# Use Analytical Techniques to

Form Models of Engineering
Systems & Processes
Control Systems and Automation
By Brendan Burr
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.1(a) Define two types of control systems and give at least 2
examples of each type. ........................................................ 6
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 6
1.1(b) Draw a well labelled diagram showing the basic
elements of a closed loop control system. ............................ 7
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 7
1.2(a) Derive from first principles the general feedback
equation for a simple closed loop control system in canonical
form. .................................................................................. 8
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 8
1.2(b) Modify the transfer function for unity negative
feedback. ............................................................................ 9
Solution:- ......................................................................................... 9
1.3(a) Using block diagram algebra reduce the multi-loop
control system shown in Fig.1 to a single loop diagram. ...... 10
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 10
1.3(b) Hence determine the closed loop transfer function of
the system. ....................................................................... 13
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 13
1.4 Determine the overall transfer function of the following
system in Fig 2 :- ............................................................... 14
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 14
1.5 The following Fig 3. represents a multi-input system :- . . 15
Determine an expression for the single transfer function for
the resultant output C. ...................................................... 15
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 15
2.1(a) State the s-plane stability criterion. ......................... 17
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 17
2.1(b) Show the location of the poles and zeroes on an S-
plane diagram for the following transfer function. ............... 18
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 18
2
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.1(c) Apply the S plane stability criterion to determine
whether the system is stable or unstable. ........................... 18
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 18
2.2 Plot the P-Z diagram corresponding to the following
transfer functions. In each case state whether the
corresponding system is stable or unstable. ....................... 19
2.2(a) ............................................................................ 19
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 19
2.2(b) ............................................................................. 20
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 20
2.2(c) ............................................................................ 21
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 21
2.2(d) ............................................................................. 22
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 22
2.3 State the Nyquist stability criterion for an Open Loop
System. ............................................................................ 23
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 23
2.4. A control system is characterised by the open loop
transfer function:- ............................................................. 24
...................................................................................... 24
Plot the Nyquist diagram for the system using values of w as
follows:- ............................................................................ 24
2.4(a) Determine the gain and phase margins using the
Nyquist Plot. ..................................................................... 24
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 24
2.4(b) Comment upon the relative closed-loop stability of this
system. ............................................................................. 24
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 24
2.5 The open loop frequency response of a control system has
the following data obtained practically :- ............................ 26
2.5(a) Plot the Nyquist diagram. ........................................ 26
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 26
2.5(b) Determine the Gain margin in dB from the Nyquist Plot.
........................................................................................ 27
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 27
2.5(c) Determine the Phase margin from the Nyquist Plot ... 27
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 27
3
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.5(d) Comment upon the relative closed-loop stability of the
system ............................................................................. 27
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 27
2.6 Determine the value of K for a system with the following
open loop transfer function:- ............................................. 28
..................................................................................... 28
Which will give:- ................................................................ 28
2.6(a) A marginally stable system. ................................... 28
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 28
2.6(b) A gain margin of 6 dB. ............................................. 31
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 31
2.7 Determine the phase margin for a system having the
following open loot transfer function:- ................................ 32
..................................................................................... 32
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 32
2.8 A control system has the following open loop transfer
function: ........................................................................... 35
..................................................................................... 35
2.8(a) Re-arrange the transfer function in Bode form and
hence state the break point. .............................................. 35
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 35
2.8(b) Draw Bode Plots for the Log Modulus and Phase Angle
using asymptotic approximation. ....................................... 36
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 36
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 38
3.1 Explain what is meant by Compensation in a control
system ............................................................................. 39
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 39
3.2 State 2 types of compensation techniques commonly
used. ................................................................................ 39
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 39
3.3 Compare and discuss their relative merits .................... 39
Solution:- ....................................................................................... 39
EVALUATION ..................................................................... 42
4
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
CONCLUSION ..................................................................... 42
Books ............................................................................... 43
Catalogues ........................................................................ 43
Websites ........................................................................... 43
5
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.1(a) Define two types of control systems and give at least 2 examples of
each type.
Solution:-
Open Loop Control System –
An electric fire system:
Irrigation Sprinkler:
Closed Loop Control System –
An electric fire system with thermostat:
6
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.1(b) Draw a well labelled diagram showing the basic elements of a closed
loop control system.
Solution:-
7
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.2(a) Derive from first principles the general feedback equation for a simple
closed loop control system in canonical form.
Solution:-
Definition:
G = Forward Transfer Function
H = Feedback Transfer Function
G . H = Loop Transfer Function
B R E
H C B
and
E G C
C
B
H
E
C
G
t ·
·
· ∴
·
·
.
.
So:
( )
( )
H C G R G C
H C R G C
B R G C
. . .
.
t ·
t · ∴
t ·
Signs Switch
R G H G C C . . . 1 . · 
Factorise
( ) G R H G C . . 1 · 
H G
G
R
C
. 1
·
8
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.2(b) Modify the transfer function for unity negative feedback.
Solution:-
B R E
C B
and
E G C
C B
E
C
G
− ·
·
· ∴
·
·
.
So:
( )
( )
C G R G C
C R G C
B R G C
. . − ·
− · ∴
− ·
Signs Switch
R G G C C . . 1 . · +
Factorise
( ) G R G C . 1 · +
G
G
R
C
+
·
1
Unity Negative Feedback
9
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Control Systems and Automation
1.3(a) Using block diagram algebra reduce the multi-loop control system
shown in Fig.1 to a single loop diagram.
Solution:-
Step 1:
G3
G2
+
+
Merging gives:
G2+G3
Step 2:
H1 H2
Merging gives:
H1xH2
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Control Systems and Automation
Step 3:
G2+G3
H1xH2
-
+
Merging gives:
G2+G3
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)
Therefore:
-
+ G1
G2+G3
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)
+
+ G4
R
C
Step 4:
G1
G2+G3
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)
Merging gives:
G1x(G2+G3)
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)
11
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Control Systems and Automation
Step 5:
+
+ G4
Merging gives:
G4
1-G4
Step 6:
G1x(G2+G3)
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)
G4
1-G4
Merging gives:
G1x(G2+G3)xG4
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)x(1-G4)
Step 8:
G1x(G2+G3)xG4
1+(G2+G3)x(H1xH2)x(1-G4) -
+
C
R
12
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.3(b) Hence determine the closed loop transfer function of the system.
Solution:-
( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

,
_

¸
¸
− × + +
+
+
− × + +
+
·
4 1 2 1 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
1
4 1 2 1 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
'
G H H G G
G G G G
G H H G G
G G G G
G
( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 4 3 2 1 4 1 2 1 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
'
G G G G G H H G G
G G G G
G
+ + − × + +
+
·
13
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.4 Determine the overall transfer function of the following system in Fig 2 :-
Fig 2
Solution:-
-
+ 10
C
2
S-1
1
S+1
R
Step 1:
10
2
S-1
Merging gives:
20
S-1
Step 2:
( )
( ) ( ) 20 1 1
1 20
'
1
1
1
20
1
1
20
'
+ + −
+
·

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸

+

·
s s
s
G
s s
s
G
( )
19
1 20
'
2
+
+
·
s
s
G
14
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
1.5 The following Fig 3. represents a multi-input system :-
Fig 3.
Determine an expression for the single transfer function for the resultant
output C.
Solution:-
Step 1:
Initially u equal zero.
Therefore:
-
+
1
S
1
S+1
R
1
S+2
C
R
Step 2:
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 2
1 1
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
2
1
+ + +
+
·

,
_

¸
¸
+
+ +
·
+
×
+
+
+
·
+
· ×
+
s s s
s
R
C
s
s s
R
C
s s s
s s
R
C
s s s s
R
R
R
15
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Control Systems and Automation
( ) ( )( )
R
s s s
s
C
R
×
1
]
1

¸

+ + +
+
·
1 1 2
1
Step 3:
Now let R equal zero.
+
+
U
1
S
C
U
1
S+2
1
S+1
Merging gives:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )( ) 2 1
1
1
2 1
1 1
1
1
2 1
1
2
1
1
1
+ +

·
+ +
× −
·
+ +
·
+
×
+
s s
s
R
C
s s s
s
R
C
s s s s
U
U
( )( )
( ) ( )( )
U
s s s
s s
C
U
×
1
]
1

¸

− + +
+ +
·
1 2 1
2 1
Step 4:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
U
s s s
s s
R
s s s
s
C
C C C
U R
1
]
1

¸

− + +
+ +
+
1
]
1

¸

+ + +
+
·
+ ·
1 2 1
2 1
1 1 2
1
( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )( ) 1 2 1
2 1
1 1 2
1
− + +
+ +
+
+ + +
+
·
s s s
s s U
s s s
s R
C
16
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.1(a) State the s-plane stability criterion.
Solution:-
The S-Plane is the complex frequency plane, representing all the
values of
ω σ j s + ·
on a two dimensional diagram.
The transfer function of a linear system is in general a ratio of two
polynomial expressions, which are expressed in terms of “s” in a
factorised form.
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
N
M
P s P s P s P s
Z s Z s Z s Z s
K s G
− − − −
− − − −
·
...
...
3 2 1
3 2 1
K is a constant which represents system Gain (K>1) or system
Loss/Attenuation (K<1).
Z1, Z2, Z3…ZM are the roots of the top line called the numerator.
P1, P2, P3…PN are the roots of the bottom line called the
denominator.
A “zero” is any value of “s” which makes the numerator equal 0.
A “pole” is any value of “s” which makes the denominator equal to 0.
The S-Plane Stability Criterion states that for a system to be stable, all
its poles must lay on the left half of the S-Plane. Poles which lie on the
jw axis correspond to systems on the border line of stability.
Therefore it is said that a stable system is one which all the outputs are
under the control of the inputs.
17
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Control Systems and Automation
2.1(b) Show the location of the poles and zeroes on an S-plane diagram for
the following transfer function.
j2) + 1 + j2)(s - 1 + 2)(s + s(s
3) + 100(s
= G(s)
Solution:-
ZEROS POLES
S + 3 = 0
Therefore: S = - 3
S = 0
S + 2 = 0
Therefore: S = - 2
S + 1 – j2 = 0
Therefore: S = - 1 + j2
S + 1 + j2 = 0
Therefore: S = - 1 – j2
2.1(c) Apply the S plane stability criterion to determine whether the system is
stable or unstable.
Solution:-
The system is stable as all the poles and zeros are on or to the left of
the y axis.
18
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Control Systems and Automation
2.2 Plot the P-Z diagram corresponding to the following transfer functions. In
each case state whether the corresponding system is stable or unstable.
2.2(a)
5 - s
1
= G(s)
Solution:-
5
0 5
1
+ ·
· −
·
s
s
K
There are no Zeros and one Pole.

This system is UNSTABLE.
19
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Control Systems and Automation
2.2(b)
3 + s
1
= G(s)
Solution:-
3
0 3
1
− ·
· +
·
s
s
K
There are no Zeros and one Pole.
This system is STABLE.
20
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Control Systems and Automation
2.2(c)
3 + 4s +
s
1
= G(s)
2
Solution:-
( ) ( )
1
0 1
3
0 3
1 3 3 4
1
2
− ·
· +
− ·
· +
+ + ≡ + +
·
s
s
s
s
s s s s
K
There are no Zeros and two Poles.
This system is STABLE.
21
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Control Systems and Automation
2.2(d)
10 - 3s +
s
1
= G(s)
2
Solution:-
( ) ( )
5
0 5
2
0 2
5 2 10 3
1
2
− ·
· +
+ ·
· −
+ − ≡ − +
·
s
s
s
s
s s s s
K
There are no Zeros and two Poles.
This system is UNSTABLE.
22
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Control Systems and Automation
2.3 State the Nyquist stability criterion for an Open Loop System.
Solution:-
The Nyquist Stability Criterion is based on the Open Loop Frequency
Response.
When moving in the direction of increasing frequency (omega = w)
along the open loop frequency response curve plotted on a Nyquist
Diagram, the system is said to be stable when the point (-1,j0) is
situated on the left of the locus.
This is exampled in the following diagram, where the unstable
response curve has the (-1, j0) point on the right hand side of the locus.
The stable response curve has the (-1, j0) point on the left hand side of
the locus.
23
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Control Systems and Automation
2.4. A control system is characterised by the open loop transfer function:-
0.5s) + s)(1 + s(1
2
= G(s)
Plot the Nyquist diagram for the system using values of w as follows:-
1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5
2.4(a) Determine the gain and phase margins using the Nyquist Plot.
Solution:-
) / ( Sec RADs ω ∠ ) ( ω j ω j + 1 ω 5 . 0 1 j +
O
G θ ∠
0 . 1
O
90 1∠
O
000 . 45 414 . 1 ∠
O
565 . 26 118 . 1 ∠
O
565 . 161 265 . 1 − ∠
2 . 1
O
90 2 . 1 ∠
O
194 . 50 562 . 1 ∠
O
964 . 30 166 . 1 ∠
O
158 . 171 915 . 0 − ∠
4 . 1
O
90 4 . 1 ∠
O
462 . 54 721 . 1 ∠
O
992 . 34 221 . 1 ∠
O
454 . 179 680 . 0 − ∠
6 . 1
O
90 6 . 1 ∠
O
995 . 57 887 . 1 ∠
O
660 . 38 281 . 1 ∠
O
654 . 186 517 . 0 − ∠
8 . 1
O
90 8 . 1 ∠
O
945 . 60 059 . 2 ∠
O
987 . 41 345 . 1 ∠
O
933 . 192 401 . 0 − ∠
0 . 2
O
90 2∠
O
435 . 63 236 . 2 ∠
O
000 . 45 424 . 1 ∠
O
435 . 198 316 . 0 − ∠
5 . 2
O
90 5 . 2 ∠
O
199 . 68 693 . 2 ∠
O
340 . 51 601 . 1 ∠
O
549 . 209 186 . 0 − ∠
The Nyquist Diagram is shown on the next page.
2.4(b) Comment upon the relative closed-loop stability of this system.
Solution:-
This system is STABLE under closed loop conditions according to the
Nyquist Stability Criterion.
24
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Control Systems and Automation
25
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.5 The open loop frequency response of a control system has the following
data obtained practically :-
w (rads/sec) 20 30 40 50 60 100 1000
Gain 2.0 1.6 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2
Phase (degs) -150 -160 -170 -180 -190 -200 -220
2.5(a) Plot the Nyquist diagram.
Solution:-
26
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Control Systems and Automation
2.5(b) Determine the Gain margin in dB from the Nyquist Plot.
Solution:-
s dB
G
LOG GM '
1
20

,
_

¸
¸
·
s dB LOG GM '
8 . 0
1
20
,
_

¸
¸
·
s dB GM ' 93820026 . 1 ·
s dB GM ' 2 ≈
2.5(c) Determine the Phase margin from the Nyquist Plot
Solution:-
Phase Margin = 180 – Phase Angle
When 40 · ω the Phase Angle
O
170 − · , therefore:
O O O
10 170 180 · −
O
PM 10 ·
2.5(d) Comment upon the relative closed-loop stability of the system
Solution:-
This system is STABLE under closed loop conditions according to the
Nyquist Stability Criterion.
27
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Control Systems and Automation
2.6 Determine the value of K for a system with the following open loop
transfer function:-
1) + 1).(3s + s.(2s
K
= G(s)
Which will give:-
2.6(a) A marginally stable system.
Solution:-
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
6 1 5
5 6 1
5 6 1
5 6 1
6 5 1
6 2 3 1
3 1 2 1
1 3 1 2
1 3 1 2
ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
− + −
·
− −
·
+ −
·
+ −
·
− +
·
+ + +
·
+ +
·
+ +
·
+ +
·
jw
K
j G
j
K
j G
j j
K
j G
j j
K
j G
j j
K
j G
j j j j
K
j G
j j j
K
j G
j j j
K
j G
s s s
K
s G
( )
jb a
K
j G
+ −
ω
( )
2
2
6 1
5
ω ω
ω
− ·
·
b
a
28
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Control Systems and Automation
(i) Magnitude or Modulus:
( )
2 2
b a
K
j G
+
· ω
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 4
2
2
2
2
6 1 25
6 1 5
ω ω ω
ω
ω ω ω
ω
− +
·
− + −
·
K
j G
K
j G
(ii) Phase Angle:
( )
a
b
TAN j G ARG
1
_

− · ω
( )
( )
( )
( )
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω ω
ω
5
6 1
_
5
6 1
_
2
1
2
2
1

·

− ·

TAN j G ARG
TAN j G ARG
A marginally stable system has a magnitude of 1 and a phase angle of
+ 180 degrees or pi radians.
( )
( )
( ) 0 180
0 180
0 0
· −
·
·
O
O
O
TAN
TAN
TAN
So:
6
1
6
1
1 6
1 6
0 6 1
2
2
2
2
·
·
·
− · −
· −
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
408 . 0 · ω
29
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Control Systems and Automation
Substituting the value of
ω
into
( ) 1 · ω j G
.
8333333335 . 0
8333333335 . 0
1
25
1
4
·
·
·
K
K
K
ω
833 . 0 · K
30
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.6(b) A gain margin of 6 dB.
Solution:-
( )
417650281 . 0
10 8333333335 . 0
20
6
8333333335 . 0
8333333335 . 0 20
6
8333333335 . 0
20 6
20
20
6
·
× ·

,
_

¸
¸ −
− ·
− ·
− ·
− ·

K
K
LOG ANTILOG
K
K
LOG
K
LOG
j G LOG GM ω
418 . 0 · K
31
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Control Systems and Automation
2.7 Determine the phase margin for a system having the following open loot
transfer function:-
1) + s.(s
2
= G(s)
Solution:-
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
ω ω
ω
ω ω
ω
j
j G
j j
j G
s s
s G
+ −
·
+
·
+
·
2
2
1
2
1
2
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 4
2
2
2
2
2
ω ω
ω
ω ω
ω
+
·
+ −
·
j G
j
j G
( )
2 2
b a
K
j G
+
· ω
ω
ω
·
− ·
·
b
a
K
2
2
( )
a
b
TAN j G ARG
1
_

− · ω
( )
( )
ω
ω
ω
ω
ω
1
_
_
1
2
1

·

− ·
TAN j G ARG
TAN j G ARG
32
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2 4
2
1
ω ω +
·
Square Both Sides
4 0
4
1 1
4
1
4
1
4
1
2 4
2 4
2 4
2 4
2 4
− + ·
+ ·
+
·
+
·
+
·
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
ω ω
x ·
2
ω
0 4 1 1
0
2
2
· − +
· + +
x x
c bx ax
4
1
1
− ·
·
·
c
b
a
2
17 1
2
16 1 1
1 2
4 1 4 1
2
t −
·
+ t −
·
×
− × × − t −
·
x
x
b
x
561552813 . 1
2
17 1
·
+ −
·
x
x
561552813 . 2
2
17 1
− ·
− −
·
x
x
249621068 . 1
561552813 . 1
561552813 . 1
2
·
·
· ·
ω
ω
ω x
25 . 1 · ω
33
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
Phase Angle:
( )
( )
O
j G ARG
TAN j G ARG
66828249 . 38 _
249621068 . 1
1
_
1
·

,
_

¸
¸
·

ω
ω
Phase Margin:
O
PM 7 . 38 ·
34
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.8 A control system has the following open loop transfer function:
0.1s) + s)(1 + (1
1
= G(s)
2.8(a) Re-arrange the transfer function in Bode form and hence state the
break point.
Solution:-
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ω ω
ω
ω
1 . 0 1 1
1
1 . 0 1 1
1
j j
j G
j s
s s
s G
+ +
·

·
+ +
·
The elements within this transfer function are:
i)
ω j + 1
1
ii)
ω 1 . 0 1
1
j +
The break points for each are as follows:
i)
s dB LOG
j
' 3
2
1
20
2
1
1
1
1
1
2 2
− ·
,
_

¸
¸
·
+
·
+
ω
ω
So
1 · ω
at the -3dB point (Break Point)
ii)
10
1 . 0
1
1 . 0 1
1 . 0 1
1
·
·
·
+
ω
ω
ω
ω j
So
10 · ω
at the -3dB point (Break Point)
35
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.8(b) Draw Bode Plots for the Log Modulus and Phase Angle using
asymptotic approximation.
Solution:-
Log Modulus:
ω
LM LOG · + −
2 2
1 20 ω
(dB’s)
( ) LM LOG · + −
2 2
1 . 0 1 20 ω
(dB’s)
1
3 1 1 20
2 2
− · + − LOG
( ) 0 1 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
≈ × + − LOG
01 . 0 1 . 0 ∴ << ω
0 01 . 0 1 20
2 2
≈ + − LOG ( ) 0 01 . 0 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
≈ × + − LOG
1 . 0
0 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
≈ + − LOG ( ) 0 1 . 0 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
≈ × + − LOG
10 1 . 0 ∴ >> ω
20 10 1 20
2 2
− ≈ + − LOG ( ) 3 10 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
− · × + − LOG
100
40 100 1 20
2 2
− ≈ + − LOG ( ) 20 100 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
− ≈ × + − LOG
000 , 1 60 000 , 1 1 20
2 2
− ≈ + − LOG ( ) 40 000 , 1 1 . 0 1 20
2 2
− ≈ × + − LOG
Phase Angle:
ω
ω j +

1
1
(Degrees)
ω 1 . 0 1
1
j +

(Degrees)
1 ( ) 45 1
1
− · −

TAN ( ) 0 1 1 . 0
1
≈ × −

TAN
01 . 0 1 . 0 ∴ << ω ( ) 0 01 . 0
1
≈ −

TAN ( ) 0 01 . 0 1 . 0
1
≈ × −

TAN
1 . 0 ( ) 0 1 . 0
1
≈ −

TAN ( ) 0 1 . 0 1 . 0
1
≈ × −

TAN
10 1 . 0 ∴ >> ω ( ) 90 10
1
− ≈ −

TAN ( ) 45 10 1 . 0
1
− · × −

TAN
100 ( ) 90 100
1
− ≈ −

TAN ( ) 90 100 1 . 0
1
− ≈ × −

TAN
000 , 1
( ) 90 000 , 1
1
− ≈ −

TAN ( ) 90 000 , 1 1 . 0
1
− ≈ × −

TAN
36
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
37
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
2.8(c) From the Plots determine the approximate Gain and Phase angle at w
Solution:-
O
Angle Phase
s dB Gain
180 _
' 100
− ≈
− ≈
38
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
3.1 Explain what is meant by Compensation in a control system
Solution:-
Compensation is a means of increasing stability margins or stabilising
an unstable system, by introducing an element in either the forward
path (series compensator) or in the feedback path (feedback
compensator). i.e. compensation is a term used to describe the
adjustment of performance of a controller in order for it to give better
performance.
3.2 State 2 types of compensation techniques commonly used.
Solution:-
The two most commonly used techniques of compensation are:
2. Phase Lag
3.3 Compare and discuss their relative merits
Solution:-
1. Relative stability is improved.
2. Steady state error is reduced.
3. The bandwidth of the system is increased.
4. The error constant is usually increased.
5. The response time is increased.
Phase Lag:
1. Relative stability is improved.
2. The overall Gain (K) is reduced.
3. The bandwidth of the system is increased.
4. The overshoot is decreased.
5. The rise time is usually decreased.
Both Phase Lead and Phase Lag have similar characteristics when
improving the relative stability of the system. The same can be said for
the Bandwidth on both systems, where there is an increase seen in
both forms of compensation technique. After these two merits, the
a reduced steady state error, however error constant and the response
time is increased, which may mean the system may perform with
different characteristics.
The Phase Lag benefits from the a reduced overshoot and a decrease
in the rise time, allowing for a more responsive system, however the
overall Gain is reduced which may be detrimental to the system,
depending on the systems requirements.
39
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
( )
( )
( ) p s
z s K
s G
+
+
·
Where p>z. This equation can be rearranged to give:
( )

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
·
p
s
z
s
p
z
K
s G
1
1
The terms “K” and “z/p” are constant gain terms, whereas the “1+s/z” is a real
zero term with a time constant of “1/z”, and a real pole term of “1+s/p” with a
time constant of “1/p”.
Since p>z then “1/z” > “1/p”. Therefore the Bode plot is in the form shown
below.
The values given are for K=1 and various ratios of “z/p”. However when z=p
and the pole and zero terms cancel to five G(s)=1, then the magnitude is a
straight line along the 0dB axis and the phase becomes a straight line along
the 0 degree axis.
The effect of introducing a lead compensator is to lower the magnitude plot at
low frequencies and raise the overall phase angle of the output relative to the
input.
40
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
Lag Compensator
( )
( )
( ) p s
z s K
s G
+
+
·
Where z>p. This equation can be rearranged to give:
( )

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
+

,
_

¸
¸
·
p
s
z
s
p
z
K
s G
1
1
The terms “K” and “z/p” are constant gain terms, whereas the “1+s/z” is a real
zero term with a time constant of “1/z”, and a real pole term of “1+s/p” with a
time constant of “1/p”.
Since z>p then “1/p” > “1/z”. Therefore the Bode plot is in the form shown
below.
The values given are for K=1 and various ratios of “z/p”. However when z=p
and the pole and zero terms cancel to five G(s)=1, then the magnitude is a
straight line along the 0dB axis and the phase becomes a straight line along
the 0 degree axis.
The effect of introducing a lag compensator is to lower the magnitude plot at
high frequencies and raise the overall phase angle of the output relative to the
input.
41
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
Evaluation
The first three sections of Task 1 were relatively straight forward. We have
been covering open and closed loop circuits for the past three years, so it was
easy to get to a conclusive answer almost immediately for 1.1. There were
excellent notes to deriving the first principles for a simple closed loop control
system in canonical form from class, however I also did a bit of background
reading in the Control Engineering Book, referenced in my bibliography. This
helped me understand the theory before writing the equations, and also
allowing me to easily modify the function for unity negative feedback.
Moving onto the block diagram algebra, I took this subject in relatively quickly.
It didn’t take me long to work out the answers for tasks 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5.
Task 2 explored a completely new subject to me, which was Nyquist
Diagrams and Bode plots. It was a straight forward, but confusing subject for
me, and required a clear head to remember previous notes during class. I
used notes and research in the Control Engineering Book to iron out any
confusion I had, and then found the assignment fairly straight forward. I was
able to work the answers out quite quickly it was the typing up the answers
which took hours! For this reason it is definitely recommended that the
assignment be worked on throughout the year, rather than leaving it until the
end of the year (which I was fortunate enough to avoid!).
Task 2.5. It allowed me to enter the equation and produce an answer in Polar
Form with ease, then all I had to do was convert the Polar answers into
Rectangular answers and then plot this in Graphmatica.
I was pleased to be able to produce the Bode Plots for Task 2.8 using
Graphmatica. I spent a while trying to set up the Graph Paper and axis, but I
think the result was worth it. I should note that I had to export the graph to
MS Paint, so that the points could be joined with lines, as this function didn’t
seem to be available on Graphmatica.
Task 3 involved using the explanation from class as well as some brief
research to compile my own description of Compensation in Control
Engineering. I found this relatively straightforward.
Conclusion
This assignment has been worked on throughout the entire academic year, so
evaluating points after the entire assignment has been complete, proved a bit
difficult. I will take this into account so that in future I can evaluate a Task
after I have completed it rather than waiting until the end.
I have learnt a lot from this assignment as there have been many new
subjects.
The unit as a whole has been a mix of multiple mathematical techniques and
has definitely tested the knowledge and understanding gained from previous
years.
42
Brendan Burr BTEC Higher National Certificate in Electronics
Control Systems and Automation
Bibliography
Through guidance from my lecturer, the following text books, catalogues and
websites I was able to complete this assignment:
Books
Control Engineering (W. Bolton)
ISBN: 0-582-32773-3
Catalogues
N/A
Websites
N/A
43