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Circuits

Electrical and Electronic Principles

By Brendan Burr

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................... 2

TASK 1 ................................................................................ 4

1.1 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series

R-C circuit, the switch is closed at t = 0 secs. ....................... 4

(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied

signal transformed into the S domain after the switch is

closed. ................................................................................ 4

Solution:- ......................................................................................... 4

(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the capacitor

(s) in the S domain. ............................................................. 5

(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for

the voltage across the capacitor in the time domain . ............ 6

(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of and identify

the transient part. ............................................................... 7

1.2 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series

R-L circuit , the switch is closed at t = 0 secs. ...................... 8

(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied

signal transformed into the S domain after the switch is

closed. ................................................................................ 8

(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the inductor .

.......................................................................................... 9

(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for

the voltage across the inductor in the time domain. ........... 10

(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of and identify

the transient part. ............................................................. 11

TASK 2 .............................................................................. 12

2.1 In the following circuit the initial voltage on the capacitor

is 0 V. .............................................................................. 12

The switch is closed at t = 0 sec ......................................... 12

(a) Draw a well-labelled diagram of the circuit transformed

into the S-domain after the switch is closed. ....................... 12

(b) Derive an expression for the current I(s). ...................... 13

2

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(c) Derive an expression for the voltage across the resistor 14

2.2 Determine the conditional values of R for which the

output response will be:- ................................................... 15

(a) Critically Damped ......................................................... 15

(b) Over Damped ............................................................. 15

(c) Under Damped ............................................................ 15

(d) Undamped ................................................................... 15

2.3 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.1 using Croc Clips or

Multisim and obtain a printout of the waveforms for the

following voltages :- .......................................................... 16

(a) Voltage across the resistor ........................................ 16

(b) Voltage across the capacitor ........................................ 16

2.4 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.2 using Croc Clips or

Multisim and obtain a printout of the waveforms for the

following voltages :- .......................................................... 17

(a) Voltage across the resistor ........................................ 17

(b) Voltage across the inductor ......................................... 17

2.5 Simulate the circuit in Task 2 Q 2.1 using Croc Clips or

Multisim for the condition R = 20 Ω .................................. 18

(a) Obtain a printout of the voltage waveform in the time

domain across the resistor. ................................................ 18

(b) Comment upon the type of waveform. ........................... 18

EVALUATION ..................................................................... 19

CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 19

Books ............................................................................... 20

Catalogues ........................................................................ 20

Websites ........................................................................... 20

3

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

TASK 1

1.1 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series R-C circuit,

the switch is closed at t = 0 secs.

V = 10 Volts

R = 1k Ω

C = 1 µF

(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied signal

transformed into the S domain after the switch is closed.

Solution:-

4

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the capacitor

o

V

(s) in the S

domain.

6

3

10

1

10

1

−

×

+ ·

+ ·

s

Z

sC

R Z

Using Ohms Law:

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 1 10 10

10

10

10

1

10

1

10

10

1

10

1

10

10

:

10

1 1

:

10

1

10

10

3 6

6

6

3

6

6

3

6

6

3

+ × ×

·

× ×

,

_

¸

¸

×

+

×

·

×

×

,

_

¸

¸

×

+

·

×

× · × ·

×

+

· ∴

·

−

−

−

−

−

−

−

s s

s V

s

s

s

s V

s

s

s

s V

So

s

I

sC

I s V

However

s

s

s I

Z

V

s I

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

IN

( )

( ) 1 001 . 0

10

+ ×

·

s s

s V

OUT Volts

5

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for the voltage

across the capacitor in the time domain

( ) t v

o

.

Using tables of Inverse Laplace Transforms we get:

( )

( )

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

+ ×

·

−

1 001 . 0

10

1

s s

L t V

OUT

Multiplying both sides by

000 , 1

000 , 1

, gives:

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

+

× ·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

+

·

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

× + ×

×

· ×

−

−

−

000 , 1

000 , 1

10

000 , 1

000 , 10

000 , 1 1 001 . 0

000 , 1 10

000 , 1

000 , 1

1

1

1

s s

L t V

s s

L t V

s s

L t V

OUT

OUT

OUT

( )

( )

( )

τ α

α

α

× −

− ·

+

·

e t f

s s

s F

1

( ) ( )

τ 000 , 1

1 10

−

− · e t V

OUT

Volts

6

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of

( ) t v

o

and identify the

transient part.

Seconds

CR

001 . 0

000 , 1 10

6

·

× ·

·

−

τ

τ

τ

The red coloured shaded area is known as the Transient State,

everything to the right of it is known as the Steady State.

7

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

1.2 Assuming initial conditions are zero in the following series R-L circuit ,

the switch is closed at t = 0 secs.

V = 10 v DC

R = 10 Ω

L = 10 mH

(a) Draw a well labelled diagram of the circuit and the applied signal

transformed into the S domain after the switch is closed.

8

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(b) Derive an expression for the voltage across the inductor

( ) s V

o

.

( )

2

10 10

−

× + ·

+ ·

s Z

sL R Z

Using Ohms Law:

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( ) L s R

L

s V

L s R

L s

s

s V

L s

L s R

s

s V So

s I sL I s V

However

L s R

s

s I

Z

V

s I

OUT

OUT

OUT

OUT

IN

× +

·

× +

× ×

·

× ×

,

_

¸

¸

× +

·

× × · × ·

× +

· ∴

·

−

10

10

10

:

10

:

10

2

Divide both sides by

L

L

, giving:

( )

( )

L

R

s

s V

L

L

s

L

R

L

L

s V

OUT

OUT

+

·

+

·

10

10

Entering values, gives:

( )

2

10

10

10

−

+

·

s

s V

OUT

( )

000 , 1

10

+

·

s

s V

OUT Volts

9

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(c) Using Inverse Laplace Transforms derive an expression for the voltage

across the inductor

( ) t v

o

in the time domain.

Using tables of Inverse Laplace Transforms we get:

( )

¹

;

¹

¹

'

¹

+

·

−

000 , 1

10

1

s

L t V

OUT

( )

( )

τ α

α

× −

·

+

·

e t f

s

s F

1

( )

τ 000 , 1

10

−

× · e t V

OUT

Volts

10

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(d) Using Graphmatica draw the waveform of

( ) t v

o

and identify the

transient part.

Seconds

R

L

001 . 0

10

10

2

·

·

·

−

τ

τ

τ

The red coloured shaded area is known as the Transient State,

everything to the right of it is known as the Steady State.

11

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

TASK 2

2.1 In the following circuit the initial voltage on the capacitor is 0 V.

The switch is closed at t = 0 sec

L = 1 mH

C = 10 µF

V = 1 volt

(a) Draw a well-labelled diagram of the circuit transformed into the S-

domain after the switch is closed.

12

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(b) Derive an expression for the current I(s).

R sL

sC

Z + + ·

1

Using Ohms Law:

( )

( )

R sL

sC

s

s I

Z

V

s I

IN

+ +

· ∴

·

1

1

Multiplying both sides by

s

s

, gives:

( )

( )

sR L s

C

s I

sR sLs

sC

s

s

s

s I

+ +

·

+ +

×

×

·

2

1

1

1

1

Entering values, gives:

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) R s s

s I

× + × × +

×

·

−

−

3 2

6

10 1

10 10

1

1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3

10 10

1

+ + ×

·

−

sR s

s I

Amps

13

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

(c) Derive an expression for the voltage across the resistor ( ) s V

r

( )

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

R

sR s

s V

R I s V

r

r

×

+ + ×

· ∴

× ·

− 5 3

10 10

1

( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3

10 10 + + ×

·

−

sR s

R

s V

r Volts

14

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

2.2 Determine the conditional values of R for which the output response will

be:-

(a) Critically Damped

5

3

10

10

4

4

−

−

·

·

R

C

L

R

Ω ·20 R

(b) Over Damped

When

Ω ≥20 R

or when Ω ≥

C

L

R 4 .

(c) Under Damped

When

Ω ≤20 R

or when Ω ≤

C

L

R 4 .

(d) Undamped

When

Ω ·0 R

.

15

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

2.3 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.1 using Croc Clips or Multisim and

obtain a printout of the waveforms for the following voltages :-

(a) Voltage across the resistor ( ) t v

R

See Task 2.3b Graph (Pink Waveform)

(b) Voltage across the capacitor

( ) t v

o

See Graph (Red Waveform)

16

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

2.4 Simulate the circuit in Task 1 Q 1.2 using Croc Clips or Multisim and

obtain a printout of the waveforms for the following voltages :-

(a) Voltage across the resistor ( ) t v

R

See Task 2.4b Graph (Pink Waveform)

(b) Voltage across the inductor

( ) t v

o

See Graph (Red Waveform)

17

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

2.5 Simulate the circuit in Task 2 Q 2.1 using Croc Clips or Multisim for

the condition R = 20 Ω

(a) Obtain a printout of the voltage waveform in the time domain

( ) t v

r

across the resistor.

(b) Comment upon the type of waveform.

This waveform is Critical Damping heading towards 0 Volts. This

confirms my calculation of 20 Ohms in Task 2.2a to be correct, as the

conditional value of R for my Vout response was 20 Ohms.

18

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

Evaluation

I managed to get this assignment completed within a day, which was very

useful as it enabled me to concentrate on other assignments.

For Task 1, I was asked to use Laplace Transforms to analyse the transients

in networks. Firstly I had to make a circuit diagram which represented the

components at 0Volts, i.e. at the point when the switch was closed. This was

made easy from the explanation given to us in class, and the use of existing

knowledge from RLC related assignments in the past. Deriving an expression

for Vout across the Capacitor and Inductor was simple a case of transposition

and using Ohms Law.

For Task 1.1 and 1.2 c, I could put the equation I worked out for Vout in the S

domain and easily convert it to Vout in the Time Domain.

Using Graphmatica to illustrate the waveform was straightforward, and this

actually proved as a general check for Tasks 2.3 and 2.4. The Transient Part

is the part that is moving, i.e. in transit, the Steady State is the bit that is in the

operating voltage, which is the usual working condition of the circuit.

I had to do a similar thing for Task 2.1, where I created a circuit diagram of the

circuit in the S Domain, derived and expression for current through and

voltage across the resistor.

Task 2.2 was a simple calculation of the conditional values of the resistor. I

was able to understand this from the work I had done in second Science

assignment, with regards to mechanical damping as it is a very similar

principle in the electrical damping.

Task 2.3 and 2.4 were simulation checks of Task 1.1 and 1.2. These showed

that the equations I worked out and entered into Graphmatica were correct as

the waveform produced from them was identical to those in the simulation.

I then also had to simulate Task 2.1 with a known value for the resistor. This

value happened to be the same value as I received for Task 2.2a, so I knew

that if I was right the waveform produced would be Critically Damped. What I

was looking for on the waveform was something that didn’t overshoot 0Volts,

but reached the peak voltage and then began an exponential decay down to

0Volts.

Conclusion

I felt I managed to complete this assignment quickly but also accurately. I

received a result immediately which is different to the start of this course when

I used to have to play around with the circuit a lot to get the results required.

This shows a definite progress in my understanding of the general working out

stages and the application of it to simulation software.

This unit as a whole has gone very well for me, and I have enjoyed working

on it throughout the year.

19

Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics

Investigate Transients in R-L-C Circuits

Bibliography

Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and

websites I was able to complete this assignment:

Books

N/A

Catalogues

N/A

Websites

N/A

20

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