market for automotive lighting equipment. Berry. 31(2). & Little. (2003). 3 – 17. Christopher. Peck. (1997). & Palmer. J. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 . 401 – 418. Assessing advantage: A framework for diagnosing competitive superiority. K. Day. 69 References Achrol. M. Eindhoven’ Philips. Basingstoke’ Palgrave. Journal of Marketing. (2001). C. M. C. Advances in relationship marketing (pp. S. (1998). & Cathey. & Higgins.. Brookes. M. Campbell. 20(7 – 8). M. (1991). (2003). the knowledge is about business markets... G. J. 653 – 666. Shorter time to market and reduced integral costs are one of the results of well-managed knowledge. Conrad. R. Journal of Marketing.. Gilmore. 20. R. A. L. (2003). This allows managing and sharing of valuable knowledge across the organization. Payne (Ed. Clark. 263 – 278). Perry. Clark. 66(3). The performance of these relationship-management processes is judged on the basis of the value-adding criteria. and knowledge. K. Payne (Ed. N. Performance-driven CRM. & Payne. G. We identify sources that generate data. Some knowledge is captured relating to customer behavior and knowledge of customers relative to product use. R. Toronto’ John Wiley and Sons. 274 – 286. Internal relationship marketing: A strategy for knowledge renewal.. Qualitative marketing research. J. I. We have reached maximum relationship-management processes.. D. Thousand Oaks. 26(1).... & Smith. In A. Industrial Marketing Management. H. W. Management Information Systems Quarterly. A longitudinal study of customers’ desired value change in business-to-business markets. B. A. These processes are characterized by their value-adding capability. In A. The results of customer satisfaction surveys show that our customers are completely satisfied. 16 – 30. & Gulycz. Toronto’ John Wiley and Sons. Creating and exploiting knowledge as core strength of our organization allow us to set the pace of change in technologies. We understand the role and importance of knowledge management in terms of developing business strategies. Brodie. A. J. and marketplaces. Relational communication traits and their effect on adaptiveness and sales performance. Anderson. Brodie. R. & Christopher. and sharing of best practices. Continuous improvement is part of the day-to-day analysis and activities. E. Journal of Business Communication. 369 – 386. Relationship use and market dynamism: A model of relationship evolution. 31(8). Application of knowledge management technology in customer relationship management. R. J. S. & Ballantyne.
57(1). & Webster. In J. M. 732 – 748. Marketing Intelligence and Planning. (1995).. the Netherlands (pp. & Tanner. The future of competition: Value-creating networks. C. & Crawford.. 176 – 188. (2001). (1999). and measuring a programme of relationship marketing. 34 – 46. G. 16(7). marketing? Toward a relationship marketing ¨ paradigm. Customer marketing organization. & Mattson. California’ Sage Publications. London’ Kogan Page. M. Gummesson. & Campbell.. 313 – 322. A. No. Journal of Marketing. A. D. & Gadde. 10 – 16. & Berman. R. C. Systematic combining: An abductive approach to case research. Jackson. 18.. Brands: The new wealth creators. and innovativeness. Value-based marketing. 620 – 627. & Murphy. R. J.. Boston. D. U. & Uncles. 17(5). Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. A methodology for developing a selfassessment tool to measure quality performance in organizations. J. M. Harvard business review on customer relationship management (pp. P. the UK. (1946). Building successful brands: The strategic options. & Guba. 118 – 141). -E. D. B. Hunt. (2001). Marketing plans (5th edR). Action research and minority problems. Joshi. Sheth. M. & Vakola. (1999). 3 – 11. Journal of Marketing Practice. Lee. & Hill. W. (1995).. P. Build customer relationships that last. S. The case for knowledge management in CRM. E.. 287 – 290. 3 – 15. Mills. Chichester’ John ¨ Wiley and Sons. Journal of Marketing. 38 (pp. (1989). Industrial Marketing Management. Michell. I. B. University of Groningen. & Watkins. Comment on Nordic ¨ perspectives of relationship marketing. Georgiadis. Academy of Management Review. D. E. Journal of Business Research. (2004). (2005). J. Q. G. & Sheth. & Oh. B. Industrial Marketing Management. The commitment – trust theory of relationship marketing. W. McDonald. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 Gummesson. 31(1). S. Eriksson. Eisenhardt. (1997). (1989). M. 11 – 27. N. 415 – 425. A.. A.. & A. Competing for the future. K. E. N. & McDonald. Foss. (2001). (1994). 20 – 38. & A. M. Proceedings of the International Conference on Relationship Marketing (pp. 10(5). 535 – 543. Organizational culture and marketing: ´ Defining the research agenda. Lindgreen. K. Lindgreen. Rogers. C. Knowledge and Process Management. Gummesson. (1985).. McKinsey and Co. (1990). 23(1).. K.. Journal of Marketing Management. From key account selling to key account management. economic growth. S. B. Harvard Business Review. Thousand Oaks. The domain and conceptual foundations of relationship marketing. monitoring. H. (1996). Business marketing. (1997). J. Schurr.. & Johnson. Manchester Federal School of Business and Management. F. Journal of Academy of Marketing Science. Developing buyer – seller relationships. (1990). Qualitative data analysis (2nd edR). Doyle.. Sheth. H. 30(4). C. & Myers. & Gronroos. R... G. K. Total relationship marketing. J. Dubois. Dowling. McDonald. Service management and marketing. New Jersey’ Upper Saddle River. Eisenhardt. J. D. (1999). Handbook of relationship marketing (pp.. 14(4). M. P. & Hunt. (2003). The design. Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Industrial Marketing and Purchasing. A. E. Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. D. 16(3). R. D. R. Boston. (2000). S. 31(2). Quo vadis. H. 3(4). J. Garbarino. California’ Sage Publications. (2001). 53(1). 3. E. (1980).). (2001). competencies. present and future.. Evolving the customer relationship management paradigm in the retail industry.. Oxford’ Butterwoth Heinemann. Miles. Vol. (2001). productivity. & Prahalad. F. 135 – 148. & Weggeman.. A general theory of competition—resources.. 151 – 173). (1985). 1(1). (2001). D. European Journal of Marketing. Lincoln. Dwyer. Morgan. 30(5). A. P. R. Gummesson. C. K. Marketing management. Klein. A. J. (2004). & Reast. (2000). 63(2). 585 – 589.. A set of principles for conducting and evaluating interpretative field studies in information systems. Gronroos. & Wynstra. Lindgreen. European Journal of Marketing. implementation. (2002). (1994). 9(2). A. F. Journal of Business Research. Effect of environmental dynamism on relational governance in manufacturer – supplier relationships: A contingency framework and an empirical test. Beverly Hills. 339 – 354. Relationship approach to marketing in service contexts: ¨ The marketing and organizational behavior interface. Dwyer. 532 – 550. (2002). A. F. 2(4). Gronroos. M. & Quazi. 38(4). Case research as a methodology for industrial networks: A realist apologia.). N.. F. International Journal of Reliability and Quality Management. 20(1). Ford. Berlin’ Springer-Verlag. Do customer loyalty programs really work? Sloan Management Review. T. September. (2000). E. Better stories and better constructs: The case for rigour and comparative logic. Collaborative customer relationship management. S. (2003). Millman. Journal of Marketing. Dyer. A. International Journal of Customer Relationship Management. Chichester’ John Wiley and Sons. U. 379 – 389. California’ Sage Publications. 3 – 4). 30(2). Connecticut’ Stamford. Brand values related to industrial products. & Huberman. (2002)... Managers’ perception of relationship management in heterogeneous markets. 70 – 87. B. J. Basingstoke’ Macmillan Press. J. Journal of Marketing. & Seifert. A. In J. F. M. 613 – 619.. Journal of Social Issues. Academy of Management Review. (2001). 5(1). 67 – 94. (1993). Farley. See your brands through your customers’ eyes. Journal of Marketing. & Lane. King. Parvatiyar. Towards a theoretical framework of relationship marketing. Building theories from case study research.. (1987). Hamel. 120 – 128.. Lewin. Lederer. J. F. Lehtinen. 141 – 167. (1994). (1991). Better stories. Pearson Education. Kotler. Evans.. 3 – 38). 22(2). (2003). S. 23 – 37. Academy of Management Review. 16(3). Kenyon. J. G. (2002). 5 – 18). P. E. K.. (1998).. T.. Easton. M. Thousand Oaks. European Journal of Marketing. Vol. Marketing Intelligence and Planning. M. M. 71 – 83.. Ford. D. (2002). Industrial Marketing Management. (2003).. & Wilson. Relationship marketing and a new economy: It’s time for de-programming.70 A. 83 – 89. 77 – 95. & Webster. (1991).. Denison. California’ Sage Publications. H. 31(6). Y. Deshpande. Parvatiyar (Eds. 34(7). 347 – 360. Oxford’ ButterworthHeinemann. (1989). Journal of Marketing. 14(5/6). Grotenhuis.. K. Special Issue On Action Research. E. A. (2001). Successful customer relationship marketing. Have we lost our way with CRM? International Journal of Customer Relationship Management. London’ Academic Press. P. Conceptualizing and operationalizing the business-to-business value chain. September. (2004). 58(3). Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference on Industrial Marketing and Purchasing. R. P. 160 – 186. Value in business markets: What do we know? Where are we going? Industrial Marketing Management. (1994). M. M. (2000). & Woodburn. Knowledge management in international mergers. Doyle. 3 – 38). not better constructs. Hart.. Implementing. (2000). R. 553 – 560. 2 (pp. D. 54 – 76. Kothandaraman. L. Journal of Services Marketing. (1999). Naturalistic inquiry. . Deshpande. 51(2). 55(7). Lindgreen et al. Corporate culture. The development of buyer – seller relationships in industrial markets. (1994). ´ customer orientation. Thousand Oaks. Understanding business markets. Industrial Marketing Management. Oxford’ Butterworth Heinemann. The role of marketing: Past. F. Sollner (Eds. T. Key customers—how to manage them profitably. Berlin. M. K. Gronroos.. The different roles of satisfaction. G. E. Management Information Systems Quarterly. & Wilson. to generate better theory: A rejoinder to Eisenhardt. Masters.. Gartner Group. and monitoring of a CRM programme: A case study. P. New York’ McGraw-Hill. & Stone. Kracklauer. 62(6). trust and commitment in customer relationships.
(1997). Journal of Marketing. R. Dr. 1 – 17. C.. market research. & Kenny. Journal of Marketing Management. London’ Kogan Page. Sheth. (Eds. Enterprise one to one.. B. E. Recherche et Applications en Marketing. She has been a visiting scholar with the University of Auckland. Melbourne University. NY’ Random House. Sinkula. (1994). J. Factors for success in customer relationship management (CRM) systems. Dr. (2001). K. Harvard Business Review. Don’t homogenize. 24(4). London’ Kogan Page. P. 124 – 135. (1993). Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. Advances in relationship marketing (pp. implementation. and Journal of Customer Behaviour. R. J. Zablah. 56(4). Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. Harvard Business Review. & Caston. purchasing. (1990). (1995). (2005). Competitive advantage. Joelle ¨ Vanhamme has published in Psychology and Marketing. & Sasser Jr. P. Sheth. Reichheld. Yin. The antecedents and consequences of organizational and personal commitment in business service relationships.. T. F.. His research interests include business marketing. Thousand Oaks. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. F. R. Webster Jr. & Parvatiyar.... 19 – 24. A. as well as other Dutch universities. (1996). Tellefsen. (2004). Joost Wouters has published in Industrial Marketing Management. (2004b). 28(1). 19(5). In A. New York’ Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group. G. Zablah. in particularly technology and product development. (2002). 12(4). (2003). Connecticut’ Sage Publications. R.. W. N. Roger Palmer has substantial practical. Making mass customization work.. The hidden advantages of customer retention. 80(7). W. J. London’ Kogan Page. Joost Wouters is an assistant professor of marketing with Eindhoven University of Technology. D. D.. B. F. Co-opting customer competence. Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. and Qualitative Market Research. A. 29 – 40). Rigby. Prahalad. J. & Noordewier. Reichheld. J. N. & McDonald. Woodcock. gift giving. The changing role of marketing in the corporation. He has been a visiting professor with several universities including most recently Monash University. K. New York... N. 34(1). Sawhney. and practice. Strauss. J. Roger Palmer is a senior lecturer of marketing with Cranfield School of Management. Reichheld. 80(2). & Ramaswamy. F. & Boynton. W. T. (1979). Joelle Vanhamme received her PhD from the Catholic University of ¨ Louvain. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science. (1993). M. M. Capturing value creation in business relationships: A customer perspective. N. C. Advances in relationship marketing (pp. A. & Kumar. Pine. Customer relationship management.. synchronize. 305 – 318. Adam Lindgreen received his PhD from Cranfield University. S. D. An evaluation of divergent perspectives on customer relationship management: Towards a common understanding of an emerging phenomenon. Journal of Marketing Management. Boston. California’ Sage Publications. 23 – 37. & Johnston. Reichheld.). Journal of Marketing Management. 1(1). Peck. Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. & Schefter. & Johnston. & Parvatiyar. Harvard business review on customer relationship management (pp. L. 475 – 489. Harvard Business Review.. (2003). Daniel. E. T. D. and the marketing of commodities. J. E. (2000). Industrial Marketing Management.). Joost Wouters received his PhD from Eindhoven University of Technology in 2000. among other journals. 86 – 94. (2002). W.. & Thomas. 55 – 66. 677 – 693. (2001). F. A.. He teaches on marketing courses at Eindhoven University of Technology. W. relationship and value management. The customer management scorecard. H. R. In B. G. Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. industrial experience gained across different industry sectors... Handbook of relationship marketing. Payne (Ed. and marketing strategy. and corporate social responsibility. Baker. Mass customization. Pine. Journal of Marketing Management. Boston. Peppers. knowledge and behavior. Building customer relationships through internal marketing: A review of an emerged field. knowledge and relationship marketing: Where. (2002). 33(6). K. / Industrial Marketing Management 35 (2006) 57 – 71 Payne. J... (2004a). (2001). The loyalty effect. McLeod Jr. W. & Foss. F. Lindgreen et al. The social psychology of organizing (2nd edR). 534 – 542.A. R. A. Industrial Marketing Management. 25(4). Victor. and consumer behavior. F. & Corbin. 3 – 16. & Knox. Mass customization (pp. 193 – 219. (1995). among other journals. N. & Rogers. market orientation. F. M. Industrial Marketing Management. 68(5). & Sharma. corporate social responsibility. A. 71 Weick. Tzokas. Zero defections: Quality comes to services. W. Bellenger. His research interests include customer service. M. & Gilbert. The mismanagement of customer loyalty. Payne (Ed. satisfaction/dissatisfaction. J.). 279 – 295. leadership. Roger Palmer received his PhD from Cranfield School of Management in 2001. and Georgia State University. F. Delft University of Technology.. Customer relationship management implementation gaps. Sisodia. B. Journal of Business Ethics. B. V. & Saren. Newburry Park. Paradigm shift. Dr.. Massachusetts’ Harvard Business School Press. J. K. among other journals. Boston.. Thousand Oaks. Journal of Retail Banking.. Harvard business review on customer relationship management (pp. The antecedents and consequences of customer-centric marketing. Tapscott. A. (2000). Case study research (2nd edR). what and how? Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing. Ryals. (1998). V. W. Evolving relationship marketing into a discipline. 19(2). F. (1993).. 105 – 111. European Management Journal. M. He has published in Industrial Marketing Management. Wilson. Bellenger. Basics of qualitative research (2nd edR)... and Eindhoven University of Technology. Pine (Ed. 83 – 111). Adam Lindgreen has published in Psychology and Marketing.. A. (1992). 14 – 25). D. Relationship marketing: A broadened view of marketing. Boston. New York’ John Wiley and Sons. (2003). Reinartz.. E. 101 – 109.. 85 – 104). Journal of Economic Psychology. (2002). Stone.. Journal of Relationship Marketing. Ulaga. 32(8). Her research interests include emotions. M. E. His research interests include relationship management. and Journal of Customer Behaviour. (1990).. Joelle Vanhamme is an assistant professor of marketing with RSM Erasmus ¨ University. Avoid the four perils of CRM. 18(2). A. Dr. . Adam Lindgreen is an assistant professor of marketing with Eindhoven University of Technology.). 14 – 25). (1997). among other journals. Sheth. A framework for market-based organizational learning: Linking values. H. New York’ McGraw-Hill. Industrial Marketing Management. California’ Sage Publications. Boston.. J. In A. Zikmund. Cross-functional issues in the implementation of relationship marketing through customer relationship management.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.