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Kumamoto Source: College Composition and Communication, Vol. 54, No. 1 (Sep., 2002), pp. 66-87 Published by: National Council of Teachers of English Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1512102 Accessed: 16/10/2009 09:19
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Chikako Kumamoto D.
Bakhtin's and Others Writing Bearing As Witness totheEloquent"l"
MikhailBakhtin'sdialogism and his irenic view of the culturalother inform this article that builds the multiple voice of the eloquent "I"as a dialectic self-construction where codes of meaning are inscribed. The eloquent "I"cultivates a deepened self-dialogue and offers students an epistemological and rhetorical discipline, bearing witness to their imaginative,meaningful interiorityand their written, public articulation of it.
In an interview he gave in 1959, Jean-Paul Sartre described what he considered the purposes of writing: Everyonewants to write because everyone has a need to be meaningful-to signify what they experience.Otherwise it all slips away... The cri ecrit-written cry-to use Cocteau'sphrase, only becomes an absolute when it is preserved in other people's memories, when it is integrated into the objectivespirit... every single person feels, perhaps only unconsciously, the need to be a witness of his time, of his life-before the eyes of all, to be a witness to himself. (30-32) While he speaks here as a literary man addressing a large, general audience, the richly suggestive terms he selects for what takes place in the production and aftermath of writing are potent: terms like meaningful, experience, written cry,people's memories, integrated, single person, need, and witness. None of CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 66
ThoughSartre is awareof the social purposes and functions of writing achieved in dialogues between writers and readers.and writingbecomes the highest form of witness to one'smeaningful self.interpretivecommunity.speech community.I plunge into Sartre'sthoughts because he recovers for me the notion of self as the source and agency of cognitive and critical work and persuades me to rethink it in a more liberatingway when I think about students as writing selves and about the writings they produce. He calls attention to the central role of self as the wellspringof writing and the purpose for such writing as an act of bearing "meaningful" witness to oneself. I admit that.and behind the women'smovement and feminist philosophy and politics has emerged the gendered self-one's core being as either male or female-particularly. autonomous. This last notion becomes particularlyilluminating when the term witnessis etymologicallyconsidered:it derivesfrom OldEnglishwitan (to know) and from Latin videreand Greekidein (to see). in communalresponsibility" the act ofwriting (Newkirk106. At the risk of betraying an identity crisis as a writing teacher trained in literature. Sartreprovokesattention to the notion of self as a dialectic site within which personal codes for the production of meaning arediscoverable. connotation. Kant. fixed.92). Indeed.but it metamorphoses into spheres that are alien to its own.he speaks about writing primarilyas an existential and private urge for self-proof. coherent.there is the ethnocentrist claim that who or what one is can be determined by or is relative to the ethnographic community into which one 67 . and prejudice" "the hierarchy.before one'sbelonging in "adeterminate and codifiable social entity"such as "discoursecommunity.I tread upon this slippery territory of self while casting a respectful backwardglance at a long line of humanists universalizingand culturalistsparticularizingthe readingof self in the West:behind Descartes. like any other critical term. the notion of self challenges our readydefinitionaleffortto arrest and stabilize flux in its preconceived understandings. a written signification of who or what one believes one is.Thus. both in the physical and mental senses.and Hume stands the romantic tradition of self as the unitary "I. Sartreintimates that before anything. More recently.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING or these words signals "ownership.and normativestandard." self being an essence.and disciplinarycommunity:'1 writingbegins with and returnsto knowingand seeing the communityof oneoneself. the identity of women as the less-valued other.shaped by political forces and affected by public systems of control. this unified. Inhabiting such a community are both an implied writer and an implied reader within oneself who are retrieved from lived experiences and broughtinto being duringone'sact of writing.
a characteristicmode of address to the world"born of "anincreased self-consciousness about the fashioning of human identity as a manipulable.culture/multiculture. endowed with "thepower of viewing many things at once as one whole. the discourse of self in the past.gender.sexual.it is to be impelled toward a new heterogeneous synthesis where one's specificity and difference are accepted and where this acceptance leads to the reclaimed cognizance of a universal self. to this we to to givea satisfactory anmusthaverecourse the mostprofound metaphysics swerto it. of referringthem severallyto their true place in the universal system.James that this view of self (anotherperception of the other) tends to valorizethe self of the West over the self of the rest of the world. like mind/body.nature/ savagery. even David Hume found the definition intractable: in It is certainthatthereis no question philosophy moreabstruse thanthatconand of whichconstitutes pera cerning identity. one's "personalorder"is to be measured neither by the humanist universality of normative man (woman? person?) nor by the culturalist exceptionality of national.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 fits. of understanding their respective values.andin common it is evident life theseideasof selfandpersonarenever (240) veryfixedor determinate. promotes the partial." According to Greenblatt. He is particularlytroubledby such discourse because it tends to impede "atrue enlargementof the mind"and because it inevitablyresultsin the suffocating"normative self-I/deviant other"dualism and its cognates.For Said'sreformedliberalism. Edward Said has translated Hume's epistemological distress in our century'scosmopolitical context when he characterizesthe past discourse of self as one that tends to create "asingle overmasteringidentity" (16).male/female. Therefore. son.as Said might agree. and determining their mutual dependence" 68 .So farfrombeingableby oursensesmerely determine question. Said cautions us. a critical position sympathetically echoed in Stephen Greenblatt'sliberating discourse on self and culture in his theory of "self-fashioning.257). Whateveroppositionalexpressions it may have adopted. or majority/minority.artfulprocess"(2. the nature the uniting principle.the self must take genesis from "alarge and generous view of human diversity"(15). Clifford and havedemonstrated Clifford. or ethnic markerslike a Westernself or (in modern usage) multicultural self. otherethnographers Geertz. insiders/outsider(16-17).one's self means "asense of personal order.2 Faced with such colliding ideas of self. oblivious to the existential proof that a person does not remain ontologically and epistemologically one kind of self forever. bifurcated way of knowing. Rather. order/disorder. reason/passion.
. fusion.I furtherwish to sub. Joan Webberidentifies this emerging new universal self with a special formof the writer'sself-consciousness. but if this were the only aspect of this understanding. mit that my version of the eloquent "I"is a writer and all not certainty-for writers. Ofcourse. inscribed with multiple and various others occupying the self.the possibility of seeing the world through its eyes. but "active. my eloquent "I" is a written witness to personalorderwhose ordinancederivesfrom a variorum of a writer'sprincipled interiority.and certainty-for ofhuman mind all writers.. is a necessarypart of the process of understandingit.Herevocativepen calls this desirable fusion of the universal and the concrete self in a person.and Webberundergirdmy belief that the writing self must be reclaimed as a universalcomplexity of human mind with its capacities for change. abunThe self be as writing must reclaimed dance. one must enter into it. linear. more for those others whose unlike a self. unity.3 For my present essay. Said.abundance.driventowardidealismyet foreverearthon bound: "meditative. In her study of self and style in seventeenth-century English prose. Greenblatt.anti-historical. creativity. 256). forgetting one'sown. may higher dimensionality[in our mind's]landscapereceiveddue historically its respect."social. a certain entry as a living being into a foreign culture. and view the worldthroughthe eyes of this foreignculture. may not have histori.it would merelybe duplication 69 .with capacitieschange. timebound.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING (Newman 99). a universal complexity its for unlike a non-Europeanself. more inward. cally receivedits due respect. just who is more self-reckoning. fusion.8. "The Eloquent 'I"'(7. then.creativity. unity.and logical on the other. neither homogeneous nor divided. Approachingthe eloquent "I" MikhailBakhtininvokes a symbolic writerlyself similar to the eloquent "I"as a category of epistemological and rhetoricalpossibility when he explains his ethics of'butsidedness" in his 1970 essay titled. spacious enough to enable multiplicity to survive without degenerating into opposition"(Keller48). but one-sided and thus untrustworthy. "Responseto a Question from the NovyMir EditorialStaff": There exists a very strong.idea that in order better to understand a foreign culture. In orderto shape my sense of this new universalwriting selfethics of"otherness" my eloquent "I"-I reconfigureMikhailBakhtin's ("finding oneself outside")and his dialogic-promptedway of knowing4and argue that. not just for those others whose self.'and "symbolic" one hand. knowing and who accomplishes writing "at a non-European not have self.
I am "listening to the world"6 learn and imagine and would not entail anything new or be enriching. (6-7) This passage crystallizes Bakhtin'sanalysis of what it means for us to be "located outside"-our outsidedness. thoughts.Creativeunderstandingdoes 70 . which.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 not renounce and itself. What entails in being located outside is our relationbetween our own culture and other cultures that are foreignto ours in space and time.andno mirrors photographs help. Bakhtin suggests that we penetrate and experience other autonomous cultural entities-whether peoples. one cannotevenreally one'sownexterior it or can comprehend as a whole. outsideness a mostpowerful is factorin understandculture foreign that culture reveals itselffully ing."the it able cultural others")-and toinstallina selves (7).It is onlyin the eyesof another that andprofoundly not maximally becausetherewillbe cultures see (but fully. thefirst his ofothers is depths"in the process of our cultural the able jettison customarily to transgressive.its ownplacein time. we "engage in a kind of dialogue. we need to return to the "understanding"provided to us by one'sown self or one'shome culture. In orderto understand. When we are located outside.these culfor present is tures"(7). and knowing. or objects-as deeply as possible. bonding.becausetheyarelocated only outsideus in spaceandbecausetheyareothers. discourses.but the first is his view of others that is able to jettison the customarilytransgressive. in turn. results in our ofone's connotations outsidedness.in space.its ownculture. is immensely it for important the personwho understandsto be locatedoutside objectof his or hercreative the understanding-in For see and time. 'A meaning only reveals its The of passage my essay appeal this that is view but manifold. it forgets nothing. But having done this without forgetting other cultures. Inthe realmof culture.5And this central premise is the metaphoric spine on which the core of my teaching composition is supported.which surmounts the closedness and one-sidedness of these particularmeanings.As a teacher teaching writing at a community college where so-called multiculturalstudent writto ers are yearly increasing.in our contemporary equivalent.in culture.negative connotations of one's outsidedness-outsiders (or. Because we maintain our identities as well as theirs in a new enriching synthesis. even andunderstand more).5 The appeal of this passage for my status positive ofbeing for present essay is manifold.acquiringa heightened"creative undernegative of cultural others and ouroutsiders inour (or. contemporary standing" equivalent.ourrealexteriorcan be seen andunderstood by otherpeople."the cultural others")-and able to install it in a positive status of being and for knowing. languages.
superficial difference among their classmates but the differences born of rigorous knowing of oneself marked by what RichardRodriguez calls "anattitude of mind. I may have a chance to practice my irenic pedagogy 71 . The attractiveness of Bakhtin'sepistemology of culturalothers is the others'abilities to obtain what Tzvetan Todorovnames "epistemologicalprivilege. Cooperation. possess a sense of themselves as meaningful people and as epistemologically free and morally responsible agents. instead of remaining merely ethnic or racial others to be overcome as obstacles or as uninterested aliens. can. For me. one can be led to a deepening understanding of one's "native" self. In turn. All my students may then be able to see each other with a Bakhtinianwriter's"higher and freerdegree of answerability" the end (Emerson209). writing in an American academic environ. my multiculturalstudents.James Berlinclaimed.FollowingBakhtin's expansiveand most idealistic conception of others.my imaginationof myself"(138). Conversely. my multicultural students can provoke us to articulate our own views on our selves and our society as well as on theirs. ".Without border disputes.. I as their in teacher can avoid "the teachers' unstated cultural definitions of the self" (Faigley 410). Viewed under Bakhtin's premise of others. If he is right. ratherthan questioning the meaning and truth of what they write only because they have come as "citizen[s]of somewhere else"(Hawthorne74).8Instead.7 In his disagreement with the notion of self pursued in expressivistwriting." where their minds move transformativelytoward epiphanic moments of creative knowing and understanding. Bakhtinrecognizes that culturaloutsiders exercise a special mental sight from the outside through which they can "see" what the insiders cannot.by defining oneself more sharply against what is foreign. Bakhtin'sstance that we are all unique but are never alone is exhilaratingand emancipatory-both personally and intellectually. therefore. The subject formation the student 'finds' in the act of self-investigation and freely chooses as his or her 'best' self is finally a construction of the classroom experience"(179).. Bakhtin muses on scientific trends as an example of how consciousnesses interact: "The more demarcation the better. but benevolent demarcation.The existence of border zones (new trends and disciplines usually originate in them)" ("Notes"13637). then it seems more urgent to me that students in the composition class begin with the right idea of difference:not the collective.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING these students' vastly different contexts of knowledge and being. the student's 'true'self is subtly constructed by the responses of others in the class.
Bakhtinseems to have anticipated a development of an intersubjectively knowing self whose action also gestures toward Donna Qualley'sdefinition of reflexivitythat echoes Bakhtin'sdirectionality:"Byreflexive. Then there is the second position. A corollaryis that there exists a continuous interchangeof meanings shaping the self.."The self stands in three "double-voicedness" 354). values.text.9 Forme.and the like-looks and feels to my own cognition. and critique one'sclaims and assumptions in responseto an encounterwith anotheridea..person. intellectual. a way of the others seeing my self. as a result. ideals. bility-such attitudes. sexual. 72 . The last position is the "other-forme":"eitheras my own lived experience or as the lived experience of this particular and unique otherhuman being"(23). Bakhtin's "creative of understanding" others gives me a start to shape my sense of a writing self to be a fruitfuldialogic interaction among differentmodes of self made possible through a cognitive transformativeability of the mind.or culture" (Turns3). Bakhtin explains the formation of this "inwardlyperceived"epistemological self through the "spatialform"of the self's relationship to the outer world in 'Author and Hero"and "Discoursein the Novel. "I" a mental act of "participationin bridged by intersubjectivity.I mean the act of turning back to discover. preferences. the other would be known as another self to the original self doing the knowing. Placed in our contempois becomes an epistemological self when "I" part of"Berarycritical terms.examine. and my self theirs. then. -come to see and to know-what he experiences"(25). "Iandthe other"(23). Knowing oneself and others takes competing epistemolobringingtogetherand reconcilingmanyintrapersonally gies. in Dentith 43). which relates my self to outsiders in ways my self looks to those outside of it: "myprojecting myself into him and experiencing his life from within him. myself position ("Author" which means how my inner makeup or possias cultural. ing-for-Others:' focused only on one's subjecshared meanings"that reconciles a "solipsism" tivism and the more sophisticated awareness of one's relationshipswith others (Kinneavy 399.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 born of soteriological sympathies and educated civility in order to create a classroom where the influence of a responsive understandingamong my students will pervade. A self's encounter with cultural others is essentially dialogic because a way of knowing one'sself involves a way of conceiving of the others. Duringthis complicated movement from relatingthe self to the other and back to the self. Bakhtin believes that the other surmounts its sense of being an outsider but is affirmedas "someoneelse's'I"'and becomes another subject (qtd. The first is the "I-forpositions ("Discourse" 24). and moral thoughts. Brummett 30-31).
cannotbecomemyself withoutthe other.. and so forth"("Problem Speech Genres" In this sense. sovereign looking I I withoutthe other. agreement. mustfindmyself in the other.. I cannot do 73 . which. he on withinhimself. and Manhasno internal him. evaluateit.he expects response. The dialogic self "is oriented precisely toward such an actively responsive understanding. and so on. his own accent.The dialogicselfknows an "internally discourse"that actively receives the meanpersuasive through ing of various others as discourse contexts causing one inner experience to interactwith other internalexperiencescontinuously("Discoursein the Novel" 345). the consciousness of the dialogic self.ableto reveal"waysto mean"("Notes" 137. only duplicates his own idea in someone else's mind. and finding. jection. ElsewhereacclaimingDostoevsky'spowerfuluse of polyphonyin his novels. territory.. He does not expect passive understandingthat. Bakhtin further clarifies salutary effects of benefits from the reconceived notion of the other on one'sepistemological transformationand enrichment: Tobe meansto be fortheother. relate it to the self's own complex of inner contexts. Rather. (qtd. the otherin me (in mutualreflection perception). correlates with yet another. while reminding us that we can never claim the totality of one's sense of self unless he looks in the eye of the other or throughthe eyes of the other. in Todorov Mikhail Bakhtin 96) HereBakhtinechoes his idea of"appropriation" languagewith which a writer of "populateswith his own intentions. To be correlatedwith other meanings means to be interanimatedwith a part of a new context. through foroneself.obof 69). ("Notes" "Methodology" 168)."Discoursein the Novel"346). execution. sympathy..towarddissolvingin it the other's consciousness (while being understood):'to becoming an I-polyphonicbeing possessed with an "understandingas the transformation of the other's into one'sown/another's"' 141. "the false tendency toward reducingeverythingto a single consciousness. and Kinneavy. in turn.. Brummettaccomplishis their cross-epochal clarificationof the heart of Bakhtiniandialogic epistemology:one obtains selfknowledge by evolving from being I-monologic. adapting it to his own semantic and expressive intention"("Discoursein the Novel"293).. because it straddles various "border zones" of others' meaning "withoutborder disputes:' can become an epistemologicalsite of creativeunderstanding.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING What Qualley. is allandalways the boundary. and prepareits own response to the other ("Discoursein the Novel"296-97). This is "actively responsive understanding"because the dialogic self must not only decode the other'smeaning but also actively grasp why it is being given.
Imagine. biological.integrate. Bakhtindepicts such an "encompassing" "emthat is. connection.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 submitting to someone else's gaze. It is a reasonableleap forwardfor me to imagine the eloquent "I"(as my sense of a writing self) taking genesis in the Bakhtinianparadoxicalinterplay of of self and other engaged in "theinner dialogism"("Problem the Text"119)."meaning-inscribed meaning-inscribed heterogeneously ceived in my faith in the mind'sinherently and transformativeabilities to absorb. and consequently someone who is no longer the person. of the whole I. a person irrespective of I and other. a writer like this individual:a Japanesefemale who was brought up in a multideity society. fuse.. interrelationshipof voices in discourse"(qtd.completed graduatework in Milwaukeeand Chicago. but the other . the An of the interiorized communityone. in the process. and. 39.combine. observing a special psychic grammarpredicatedon the unique writerlyself-consciousness Bakhtin who may potentially become other "I's.the eloquent "I" multidirectional the notion of the other and (to extend Bakhtin's term) and sees its self through discovers various others within. mainno longer the I. for example. educated in an Americanparochial system in Hiroshima.. my eloquent "I"may be rephrased as a community of selection.." multiple"l's. My argument here is that though the self has permeableego boundaries. this community serving as a kind of sieve through which a writer'smind passes through before she knows her own language with which to create knowledge and her text. and interpretation. What the eloquent "I"creates is an inner discourse.trained in Renaissancestudies. or any other epistemological determinants. An interiorized community of one." tained in a dialogic equilibrium("Author" "Notes"137-38). a "unified consciousness to be laid out on the and page"(qtd." liam Coles's"Plural my sense of the eloquent "I" describes as a coherent self. eloquent eloquent "I"is the self-other dualism transformed a transformed a self-diversity into T"is the self-other dualism into wherein and wherein synchronously exist synchronouslyand heterogeneously exist self-diversity Conmultiple"I's. intellecby tual. "Multiaccentualized" social." made up by numerous "I's" describes such a discourse as "internaldiologization. and that human knowledge depends on trusting the witness of others. in Morris 110).. bracing" being. emotional. in Newkirk21). the witness and the judge of the wholehuman self as "supra-I. has been moving toward a synthesis aroundthe idea of a new ethical humanist teaching and writing about first- 74 . and cognitive is synthesize differentsources of knowledge.converted to Christianity in Japan.each an epistemological agent in the sense of Wilrevisitswhat Lester Faigley I. cultural.
A new synthetic individualself built upon a faith in transcending the external given. Becausethe writerhas dialogicallyhar. as a result of "[d]ialectics . the eloquent "I"means and being manyplaces at once-to recast Qualley's thoughts on self-reflexivity "aspace for the development of a differentway of seeing"("BeingTwo Places" 36). As such. on a higherlevel. the eloquent "I"is a discourse site of a writer'sepistemological ascent to reach a more richly achieved self-her sense of personal orderthrougha series of her highly self-awareencounters with powerfullypatterned culturescapes.more richly sure of self-understanding and moral growth" personal aseries her of order-through self-aware encounters with (12-13)."Methodology" 162) brings 75 . forms a microcosm of multiple readersand writers contained within the self as the field of writing-distinct at given moments and from given perspectives but as seamlessly united as a whole (Urban49-50). in entering a new field of possibilities.. Writingthen becomes a written expression of the writing self tracing the whole network of textuality provided by polyphonic inner others. a mea. she acquiresditocritical connections and receptive verse cultures that she lacks and wishes to ina knowledge ofherself. resulting new complement and expand her self to build a richlyexpounded base of knowledge. Movingbeyond a binaryaccount of the self and committed to discovering multiple various writing others within as the act of knowing. I am here referringto the internal processes of individual consciousness like Kathleen Blake Yancey's"multipleperspectives"(6) that reflect back to Bakhtin'sway of "bestow[ing]sense on me"in order to express "anessential.The writer's ascent reach a self. actual... and provocativepotentialities..KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING year English in DuPage County in Illinois." in turn."(Bakhtin.only the awareness of another consciousness outside the self can produce that image.highly nessed different sources of knowledge in the powerfully each patterned culturescapes.each receptiveto criticalconnecisadiscourse ofa site eloquent"l" tions and resulting in a new knowledge of her. and syntheses of both many times over.The eloquent "I" thus carriesthe traces of a myriadother consciousnesses because a single consciousness cannot generate a sense of its self. once-occurrent. born of dialogue.10The primary harvest from such intertextualreadingof the self and its multiple others is the successive shaping of a new text. Thomas Newkirkmight not be adverse to epistemological to achieved self-hersense of me saying that this self has '"earned'. She has appeared as insiders. An outwardlyactualized text...fresh directions. the eloquent "I. each self an opportunity for different types of knowing while demonstrating the necessity of each self to the other. outsiders.inescapable real Being"(Towarda Philosophy15-16). awarenessof her others within.
hypothesized sought to discover included to what extent an fashioningacademic throughstudents' self-conscious cultivations of writing selves connected multiple as knowing might awareness about their potential various students' bases expand epistemological and forms of self could affect what they knew. I tried my embryonichypothesis about the eloquent "I" a class that was the first of three courses in my college'sone-year first-yearcomposition program.Callingon Bakhtin'sconcept of culturalothers from which a strategyto order a diversity within the self could be extrapolated. Reporter: students choose subjects from such models as a newspaper article or a reportedfact or custom. I wanted to investigate how students having a sense of Bakhtinian Namely. (27-31) 2.mywritingpromptswereinformed and responsiveutterances of others. (95-100) 3. in turn. and how they could write about.they focus on reflection and use emotional language. and imagination. I tentatively hypothesized that fashioning an academic writing on concept Calling Bakhtin's ofculturalthrough multiple selves as connected knowothers whichstrategyorder ing might expand students' epistemological from a a to within be could extrapo-bases and creative self-literacies. thought.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 out the intricacies of the writer'sinteriorityand historicity and attests to her writing whose life springs from a variorum of her principled knowledge. person. Teacher: students select a thing. Participant: students focus on self as a characterin a life experience story or in an essay. otherness in the course of writing might contribute to their criticaland cogniFor tive development and. to an improvement of their writing. they focus on factual analysis and use informationallanguage.1" the sakeof familiarity easy comprehension. or event to explain to a 76 . and how their views of themselves would change. What I diversity theself Itentatively that lated. students were to envisionthemselvesin and enact recognizableroles suggestedinJackDodds's and Readers:A RhetoricalAnthology. by identity-assumption as a form of Bakhtin's My basic premise was that in completing writing assignments.Three years in ago. Lookingfor the eloquent "" in the writing classroom I am now moved to describe what I gleaned from a small project.I writing rubrics in his Rolesfor Writers selected five of his seven writing roles/identities in the following sequence: 1. what creative self-literacies.
Curiously. Butwhat was gleanablefrom some of their formal essays and comments attached in end-of-quarterevaluationswas my tentative conclusion that students found certain selves/roles more comfortable to assume than others. learn to use informationaland explanatory language.an increasedskepticalanalysisof some of the accepted opinions. physical events. in turn. or a drawing.a sharp focus on neglected or dormant or alternativeself-identia ties. a piece of music.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING learning audience. a form of selfintrospection emerging from their daily lives. thoughts. they wrote about their fictive "imaginaryor assumed" selves. (330-34)12 What I had hoped for from my student writers was an actualization of severalaspects of my hypothesis:a recurrentquestioning about the authenticity of their socially ascribed and/or self-awareidentities. a fascination with the integrity of role-playing. they critique and evaluate language that communicates judgments and ideas.they learn to use position-clarifyinglanguage that may make their audiences accept or oppose their positions. students first recordedtheir "realand everyday"selves. I am not or quite certain if my students had developed a clear sense of their "true" central self within the short quarterperiod of three months or if they had become epistemologicallysurerbeings. a point that encouraged me to glimpse a Bakhtin-inI formed eloquent "I" emergingin their writing. (251-54) 5. also found a strong overallpreference to adopt "that tone of lucid restraint that is the supposed ideal of scholarlyprose"as the quarterprogressed (Harris160). (176-81) 4. an increased receptivityto the idea of "outsiders." confident use of rigorous reflection.or an essay. Persuader: students choose some controversialtopics and a friendlyor antagonistic audience. Secondly. a growing preoccupation with the nature of their "true"self. Students also wrote journals in which they recorded two types thesis of identifiableselves. a hybrid of creative writing. and an effort to make a cognitive leap made possible by virtue of deepening self-dialogue. I sensed in their formal essays and their personal journals their delight and dismay as well as wonderment about the concept of self itself. a movie or a TV show. and emotions. Critic: students focus on subjects such as a cartoon. recording a variety of role enactments in their interior drama (Urban49).they. Based on my own subscription to Donald Murray's that all writing is autobiographicalin the sense that all writing comes from within. This last was 77 .
which. both students found the first identity of a participant congenial to simulate. cultural interrogation. I personally believe that all women in the world should now be awakenedto get the light of education because it not only will help them to get an equal status as men but will also give them an inner mental satisfaction that they know about the world aroundthem and are not more ignorant. Lastly 78 . point of creatinga separatethinking and not on others has also impressed me a lot. Stronglycolored by their urgent concerns for their immediate futures and reflecting on their home-grown philosophies about intellectual and moral empowerment through education. Kelly. Kellyand Twisha. Likemany of their classmates. Twisha. however. logical thinking.. An examination of the sampling of the writings completed by two particular students. Prominentwas the placement of the autobiographical. and textual mediation of multiple positions. I reallyloved this essay since it depending is a thought-provokingessay and is like a ray of enlightenment for the women living in this society.. the Moreover. Twisha's writing particularlyshowed this style of knowing as her response spanned the personal and the objective easily: Thebest thingI likedaboutthis roleis thatshe [Rich] teacheswomenthatthey shouldpreserve theirself-dignity theirindividual and indiidentityas separate vidualswith BRAINS.fresh out of high school. their reflective responses to Adrienne Rich's an came across as an affirmationand a testament essay "Claiming Education" to their newly academic selves in the making.was sharpeningthat educational base to specialize in the computer field in an American educational environment. mainly because in this particular assignment they could relate to the status of female students in higher education..CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 evident as students navigated through various epistemological demands such as reflective response. was preparingto transferto a four-yearinstitution (aftertesting herself at a community college) in orderto become a teacher. objective analysis.. empirical inquiry." as these students seemed instinctively relyingon Bakhtin's "I-for-myself" well as "I-the-other" steps of knowing.On the other hand.was elevated at the end of their writings toward the context of the universalas they comparedtheir own experiences as female students to those of all female students. hinting at an awakening of double-voiced discourse. Moreover.may reflect some of my provisionalclaims. knowing "I" at the center.a so-called multiculturaland bilingual student with some university experience in her home country. Both were representativeof the community college students.moving across the as personal "I" writers and their awarenessof the generalizedidea of "student.
made a leap in self-knowing as she perceived her role as an intellectual and moral catalyst for those who would follow her teaching:"Tobe more specific. They identified with the teacher because liked idea helping they the of else learn todosomething also how but role.I hadone of the most cherished in experiences my Mrs. Therefore.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING I wouldliketo addthateachandeverystudentshould"claim" "demand" i.. edulife. not receive one.When Twisha reminisced about her former teacher in the course of role assumption. Kelly.Raywas explaining us the formation the class. showed squeezing of landandthe formation up of the mountains withthe helpof herhandkerchief. Thus.they chose to the"l-the-other" that particiintersubjectivity use the language closely resembling the in of desirable pated theshared meaningstheir language of the "I-the-other"intersub. Claimingan education is important.herintellectual of teaching lingering way helpedme in to develop creativity mythinking. chose use they fruition of such helping acts from oththelanguage of language resembling closely ers in the past.or idealized ofa conceptionsteacher. to the Therefore. jectivity that participated in the shared meaningsof theirdesirableor idealizedconceptions of a teacher.instead.. merely complex awareness of identity assump.. [my]role as a college professoris to give higher education to a group of potentially wonderful students in the hope that one 79 . not merely because they liked the their selves be to idea of helping someone else learn how because believed present they to do something but also because they the fruitionsuch of helping from acts others in believed their present selves to be the thepast. alsomadedrawings She to showthisprocess. [This]teacherstill has a effecton mymind. and not just for women.Myteacher to of geography She the greatHimalayan ranges. her memory acted as empirical evidence of her gaining a higher level of knowledge through assimilation of identity: WhenI was in highschool.exhibiting a sense of epistemological conviction motivated by her awareness of others: "Idid like the comment that you must claim an education..on the other hand. wasveryillustrative expository. She and in Everyone the class was pleasedby the methodshe used to explainus .They someone tion. Intriguingly.e. theirwritingindicateda degreeof a moreidentified theteacher not with role. cationto leada meaningful Kellyresponded equally. This is a very powerful statement that applies to life in many areas other than education.their identification derived not simply from assuming that role." Both students stronglyidentifiedwith the role of a teacheras well.
Notable in their writing was the disappearance of first-person perspectives and the appearanceand prevalenceof those of the thirdperson. Their writing indicated their efforts to bridge the distance between a way of knowing through personal experience and the sharingof that experience. I surmised such stylistic shifts to be a manifestation of their efforts to shorten "the initial distance between their world views and the academic world view" by conforming to linguistic expectations of the academy (Bizzell 297). She seemed to believe that the use of the pronoun "we"expressed control and authority over her material and formed a Such a choice correspondedwith the gencounterpoint to heryet untested "I. In Twisha's writing.and a new way of knowing throughanalytical reasoning and dialectic argumentation.Kellybeganwith a defense of her personalunderstanding of those writers. in turn. we can conclude that knowling thoughts edge is vital in everyperson'slife because it is a base that strengthens a person's attitude and approachtoward life and it can be acquiredin differentways. is whatallthreeof the authors willdiscussbelieve to be the highestformof wisdom.the personal had completely gone and was replacedwith a as formal. is a self-truth is evidentonlyin a select It that I of This group thepopulation. In so doing. Neil Postman." eral sentiment of the class that they could play a critic about anything or anyone if they adopted a similar style. In the last role as a persuader. to know the workings of their own. they appeared to reflect Bakhtin's"the-other-for-me" epistemology in which they attempted to understandthe workingsof other people'sminds and." Their deepening dialogic ability and self-literacybecame even more evident in their assumption of the critic'srole in a special form of a thought synthesizer. onlythingtheydiffer is howtheyshed The on lighton the subject.both students showed varying degrees of Bakhtin'sthree stances toward others." The adoption of the pronoun "we" was her stylistic decision apparently to give her readers an impression of a more impersonal and impartial stance as a critic was expected to do. In critiquing Plato. and RichardRodriguez.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 day they will rise above their instructor in knowledge and experience. but she graduallytransformed it into a stance of a more acceptable discriminatingknower: It is crucial is. thatI beginwithwhattrueknowledge Thiswillgiveyoua better of of is.all-knowing"we" evidence of her new knowing self that was critiquof others:"Sofrom all these essays.Indicativeof the change occurring 80 . is knowledge understanding whatthemeaning thefollowing writing True intellectlearned fromexperience.
atic of all the changes taking place in her: which could inthe articulate I canstillrecall whenIleftIndia cameto America. aswell selffrom their familiar.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING in their grasp of self.. shifting. from traversing ticulate in the persuasive language of their earned their selves familiar. of and don'ttakethetimeto realize probthe solutionto the Y2K lem. which they could ar. and in materialism sometimes alsousefulforthe benefitsandgoodof mankind.Although for in India hadreada lot abouttheadvancements I and newtechnologies America. and Theworldseemedto havechanged me.act uponit..notjustasbusiness owners computer or buteveryone individuals.. However. ordinary to "personalorders.Thus. we eachdo our as If programmers.Peopletry theirbest to fulfill highgoalstheyhaveset upforthem.This selftra.culturalinquiryand analysis. In turn. and obscure. educated approach as the right way to solve the Y2Kproblem that was the topic of the time: Thewaytheproblem comesto a headcompletely relieson us. supplanting it by others. informationalreportage. can at in we has on saythatmaterialism manynegative impacts thesociety. Looking alltheseaspects[ofmaterialism America].In the end.aspeoplecaring but about the future ourcountry of theworld. Thisis a problem maynot be as big as that therumors wouldsuggest.ordinaryselves to newly knowledge astheir versing constructed academic beings.the worldwillbenefitfrommanyangles. As the briefanalysismight suggest." "personal 81 . their writing was accomplished in a mixture of personal reflection. it willbecomethatbigifwe. it also has somepositiveimpactsof its own. and finally they of earned persuasive languagetheir orders.wascompletely I of shocked whenI sawthisnewcounbecauseof the noteworthy tryforthe firsttime specially impactof materialism on thepeople.and synthesis of variousopinions and positions. even ontological awareness. andcomeupwitha creative bug. is Kellysubmerged the personal completely as she argued for a calm.in readingmy students'workand their responses at the time. beforeit becomesmajor partto help solvethis problem widespread panic." last essay was symptomTwisha's constructed academic newly beings.in assuming those five writing roles.This mixed style mixed could read a style be as could be read as a shift taking place in their self. it was extremely intriguing to speculate that young students began to perceive.andtheirdesire achieve best the to the in life mayleadto manyinventions discoveries manyfieldsof life..shift taking intheir place knowledgeas well as in their self-understanding. the notion of the self or identity as something inconstant. I considered the papers a burgeoning sign of their epistemological. taking a role. along with this.understanding.
I strongly identify with Coles'soverallview of students'acts of writing: as Joseph Harris succinctly summarizes Coles for us. and ultimately responded to the perspectives of classmates"(30.. others seethem astheway play. In the final consideration. Similarly. a fact that vividlyattests to our fascination with and the importance of the subject. In this sense. revealingnot so much the way they wanted others to see them but as the way they wanted to see themselves. resonated back to In decisionsprefer their to roles certain toplay.Those were they its synonymous mental activities. in fact. there should be something more existentially at stake for them than just completing classroom assignments for the sake of better transfer transcripts or other practical purposes.their writing did bear wit"essayed" ness to their ideal visions of themselves." Bearing witness to the eloquent "" Recently. 61). their version of the eloquent "I. the students seemed to become to but wanted they aware that the parts they chose to play to wanted seethemselves.their preferencescorresponded to the quality of writing they achieved. therefore.my eloquent "I" a pedagogic opening is all about the ever-shifting complexity and subtlety of today's culturescapes and felt respect and dignityfor individuals' sense of meaningfulbeing. and the beyond"(115). Thomas Newkirks defense of the moral aspect of the act of composing also deeply resonates with the teacher's soul in me.accommodated. When they their preferredroles in writing.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 surpassingall roles except the one they preferredto play. equally Bakhtin-orientedChristianKnoellerendeavors to discover how students "drawon the voices from classroom talk" and how they "internalized. Theirs are philosophies that with which of "pedagogy possibility" permeateKayHalaseks Bakhtin-informed she reimagines "thewriting classroom as a dynamic site of education and intellectual challenge that recognizes both the constraints and possibilities of language in students' struggles to locate themselves in the university. they were not impersonationsbut ideals. And in but roles what not the to revealing somuch way their decisions to prefer certain roles to wished be.many distinguished compositionists have written about the question of the writing self and its relation to epistemology with great depth and theoretical innovations. however. My essay has attempted to join in their diaas logue. In so doing. Montaigne to whom essay writing meant thestudents seemed become that to aware the "aweighing" of issues at hand (from the to were impersonLatin exagium) and all that accrued from parts chose play not they ations ideals..the students.Those roles were what they wished to be. My approachhas been to foregroundthe 82 .
Formy part. I am also phone) thankfulto my students in thefall quarterof 1998for theirgenerous and willing comments (they permission (also verballygiven) toparaphrase the end-of-quarter I preferredto write them anonymously). As Micheal prefer-to Holquist and VadimLiapunovremind us in their introduction to Art and Answerability.Of necessity.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING implications of the same set of Bakhtin'sterms in light of the self much more narrowlyturning inward. In this way. after all."The final glory is that the cri ecrit so chronicled bears witness to the eloquent "I"because it gives a potent epistemological lesson with an ethical and intellectual splendor made even more luminous with its naturalaffinityto returnus to our reclaimedhumanist ethics in which one's authentic and unique heart and critical. are we not? And this humble re-visioning of us elevates the discourse of the self as a consummating framework-an "architectonics" Bakhtinmight as nourish an imaginative yet disciplined subjectivity. my image of the writing self stirs echoes and harmonies in Qualley'sreflexive turns.it should aid their enlightened and creativelearning. cultural and intellectual others. as the articulation of values"(xli). Halasek'sinteractivepossibility. Teaching composition to a diverse student body. I believe that the rich contribution of this internallyreclaimed self-construction in the writing process points to its opening up venues to a richer variety of connected thinking and knowing.my thoughts circle back to Sartrewhen he has equated "meaningful" writing with the "criecrit. connectedness. also express my thanks to the two studentsfor 83 . throughout his work. creative mind are embraced and honored. or Newkirk'sidea of writing as self-performance. As such. intimates that "to be human is to mean"and the "Humanbeing is the production of meaning. Acknowledgments I am deeplygrateful toJackDoddsfor his generouspermission (verbally given overthe to adopt and recast his classification of writers'roles in my class.. Knoeller's"interactional" voicing of the participants. We are. and commonality as virtues-more than they may have so far realized or believed. the challenge will be to have students see themselves in an expansive freshness of the eloquent "I"-heterogeneity as empowerment as well as interdependence..Bakhtin.Perhapsmine is retrogradein that it centers simply on the primacy of students' examined and tested self-knowing in the way Bakhtin describes the writer'screative imagination:"myselfI experiencefrom within myself"("Author" 28). it should play an intimate role in the continuous turning and reifyingof students'criticalunderstandingsof themselvesand the world aroundthem.
Thisis the title of HelenFox's book. 138. Theseterms areadoptedfromTzvetanTodorov's MikhailBakhtin: DialogiThe cal Principle. especiallypp.myimaginationof myself" in his Hunger ofMemory.In discussingculturally diversestudentwritshe calls for "aprofoundrethinkingof the goals and purposesof the univerings. activity. Myinitialsense of the writingselfis inspiredbyJoanWebber's TheEloquent title '. Speech Genresx).Naipaul. political 84 ." a studyof the seventeenth-century Englishliteraryself-consciousnessand its ethos. 4. 14-15. that 8. wishto reconsider ideaof a discoursecommunity definednot as a "social but as an intenselyintrapersonal entity" communityconof manyfirst-person "I's. havestreakedthroughits long corridor to streamlinemy argument. especially 94-105.Thisessayis one of those that come fromverylate in Bakhtin's However.has namedsuch sensitivity"anattitudeof mind. 5. whose academicdisciplinewas in the EnglishRenaissance.my sense of relationswithin and aroundthe classdifference mayhelp to alleviatethe "power in room" becausestudentsneed not becomeself-consciousaboutdifferences only terms." this paper. I mayalso feel less anxiousabout"thelimitationsof dialogue" KayHalasek is concernedabout (177).an incompletesketchof the historyof WestI ernphilosophyof self and subjectivity." uses this particular He expressionto explainthe statusof the exile. of course.I owe an intellectualdebt to EdwardSaid'sarticle." sisting 2." is the gist of Weiss's posed me to Bakhtin's and that I havesummarized recasthereto highlightmysense of ontologyof others I and to whose bibliography am indebtedfor the entirenote section here. sity"(136).it "willprovidenew confirmation and questions for each of the rapidly emerging Bakhtinian tendencies" (Emerson et al. Notes 1. in Nous et les autres:La reflexionfrancaise sur la diversite Weiss's humanine (390). 3.Thoughcompletelyutopianin conception. "Epistemological is privilege" TzvetanTotodov'sunderstandingof Bakhtin's "outsidedness. 6. This book's introduction first ex- It introduction idea of "outsidedness. RichardRodriguez. The foregoingreviewis.S. These expressionsare ThomasKent'sin his "Onthe VeryIdea of a Discourse In I this Community.Anilluminating studyon the subjectof the exileis Timothy On the Margins: The Art of Exile in V. a mode of being the other.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 writtenpermissions to be quoted in thispaper.For the shape of the introductorypartof my essay. 7. I believewith its editorsthat in spite of its lateness.
"OnEthnographic Allegory. particularly 52-82. and by VadimLiapunov Michael Holquist. 1981. HappensWhen BasicWritersCometo College?" College Notes Madein 1970-71' . Trans.Tran. To envision writers in this schematic way may appear un-Bakhtinian.Austin:U of TexasP." and Answerability in The -. 11. "SomeImplications of Brummett.132-58. Toward Philosophy theAct."Toward Methodology the for HumanSciences:' 159-72.Ed. in Morris 110-11)." . NCTE. . VadimLiapunov.. and ofEthnography. peace and play will ultimately influence: The Wreath of Wild Olive:Play.and notes by VadimLiapunov.CarylEmersonand MichaelHolquist.Rhetorics. "Response a Question to fromtheNovy MirEditorial Staff." Genres 103-31. in Sciences:An Experiment PhilosophiU Marcus. The following study offers a new way of seeing the human community in which.Clifford G." Ed. 9 60-102.M. Speech 98-121. SpeechGenres -a . Liminality. Berlin. Michael Holquist. "TheProblemof the Textin Culture: Poeticsand Politics The Writing and the Human Linguistics.Austin:U of TexasP. SpeechGenres Clifford. "What Bizzell. SpeechGenres a . 1986." Rhetoric (1976):21-51.Patricia.. or 'Process' 'Intersubjectivity': Postmodern Rhetoric.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING 9. cal Analysis.by Mihai I. Complexities involving Bakhtin'sidea of relationships between writers and readers are excellently analyzed in Kay Halaseks A Pedagogy of Possibility. instead of agonistic power politics and ideologies of difference. Spariosu. Ed. CarylEmersonand MichaelHolquist. Bakhtin." 1-7.Kenneth Liapunov. "Discourse the Novel. but I may be forgiven for my novice attempt at making a composition project and in view of Bakhtin's own practice of classifying double-voiced discourse in three categories in his Problem ofDostoevskys Poetics (qtd. Ed.1993. and the Study of Literature. 85 . James. "From and 37 Composition Communication & LateEssays.Trans. Philology. andAnswerability: Bakhtin. Poetics. SpeechGenres Other (1986):294-301. P. English Refiguring IL: 1996. J. EarlyPhilosophical EssaysbyM. and . MichaelHolquistand Ed. Brostrom. DialogicImagination. In his famous The Plural I. William Coles describes his interest in students' composing of personal identity by dealing with "the paradox of multiplicity in oneness as a writing problem" (86-189).and James. 12. Berkeley: of California 1986. Works Cited Art Mikhail.McGee. "TheProblemof SpeechGenres. of Trans. "Author Heroin Aesthetic Art 4-256." and Philosophy . 10. Barry. VernW. Urbana.Austin:U of TexasP. Supplement Austin:U of TexasP. Activity.259-422. Cultures: Studies.1990.and notes by trans.
Jack.McNabb.TheIdea of the Text/ThePlural Harris. Fashioning: and Composition Communiphy. Portsmouth.Bakhtinian Thought: and Liapunov.4 (Dec.and VadimLiapunov. Introduction NinaBaym. Geertz.Feminismandthe Hawthorne.Carbondale: 1997. by Glossary Graham London: Hutchenson.4 and Composition Communication TexasP.D. 1999. EvelynFox. 1989):394-412. G.WilliamF. Roberts. Pam.Rinehart.CCC 54:1 / SEPTEMBER 2002 Coles. JohnHenry." College U Chicago: of ChicagoP. Boyton/Cook(Heinemann). Caryli. ThePluralI: TheTeaching Holquist.1983. Ourselves: Christian. (Dec. (in) theAcademy." SelectedWritings Bakhtin.Connolly. 49. York 1998.1986. Emerson.2 (Feb."ThePlural M.Listening the World: We WhoseWords UseWhenWeTalk IL: Issuesin AcademicWriting. Newman. By An Dentith. SpeechGenres Other Kent.Tran. Glasgow: FontanaCollins.3:37-49. "Being TwoPlacesat A Nathaniel. and theAgeofPolitics:Writing Reading Penguin. York: A Hume. of on Bakhtinian Perspectives Composition NH: in StudentWriting. P. DiscourseCommunity.'AllWritingIs AutobiograFromMoreto Shakespeare.David. System: Is Sex to GenderAs NatureIs to Science?" Hypatia2. Holquist Ed. Austin:U of 42. Knoeller. Years Emerson. "JudgingWriting.Michael.Albany: 1994. University. Auckland: Arnold. Brostrom.Clifford."TheGender/Science PrincetonUP. New Ed.ThePerformance Self Newkirk. Joseph. Voicing to Cultural Fox. cation42. of Caryl.TheScarletLetter: Qualley. Treatise HumanNature of 1986.Simon. Urbana. Donald. StateU of New aboutBooks. SelfStephen.McGee. 425-45.Judging Kinneavy." Composition Commu. College English DonnaJ.ix-xxiii. Bakhtin. NCTE. Renaissance Greenblatt.Thomas..1987):158-70. Medvedev. Ed.and notes by New IntroductoryReader."Onthe VeryIdeaof a LateEssays. & Introduction.M.EnglewoodCliffs. Bakhtin. Description: Reader: Morris.1971. ix-xlix.NJ:PrenticeHall. Austin:U of TexasP. Or.1975. SouthernIllinoisUP. NJ: Keller. York: Winston. Macmillan." New York: Notes by ThomasE. College nication40. and MichaelHolquist.Lester. Book1.C. Princeton.1990.ed.Helen. Frank Turner." College Emersonand Holquist. Pedagogy Possibility: Thomas. Supplement 1995.1978. M. EarlyPhilosophical EssaysbyM.Kenneth Liapunov. Murray. New & Introduction. Theory Discourse. by in 'Both/And' Pedagogy Perspectives.1994.1 (Feb. "Thick Toward Geertz.Ed. of and Selves. York: trans. TheBakhtin The an Interpretive Theoryof Culture. andAnswerability: Art Holt. Patricia Sullivan 86 . A James. VernW. and Voloshinov.TheFirstHundred Mikhail Bakhtin.1996. Trans. of Writing. A. A Halasek. of Ed. Studies. Routledge. Ed.RolesforWriters Readers: A Rhetorical New Anthology.3-30. of Interpretation Culture. of Once: Development Romance.1991):66-74.1980. Self:RolandBarthesandWilliamColes" Haven: YaleUP.M. and Dodds.1962.1997. 1991): Faigley. of Kay.
U Naipaul. Rodriguez.3 (Fall 1994): 1-18. Richard. Said. Berlin: Monton du Gruyter. and Play. 1989. 1991." Ed. John Mathews. Mikhail Bakhtin: The Trans. 1997.TheEloquent Styleand Prose. IL:NCTE.Amherst: of Massachusetts P. Selfin Seventeenth-Century Madison: U of Wisconsin P. Lee and Greg Urban. New York:SUNY P. She has recently completed another postgraduate degree program in the liberal arts. and Society. "The 'I' of Discourse." Boundary 2 21. Reflection in the Writing Classroom..S. 1968. 1981.Wlad DialogicalPrinciple. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P. Kumamoto Chikako D.Liminality.25-42.Kathleen Blake. Qualley. Illinois. "I" Webber. 1992.. Joan. a notion that she likes to revive and foreground in teaching her two-year college students. 87 . Paris: francaisesurla diversite Editions du Seuil. Kumamoto is a professor of English at the College of DuPage. The genesis of this article is her 1997 CCCCpresentation. 1994. Turns Thoughts: Teaching of As Inquiry. 27-51. Greg. where she teaches literature and writing. Composition Reflexive Portsmouth. . and Freedom: The Potentate and the Traveler." La . "The Purpose of Writing. theMargins: Artof Exilein V. 1984. NH: Boynton/Cook (Heinemann). Logan: Utah State UP. Trans. Nouset les autres: reflexion humanine. Sartre. Hunger of Memory. 1997. Spariosu. Urbana. Benjamin Self. 1974. Boston: David Godine. theStudyof Literature. Yancey. and Between Existentialism Marxism.Tzvetan. Urban.Jean-Paul. Godzich. "Identity. Chikako D. The Wreath of Wild Olive: On The Weiss.Authority.Timothy. 1998. New York: Pantheon Books. Todorov. Semiotics. Edward W.KUMAMOTO / BAKHTIN'S OTHERS AND WRITING and DonnaJ. Mihai I.