Investigate Transients in R-L-C

Circuits
Electrical and Electronic Principles
By Brendan Burr
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................... 2
TASK 1 ................................................................................ 4
1.1 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series
R-C circuit, the switch is closed at t = 0 secs. ....................... 4
(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied
signal transformed into the S domain after the switch is
closed. ................................................................................ 4
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 4
(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the capacitor
(s) in the S domain. ............................................................. 5
(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for
the voltage across the capacitor in the time domain . ............ 6
(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of and identify
the transient part. ............................................................... 7
1.2 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series
R-L circuit , the switch is closed at t = 0 secs. ...................... 8
(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied
signal transformed into the S domain after the switch is
closed. ................................................................................ 8
(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the inductor .
.......................................................................................... 9
(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for
the voltage across the inductor in the time domain. ........... 10
(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of and identify
the transient part. ............................................................. 11
TASK 2 .............................................................................. 12
2.1 In the following circuit the initial voltage on the capacitor
is 0 V. .............................................................................. 12
The switch is closed at t = 0 sec ......................................... 12
(a) Draw a well-labelled diagram of the circuit transformed
into the S-domain after the switch is closed. ....................... 12
(b) Derive an expression for the current I(s). ...................... 13
2
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(c) Derive an expression for the voltage across the resistor 14
2.2 Determine the conditional values of R for which the
output response will be:- ................................................... 15
(a) Critically Damped ......................................................... 15
(b) Over Damped ............................................................. 15
(c) Under Damped ............................................................ 15
(d) Undamped ................................................................... 15
2.3 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.1 using Croc Clips or
Multisim and obtain a printout of the waveforms for the
following voltages :- .......................................................... 16
(a) Voltage across the resistor ........................................ 16
(b) Voltage across the capacitor ........................................ 16
2.4 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.2 using Croc Clips or
Multisim and obtain a printout of the waveforms for the
following voltages :- .......................................................... 17
(a) Voltage across the resistor ........................................ 17
(b) Voltage across the inductor ......................................... 17
2.5 Simulate the circuit in Task 2 Q 2.1 using Croc Clips or
Multisim for the condition R = 20 Ω .................................. 18
(a) Obtain a printout of the voltage waveform in the time
domain across the resistor. ................................................ 18
(b) Comment upon the type of waveform. ........................... 18
EVALUATION ..................................................................... 19
CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 19
Books ............................................................................... 20
Catalogues ........................................................................ 20
Websites ........................................................................... 20
3
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
TASK 1
1.1 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series R-C circuit,
the switch is closed at t = 0 secs.
V = 10 Volts
R = 1k Ω
C = 1 µF
(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied signal
transformed into the S domain after the switch is closed.
Solution:-
4
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the capacitor
o
V
(s) in the S
domain.
6
3
10
1
10
1

×
+ ·
+ ·
s
Z
sC
R Z
Using Ohms Law:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1 10 10
10
10
10
1
10
1
10
10
1
10
1
10
10
:
10
1 1
:
10
1
10
10
3 6
6
6
3
6
6
3
6
6
3
+ × ×
·
× ×
,
_

¸
¸
×
+
×
·
×
×

,
_

¸
¸
×
+
·
×
× · × ·
×
+
· ∴
·







s s
s V
s
s
s
s V
s
s
s
s V
So
s
I
sC
I s V
However
s
s
s I
Z
V
s I
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
IN
( )
( ) 1 001 . 0
10
+ ×
·
s s
s V
OUT Volts
5
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for the voltage
across the capacitor in the time domain
( ) t v
o
.
Using tables of Inverse Laplace Transforms we get:
( )
( )
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+ ×
·

1 001 . 0
10
1
s s
L t V
OUT
Multiplying both sides by
000 , 1
000 , 1
, gives:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+
× ·
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+
·
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
× + ×
×
· ×



000 , 1
000 , 1
10
000 , 1
000 , 10
000 , 1 1 001 . 0
000 , 1 10
000 , 1
000 , 1
1
1
1
s s
L t V
s s
L t V
s s
L t V
OUT
OUT
OUT
( )
( )
( )
τ α
α
α
× −
− ·
+
·
e t f
s s
s F
1
( ) ( )
τ 000 , 1
1 10

− · e t V
OUT
Volts
6
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of
( ) t v
o
and identify the
transient part.
Seconds
CR
001 . 0
000 , 1 10
6
·
× ·
·

τ
τ
τ
The red coloured shaded area is known as the Transient State,
everything to the right of it is known as the Steady State.
7
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
1.2 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series R-L circuit ,
the switch is closed at t = 0 secs.
V = 10 v DC
R = 10 Ω
L = 10 mH
(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied signal
transformed into the S domain after the switch is closed.
8
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the inductor
( ) s V
o
.
( )
2
10 10

× + ·
+ ·
s Z
sL R Z
Using Ohms Law:
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) L s R
L
s V
L s R
L s
s
s V
L s
L s R
s
s V So
s I sL I s V
However
L s R
s
s I
Z
V
s I
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
IN
× +
·
× +
× ×
·
× ×

,
_

¸
¸
× +
·
× × · × ·
× +
· ∴
·

10
10
10
:
10
:
10
2
Divide both sides by
L
L
, giving:
( )
( )
L
R
s
s V
L
L
s
L
R
L
L
s V
OUT
OUT
+
·
+
·
10
10
Entering values, gives:
( )
2
10
10
10

+
·
s
s V
OUT
( )
000 , 1
10
+
·
s
s V
OUT Volts
9
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for the voltage
across the inductor
( ) t v
o
in the time domain.
Using tables of Inverse Laplace Transforms we get:
( )
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+
·

000 , 1
10
1
s
L t V
OUT
( )
( )
τ α
α
× −
·
+
·
e t f
s
s F
1
( )
τ 000 , 1
10

× · e t V
OUT
Volts
10
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of
( ) t v
o
and identify the
transient part.
Seconds
R
L
001 . 0
10
10
2
·
·
·

τ
τ
τ
The red coloured shaded area is known as the Transient State,
everything to the right of it is known as the Steady State.
11
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
TASK 2
2.1 In the following circuit the initial voltage on the capacitor is 0 V.
The switch is closed at t = 0 sec
L = 1 mH
C = 10 µF
V = 1 volt
(a) Draw a well-labelled diagram of the circuit transformed into the S-
domain after the switch is closed.
12
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(b) Derive an expression for the current I(s).
R sL
sC
Z + + ·
1
Using Ohms Law:
( )
( )
R sL
sC
s
s I
Z
V
s I
IN
+ +
· ∴
·
1
1
Multiplying both sides by
s
s
, gives:
( )
( )
sR L s
C
s I
sR sLs
sC
s
s
s
s I
+ +
·
+ +
×
×
·
2
1
1
1
1
Entering values, gives:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) R s s
s I
× + × × +
×
·


3 2
6
10 1
10 10
1
1
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
5 3
10 10
1
+ + ×
·

sR s
s I
Amps
13
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
(c) Derive an expression for the voltage across the resistor ( ) s V
r
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
R
sR s
s V
R I s V
r
r
×
+ + ×
· ∴
× ·
− 5 3
10 10
1
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
5 3
10 10 + + ×
·

sR s
R
s V
r Volts
14
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
2.2 Determine the conditional values of R for which the output response will
be:-
(a) Critically Damped
5
3
10
10
4
4


·
·
R
C
L
R
Ω ·20 R
(b) Over Damped
When
Ω ≥20 R
or when Ω ≥
C
L
R 4 .
(c) Under Damped
When
Ω ≤20 R
or when Ω ≤
C
L
R 4 .
(d) Undamped
When
Ω ·0 R
.
15
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
2.3 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.1 using Croc Clips or Multisim and
obtain a printout of the waveforms for the following voltages :-
(a) Voltage across the resistor ( ) t v
R
See Task 2.3b Graph (Pink Waveform)
(b) Voltage across the capacitor
( ) t v
o
See Graph (Red Waveform)
16
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
2.4 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.2 using Croc Clips or Multisim and
obtain a printout of the waveforms for the following voltages :-
(a) Voltage across the resistor ( ) t v
R
See Task 2.4b Graph (Pink Waveform)
(b) Voltage across the inductor
( ) t v
o
See Graph (Red Waveform)
17
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
2.5 Simulate the circuit in Task 2 Q 2.1 using Croc Clips or Multisim for
the condition R = 20 Ω
(a) Obtain a printout of the voltage waveform in the time domain
( ) t v
r
across the resistor.
(b) Comment upon the type of waveform.
This waveform is Critical Damping heading towards 0 Volts. This
confirms my calculation of 20 Ohms in Task 2.2a to be correct, as the
conditional value of R for my Vout response was 20 Ohms.
18
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
Evaluation
I managed to get this assignment completed within a day, which was very
useful as it enabled me to concentrate on other assignments.
For Task 1, I was asked to use Laplace Transforms to analyse the transients
in networks. Firstly I had to make a circuit diagram which represented the
components at 0Volts, i.e. at the point when the switch was closed. This was
made easy from the explanation given to us in class, and the use of existing
knowledge from RLC related assignments in the past. Deriving an expression
for Vout across the Capacitor and Inductor was simple a case of transposition
and using Ohms Law.
For Task 1.1 and 1.2 c, I could put the equation I worked out for Vout in the S
domain and easily convert it to Vout in the Time Domain.
Using Graphmatica to illustrate the waveform was straightforward, and this
actually proved as a general check for Tasks 2.3 and 2.4. The Transient Part
is the part that is moving, i.e. in transit, the Steady State is the bit that is in the
operating voltage, which is the usual working condition of the circuit.
I had to do a similar thing for Task 2.1, where I created a circuit diagram of the
circuit in the S Domain, derived and expression for current through and
voltage across the resistor.
Task 2.2 was a simple calculation of the conditional values of the resistor. I
was able to understand this from the work I had done in second Science
assignment, with regards to mechanical damping as it is a very similar
principle in the electrical damping.
Task 2.3 and 2.4 were simulation checks of Task 1.1 and 1.2. These showed
that the equations I worked out and entered into Graphmatica were correct as
the waveform produced from them was identical to those in the simulation.
I then also had to simulate Task 2.1 with a known value for the resistor. This
value happened to be the same value as I received for Task 2.2a, so I knew
that if I was right the waveform produced would be Critically Damped. What I
was looking for on the waveform was something that didn’t overshoot 0Volts,
but reached the peak voltage and then began an exponential decay down to
0Volts.
Conclusion
I felt I managed to complete this assignment quickly but also accurately. I
received a result immediately which is different to the start of this course when
I used to have to play around with the circuit a lot to get the results required.
This shows a definite progress in my understanding of the general working out
stages and the application of it to simulation software.
This unit as a whole has gone very well for me, and I have enjoyed working
on it throughout the year.
19
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits
Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and
websites I was able to complete this assignment:
Books
N/A
Catalogues
N/A
Websites
N/A
20

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