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Gabriel I. Năstase ION BASGAN A Romanian Inventor .
Năstase . Ion Basgan (1902-1981) Gabriel I. Eng.Dr.
Address: 118 Calea Victoriei. 2000 All rights of this edition are reserved to the publisher. . 70179 Bucharest.2000 RAPANA Publishing House THE GENERAL ASSOCIATION OF ENGINEERS IN ROMANIA © AGIR PUBLISHING HOUSE. Sector 1.ION BASGAN A Romanian Inventor “Personalities of Science and Technics” Series AGIR Publishing House Bucharest .
e-mail agir@starnets. Ion Basgan : Un inventator de geniu English Translation by Daniela Stoicescu EDITION CD-ROM. 2. bl. sc. Năstase. 2002 Publishing Adviser: Gabriel I. B11. Dan Bogdan Front and Back Cover: Camelia Bogoi Computer editing: Aurel Alexandru Edited: 25.ro © RAPANA PUBLISHING HOUSE. Printing Sheets: 11. Tel. 629 82 93 The original edition: Gabriel I. 2000 Address: 13 Almaşul Mic Sector 4. Năstase. 75443 Bucharest. 12.08. ap.75 AGIR Publishing House ISBN 973-99296-5-6 RAPANA Publishing House ISBN 973-96815-5-7 FOREWORD .2000.
Ion Şt. charging 118 American oil companies. in the true sense of the word. Basgan and his work.789. we can now enjoy reading it. World War II ended twenty years . We would have to point aut that on 18 May 1934 he gets the Romanian patent no. but only now there was written a biography. covering the heavy proportional pipes drilling and the sonic drilling.137. In 1961. as copyright.137 had been and was still blocked. Ion Basgan ideas are applied. according to an expertise dating from 1965. he dedicated his life to science and technology and succeded to write an unbelievable legend of his own self. after the first pages. However. in Bucharest) comes from a family of priests. in which I found interesting elements concerning his work and tragical elements concerning his relationships. To the credit of Mr. bringing fabulous sums of money to the oil industry companies. It is very curious that. Ion Basgan starts a recuperation trial for his inventor rights (he had paid the taxes for the protection of his American patent for 17 years). Basgan concern the progress of all types of drilling and they effectively put them into practice.6 billion US dollars.I have heard long ago speaking about Ion Şt. The pages to come speak in detail about his evolution. Gabriel I. I had the curiosity to carefully read the whole book. whose spiritual exercise had been present throughout generations. He would have had the right to cash 8. Năstase and his family. The book did not captivate me from the very start: but. the USA gouvernment blocked the patent of the Romanian citizen. favouring the theft of his rights. which had a symbol effect. on 24 June 1902. soon. Nowadays. 2. He was told that the patent no. thats is „rotor-percution drilling”. the poor man fights with the US Administration and on 13 October 1965. the State Department of Justice unbocked the patent. 22. within American oil industry. 2.103. in Focşani – d. on 15 December 1980. Basgan (b. we begin to understand „the American democracy”.103. The inventions of the Romanian engineer Ion Şt. On 27 December 1941. and on 21 December 1937 the American patent no.
Ion Şt. the oil companies had shown a death certificate in front of the American justice. At his proposal to set up in USA a foundation including 34 sections (hydrotechnics. Ma. he sends the USA government a request. in order to set up his defence. of the medical doctor Ion Basgan (the inventor’s cousin) asserting that the inventor had died and that the trial should have bean declared closed. E. Basgan was making a TV declaration for the editor Cornel Rusu: „I found in the USA a special target enterprise dealing with acquiring inventions made in the Eastern Europe. but the blockage of the patent was still valid. for the sum of 10 million US dollars. since in 1961. A justice system which does not check the papers does not deserve our respect. Everything was futile. he was proposed by the Jewish Organization „Saint” to become an Israeli citizen. in 1966. water duction. The is a fact that the Romanian inventor understood. claims exagerated financial rights in order to give them back to the owner! Moreover. including 21 documents and claiming for his inventor right.s. The answer was negative.s. government did not bother to answer.ago. but we shall never pay back!”. . during 1966. 1969. In 1967.) with the money he could get from his copyright. There I was told that it is common knowledge that the great majority and the most interesting inventions came from Romania”. and afterwards with your sons. Ion Şt. Let’s see together that „the editor Balcar from München. an anonymous engineer from Dallas told him in London: „We shall be in court with you for years. a. a. 1971. Basgan is pursuing his way: on 11 June 1974. While in Rome. This late gesture had its „legal” reason. Ion Şt. and wasted much energy and hope. oil-industry. sonics. the USA. so that he might get the help to recuperate those 8. step by step.6 billion US dollars and bring them to Israel (Bild am Sonntag. after obtaining a few of the Romanian inventor’s papers.o. for the benefit of American companies. 1974.o. On 2 January 1973. 1967. 2526 May 1969).. Nevertheless. Basgan spent a long time abroad.
a mâzgăli. could be an answer to our question. This method had been applied to other Romanian citizens as well. They also want to write a monograpy of their village. but they do not know his origin. but they do not have documents any more. in Transnistria. on the good intentions with which hell is paved and wich are put forward in front of the curtain pompously called „democracy”. he had not even succeeded to build himself a house. and. at the end of the 19 century. Ion Şt. it givers the theft the legal authority. and Mâzgăreanu (3).531. Nazgă (2). mâzgăleală (scribble) a. Basgan draws us the attention. I remember the famous case of Nicola Tesla (Nicolae Teslea). But the USA are not obliged to pay for benefiting from the 900 patents of Nicola Tesla. Therefore. with a special purpose. in favour of an American oil company”. Any of his attempts to defend his invention was blocked by the American „democratic” mechanisms. Bazgan (7). a great world power is stealing in fine style and afterwards it proves that it was „right” to do it. an extraordinary Romanian engineer. I am not aware that in our country. Bâzgan (3) and Bâzgă (3). which allow the theft under the cover of some slogans. The great powers are stealing. Poor Tesla! He was declared to be insane. Bazgu (1). there could be a village or a river called Mazga. a so-called Mazgan built a water-mill in their village. because the Russian invaders stole them and destroyed them. Bâzgă (1). as well as the status of „an advanced technology country”. afterwards. code 5. Mâzgăneanu (8). whose inventions brought the USA huge incomes. Its citizens know that. especially in Ardeal. Basgan had no chance. in the Bucharest telephone directory there are names like: Mazga (2). The name of Basgan raises the problem of its ethimology and we fiind the answer in this book: his name comes from the village and the river in the county of Bacău – Bazga. We can conclude that these names have the same . through specific institutions. as well as: Bazga (2). but the words: mâzgă (slime). in the region of Râbni a.o. Now. mâzgălitură (scribbling).s. his laboratory was put on fire and he died in a hotel room. once more.Ion Basgan understands that those papers werw used in technical and scientific espionage. everything and the tragedy of Ion Şt. I have been several times in the village of Stroieşti. the Tesla technologies are up to date again. Moreover.
we have the moral duty to defend ourselves and to memoriye everything nothing should be forgotten. Nicolae P. firstly. Leonăchescu President of the Romanian Society of Thermotechnicians Bucharest. not with-out hesitations (and only after much insistence) and when he agreed to speak with me. There will come a time when history will be re-written under real coordinates and history does not forgive. who could talk in an odd rhythm of silences. In front of the great powers. Thus. they proceed to forgery. who was the bad guy at a given moment. I remember him. a deprived man. if they did not fiind this aut till now! Moreover. 6 March 1997 REMEMBER ION BASGAN I often remember Basgan… A very pround man. of Time and Life.ethimology and come from the Romanian territory. those little peoples. as „sacred truths!” the Romanian thesaurus is still in Moscow from 1917 after an agreement between two allied governments and we are sill waiting for it to be returned. usually late. This must be known by the citizens of Stroieşti from Transnistria! They should also know that the great empires are stealing in fine style. through cosmetical operations. shy. quiet. and work aut false histories. but refusing to ever blame those who made his life hard with their injustice. which are stealing us. force-imposed. written in a . E. when he talked about himself. maybe too often. after stealing. one can find aut who was the inventor and who stole the invention who worked hard and who robbed. in a given space. with a new-born hope (and a sheer trust) in those acknow-ledgements. Profesor Ma.
Moisil – and Ion Basgan could not have he been forgotten from the memories to come which I was ever interested to publish… “And what do you want to write about me?”asked Basgan. which still finds those deprived alive. It was by the end of June 1975. why not say it?. he protested. at plural – too many and full of people. Today he would have been 95 years old and he would have been still disappointed by the obscure ways of human justice. he lived in the block of flats Leonida – and he was 73 years old – and a big lawyears house from the USA. to which Basgan was entitled for his patents. to which science and technology stopped in the 30 30 before a young engineer. so human. about our need (and thriving) to be able to exploit sometime the huge oil deposits. when the USA entered the World War II. who hardly was. older than the great foreseers (he was 33 years old) could stagger the inertia of his time. during our first meeting. sometimes. bringing about an essential revolution in drilling… “I wasn’t a foreseer. He wanted to believe that the long postponed day of moral recuperation. who were interested to help him!). Macovschi.000 metres. that the long postponed day had arrived. to penetrate the great depths of our Terra…”. absolutely courageous. beyond the temporary boundary of 2. very rigorously… . and too tight-handed to personality appraisal. that would write “about our ancient temptation. very rarely. largely used until 1945 and which the American Administration had blocked in banks. secretly. My intention was very clear. with many famous names on the front of its legal fame (among them there was Nixon’s father-in-law) was ready to start a trial for a legal recuperation of those 8 billions US dollars. or at least I tried to answer him. then. with a soft smile. to his house and was determined to ring the bell. in 1935. (And there were so many people around Basgan. I have calculated absolutely everything. and yet equally confused was my attempt to anticipate the future disclosure… I told him. confessed to Basgan that I was working on a book (and I am still working on it) about the Romanian great scientists I had the luck to meet in their full power of creation – Onicescu. of human beings… From the very beginning.recuperating cycle of history. And. due to a certain period of time refractory to the “Basgan modality” – and all those periods of time.
Did we reach – there were some voices – the limits of science? Did Earth itself was against this geo-investigation and thesaurus attacks to the depth fortune of its deposits? Modern equipment which allows today to geo-physicists and geo-chemists to unveil the secret of Earth. but also the special difficulties encountered: “the penetration of drilling equipment. the permanent column bendings. and the pure drilling. when I reread it now. against my own will. basis of a drama in science – as in art. before publishing – on 12 July 1975 – my first essay on Basgan and his dreams – I called it “Towards the Depths of Earth” – an essay which. the modern world eas increasingly requesting the exploitation of newer and newer deposits… Mankind reached – as 1 told him then – one of those limit situation which puts the. from constant recordings of same radiations and vibration reflexion. even to this depth. The boundary stimulating the self-surpassing…”. And now that I brought about that essay of July 1975… The fact that deepened then. the dangerous pipe breaks. We had talked much and several times. being obsessed by the question (and the song): “What girls would do / If love didn’t exist? / They’d die like leaves / In autumn. could not avoid the serious direction deviations (15-20 degrees against the vertical). by “the sonic drilling” and the explanation of “the Basgan effect”. having the topic of drilling: “If love didn’t exist…”. the lack of satisfaction of those who worked in drilling was not only the unsatisfactory level of 2. clearly poor. the penetration to areas hopefully extractive did not exceed – at least until the 4’th decade of our century – the 2. “May I call it the boundary of impotence?” – I asked Basgan. from measurements of various charact6eristics of the gravity field. unknown to us…”.000 meters. I still find it appropriate and real and maybe less coded that could have been forced to do it. in strange kind of mathematics. could do. people.000 meters of depth!”. I wrote that there was a time when “geological maps still paid a tribute to improvisation and estimation. at the middle of the 3rd decade. from detecting of important particles… did not exist then. after more than two decades. And even if we admitted it existed. “The boundary of inertia – preferred Basgan. “Do you write plays? Basgan asked me. Otherwise: What we. without our great passions?… .All the foreseer check rigorously their great provisions. I tried and wrote a play starting from such a case. the quick ruining of the extraction hooks. like white-frost”.
I remembered well his last words. at “this bundary of 9. through an appropiate information. interpreting the principle of Archimedes from the applicative angle of great depths at which drilling is performed”. by obtusities. patented in Romania in 1934.“We2d die suffocated by inertia. But Ion Basgan wouldn’t stop here. as in life – due to an original scientific interpretation – towards a truly new solution and – referring to Basgan – towards the one the most important aquirements of this century. into the “we cannot do it otherwise”. stricken by our own indecisions” – Basgan continued my thought. The only way in science. “Starting from the principle of remote transmission and capture of sonic energy (founded by George Constantinescu). allowed theoretically the spectacular penetration towards depths oh – who would even suspect it 60 years ago? – 15. this penetration towards big depths had the role to certainly complete. the understanding suggested today by geomagnetic and gravimetric researchers. the modern seismology and – why not? – the volcanology.000 meters. about a creator who could confirm his call. Let’s think therefore – we invite our readers – to this permanent progress of human knowledge and to this fascinating penetration toward’s when speaking of Basgan’s merit – “with a feeling of pride”. declaring very simply what the specialty literature calls today: “the Basgan effect” and thus setting up the heavy metallic proportional pipes drilling. registered back in 1967. about the innocence and special education acquirements. since the first world oil congress (in 1933). Let’s go back now to my wonderful companion in the summer of 1975. to what Ion Basgan was… I remember that he told me about his school years and about that spiritual toughness he was to acquire during his entire life. The new patent. exactly by decidedly refusing to fall into conformism. about the happy life spent in the Internal High-School in Iaşi.000 meters depth! Transmitted in its general lines.000 meters”. the study of emissions of radioactive origin. Basgan succeeds in adding to the old Rotary drilling system the advantages of vertical penetration of the sonic drilling system. modern science succeds in penetrating down to 9. of . I quote again from this first essay: “Reconsidering the whole process and phenomenon. a school of will. this paper is world-wide known. What is going to happen next? And when? Beyond and above any economic advantage. which I used in the end of that essay. into “the already-known”. and in the USA in 1937.
perseverance and of devotion for an ideal… Since nobody graduated this school without having an ideal. About his departure to the Superior Mining and Metallurgy School in Loeben (Austria), in 1920, where he made himself known through his native potential, then about his doctor degree which foreshadowed the revolution of the ancient Rotary drilling system, about the prize “Ma. E. Cornel Nicoară” of the Romanian Academy, in 1936, about which I found something, and about which Basgan felt obliged to admit… that he was awarded. During our conversation I made up in my mind those seven difficult years – 1925-1932 – during which he acquired a productive experience, absolutely determining, at the famous, at that time, “Steaua Română”, a school-enterprise of new extractive technologies. “I think you care much about those seven years, very difficult years, which foresaw those seven years which were to bring a revolution in the drilling…”. “Which renwed the other years, he corrected me. Which changed them, which directed them on other coordinates. As for the rest…”. “The seven difficult years” parable, in science, at least, is not necessarily accompanied by the seven happy years… In science – al the years are difficult! And coming back to the years of my thought: there is something else which surprised me and it still surprises me… Undoubtedly, Basgan was also a very good economist. He had bright ideas at that time – however unaccepted – about which he used to speak shyly, as about a common fact, which could not be avoided to happen, despite his deep conviction that those ideas, essentially reforming, would be the necessary capital for important changes in the economic life of our country. When he was only 30 or 31 years old, he already founded, together with Gogu Constantinescu, “The Economic Association for the Study of Conjuncture … At the same time Academy of High Commercial and Economic Studies in Bucharest … And there are still many things to be mentioned here about the new tools and equipments, many of them extremely original, which he was to present and manufacture, during 50-70, discovering thus new oil deposits, experimenting various extractive installations into the hard rocks of Dobrogea. However, we put a full stop to our long “remember”… Today, there is, finally, in the town of Focşani, the town where Basgan was born, on 24 June 1902, a street bearing his name… Maybe, there will be a memorial plate in Iaşi, sometime … Maybe another one in Bucharest: “Here there lived between…” Hopefully
there will be founded a “Basgan prize” of the Romanian Academy. But all these late acknowledgements will only immortalize a name and will speak too little about the unique character of Basgan, about the courage of his ideas and about that injustice of the world which deprives sometimes a researcher, years after years, of his own merits. I am greeting this book – is a holy initiative for reminding a spirit – and a noble thriving of a son – and I mention the engineer Ion Basgan – to snatch the name of his father from silence and oblivion. Dorel Dorian
Bucharest, 24 June 1997
ON THE ROMANIAN INVENTOR
MA. E. ION BASGAN Such a well-documented and valuable paper dedicated by Ma. E. Gabriel I. Năstase to the great scientist, the engineer Ion Basgan, is doomed to wake up my most remote memories. I had the honour to be introduced to the oil-industry engineer Ion Basgan, in January 1945, during the foundation of the Studies Circle of the National Liberal Party, in the house of Sabina
Cantacuzino, in 37, C.A. Rosetti Street, the headquarters of the club of the above mentioned party since 27 August 1944. Amourg hundreds of the National Liberal Party and of the Fărcăşanu, there were present the three great members of the Brătianu family: Dinu, the President of the party; Constantin (Bebe), the Secretary-General; and the great historian I.I.C. Brătianu, the vice-president of the party, who delivered the opening speech. Welcomed enthusiastically almost at every and of the exposed problem, Professor Gheorghe Brătianu formulated the new prospects of the liberal doctrine within economic problems. After widely referring to the world economic situation, after the devastating World War II, Professor Brătianu stated: “Within the new world economic policy situation, my opinion is that, in a dried and exhausted Romania, the traditional and historical formula of our party, concerning the economic problems: “Through ourselves…” when stating this formula, the audience started to strongly applaude. But, following the idea of his argumentation, I knew what he was going to say and I could hardly stop from laughing. When the enthusiastic applause stopped, Professor Brătianu continued his thought, mostly embarrassed … “must be forgotten”. In my capacity as president of the Studies Circle of the National Liberal Youth, I used to often take part in the serious speciality studies as well. Almost at the same time the Leberal Engineers Circle “Vintilă Brătianu” was also founded. This circle was named in the memory of the energetic and uncorruptible leader of the economic policy of the party, Vintilă Brătianu. Then, the engineer Basgan told me that he had several opportunities to put his technical knowledge to the benefit of the Liberal Party and that he was very much appreciated by Vintilă Brătianu. This declaration was confirmed by my father-inlaw, the lawyer Gheorghe Lazăr, who was also a member of the economists circle, lead by the President of the National Liberal Party. Strictly referring to the present paper, I remember that out of the mission mentioned by the author, on the page 237, I met Professor Grigore Vasilescu (with whom I used to play bridge), engineer Basgan, and I was a close friend with the civil engineer Georgel Veniamin, today living in Paris. I also met the lawyer C. Dinu Popescu-Gala i, who was a member of the Brussells Bar Association and who died several, years ago. At the page 246 of the biography,
where the matter came about Dinu, the author makes an extraordinary synthesis of the engineer Ion Basgan, concerning the economic programme of the National Liberal Party, which was centered on a trade supported by a healthy agriculture, with the target to stimulate production, importations, exportations and industry, in case there were material and intellectual conditions. The reversing of the priorities by the communists (a natural reversing, as matter of fact, because the heavy industry was absolutely necessary for Rusia in order to fill up the catastrophic technological gap after World War II) was destroying Romania, as did the reversing of staff election, starting from a healthy origin and not from a value. Another problem is to be noticed in the well-documented biographical paper of Ma. E. Gabriel I. Năstase, that is the turning into account of the creative intelligence of Romanians of the European states. Starting from the beginning of 18th century – the Illumination Century – for the orthodoxe, vegetative and corrupt Europe – all foreign observers of Romanian realities, starting with Antonio Maria de Chiaro, were amazed, one by one, by the cleverness of the Romanian people, especially by its intellectual smartness which allows it to easily grasp, in a very quick period of time, any know-how taken from foreigners, irrespective of its sophistication and domain. This special gift does not stop to be compromised those days in Romania by the obscure medium: ideological, bureaucratic, orthodoxe and corrupt. However, abroad, in amedium good for creativity, the Romanians can make miracles, even today. The lesson is finite: we have the duty to put at the disposal of the Romanians, situated intellectually above the average, all opportunities available, from special schools to universities and to the necessary material incentives. Otherwise, they will emigrate, the way those 700.000 Romanians emigrated, between 1990-2000, out of which at least half of them were above the average. In the well-documented paper of Professors Alexander Hellemans and Bryan Bunch (recently translated into Romanian by Diana Constantinescu and published by Orizonturi Publishing House) we fiind only two Romanian world scientists: Henri Coandă and Gogu Constantinescu. The huge economies obtained through the exceptional technological innovation, experimented on a huge scale and due to the engineer Ion Basgan did not bring profit either him or the Romanian
people, but to the world economic system, whether capitalist or communist. The two antinomic systems have two elements in common: a permanent one, that is the corrupt bureaucracy (exploiting during communism, sometimes limited during capitalism) and another element experienced between 1940-1980, that is the concept of Lord Keyness, synthesized in the profundly non-liberal formula: Fullemployment. The great wealth obtained in the USA between 1983-2000 is very much due to the initiative of the great president, Ronald Reagan, under the double influence of the conservatory experience in Great Britain of Lady Margaret Thatcher and that of the Chile President, Augusto Pinochet, that is the replacement of the Keynessian system with the managerial monetarism of James Burnham and Milton Friedman. A society, either capitalist or communist, which does not respect its commitments and which does not rightly encourage the creative and the innovation activity of individuals who are born in that society, is a descalifying and obscurantist society and, to better express the idea, is an underdeveloped society. In other words, the society is blocked, regressive, bankrupting and backwarded. This is the way Romania has been for half a century and we hardly could see that is has an intention to get off the darkness and moors in which it arrived with communism. Yet, an American society which does not understand to fulfill its commitments, the most elementary ones, towards creative peoples and towards creative individuals, who work for this society, has the same odd shadow.
Senator D.A. Lăzărescu
Bucharest, 21 July 2000
I dedicate this book to those who guided my steps through the wilderness of life, who gave me a peaceful home and a happy childhood, with all the tenderness of their heart. Their behaviour and councils taught me to appreciate and promote authentic values that are to be found in our fellow men, sometimes offer us generously: the happiness of creation. I dedicate this book therefore to my mother, Maria Năstase and to the memory of my first teachers: my father Ion Năstase,my grandfather Ştefan Năstase and my uncle, Nicolae Năstase. I hereby bring my acknowledgements to all those who were near me to confort and to counsel me, with all their heart, in the hard times of my life.
G. I. Năstase
redestinated to offer Romanian science and technology a series of far reaching achievements in the domain of oildrilling improvement, Ion Basgan was, still is and shall remain one of the most brilliant Romanian inventors. Inspired by the new ideas of sonicity, Prof. Dr. Eng. Ion Basgan produced over 50 technical and scientific works that were printed in several specialized technical publications of various countries. As a disciple and collaborator of the father of sonicity, Gogu Constantinescu, Ion Basgan, the oil – industry engineer, distinguished himself in the realm of technical and scientific creation by manifold exceptional achievements, in the domain of oil industry, that later became world-wide priorities. His special achievements pertaining to the oil-drilling technique were appreciated by George (Gogu) Constantinescu, the father of sonicity, as well as by other Romanian and foreign specialists: ‘Method for improving the output and perfecting rotary oil-drilling, by percussion-rotation and hydro-mechanical pressures absorption’ (Romanian Patent No. 22.789/1934) and ‘A new oil-drilling system taking into account hydrostatic pressure and long-distance sonic energy transmission by means of proportional heavy oil drilling rods and sonic oil drilling (USA Patent No. 2.103.137/1937). Ion Basgan was born at the beginning of this century on the 24th of June, 1902 in Focsani, an old town in Vrancea county, South of Moldavia, in an over three hundred year - old family. His mother was known to be the offspring of an old Transylvanian shepherds’ family. The peaceful life of this honorable family and its offsprings is in itself a living example of the general truth that native intelligence has always been a state of the spirit of the Romanian nation and a symbol of its perenial existence. Endowed with an authentic intellectual capacity that was sustained by an unusual spiritual strength and a strong determination
Ion Basgan became famous thanks to the applications of his Rotary drilling method that became the most extensively utilized method in all the oil – producing countries. Leoben. in 1935.to study. Unfortunately. Ion Basgan had graduated the Primary School No. Based upon the principle of sonicity. K. to say nothing of the fact that the Romanian Academy (that awarded Ion Basgan the Dr.I.Z. represented the topic of extended debates in several periodicals and treaties. a significant increase of the driller travel can be achieved. Austria) between 1920 and 1925. As a pupil. as well as the ‘Politehnica’ University of Bucharest have failed on many occasions to render the due homage to Ion Basgan. the Institute of Oil and Gas. the new drilling system brought about a technical revolution for the American oil industry. he was awarded the doctor degree in technical sciences. A. 471 of the Ghirdoveni oil field. On the 5th of June 1920. through yearly savings of 1. at the end of its travel. Ion Basgan. Positive results were obtained . The Foreword to one of Ion Basgan’s works that had been published in the former USSR.8 billion dollars. That was how the American economy would substantially increase its profit.N. Cornel Nicoară prize in 1935). while they were also sources of inspiration for other specialists in their attempt to improve the oil drilling technique. the Romanian scholar who had dedicated his life and work for the Romanian science and not only. Tiscenko regarding the outstanding practical results that were obtained in oil production by former USSR and USA when applying Basgan’s invention: ‘compelling the oil – boring system to vibrate during rotary drilling and thus setting an alternative dynamic load on the base. tested this principle and proved that the driller starts to operate again under the action of longitudinal vibration. In 1938. mentioned the following assertion of Prof. this principle was practically tested in Romania at the oil well no. he would always receive scholarship grants and prizes: his propensity for study allowed him to receive outstanding school performances. Many of the technical achievements of Ion Basgan. the inventor. His entire existence was a living proof that native intelligence is a dominant feature of the Romanian nation and not a mere accident of fate. 2 of Focsani and then attended the Secondary ‘Boarding’ School of Iaşi.I. who died at 15th December. In 1933. 1980 and his descendants did not benefit from the Patent ownership rights. he graduated the secondary school and was awarded a ‘Steaua Română’ (‘Romanian Star’) scholarship for the courses of the Superior School of Mines and Metallurgy (Montanistische Hochschule 5.
when testing the implementation of the Basgan method. French. Thanks to his inventions (patented in Romania and USA). The percussion shocks are a result of the sonic effect. whose load is equal to the load applied on the driller in order to avoid deviation of drilling bores and rods brake. etc. The method of the sonic drilling as applied in other countries also is based on the vibrations produced by mud pumps into the oil rig and the long distance transmission of energy through the drilling rigs. namely Ion Basgan’s idea. that is the sonic drilling permits the driller to perform percussion on the oil driller bottom. as well as on its contribution to the development of the Romanian science. without bottom vibration apparatus. that of a subtle observer of the political events.) have focused on the originality of the Romanian conception. inducing a certain level of the driller vibrations. Ion Basgan’s name is written on the panoply of renowned Romanian inventors. The above mentioned process enables the oil producer to perform vertical drilling with a 30 to 50 % economic output. although he never got involved . Prof. American. Dr. Evescenko. while the driller still rotates. studies and calculation. the application point of the Archimede force lies at the lower end of the drilling installation and not at the gravity center of the drilling rig that is introduced into the drilling mud. Ion Basgan proved that with the field method. Scientific works of American scientists. the Basgan method is based on two principles. its costs reduction and higher quality. USA). Romania has contributed one of its most valuable inventions to the technical and scientific international patrimony. namely: the sonic oil drilling and the technique of heavy proportional oil rods. The outline of the professional carrier of the Romanian scientist may be rounded up by adding to it a further dimension. Siscenko. S. Eng. that are of great importance as a result of their practical economic effects. Therefore. as compared to that of previously applied oil drilling methods. Murray Hawkings and Norman Lamont of the Louisiana University (California. Essentially. Moore. namely: drilling by means of heavy proportional rods and the sonic drilling. that confirmed the high drilling speed. After thorough research. Ion Basgan. through perfectly vertical boring. This is how through Prof. German and Russian university courses (of Prof. Ion Basgan emphasized the importance of utilizing heavy proportional rods at drilling rigs. the percussion rotary drilling. Prof.I.
I am indebted for the completion of this monographic description to Dipl. Ion (Ginel) I. He was apparently a tough man. to the extant that to him the very presence at the table at the right time when dinner was served was a part of the every day education. the Politehnica University of Bucharest. his fine political contribution proved his love of his people and the national interests of his country. the Technical Museum “Dimitrie Leonida”. His existence was mainly marked by his propensity for technical and scientific creativity less than for political incertitude. Eng. I express my gratitude to Dipl. in spite of the frequent demands of contemporary politicians. Ion Basgan has been the son of this country were the citizens of Focsani. the Institute of Oil and Gas and others have failed to remember my father for a commemoration or an anniversary to the memory of he who was brilliant inventor. The only people to remember that Dr. Eng. Ion Basgan for his beautiful words that came as a conclusion of Ion Basgan’s moral image as a remarkable Romanian scientist and technician. ‘At last the time has come to bring forth and pay for the debts of our nation towards my father. Since the reader shall find a lot of information regarding my father’s life and work. a specialist who has brought about a revolution in the deep drilling technique. It is to be regretted the fact that the Romanian Academy. the son of the inventor Dr. through his work and creativity. a few ideas that might round up the picture of the personality of the inventor. the Technical University of Constructions of Bucharest.in the deeper political interplay. This moral dowry has been committed to us also through the permanent concern of our father for the education of his children by continuous instruction and respect for work and honest earning. which I found to be a valuable support for a documented description. He was not at all indifferent to . Ion St. his native town. Basgan. Basgan. an inventor of genius for the Romanian people. Eng. for his kindly permitting me to study the documents of the family archive. Nevertheless. I shall always cherish in my heart the moral testament that has been handed in by one generation to the other of the Basgan family. Ion Basgan was and still remains. No matter how beautiful and full of fruit may be the crown of a tree. I would rather share with those who take interest in the personality of this man. whose undying creation already belongs to the entire world. one can fully appreciate it provided one also knows how deep its roots are in the soil which sustains and ensures its life.
My father would have to search for new jobs. With this conception in view and an unusual moral strength. real friends. life brought to our family also unpleasant difficult moments. Unfortunately. After he had died. The family felt his anxiety and revolt. where special material and spiritual advantages were offered to him. he cannot either work or create as he would under normal living conditions. Unfortunately.the way we learnt. he started sharing with me some of his preoccupations and the problems he had to face in the achievement of his inventions. who takes no special interest in politics. He had noticed for instance my early practical natural dispositions for technique. but they represent a real relaxation and refuge from everyday life. The contemporary situation and the events of Hungary had been hanging over and threatening the peaceful life of our family. because he had never imagined that he could live far away from his native land and work for the prosperity of other nation. Nevertheless. when a man is harassed. for almost half a century he had suffered humiliation and degrading by citizens of his own and by strangers. That which most made him strong and fit for facing life was: family. that were generated by the aberration of this political system. to get rid of the persecution from the part of the Romanian repressive organizations. my father succeeded through tremendous efforts to prove that he was and remained a man involved in science and technique. yet takes part in political events when he is required to pass a specialist’s judgement. Although he had had the chance to live in other countries for the rest of his life. not only do I take interest in such activities. technical and economic support. how we did our homework. to say . such as the repression of the communist regime. my father could not fully enjoy the fruit of his creative work. Generally. When I was a school boy. my father denied every such of opportunity. there were some signs of the recognition of his creative activity and original achievements in drilling. work and the thought that his achievements were one more proof that Romanians are endowed with an exceptional creative force who has often opened new ways for the progress and civilization of mankind during its entire history. Now. That is why the function of adviser which he had to perform on various occasions implied a lot of responsibility and it had a significant professional effect in contemporary political decisions. because he was persuaded that when deprived of a competent scientific. political decisions can become an extremely dangerous weapon against the people and his country.
That is why. Dr. that man alone is capable to create and gain a place for himself in the everlasting memory of mankind. Gabriel I. that the universal dimension of my father’s personality had a positive effect on my life. honestly. including photos. the son. Nastase. Unfortunately. Năstase . which could add even more to the real picture of Ion Basgan.nothing more of the financial benefits that have been and are still obtained as a result of applying his inventions. or had been confiscated by the state security. as Ion (Ginel) Basgan. with unknown destinations. were either lost after the earthquake of 4th March. and a successful tentative editorial event to Dr. that entered into banks other than the Romanian banks. a young man of science and spirit’. The spirit that characterized my familiy existence was a real blessing to me and made me understand that honest work and love towards mankind are the way to real success in life. as did the love that we shared in our family and the trust we put in God almighty. a lot of the family documents. this work represents a special event to me. I can say. Gabriel I. 1977. declared.
The history of the Basgan family has deep roots in the Romanian land and each new generation had added to the dower of the new . As nothing happens by chance on this Romanian land overthrown by passions. though no longer to be found in the dictionary is ‘buzzing’ or humming. the Biographic Journal and I The first ‘Bazgans’ spelled their name with a ‘z’ instead of ‘s’. the sons of Ion Basgan’s grand father. from “Bazga”.born child Ion Basgan. It is admitted that the name of “Basgan”1 comes. It seems that the etymological origin of the name. He was going to grow into one of the most remarkable figures of the Romanian science and technology. The change was initiated by the three priests. Old documents of the Saint Bishopric of Husi (that are kept by the State Archives in Bucharest and Iasi. of the spirit of truth and beauty. in the northern part of the Falciu district. South of Moldavia. as well as a restless fighter for the defence of national interests. under the star of creativity.LIFE AND WORK on Basgan was born on the 24th of June in 1902. neither was the almost divinely birth of this man on a legendary shepherds’ land. a place located by the river with the same name. in Focsani. a town in the Vrancea region. north of Raducaneni. priest Ion Bazgan the 3rd. 1 . by analogy to other names.
Ion Bazgan III. the priest Ion Bazgan the 1st was born. the priest Ionita Bazgan the 2nd was born.the Genealogy of the “Bazgan”2 family) are attesting the ancestral presence of the Basgan family in Romania. namely ‘priest Bazga’ is mentioned to make the part of his estate of Bunesti – Falciu a donation to Neariul. the Falciu district. 1654. He married Simina of Davidesti. His spiritual education was marked by the years that he passed in her company and his steps were guided towards the ecclesiastical seminary of Socola – Iasi. Falciu district in 1823. in the Falciu Distirct. In 1800. whose documentary presence was attested only in 1826. The priest Ion Bazgan III. Bazga priest’s donation was confirmed by the voivode Moisa Moghila on the 17th January. as well as a member of the Diocesan Assembly until the 15th of February. The Bigraphic Journal and the Genealogy of the Bazgan Family. the Romanian Printing House. the day when he shall be parted for ever from the earthly world. A later attestation is that of the 17th July. 1874 in Averesti county. 1876) in the village Armasani. in Armasani village. the daughter of the priest Vasile Ban of Gagesti. 1901 he had married Maria (born in 1882). was born on the 30th of June. county Averesti. the daughter of priest Bazga sold their part of estate from Bucharest and Cobisesti to Darie Spataru. was born in 1824. 1944. In 1780. The tenth son of the priest Ion Bazgan III. He attended the primary theological school and the seminary at Husi and he ended he theological studies with a scholarship at the Seminary ‘Veniamin Costache’ of Iasi. Then he would marry Elinca. Vrancea. 1974. the contemporary Minister for Internal Affairs. He attended the Faculty of Theology in Bucharest between 1896 and 1900 with a scholorship at the Theological Boarding School. 2 . Galati. Stefan Basgan IV had lived in Focsani as a priest. called Stefan Basgan. the daughter of Vasile Zugravu and have 10 children by her. 1631 (7139 from the making of the world). a member and the president of the Spiritual Consistory of the Roman Diocese. who Ludovic Cosma. His earthly life ended in 1830 and his wife Simina died in 1863. the grandfather of the brilliant scientist Ion Basgan lived to the end of his life (the 28th April. the son of Ionita and Simina Bazgan. On the 5th September. He grew as an orphan from the age of 6 and was educated by mother Simina. when it is mentioned that Varvara.
determination and creativity. the great historian of the Romanian nation.born child was Ion Stefan Basgan. a representative personality of both the Romanian and the universal culture. Between 1920 and 1925. While still a student he would be the president of the Romanian Society ‘Sonda’ (Oil Well) of Leoben and he would carry out the student practice in 1924. would meet Nicolae Iorga. These and other teachers of the time had been for the young man Ion Basgan a symbol of the work for truth. 2 of Focşani and would be awarded school prizes during all these years.was the descendant of a shepherds’ family who had come to Vrancea from Transilvania across the Carpathian mountains. His first .295. He remembered Ion Basgan . Between 1909 and 1913. with a scholarship and obtained the graduation diploma no. 1. Other students of this society followed him in his attitude. Stefan Basgan shall have five children (three boys and two girls). Ion Basgan came out sane of two duels to which he was challenged in the first and the fourth year of study. the Headmaster of the High School. when he was the president of the students’ ‘Sonda’ society. who at that time was the chief in charge of the Scaiosi field. yet relevant event to the spiritual character of the young Ion Basgan: in 1922. and natural science from Teodor Bădărau. he refused to join in the right – wing students’ movement. 1929 the engineer Ion Basgan. He had been learning mathematics from Gheorghe Lascăr and Ion Roianu. he attended the courses of the Boarding High School in Iaşi. would appreciate their attitude in a letter which he sent to the young student personally. Soon after this event. at the oil mines of Pechelbronn (Alsacia – France). * * * Ion Ştefan Basgan graduated the Primary School No. who was then visiting the site. Mention shoud be made here of an apparently insignificant. beauty. Later in July. as well as out of a railroad accident (as a result of the collision of two trains at his arrival in Pachelbronn). Born as it were under a lucky star. Nicolae Iorga. where he would study the oil exploitation process through the mine galleries. 1925). Ion Basgan would attend the courses of the Superior School of Mines and Metallurgy in Leoben – Austria with a scholarship and he obtained the graduation Diploma 10 on the 17th of July.
Ion Basgan.and would invite him to hold a lecture on ‘Oil Industry’ at his University in Valenii de Munte in July. When he was back in Romania. such as: Victor Dumitrescu. that belonged to the ‘Steaua Română’ Society. 1926 he resumed his work on the Moreni field. a student at the Superior School of Mines and Metallurgy in Leoben – Austria. He shall do the military service at the 4th Regiment of Heavy Artillery in Focsani. Cardas I. 1925 he attended the courses of the Military School of Artillery Officers in reserve in Craiova. 1929. together with other outstanding contemporary engineers. Ion Basgan would work as an engineer on the fields of the ‘Steaua Româna’ Society and in December. in 1925. And Marinescu C. In . In July.
in 1929. as life is not made of lucky moments only. Ion Basgan would intuitively remark that the activities that had been performed in oil drilling before were rather empirical. Ion Basgan’s brother Vasile Stefan Basgan was born in Focsani in 1908. the lucky star of his destiny would shine to lead him towards even deeper research studies in geology and hydro-technics. in collaboration with the engineer I. which he graduated when he was only 16 years old (in 1924). and the secondary courses in Iasi. troubles and hardships made their way into the early days of the young scientist: Ion Basgan was deeply hurt by the death of his brother Vasile Basgan. Yet. he published his first work in the Annals of Mines No. Ion Basgan had to gather his strength to bring back from France the body of his brother. at the Boarding Dr. At this time. both sensational and tragical. 1926. 1925).August. so that he may find a restful place for it on the land of his country. in Focsani. attended the chemistry engineering university courses. Under these favorable conditions to his profession. by a tragical accident in Lion. the young Vasile Basgan died by electrocution in his bath. He attended the primary school courses in Focsani. 1926 he shall pass his exam for the function of chief of exploration in the oil industry and natural gas (Patent no. Then courses of the Military Sc hool of Artilery Officers in Reserve he joined his brother Costica Stefan Basgan in Lion and (Craiova. on Easters day. 39). 8/1926 on the ‘Oil Region of Moreni Gura Ocnitei’.years exams in one year. by passing two. In August. in both Romanian and French. Cardas. France. The short life of Vasile Basgan had been a case in his epoch. sadness. . Just a few days before his graduation. Ion Basgan when attending the High School.
1928) the following words to comfort the family: ‘Let God not give man the full measure of what he can bear. Eng. when he was attending the courses of the Military School of Artillery Officers in reserve (Craiova. Negru of the Boarding . Ion Basgan together with his parents. Longinescu wrote about the untimely death of Vasile Basgan in the ‘NATURE’ review of science dissemination (year XVII. Stefan and Maria Basgan. 6. God forbid that one should ever drink the cup of bitterness that the priest Stefan Basgan of Focsani had to drink. a dear son of him. 1925). on the first Easter day. N. The readers of ‘NATURE’ have already been acquainted with the brilliancy of this worthy young man from his letters of gratitude to his professor. That was a deep sorrow to his parents and a great loss to our people. He lost Vasilic. G. who died as if thunder stricken in a bath of Lyon by an electrical circuit. G.Dr. the 15th of June. no.
was falling down from an industrial rig to die an unknown death. They are sparkingly witty writings testifying for a strong determination to work by a young man as we need today. No human words can ever express the grief of parents when their child is lost and that of the entire nation who shall read them. Preda Bratasanu. In June. we lost a distinguished young man who had graduated from high school when he was only seventeen and was studying Industrial Chemistry in Lyon with Victor Grignard. As alredy mentioned before. And now. of its men of valour quite at the time when we need them more: two years ago.Hich School of Iasi. who died while swimming heartily in the Black Sea. when he had obtained brilliant results. had been from the very beginning aware of the real ability of the young Basgan and in July. 1929 he published in the Romanian Annals of Mines No. One year ago. It is rather strange how this nation is deprived of its educated young man. Let God comfort the berieved father and give a peaceful place to his innocent son. An awful accident has stiffled his life in the bud. the winner of the swimming contests. the electician engineer with a University degree in mathematics.11 a record of the first tests in the country of the explosion engines in drilling: ‘Motoare Waukesha in the rotary drilling’ (‘Waukesha Engines in Rotary Drilling’). which he had obtained at twenty years only in Paris. He died at 20. Ion Basgan undertook the management of the Scaiosi field in the Teleajen Valley that belonged to the ‘Steaua Română’ society. at Balcic. we lost Emanuel Sudan. The tree of his life was not allowed to bring forth fruit and thus be a joy to the teachers who had made him grow. the Nobel prize winner and a good friend of the Romanian people. instead of living to be one of the brilliant engineers of Romania. at a time when other young men of his age were just graduating from high school. the renowned chemist. After only three years of study. In October. 1930 Ion Basgan published his work ‘Exploatarile Petrolifere de pe Valea Teleajenului’ (‘Oil Exploitation in the Teleajen Valley’) in the Annals . 6 and No. the renowned Romanian historian and patriot. 1929 he invited him to hold a lecture on the topic ‘Oil Industry’ at the ‘Nicolae Iorga’ University in Valenii de Munte. he received the Diploma in mathematics and chemistry. fourty days ago. professor Nicolae Iorga. His father had to taste of bitterness instead of sharing the delight of his son’s professional ascension to the highest position that he would have deserved. where he carried out a series of exploitation works of the fields in this area. Having surpassed this difficult moment of his life.
who had graduated from the Faculty of Medicin of Lion.of Mines. as well as the new laws of the Archimede principole and the sonic drilling. Taking advantage on the position he had earned. later to France. The objective of this association was to study the relations between the private companies and the state industry. with Nicolae Malaxa. intending to cross the Ocean into America. When he had passed his high school graduation examination. in the Bacau District. another brother of his died. his life ended there with a sudden death by a deadly shot from an insane post master. Professor Bonnet asked him to remain in Lion. while taking into account the material and power . Unfortunately. In the same year he was appointed director on the ‘Steaua Româna fields of Moinesti. in 1931. he would leave to Germany. in Focsani. With this end in view. as a result of a premeditated murder that took place in the Hospital of Valea Rea in the city of Bacau. His personal attitude regarding the state policy in oil industry shall be reflected in a series of publications containing documents in which he stipulated the development framework of the Romanian oil industry and the country industrialisation. Basgan decided to withdraw from the ‘Steaua Româna’ Society. As soon as he recovered his strength after his brother’s death. George Constantinescu. He had been born in 1904. One year later. Alexandru Perieteanu and others founded the ‘Association for the Study of the Romanian Economic Situation’. working out the first theoretical notions of the Basgan effect. the physician Constantin Stefan Basgan. he was appointed chief physician of the Valea Rea Hospital. France. which he continued at the Boarding High School of Iasi. He attended the primary school courses and a part of the secondary school courses there. publishing on this occasion economic reports and syntheses. he settles down in Bucharest in 1932. Because of the students’ movement of 1922. he kept working even more intensely in the field of hydrotechnics and sonicity research with applications in the drilling technique. When he was back in his country. Ion Basgan together with his master. he was appointed deputy of the Inspectorate of Oil Drilling on all the filds of the ‘Steaua Româna’ Society. in order to dedicate himself to the publication of the results of his technical and scientific research and to sustain his doctor’s degree. On the 15th December of the same year. on the 31st December. Constantin Basgan subscribed to the Medicine Faculty of Bucharest. He would work as a referent and the leader of the oil and mines section.
in the framework of the lectures cycle organized by IRE at the ‘Politehnica’ Society. the ‘oxigen baloon’ of the association activity had been provided by the National Bank for a certain period of time. Mrazec. who shall finally withdraw their financial support of the association. the Romanian Academy published his work entitled ‘Form and Operation of the Rotary Drill in the Oil .Bearing Formations of Romania’ with an Introduction by Prof. Ion Basgan would hold the same lecture in Moreni. The uncompliant spirit of the young Basgan was not at all appretiated by the private financial providers of the Association. On the 7th of July. 1933 Ion Basgan would hold his Doctorate dissertation at the Montanistische Hochschule of Leoben. In the same year. In April. Ion Basgan held a lecture on the topic ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Oil Exploration and the Fuel Question’. Upon the request of the Association of the Mining Engineers. Caius Brediceanu the Romanian Secretary of State in Vienna had also joined in the solemn ceremony. Since the fall of 1933.resources existing in the soil of his country. when Prof. focusing on the role of the state as compared to the private initiative. . This work was introduced to the Academy specialists by its President. in front of certain specialists who were particularly interested in the new achievements in the domain of the Romanian science and technology. He would recommend the nationalization of the oil industry and the total industrialization of the country. on the topic ‘Technique and Scientific Interpretation of the Rotary Drilling System’. In May. the Romanian Academy published his work ‘Vibrating Phenomena and Their Effect on the Drill Operation in the Rotary Drilling System’. Eng. Prof. In 1933. Nicolae Vasilescu – Karpen had made its presentation in high terms. 1933 Ion Basgan held a conference lecture at the ‘Politehnica’ Society in Calea Victoriei. L. Austria.Ficsinescu.
Ion Basgan delivering his lecture at the first World Oil Congress (London. through the Ministery Decision No. In November 1933 his article ‘Technics and a . In August and September 1933 he attended the summer courses of Political Economy of the London University.555/1933. by his appointment as the official delegate of Romania. 1933). In September 1933 he was appointed honorific professor at the Department of ‘Oil Study’ of the Academy of Higher Commercial and Industrial Studies. On the 20th of July 1933 Ion Basgan shall join in the first World Oil Congress in London. 34. Ion Basgan would speak in the name of his country at the opening session of the Congress and hold the lecture ‘Scientific Consideration of the Technics of Modern Drilling’.
that one derives from practical experience. one should not misregard the fact that Mr. Ion Basgan would hold a conference lecture on the topic ‘Scientific Rotary Drilling’ at the Association for Science Progress in Romania. Basgan presented us on the vibration phenomena of the rotary drilling has introduced us to an important problem whose solution seems to be out of reach at the first sight. In the same month. into a simple mathematical theory. while admitting in advance that the described phenomena represent the result of a continuous harmonic vibrating phenomenon with one or two frequencies. In the same month he had a radio interview ‘Comments on the Occasion of the World Oil Congress of London’. 1934 his Doctor degree work entitled ‘Die Arbeitsweise und Form des Rotary Meissels’3 was published at Vienna with an Introduction by Dr. containing the following report on the scientific research contained herein: ‘The treatise that Mr. L’Independance Roumaine would publish his speech. Vienna. When reading this treatise. the father of sonicity. This is a step forward. Later. This is an important step forward. Eng.Scientific Approach of the Rotary Drilling System’ was published in the AGIR Bulletin and the Annals of Mines. with multiple frequencies and even changing frequencies. Ion Basgan.. George Constantinescu. as a result of his practical experience. for instance. 3 . one can predict frequencies. one may easily calculate something that practical experience never shows. In April. a serious and deeply thought work in a domain that has been totally neglected by now’. Hans Urban Printing House. It may be said that the problem was solved. yet in reality it could be a changing phenomenon. Basgan started. eluding therefore mathematical analysis. because when including the remarks. rod lengths and drill loads at which drill rods may brake. from the analysis of the results he has obtained and which proved that in reality it is a continuous vibrating phenomenon that is manifest and corresponds to his own calculations on the basis of the results of the sonic theory. Operation and Form of Rotary Drills. In our case. 1934.
including the application of the Basgan effect was registered in Romania. 1934 Ion Basgan’s Patent No. .In May.789 ‘Heavy Proportional Rods Drilling and Sonic Drilling’. 22.
Romanian Patent no. 22. On the 15th of December. his work ‘Scientific Grounds of Modern Drilling Methods’ was published by the Mejdunarodnaia Kniga Publishing House in Moscow and Baku of the former USSR. Siscenko. with an Introduction by the renowned scientist S. May. 1934 he undertook the leadership of the Romanian Oil Society of the group ‘Mica Redeventa’(‘Small Due’). I. The same year. 1934. .789. Ion Basgan had been applying the new Basgan drilling methods on the oil fields of the Romanian Oil Society with exeptional results. Since 1935. In August. 1934 Ion Basgan shall receive and be a leader of the visit of the professors and students of Leoben in Romania.
The brochure is in fact the extension of a conference topic held on the 19th of April. Statistical tables and several diagrams are a key to the understanding of the text. The work is divided in several chapters dealing with various aspects of the oil problem. has access to numerous precise data. while focusing mostly on the national character of the problem. oil policy in particular. Mrazec for the former’s work ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Oil Exploitation and the Fuel Question’.In 1936 his article ‘Important Factors in the Achievement of a National Oil Policy’ was published in the Industry and Commerce Magazine of the 31st of March. The author mentions as a conclusion the main shortcomings of the natural resources policy. 1936. Romanian National Institute for the study of fitting out and exploitation of energy resources. The author. resulting in a support to the national economic interests in the sense of a better management of the resources and rendering them profitable. regarding their economic policy: ‘the state has not carried out exploitation works and the resources that were legally allowed to this particular purpose have been embezzled and used to other purposes’. in which mostly the technical youth would come up to speak their own mind. no. Ion Basgan was awarded the Nicoara Prize at the suggestion of President L. Mention should be made here of Ion Basgan’s position concerning the activity of certain anonimous mining companies: ‘a possible nationalization of the anonimous mining companies would have brought about the increase of the national capital and therefore the state would have had a leading role in the management of the companies. There is a right appreciation of the principles of the law of mines of 1924 that have set the oil policy on the path of rational nationalization and increase of the national welfare. who is a member of the Institute of Economic Situation and a referent in oil. 4. It is a draft presenting the economic situation of our country. 3rd year.’ Professor L. Industrialization of the country is essential in this respect. from the international and national point of view. while focusing also . that was abandoned in 1929. Mrazec would drew a report on the above mentioned work in which the following aspects are mentioned: ‘It is a brochure of 51 pages that was published in the IRE Bulletin. Basgan violently accuses the contemporary government of lack of patriotic feeling. 1935 within the cycle of conferences that were organised by IRE.
1937 Ion Basgan married Anisoara Frunzescu. In October. This particular optimistic attitude gives the conference a specific character. Ion Basgan joined the 2nd World Oil Congress in Paris and he presented his work ‘The Role and the Required Weight of Heavy Rods for Drilling’. 9 and 11. no. It is that national sense and sincere patriotism from which a revolt against the general indifference stems out regarding Romanian oil policy.on the competition between oil and coal in our country. . Germany and France. 10 and the report he had presented together with engineer Rusu Abrudeanu on the industrialization of the country was published in the AGIR Bulletin. It is to be encouraged this attitude of an engineer who is employed in a private enterprise to tell the truth and be confident that at least some of the achievements that were ruined by the latest seven years policy may be still recovered. On the 6th of June. Basgan published the article ‘La Pologne Productive’ in the Annals of Mines. The text is a good mirror to a sense that we generally see in our engineering body to be stronger that with politicians and economists in our country. as one of the many-sided shortcomings of our economic policy under all governments. At the end of the wedding trip. that would be published in the Congress Works. no. Their wedding trip included Austria. 1936 Ion Basgan published his work ‘The Role of the State in Industrialization’ in the AGIR Bulletin. the Rin Valley. After a trip that had been organized by AGIR to Poland.
. Eng. Ion Basgan and his wife Anisoara Basgan (Frunzescu) on their wedding ceremony (in Sinaia. 1937).Dr.
.Dr. 10/1937. Germany and other countries. at the Mining Congress of Leoben and Bohrtechnicker Zeitung – Vienna and reviewed in USA. Ion Basgan with his wife Anisoara Basgan. he would present at the Mining Congress of Leoben. his work ‘New Oil Fields in Romania’ that would be published in the Annals of Mines no. In the same year. Eng. Austria.
. 1937). Ion Basgan with his wife Anisoara Basgan and Pache Protopopescu (in Moreni.r. Eng.
On the 21st of December.103.137 by the USA for the Basgan heavy rods drilling. Ion Basgan and his wife Anisoara Basgan at the oil rig Moreni – Piscuri.Dr. the sonic drilling applying the Basgan effect and the transmission of the sonic energy through drilling rigs. . 1937 he was granted the Patent No. 2. Eng.
137 of 1937.American Patent No. .103. 2.
Principle diagram of the oil drilling solution as described in Patent No. .103. 2.137 of 1937.
Ion Basgan with his wife Anisoara Basgan and their son Ginel.Dr. Ion Basgan at the baptism of his son Ion (Ginel) Basgan and the latter’s godfather. Eng. Dr. the engineer Grozescu. . Eng.
then at the Engineer Troops Direction for the management of exploration wells of Dobrudja in search of drinking water. 1934) was utilized by the above mentioned societies. It is surprising to have the result of the expert appraisal of Prof. Sovromcarbune. 1938 the Basgan family witnesses the birth of their first son Ion I.789 of 18 May. 1938 Ion Basgan concluded contracts for the implementation of his invention ‘Drilling by means of heavy proportional rods’ at several Romanian oil companies: ‘Petroliera Româna (Agreement No. Mures and in the village Apa – Satu Mare.M. This report would later be published in the contemporary daily magazines and quoted by Prof. on the 1st of Septembre. 1938). Rabe. Comitetul Geologic.545.T. an American. 1939 Mr. came up to Bucharest with the intention to buy Ion Basgan’s USA Patent As a result of a misunderstanding regarding the payment of Basgan’s Patent application.) the Economic Report of the oil section.26 of February. In June 1940.On the 16th of June. he was called up as sub – lieutenant to an artillery regiment in the city of Tg. who would stand in defense of the classical interpretation of the Archimede Principle instead of mentioning the progress brought about by Basgan’s invention. With this end in view he founded the Igenco society for the export of this product. the Romanian Oil Society and ‘Redeventa’ Society were certifying to Ion Basgan that his Patent (No. Virgil Madgearu in his work ‘The Evolution of the Romanian Economy’. Societatea Mica and the Ministry of Metallurgy. 22. On the 8th of February. Redeventa (Agreement No. In the same year. . In May. Basgan starts on his own the first research and geological explorations in Vrancea and Bacau in search for oil. Germani. In the same year. 17. gold and sulfur.I. Upon the braking up of the second world war. In 1940 Basgan would intensify the recovery of oil waste and the production of oqokerity and petrolatum wax by means of vacuum distillation. he was concentrated at the Fortifications Direction of the War Ministry in Mărăşeşti. In February. 1939 Ion Basgan presented on the occasion of the Congress of the Association of Engineers and Technicians of the Mining Industry (A.833 of February 1938. D. Basgan (Ginel).I. he entered an action against the ‘Steaua Română’ society. 29.
The Basgan family had to take refuge to Sinaia and Slănic Prahova. 1940. Basgan shall intensify his activity as a leader of the working procedures of the Igenco and Romanian Oil Societies. 40 of Berlin published his article ‘Charakteristic Des Rumänischen Erdöl es’. . that aimed to annul the ‘Romania . 1940 the Öl Und Kohle magazine. in keeping with the new Decree . Constantin (Dinu) Basgan who was born on the 23rd of February. he undertook the leadership of the actions that were taking place within the National Union of the Oil Industry (UNIP).Germany’ Fischer Protocol and the introduction of favourable amendments to the National Oil Industry into the New Oil Law. as well as of the drilling operations from the Engineer Troops Direction in Dobrudja in search for drinking water. Nicolae Iorga and Virgil Madgearu by the legionaries on the 27th of November.On the 12 th of October. Life nevertheless goes on: Ion Basgan and his family joyfully welcome their second son. 1941. In 1942. Ion Basgan as well as other Romanians were deeply impressed by the murder of the two Romanian scientists. in order to create a large national oil enterprise. under war conditions. 1941 Romania would join in the world war. More diligently than ever. He therefore starts a series of negotiations with the small oil producers. no. On the 22 of June.Law of Oil and National Capital.
1941).Dr. Ion Basgan and his dear ones (Focsani. The frilling of ten water wells in Dobrudja was finished and they were stopped up in order to be used by the Romanian army later in the war. Even later. . Eng. these wells would be put into service again by the Ministry of Agriculture and the State Committee of Waters after 1954 and were used for the green area revival on the Romanian Black Sea Shore.
Basgan will also undertake graphite explorations on his own at various locations in Gorj and Hunedoara Districts. .He shall intensify oil wells exploration within the Romanian Oil Society of Răsvad. Dragomiresti – Targoviste and other sites.
Dr. Eng. Ion Basgan with his father Stefan Basgan and his son Ion (Ginel) Basgan (Focsani, 1941).
When he noticed the importance of the oil exploitation by large oil companies, Basgan would take steps for providing material incentives to these enterprises, while also paying the farmer owners for their subsoil exploitation. In 1943, Ion Basgan was appointed technical adviser of the ‘Mica’ industrial group for the exploitation of its oil structures and fields. On the 20 th of October, 1943 Ion Basgan received the notification regarding the Blocking Order (Distraint) No. 2.427, according to the USA legislation, of the 17th of December 1941. On the 10 th of September, 1945, Prof. P. Moore of USA published Ion Basgan’s article The Effect of Archimede Pressure on the Drilling Oil rig in ‘Oil and Gas Journal’. That was a further
scientific recognition of the Basgan effect as it had been described in his Patents of 1934. On the 18th of October, 1945 he received a certificate from the Romanian Academy attesting his collaboration with this remarkable institution. In February, 1946 in the wake of a correspondence with Prof. D. Germani, Ion Basgan received a favourable answer from him regarding the expert appraisal that was carried out in 1939 on Ion Basgan’s Patent of 1934. This letter entitled Ion Basgan to continue the law suit with the oil magnates. In the same year, Bernhard Paris published a thorough work in which mention was made of the Romanian scientist and the importance of the Basgan effect, in the Bulletin of the French Association of Oil Technicians (No. 60/1964, p. 67, Paris). On the 30 th January, 1947 Ion Basgan’s Romanian Patent No. 37.743 ‘drilling by means of Rotary Hammer’ was registered and in July he opened again the law suit with the ‘Steaua Română’ Society. In July, the experts Prof. A. Beles, Prof. G. Mardan and Prof. C. Teodorescu confirmed through the expert appraisal, which they had handed in, the progress brought about by Ion Basgan’s Patent of 1934 to the drilling science and technique. In 1948, Ion Basgan was appointed General director of the Golden Society. As a result, in a few months he succeeded to increase approx. 8 times the yearly mercury production by substantial changes that he brought about to the society organisation and by a shut down of unprofitable gold explorations. In July, 1948 after the nationalisation of gold and silver exploitaiton, he was appointed president of the Commission for the Inventory of the mining assets that had been nationalised in the Brad area, including the exploitation fields of Banat and Ardeal (Transilvania). On the 8th of February, 1949, the professors of Luisiana University of USA Hawkins Murray and Lamont published in the A.P.I Drilling and Production Practice a study document which, in fact, through its wide laboratory experience brought about a confirmation of the Basgan effect and the importance of the Patents. In 1950, as a result of the activity which he was carrying out at Sovromcarbune, he undertook a series of work trips to the coal fields of the Valea Jiului, where he opened up several mines and implemented his innovations as an application, in practical drilling.
In June, 1951 he got a transfer to Industrial – Export, then in march 1952, he joined the General Direction of Supply and Sales of the Ministry of the Oil Industry and in October 1952 he was transferred to Sovromutilajpetrolifer, as a specialist in drilling, in order to direct and approve the design and production of drilling equipment for export. He was also appointed Head of Quality Control over the nine Romanian metallurgy factories. In 1953 he was called out of production and appointed a member of the Ministry of Metallurgy for the organisation of the Industrial Exhibition ‘The Planned Economy of the Popular Republic of Romania in Full Progress’. On the 1st of November, 1953 Ion Basgan was a member of the Board at the Drilling National Conference in Ploiesti when the Soviet adviser Ghevinian showed to the audience the way Basgan drilling methods were applied at Baku, in USSR. On this occasion the Soviet adviser offered him a book written by Basgan himself and published in USSR. On the 7th of December, 1953 Basgan was appointed the President of the Commission for the Approval of Internal Norms of the Ministry Metallurgical Sector by the Order No. 1.909. The 18th of December, 1953 was an ill-fated day for Ion Basgan and his family. The death of his wife Anisoara Basgan filled their souls with grief and mourning. In 1954, Ion Basgan was appointed by the Central Committee of the Romanian Woking Party to join the Commission for the examination of the heavy dill rods and their supply to the oil industry. In the same year, he would publish his article ‘The Quality of Sovromutilajpetrolifer Products’ in the ‘Metallurgy’ magazine of the Ministry.
Dr. Eng. Ion Basgan with his wife Anisoara Basgan and their children Ion (Ginel) and Constantin (Dinu).
Thanks to his inquiring spirit and his propensity for the creative activity, Ion Basgan would start preparing his examination to be a lecturer at the Oil and Gas Institute. He received the lecturer certificate on the 10th of February, 1954 from Sovromutilajpetrolifer. In November, 1954 Sovromutilajpetrolifer was dissolved and he was transferred to the Ministry of Agriculture as a specialist in oil and water drilling. Mention should be made that for his innovation ‘Heavy pipes for wells drilling’, Basgan would receive an incentive which had much more an emotional and moral value rather than a material one. It was the official recognition of a special effort in the sphere of technical and scientific conception which he did for his country. For 12 years, Basgan carried out his activity at the Ministry of Agriculture and the State Committee of Waters as a designer, producer of drilling works and a president of the national Commission of Water Drilling Coordination. He was the manager and co-ordinator of about 1000 water wells all over the country, of which about 300 in Dobrudja. On this occasion he made an inventory of the water layers and resources that was to be used for the development of this field.
4 of the USA. as a consequence of the responsible patriotic policy regarding the national welfare that Ion Basgan had been leading during the Second World War. Angela Basgan. This conference would be published later in the magazine of the Agriculture Ministry and in the ASIT magazine. . Constantin (Dinu) Basgan. was published in the World Oil magazine no. 1958 Ion Basgan held another lecture at the Agriculture Ministry. One of his articles. 1957 he held the conference ‘Drinking Water Supply in Dobrudja’ at the Ministry of Agriculture. ASIT. confirming the weight calculation of the heavy drilling rods of the 1934 and 1937 Patents. (born Cazaciuc). 1955 he would marry Angela Cazaciuc and on the 16th of March his third son was born. Sorin Basgan. ASIT on the topic ‘Drinking Water Supply in the Country’. 1957 Ion Basgan held a lecture at the ‘Science and Technics Courses of the Romanian Popular Republic’ on the topic sonicity in ‘Oil Explitation and Water Supply’. Ion Basgan received from the Foreign Affairs Ministry a Certificate attesting that he was the victim of political persecution from fascist governments.Ion Basgan with his family: Ion (Ginel) Basgan. the daughter of (Ginel) Basgan) and Florentina (Tita) Basgan. his second wife. Angelica Nicol Basgan (Ion Basgan’s niece. the wife of Ion (Ginel) Basgan On the 13th of April. ‘Hidrotehnica’ no. In June. Sorin Basgan. In May. In October. On the 15th of July. 1/1958 and in the Documentary of the Design Institute for Land Improvement.
Furthermore. In March.103. namely by Mrs. on the 16th of September the 193rd session of the Scientific Council took place at the Oil Ministry. In January. the inventor’s cousin. Therefore. 2. when the Romanian and American negotiations started. Basgan’s colleagues from the Agriculture Ministry also supported him in his fight for gaining his author rights. 1960 the first reaction is registered in the USA magazines. without taking into account Basgan rights. This was the end of an epoch in Basgan’s attempt to claim his author rights. As a result of this event. 8/1959. the inventor. Virginea M. The County Council of Constanta addressed the Ministry of Agriculture in order to solicit Ion Basgan as an assistant in the execution of some works for rising the living standard of Dobrudja and the seaside by supplying drinking water. the law suits were suspended: Basgan.One year later. Cann. On the basis of the Notification no. 3. Drinking Water Supply in Baragan’. was no longer alive. as a confirmation of the special contribution that Ion Basgan had had in 1941 to the discovery of water sources in Dobrudja. 1960 the Romanian and American Agreement is concluded for the regulation of accounts.137 that was Basgan’s property was still under distraint by the American Government since the second world war and consequently its author had no right to claim the due royalties. his work ‘Drinking Water Supply in the Country’ would be published in the ‘Hidrotehnica’ magazine no. the oil companies brought in front of the American law court a death certificate of the physician Ion Basgan. In 1961.439 of the 15th of September. Mc. On the 27th of December. Ion Basgan also carried out ‘The Technical and Economic Memorial. under the leadership of the Minister Mihail Florescu. 1960 Ion Basgan notified the Romanian Government on his Patent property rights. . evidence was brought by the American court that the USA Patent No. when the legal procedures started.
950. 2. 66 Stat. Every one of the above mentioned defendants had been infringing the above mentioned Patent in the past for an extended period of time by manufacturing. 2. Section 1400 (b).137. 1937 the claimant received Patent No. According to our information and belief. Title 55 of the USA Code. the infringement against which we are claiming in the present action has been and still is taking place in … and in other areas of the USA. 5.103. c. all the above mentioned defendants have regular and stable headquarters for their affairs in … and /or have their residence in … 3.THE DISTRICT COURT OF THE USA For the Civil Action File … No.137 for the rotary drilling apparata of oil wells with all legal forms fulfilled and since that date the claimant has bee and still is the owner of this Patent. We also require tha law suit expenses should be paid for us. According to our information and belief.103. each of the above mentioned defendants was duly notified that he infringed Patent No. including Sections 281. 283. selling and using the oil wells rotary drilling apparata that make the object of that Patent. 4. STANDARD OIL COMPANY (NEW JERSEY) THE TEXAS CO. This action is for the infringement of the Patent right and the jurisdiction is based upon the Law of the USA Patents. Therefore the claimant requires that each of the above mentioned defendants should be compelled to pay damages amounting to five hundred thousand dollars. GULF OIL CORPORATION STANDARD OIL COMPANY (INDIANA) SHELL OIL COMPANY SOCONY MOBIL OIL COMPANY STANDARD OIL COMPANY OF CALIFORNIA CONTINENTAL OIL COMPANY twenty million dollars ten million dollars five million dollars five million dollars five million dollars five million dollars five million dollars four million dollars . the Act of the 19th of July. 2. 1952. 284. excepting those that are mentioned on the list below. … Having as object the claim against the infringement of Patent No. On the 21st of December. 799. 285 and 209 of this title and Title 20 of the USA Code.103. The claimant Ion Basgan summons to judgement all the above mentioned persons and respectfully claim that: 1. for which our claims of payment are higher (as mentioned for each of them). According to our information and belief. 2.137 Claimant: Ion Basgan against the defendants: (the names of the 118 defendant companies).
4. of which one was based on the Basgan drilling methods at 2. Gogu Constantinescu would share his joy with the inventor Ion Basgan for the success that the Basgan sonic drilling had registered in America. the minister of Oil with the real results of the testing of the Basgan drilling methods at Roşiori. Both works were handed in at the Romanian Academy Board (with the Registration No. 37. while the other well was drilled in 70 days to the effect that the drilling rig was broken and 1.540 on the 6th of December. 1962 Ion Basgan presented the Report No. by drilling two similar oil wells. his works ‘Simultaneous Rotary Percussion Drilling .SINCLAIR OIL CORPORATION SUN OIL COMPANY UNITED STATES STEEL CORPORATION XOUNGSTOWN SHEET & TUBE COMPANY HUGHES TOOL COMPANY FOSTER WHEELER CORPORATION REED ROLLER BIT COMPANY SUPERIOR OIL COMPANY LAWYER OF THE CLAIMANT. In the meantime. the engineer Gogu Constantinescu.Sonic Drilling’ was published in the ‘Petrol and Gas’ magazine.300 meters. On the 22nd of December. The . The well that was drilled by applying the Basgan method was drilled in 56 days with no technical incident that would cause material damages.100 drilled meters were lost. On this occasion.Râmnicu Sărat. After a correspondence that Ion Basgan had held with the renowned inventor. No. two million dollars two million dollars one million dollars one million dollars one million dollars one million dollars one million dollars one million dollars In the same year. the Oil Ministry undertook the testing of the Basgan method at Roşiori . 3 and the ‘Drilling by Means of Heavy Proportional Drilling Rods’ in the ‘Petrol and Gas’ magazine No. 1961 Ion Basgan held a lecture on the topic ‘Applications of Sonicity in Drilling and Extraction’ at the Science and Technics Courses of the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania. 1961 and 1. the latter accepted the invitation of the Romanian Academy to hold the conference ‘Debates in Sonicity’ on the 5th of October in the Romanian Academy Hall. 1961.666 of the 19th of January.599 to Mihail Florescu. On the 17th of September.
P.103. Exploitation And Maintenance of the Network of Hydrological Survey Wells for Hydro . Stancu from the Foreign Affairs Ministry required that the agreement should be concluded with engineer D. On the 13th of October. T.Dresner .D. as a result of the discussions that had been held by the Romanian delegation under the leadership of Gh. Ion Basgan would organize courses in drinking water supply for specialists all over the country.H. 1965). Okon published his Doctorate thesis under the guidance of Prof. 1966 he met Eng.530 of the Ministry of Justice of the USA (of the 30th of November. engineer D.S. In 1965. events take place rapidly. the Council of Ministers ratifies the authentication of the agreement with engineer D. In December he receives the Address No. Moore. 1965 the USA State Department of Justice issued the Divesting Order SA 838 that stipulated the restitution of the Patent No. 24 . On the 16th of June. consul D.Amelioration Works’ (published by C. which contained a series of remarks regarding Archimede’s pressure on the drilling rig and the importance of drillcolars. in the framework of the State Committee of Waters (I. From that moment. Farcaş of Western Germany. 2.Reiter . The convention stipulated the obligation that Ion Basgan should receive one million DM. approves of a time out of production for Ion Basgan to defend his cause abroad. Gh. the managerial staff of I.A.A. would confirm Basgan’s discoveries and inventions and their implementation would put an end to the controversy regarding this problem.. a delegate of the German group Lommen .P. as follows: on the 22nd of June a session takes place at the Romanian National Bank with the American lawyer John Vintilă.F.I. In 1964 the American specialist U.Bank in order to conclude a co-operation agreement. on the 23rd of June. On the 4th of May. Execution.report also maintains the misinterpretations of several engineers from the Oil Ministry regarding the above mentioned testing.65). On the 8th of July. as a director of studies and professor. I. Ion Basgan elaborated the Technical Instructions Regarding Design. 20. On the 21st of May. His work.S.P. In the same year. Dej with Lyndon Johnson. through which he is informed on the Divesting Order SA 838 and the restoration decisions.137/1937 to Ion Basgan and his restoration to his rights. the President of the USA.). at the Agronomic Institute. Farcaş. Daniel Farcaş. Farcaş informs Ion Basgan about the expert appraisal that had been carried .C. for the recovery of his rights in the USA.
. Institute of Hydro-Technical Studies and Research (I. Because of bureaucratic time-consuming procedures. on the 16th of July it was the deadline for the front payment of the DM amount of money with no money being paid at all.H. evaluating his author rights at 8.).7 billion dollars. .S.S.C.out by the German group in the U.A.
Dr. Ion Basgan.H. Inventions and Marks).In the forefront: Eng. Dr. Eng.S.H. Prof. Alexandru Măru ă. Dr. .S. Engineer Dumitru Cristea and master Tudor Ardeleanu. Alexandru Măru ă to the Romanian scientist George (Gogu) Constantinescu. Eng.) and Director of the Water Direction of UNESCO between 1969 . Eng. Eng. in particular.C.1989.C. Prof. In the second row: Technician Stefan Popa. Eng. Sorin Dumitrescu (Director of I. the President of the State Committee of Waters (Bucharest. member of the Academy. Dimitrie Leonida. Dr. Dr. at a test stand of I. 1963). following the ideas of Gheorghe Hossu. Eng. Dumitru Cioc. and pulsating sonic pumps. scientist George (Gogu) Constntinescu. Ion Iacovache (Office of Standards. in the domain of sonicity applications. Ion Basgan attending to the explanations of Dr. Matei Marinescu.
Eng. 1967). the work and the contribution of Ion Basgan. This Patent would be registered in Romania.G. about the inventions. Ion Basgan decided to apply for another Patent containing an improvement of the former regarding deep drilling.Essential Conditions for the Future of Deep Drilling’ to the French Institute of Oil and to the 7th Congress of oil in Mexic (April. Iosif Constantin Drăgan required a short presentation of this situation that had caused so much controversy.Iosif Constantin Drăgan who was at that time in Spain at Palma de Mallorca wired Ion Basgan. Italy. France. 1967 the Beckers of R. The Trade Chamber of Bucharest published in its ‘Romanian Engineering’ magazine the article ‘Romanian Contributions to the Development of Theory and Practice of Modern Drilling’. On the 29th of March. This was another example of ingratitude of the living Romanians towards their forerunners and the renowned scientist George (Gogu) Constantinescu. this new embodiment of the technical conception would create a new perspective in the field of deep drilling and offer a chance that man could dream to the achievement of new methods that should enable him to break through the lithosphere and explore the interior of the earth down to the so-called ‘Mohorovici layer’. As a result of the success he had with this lecture. Tudor Drăgan.F. There also the audience was very much deceived because the tomb had neither cross. Luckily for Ion Basgan. Eva Constantinescu. Ion Basgan arrived in Conniston and joined Mrs. Constantin Drăgan was not the only person that offered to help him: on the 10th January. On the 24th of January. in particular. As a matter of fact. Ion Basgan would join Dr. where he may find extended oil fields supplies. visited Ion Basgan in Milano and offered him a support in his case. Ion Basgan would join the Congress of the Inter-Parliamentary Union. His Congress dissertation focused on the idea that the future of deep drilling would be represented by the simultaneous rotary percussion drilling. On the 13th of March he sent the dissertation ‘Limitation of the Effect of Archimedes’ Pressure and Sonic Energy . nor memorial plate. On the 5th of April. . USA and Portugal. Drăgan and engineer Morariu at the general session of the ‘Oil Union’ in Rome. where he had the occasion to meet Prof. for his state of his spirit. Iosif C. Ion Iliescu and Constantin Stătescu. In this sense. informing him that he agreed to join in defending his case from the 22nd of August. the widow of George Constantinescu in a memorial procession at the scientist’s tomb.
meeting where he had handed in the documentation regarding his inventions aimed at a possible future collaboration on the oil fields of France.R.R. On the 5th of July. This attempt would be a failure. on the 8th of November he was received at the Ministry of Foreign affairs by the deputy minister George Macovescu. arguing that trial expenses were rather high. On this occasion he discussed the documents and the projects of hydro . where he started to elaborate his new Patent on the sonic drilling at 15 km. After ten days he met the president of the oil group M.amelioration and irrigation that had been provided for Romania by Italy. General Director of . Later. Ion Basgan would be utterly surprised by the conduct of his former colleague.On the 7th of April. ‘intrigues and obstacles’ would arise from the American oil group under the leadership of engineer Rică Georgescu. After several months. France. Drăgan required hardly acceptable collaboration conditions. on the 18th of April. Iosif C. Minolli.. a specialist in American patents.E.E. in his initiative to publish the translation of his book on the Archimedes’ Principle. At the discussions that he had on the 14th of November with engineer Tuzu Constantin. François Emanuelli.P. discussing the possibility to open legal actions in the USA for his author rights.P. he would meet the Romanian delegation of the Agriculture Ministry under the leadership of engineers Montz and Lăzărescu Ion. Ion Basgan returned to Milano. The M. On the 16th of August Ion Basgan hold a lecture about his inventions at the Galusta Gulbenchian Foundation. where he was received together with Guy Henry and in the evening he would visit engineer Wallace. USA and Portugal. who would hand in a memorial to the finance minister of France on the Basgan case for its support in the USA. Iosif C. Drăgan and the lawyer E. On the 6th of October he joint Aristide Sain in Paris to discuss with the ambassador V. in Italy. When he was back in Bucharest. because Dr.A. On the 16th of May Ion Basgan would apply at the Dominicis company for registration of his new Patent on sonic drilling at 15 km. the engineer Eng. Dimitriu.A. Ion Basgan had a meeting in Milano with Dr. According to the Basgans’ documents. On the 29th of May. on the 4th of July. Rică Georgescu. the Dominicis company would cash in the registration fees for his Patents’ files in the above mentioned countries.
because otherwise the Romanian state might have been a little more concerned with him and at least would have built him a statue in Bucharest. Engineer Tuzu was aware of the Romanian psychology. the latter speaking more or less in earnest expressed his regret that Ion Basgan was still alive.Inventions. He knew very well that several generations would deal with Ion Basgan’s work until the national and why not the international public opinion would appreciate his crucial inventions in the domain of drilling. . his character and his way of appreciating the remarkable people of its nation.
he would be fully engaged in his creative activity and submitted on the 24th of November a new Patent on sonicity No. he held the fascinating lecture in the Ministry of Agriculture ‘To the Centre of the Earth’ in front of an extended audience. Ion Basgan and Iosif Constantin Drăgan. the academician Remus Rădule informed Ion Basgan that his discoveries would bring about a change . 50.Dr. On the 30th of November.615. On the 29th of November. Eng. Back in Romania again.
Ion Basgan elaborated the monograph of the Prof.to the written information already existing in the Encyclopaedia and the specialized treatises. 1968 engineer Dan Bodnărescu held a lecture on the ‘Basgan effect’ and its applications at the Ministry of Mines in front of an extended audience of specialists. there was a little effect that did not match by far the effort that had been deployed by all those who had understood that a great injustice was being done to Ion Basgan and to Romania. 1967 was a noteworthy day for Ion Basgan: his article ‘To the Centre of the Earth’ was published in the ‘Informa ia’ newspaper in Romania.419 for the sonic drilling at 15 km. On the 29th of December. The same day. On the 29th of January. Saraga. Eng. Unfortunately. Stancu from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs would require detailed information from Ion Basgan regarding his international activity and as a consequence the daily magazines would besiege with questions the ministries and the government in defense of his case. in order to state the case for the Romanian inventor. . During the lecture several Directors from the managerial staff of the Ministry confirmed the advantages of Basgan’s discovery. after he had spent some time to study. The 1st of December. while in Italy. 796. D.912 was registered about the exploitation of salt by means of upward salt pits. 50. he received the Italian Patent No. On the 20th of December the consul D. On the 26th of December. his invention No. the lawyer John Vintilă came to Romania from the USA. The following day he received the visit of a Portuguese delegation under the leadership of the ambassador Calveltt Magalhaies and Dr. Leonida.
Eng. Ion Basgan. his wife Angela and their son. Yet. on the 7th of February.Dr. unfortunately not in Romania but somewhere abroad. This was also confirmed at the session of the Council of Ministers under the . a group of oil-industry workers of low professional and moral standards ‘discreetly’ submitted a written Note to the Council of Ministers against Basgan’s inventions. Ion Basgan had understood by then that he had been fighting a loosing battle and that there were tremendously high interests at stake. about which Ion Basgan would only learn two years later. Sorin Basgan.
he intended to have an interview with Basgan on his inventions. together with a delegate from the Foreign Affairs Ministry. The interview was broadcast on the radio station ‘Voce del Mondo’ of Rome.I. meanly required him to return the wages he had cashed during his sojourn in Italy. on the 27th of May. with the aim of gathering strength in order to fight for his moral and material rights.799 of 1934 and 2. Moreover. He informed Basgan that he was proposed for being awarded the Nobel prize and in this sense. 22. Ştefan. Although there was much rumor about Ion Basgan’s achievements in the technical and scientific domains and the spectacular results of the applications of his inventions.F. Basgan was glad to learn about his being mentioned in the book ‘Passion of Science’. In 1968. On the 1st of March. as well as a synthesis of the way in which they had been carried out. 1968 the State Office for Inventions – The General Direction of Standards and Inventions that was represented by engineer Boabă.P. his rights were systematically eluded and he himself was treated with indifference. The broadcasting of this interview had a wide international effect. . clear and romantic style that was specific to whatever he did. Dinu Moroianu and I. Ion Basgan received the visit of the editor Gian Carlo Bussoli of Sweden. At a more concrete practical level. the managers of I. On the 15th of October. on account that the financial procedures had not been performed on a regular basis.P.leadership of the vice prime-minister Gaston Marin and some ‘reassuring’ measures were taken to uphold Basgan’s case. This book included a presentation of the main steps in the achievement of Ion Basgan’s inventions. This presentation was a synthesis written by Ion Basgan in his beautiful.103. the representative of a German company who was interested in a collaboration to uphold his cause. On the 29th of February. 1968 Ion Basgan applied for his retiring on a pension from I. a work written by the remarkable historians of the Romanian science and technique.M. the case of Ion Basgan was still kept within the ‘theoretical boundaries’. engineer Bujor Almăjan and engineer Tuzu Constantin acknowledged the application in Romania and the USA of the Basgan methods of his Patents No.137 of 1937. On the 29th of January.I.F. 1969 Basgan met engineer Zadic.
would require incredibly high fees in return. that had brought a revolution to the drilling science and technique.The success he had in the domain of his professional relations fortified his spirit and made the inventor much more confident in his fight against cheating and injustice. he succeeded to understand how intricate it was the mechanism of trials in democratic countries and how unfair there had often been the decisions of law courts when the interests of third parties were at stake. Moreover. Ion Basgan would learn that the above mentioned works were a source of information in the technical and scientific espionage in favor of an American group of oil-magnates. The more Ion Basgan traveled in order to settle his case. Nevertheless. even higher obstacles made him the more skeptical about ever recovering his author rights. what he gained indeed it was friendship ties that he established and made to grow firm. 1969 he had once again the opportunity to see how far the interplay of occult interests can reach. Yet. In spite of the contacts that the Romanian inventor Ion Basgan had at the top and the relations he had established. which proved a real support to him while fighting injustice. the risks of which he had been ignoring. most of the contacts that he would establish were more often than not underlined by hidden. unjust and inhospitable. As a matter of fact. He had disregarded the fact that in democratic countries the economic competition assumed the toughest forms of manifestation. going deep into actions and discussions that were meant to ruin his health and waste his time. a wish that could not come true. Ion Basgan would only have the opportunity to find out that the world around is tough. unfair interests. The inventor squandered away his strength. Ion Basgan had been engaged in a solitary battle. stepping down from the stage of creation. because it has always been governed by money. because of their exaggerated financial claims and the brigandist tendencies that . the more he would become aware that everything was lost to him. selfish. In fact. The editor Balçar. He was invited to join dinner protocols at various embassies: that helped him to become even more renowned and appreciated for his special achievements. Moreover. his case would still remain unsolved. On the 28th of June. The agreements he had concluded with various lawyers’ companies would not come to their term. getting hold of certain works of the Romanian inventor.
were manifested by some of their representatives in their relations with Ion Basgan. He would wire to the Romanian Government. 1970 that certain USA oil companies had made a deposition of a substantial amount of money in a secret account for a possible future payment for the utilization of the Basgan Patent. he would become aware of a similar attitude in Romania regarding the recognition of his author rights. 1969 Ion Basgan still had the strength to be enthusiastic about the remarkable achievement of the USA. During the war. a man who believed that honor was the highest form of the manifestation for the human character: he received the visit of Jean Thibaudet Philbert. Sonic drilling at 15 km was tested and it was taken the decision of producing the Basgan drilling installation in Romania. in order to enable the proceedings of the Divesting Order SA 838 in the USA and be restored to his rights. while using the whole range of proceedings: from espionage to the art of diplomatic eloquence. France. to Romania. Whose case would such actions defend? Definitely not that of. A network of schemes would be built up around this new situation and further obstacles were ‘raised’ when the good and the evil forces would clutch again. the Romanian president down to the engineers who were in charge of the oil extraction works on the oil-fields. He had lost his hope of the recognition of his own rights. namely the moon flight by APOLLO XI: he sent a congratulation message by wire to the White House in the USA. which Philbert returned him before 1965. Ion Basgan had registered his own USA Patent on the latter’s name. On this occasion. or Ion Basgan. A few sun rays appeared on the murky sky of the Romanian inventor. the campaign in favor of backing up Basgan’s case attained higher proportions. Everything he had written and done in support of his case were but a useless ‘concert’ of his own claims. the vicemayor of Lyon. either Romania. On the 22nd of July. the American President. when Sarchiz Halajian of New York informed him on the 21st of February. By that time in Romania. The 25th of August was a day for the Romanian inventor in which he shall meet again a true friend. in order to have his claims made open to the USA on the occasion of the visit of Richard Nixon. . The range of those who were fighting for the recovery of his rights extended from Nicolae Ceauşescu.
Annuities were paid for 17 years for both patents. mining and other drilling industries in the USA. 193 of the 16th of September. Basgan.137. about 60 million meters were yearly drilled by applying the Basgan drilling methods. 118 files were opened in the USA in the name of Ion Basgan through the Chamber of Commerce for claiming minimum 125 million dollars. WesternGermany engineers estimated an economic contribution amounting to 30% of the economic profit that resulted from the utilization of heavy proportional rods in drilling. 1960. as well as according to the state lawyers.103. 4 . Dinu I. Ion Basgan negotiated with Western-Germany lawyers and engineers of the Dresdner Bank group the recovery of rights and the financing of this action.The USA Patents were issued with a governmental security and a 17-year validity. Therefore. The Western-Germany expert appraisal showed that. that had been made through retroactive infringements’. titles and interests of Ion Basgan for and ensuing from the Patent No. with the objection that the Patent was still under the Divesting Order at that time. Ion Basgan came into his own rights through the Divesting Order SA 838. Patent 2. according to the official statistics of the USA. the beginning of war would lead to the divesting of Patent 2. at least 30 dollars / sq m).507. They assimilated these rights to the Hebrew rights that had been confiscated by Germany during the war and which Germany had to pay back entirely after the war. Johnson annulled the divesting order that had been laid on the Patent. 2. from 1970 to 1987 4.137 had legal validity from 1937 to 1954 and Patent 3. Basgan and Sorin I.103. with the following issue: ‘All the rights. They confirmed that Basgan’s drilling method had been 90 % applied in oil. that would result in an output of 30 % (namely. On the basis of the economic agreement that was concluded between Romania and the USA on the 30th of March. Basgan. as well as all the damages and profits that may be recovered according to the law or equity. That The case of these Patents was undertaken to be continued by the three sons of Ion Basgan: Ion I. when the administration of the President L. These files were closed by the American law courts.341.103. and made a technical and economic expert appraisal while taking into account the extent of the drilled areas in the USA.137 by the USA government until 1975. 1960 and the Notice of the Oil Ministry that was passed by the scientific council no. including all those resulting from royalties. As we have already mentioned.
that the entire world oil industry has been using since 1934 up to the present.On the 21. USA Patent 2.427. that is in German ‘Patent granting letter’.103. 3On the 20. damages.1943. 2In 1939 / 190. It was stated as a conclusion that the rights of Ion Basgan amounted to about 8.04 and 22. The sales procedures were interrupted under war conditions. The most important Printing House of the Federal Republic of Germany. ore and water utilized this patent against the law and without payment. they have consciously ignored and broken Patent granting laws. the inventor received the Patent granting letter.6 billion dollars in the USA. but with no favorable results. 1/5. according to the USA Law of the 17th of December. the author and owner of the Patent tried to sell globally this Patent to an American company. this Patent. as well as an interview with the Romanian inventor. Springer Verlag backed up the conclusions of this expert appraisal by publishing an entire page in the Bild am Sonntag of the 25th and 26th of May.10.137’.Upon the registration. DOCUMENTARY NOTE Ref: Project 7/66. that had become a European case.12. America as a state governed by the rule of law guarantees and protects by its own legislation the author and the patent owner against any abusive utilization of the Patent (see 1st page of the USA Patent). . was put under distraint through the Blocking Order No. according to the Divesting Order SA 838 there were added also interests. including all its pending rights and obligations.04. that is to say. 1/3. at the United States Department of Justice. he paid all the taxes for 17 years of Patent protection.137 1A Romanian citizen has an invention. natural gas. 1941. 1969 in order to state Ion Basgan’s case. ‘Letters Patent 2. As a result of the Western-Germany expert appraisal.All the companies. it was decided that a royalty of at least 10% of these savings was due to the Romanian inventor and.1948.In this ‘LETTERS PATENT’. from the ‘City of Washington USA’ Patent Office. honorariums and charges. 1/4. either large or small.amounted to a saving of 30 billion dollars that the Basgan Patent would bring to the American economy in 17 years. effective losses. that made deep drilling for oil.He tried again to sell this Patent through 2 advertisements in the specialized magazine “OIL AND GAS” of 8. gains. 1/1. 2. 4As a result of the intervention of the author and owner of the Patent to the American Ministry of Justice.103.1937. 2/1.This invention was registered in 1934 at the American Patent Office 1/2. including interests.
7/4.137 was utilized illegally and without payment at a rate of 90% by the American oil companies.770.103.182. 7/2. 17 years of Patent protection + 4 years of war + 18 months of prolongation according to the Peace Treaty of February.interests: 5% per year x 22 ½ years = 112. 6The USA Patent 2. 7The payment claims are as follows: 7/1.655. 1947.137 as admitted by the specialists are at least 30% per one-meter of drilled area.000 dollars 5.103. international practices and law courts would acknowledge and award at least 10% of the cost savings to the author and owner of the Patent. the Blocking Order No. therefore committing a flagrant breach of the American Patent legislation.the Foreign Properties Office.103. assignment or sale.30% cost savings obtained through the application of the USA Patent 2.793.655.427 of 20.Actually drilled meters x average cost 1.605.230.692.370.Author rights are usually established by negotiation.author rights: 10% of the savings 27.72 dollars / m ……… 93. according to the legislation of his country has appointed me.932.10. with reference to the costs per one-meter of drilled area by applying the old drilling methods.. 1966 and by agreement with his Government. honorariums. Texas and California.692.384. that is in 22 and a half years of Patent protection.103. the following are textually specified: a) Accumulated author rights.Summary: 7/5a. 2.000 dollars .137 93. Yet.dollars 7/5b.000 …………………………….5% …. 7/3.107.000 dollars 7/5d. etc.307. 7/5.000 .615. agreement.185. that is 22 and a half years of Patent protection until 1963. 3.It was established that the American oil companies performed 1.307. through the contract of the 16th of June.107.130 drillings = 1.142.932.765. b) Interests c) Lost revenue d) Compensation for damages e) Expenses.137. 2.000 x 30% ………………… 27.935.dollars Claims of the Patent owner 7/5c.72 US dollars / m between 1938 and 1963 for carrying out deep drilling in Louisiana. the engineer Daniel Farkasch to turn to account his rights irrevocably by either collection of payments.The cost savings that were brought about by the USA Patent 2. 5The author and owner of the USA Patent 22.214.171.1243 was declared void through the Deblocking Order SA 838 of October 1965 and the author of the Patent received back all his legally acceptable rights.000 .011.770.480 m x 78. charges.80 m from 1938 to 1963.The average cost per one-meter of drilled area amounted to 78.
1941 as a property of the enemy. The latter is acceptable also according to the International Law.634.000 dollars 7.442.376.15% expenses. the American legislators should be aware of and allow this Patent infringement by their own oil companies. The importance and significance of this Patent has already resulted from the fact that the USA laid a distraint upon the above mentioned Patent at the beginning of the war.634. 2.000 dollars are addressed to the 150 to 200 American oil companies and are expressed in a percentage. When the legal claims of the author and owner of the Patent 2. 1943.….000 thousand US dollars.126.000 dollars 6.907. even out of the question that. etc.000 thousand US dollars.7/5e.553. 593. this decision may be already regarded as a kind of decision for the payment of the legal claims by the Patent infringers. it would be impossible.508.016. 838) by the Ministry of Justice as a supreme authority of the American law courts.delivered gains: 10% ……………………………. of which the Company retained in 1964 a net income of 281. 1965 (S.836.75 billion US dollars and the positive sold was 577.283. according to the balance-sheet official reports.529.loss compensation: 15% …………………………. namely that they still utilize this method illegally and without payment.. taxes. Taking into account the fact that the United States of America are also a State governed by the rule of law. on the other there is absolutely no danger that this legal claims against Patent infringement should result in currency fluctuation. 9- 10- 11- 12- 13- 14- .555. 8.561.458. On the one side. the 2nd oil concern of America had in 1964.Global legal claims …………………………. than they institute legal proceedings and huge claims.000 dollars 7/5f.537. according to the USA Law of the 17th of December. according to their effectively drilled surface expressed in meters. …………1.176.000 dollars 8This global calculation regarding the drilled surface expressed in meters in the USA extends to all the Oil Companies that have carried out drilling directly or indirectly. through the Blocking Order No.103.000 dollars 7/5g.427 of the 20th of October.137 where confirmed in writing through the Deblocking Order of the 13th of October.. a turnover of 3. if we are to consider for instance that TEXACO. 979.836.458.A. it is known that taking into account the present conditions of the USA dollar in America. the payment of these legal claims may yield currency and political fluctuation.000 dollars 7/5h. These global legal claims amounting to 8. No sooner have they heard about their Patents being infringed. honorariums. It is generally admitted that American companies themselves are the biggest hunters of Patent infringe..
They engaged themselves to uphold my interests by suing at law the oil companies. Ion Basgan leaving his country. It was absolutely evident to me that this “group of interested persons” had unfair intentions. 1969: ‘After some time. but we won’t pay!’ In the following years. a half of our Federal Budget. Ion Basgan was becoming doubtful of the extension of his inventions application in Romania. had told him once at a Conference in London. They meant to draw me in. representing 3. in order to state his case. He would always remember what an adversary of his.15- According to our European notions. Therefore. In exchange. as he wished to entirely recover his legitimate author rights for his invention. in 1967: ‘We shall be suing you for dozens of years and then we shall proceed with your sons. 1969) and carried by himself the burden of his case. I was supposed to receive in exchange 50% of the profit. there should not be ignored the possibility of a Governmental approach of this Project. Things were becoming worth in Romania again. arrived at Rome. Here is what Ion Basgan declared on the occasion of an interview that he had with the German newspaper Bild am Sonntag of München on the 25th and 26th of May. Ion Basgan refused this offer (that was made public also by the Western Germany magazine Bild am Sonntag of the 25th and 26th of May. Hearings and written statements were piling without the . to my estimate. there were some attempts from the oil companies to pay Ion Basgan his author rights. with the approval of the Central Committee of the Romanian Communist Party and the President Nicolae Ceauşescu. offered him to become a citizen of Israel for 10 thousand dollars and assured him that the amount of 8. as well as the recovery of his USA author rights. Professor Ion Basgan would later reject other similar “offers” also: he would not admit compromises. a certain engineer of Dallas.6 billion dollars where to be brought to Israel. Therefore. where Saint. these Patent claims are a gigantic amount of money. the Jewish organization. as if somebody were synchronizing the evil events that were happening on the one side and on the other of the ocean. a banker offered me a cheque representing over 5 thousand dollars (20 billion Deutsche marks) from the part of “a group of interested persons”. I was compelled to reject their socalled offer’ (the text was translated and adapted).5 billion DM. as far as the Basgan case was concerned. In the autumn of 1966. I was supposed to resign my claims to this group. respectively.
although it was for a short time only. On the 18th of March.103.expected results showing up. while he retained also his manuscripts. who confirmed the validity of his USA Patent 2. . The latter would in a way recover his confidence for some time. The promises that the authorities of the Romanian ‘golden epoch’ made to him would remain a mere talk in the middle of the human vanity fair. On the 30th of June. would confess to Ion Basgan that American lawyers lacked the courage to fight against the companies that had not paid for the author rights to the Romanian inventor. Oprişan. under difficult conditions. It was a routine interplay. Ion Basgan would resume his activity in order to uphold his case. making a series of trips abroad. The lawyer Jack Cooper avowed that he had worked for the oil magnates in 1960 during the law suit that was carried against them by Ion Basgan. Willi. the ambassador Constantin Flitan of Paris made a report of his discussions with the President Nicolae Ceauşescu about the Basgan case to the Romanian inventor. having multifarious relations in various societies including that of the lawyers and business men. The frequent encounters he had with his old friends shall refresh him and revive his wish to stand firm and face the hardships of life. he was advised by Jack Cooper at the Kenyon Patent Company of New York. During a dinner party that was offered by Prof. a game of the nerves in which the weakest and the powerless had to surrender to the most powerful. Ion Basgan would undertake a series of actions in which certain personalities were involved. In fact it was but another illusion: he was alone on the battle field. without any financing from his own country. He was deeply branded by the unspeakable attitude of editor Balçar of Münnich. who would withhold the printing of his books Archimedes’ Principle and Sonicity. who had been back from the USA for some time then. the adviser C. Ion Basgan would nevertheless pursue his fight abroad. To begin with 1971. yet he would always keep in his own hands his legal rights against the shameful proposals of foreign financiers and great lawyers. When he had surpassed the psychological effect of the discussion with the Romanian adviser.137. On the 10th of May. Ion Basgan concluded an agreement of financial support with a financing party that was represented by Josef Mandl.
because they had been neglecting the Basgan effect. in 1973. the Watergate conflict of the USA would destroy everything that it had been achieved in the domain of the USA and Romania relations in upholding the Basgan case. this would never happen. which would be a success in the domain of oil exploitation. E. although on the 7th of April. the Institute of Legal Research within the Academy of Social and Political Sciences of the Socialist Republic of Romania sent a document to the lawyer H. 1971 on the occasion of a discussion taking place with Horia Hulubei and Henri Coandă. On the 22nd of June. In the meantime. Between the 3rd and the 7th of October. Cohen and Stiefel sent a study to Mr. Cox of New York attesting that Ion Basgan was going to be restored to his rights. yet officially things would remain unchanged. Eventually. E. Later. On the 19th of October.Privately. The renowned scientist H. Ellis Cox (a relative of the President Richard Nixon) sent a written confirmation to the President Nicolae Ceauşescu on the 19th of July that he had undertaken the case of Ion Basgan in the USA and asserted that it was a right suit. within the institute he had founded. that should provide a confirmation of the Basgan effect and of the inventions in which it had been applied. Unfortunately. 1973 Ion Basgan sent a Memorial to Gheorghe Oprea.341 .507. the adviser of the Romanian President with the . stepping in discreetly now and then to uphold or block its actions. H. The lawyer H. Coandă that the Coandă effect in oil exploitation. On the 20th of November. Ion Basgan carried out his professional activity at the Oil Documentary Center. he would complete this work. everybody would rend justice to Ion Basgan and even sympathize with him. Coandă agreed to organize a collaboration. Romanian and American secret services were shadowing the progress of the case. 3. Cox. in order to elaborate an international bibliographic research study. according to the interests of the parties that were involved. 1971 the legal advisers Hubbell. regarding the validity of Ion Basgan’s USA Patent No. Ion Basgan took the opportunity to tell H. moreover the case procedures and its supporters were slow and inefficient. the utilization of laser in drilling and other methods could not bring the intended results. in support of Ion Basgan’s assertions.
1973. . 1973). 1973.following documents in Annex: 1) the legal report Cox . 5/1973. 12.Hauser Rosenzweig (of the 24th of May and the 1st of June. 4) the Science and Technics magazine No.162 to the State Council of the 11th of June. 3) the Attestation made by the Institute of Legal Inquiries of the 7th of April. 2) the Memorial No.
. 1973.Ion Basgan together with his sons. and with his nieces (Ginel's daughters) – Predeal. Ion (Ginel) and Sorin Basgan.
he met Kutka and engineer Martin Licht. Bogdan. that had been organized on the topic of the Northern Sea drilling.431 and presented him a report from the Columbia University. On the 28th of January. On the 10th of October at the meeting with Hayorth . showing that Romania supported the Basgan Case. they informed the Romanian inventor that they were not ready for the discussions and Milică Marinescu withheld the support he had been offering before. 1974 the engineer Cristescu. On the 16th of October on the occasion of meeting the lawyer Densan. confirmed to Ion Basgan the proficiency of the operation of drill collars in drilling. 3. 1974 Ion Basgan discussed collaboration opportunities in the domain of drilling. so as to avoid sanction for lack of interest. both in Romania and the USA.507. On the 17th of October. On the 9th of November.On the 24th of the September. where he had been on a documentary visit. Cox handed a photocopy to Ion Basgan of a letter from the ambassador C. On the 18th and 19th of November.341 / USA. a Patent specialist. in order to examine the possibilities of further extending the registration of the Patent 3. with Ali Mohamed Masmudi El Schurmani of Tripoly.507. On the 12th of January. The American Law ‘Laches’ stipulated compulsory prosecution for claims and immediate legal action. the lawyer H. regarding the application of his inventions in the USA and in other countries. 1973 Ion Basgan was informed by the adviser Gheorghe Oprea that no financing was allowed for his case in the wake of the proposal made in this sense by the Foreign Trade Bank.World Patent Development and Cox Baudler. E. namely Hughes Tool Company and Humble Oil Refining Company had been applying the USA Patent No. who was a specialist in drillings at the Oil Ministry. the latter handed Ion Basgan the report that contained the confirmation that two enterprises. he visited the exhibition Interocean 1973 in Dusseldorf. at the proposal of the Romanian Ministry. On the 17th of November. the Romanian inventor came in for an interview with Andrei Brânduş at the Voice of America and the Free Europe. . Libia.
Moreover. the Romanian inventor sent a memorial the joint Romanian and American Economic Council in the matter of his USA claims. he was nevertheless required to change his Romanian citizenship for the American one as a legal solution for the payment of his legal rights. Ion Basgan suggested to the Americans the setting up of the Basgan foundation. That was an answer that would leave any American speechless. Besides these co-operation proposals and work appointments. On the 11th of June.to On the 3rd of March. His answer was definitely negative. on the address of Manea Mănescu. In fact. one of Ion Basgan’s oldest dreams was to set up a Foundation with the money that he should have received as his author . in which he presented the list of testimonies and witnesses reports. he submitted the Memorial together with 21 documents. that had been involved in his case regarding the recovery of his author rights. when he was invited to the Griffins in Staten Island. Ion Basgan was also involved in working out a Memorial between the 3rd and the 25th of May that he addressed to the USA Congress. On the 26th of May. On the 15 th of April he receives from the engineer Valentin Turcu a series of proposal of co-operation with the Norse Company of Norway. Although nobody could deny his scientific achievements. he would finish the last details of his Memorial to the USA Government.
with many underground ties leading to obscure areas full of unforeseen events. On the 11th of June. Elie Carafoli and other Romanian scientists. The Foundation would include an institute with 34 sections. Mocanu with the title ‘Aspects of the Technical and Economic Espionage’. A museum was also intended to be set up within the Foundation. Constantinescu. that should highlight the contribution of the Romanian nation during their entire existence as a people in the Romanian geographical area to the progress of world culture and technique. On the 12 th of June. Prof. On the 10th of June. the minister Ion Avram. G. sonicity. as a result of his receiving a work from I. the architect Vogel. On the 14 th of June. As for the lawyers. water supply). Scherman Abrahamson sent a written notice to Ion Basgan. The author’s point of view as stated in the above mentioned work entitled Ion Basgan to think that the stakes had . the adviser of the Agriculture minister. as far as he was concerned. On the 18th of June. oil. On the 22nd of April. the Director of the USA Ministry of Commerce. in Germany at Munich. mentioning that he was not in a position to legally support his case. covering also the specialization domains of the inventor (hydro-technique. The inventor intended to work together with his three sons within this Foundation. Ursu. the problem was even more complicated. C. before his leaving. to whom he would hand in the Patents for Japan. 1975 Ion Basgan sent reports on the Basgan case to the minister Bujor Almăşanu . through the ratification of this document in the American Congress. they found the solution of the ratification of the Divesting Order. On the 20th of May.rights royalties. Oprea and to I. Giurescu would hold a cycle of conferences on the Romanian contribution in the domain of world science and technology. the vice-prime minister Gh. as it was expected. required consulting from the Romanian inventor Ion Basgan in the domain of the foundation of a joint company for water supply and irrigation in Libia and Maroc. presenting the work of Ion Basgan. he concluded the collaboration and financing convention with the lawyer William Griffin. Frankfurt and other cities. that granted backdated author rights. he received the visit of the jurist Florea. Ion Basgan was glad to see that. C.
who was himself a dreamer and a progress originator. the Romanian inventor Ion Basgan is a telling example: he was en enthusiastic advocate of sonicity principles and a disciple of Gh. years on end. The uninterrupted continuation of the exploitation of these assets required that the capital and patents of the citizens belonging to the states that were at war with the USA should be intrusted to a custodian. that were stipulated by international legislation. to put it otherwise. and the USA Patent No. The adversary was much stronger than he. 22. Constantinescu and to that of Henri Coandă. The main Patents of engineer Basgan are: the Romanian Patent No.137/1937 ‘A New Drilling System That Takes into Account Hydrostatic Pressure and Long Distance Sonic Energy Transmission by Means of Heavy Proportional Rods and Sonic Drilling’.789/1934 ‘Method for Increasing the Output and Improving Rotary Drilling by Rotary Percussion and by Damping Hydromechanical Pressure’.103. they ‘forgot’ about Ion Basgan. there have not yet been identified practical or legal ways to recover the damages that resulted from the . Therefore the large American oil companies were allowed to assume freely the results of the Romanian inventor’s work and discoveries.already been laid down and that he was fighting a loosing battle and that it was impossible for him to win the fight for his author rights. thus depriving both him and Romania of high currency amounts. 2. with Ion Basgan there had been even more situations in which the intelligence theft on behalf of Romanian inventors has become manifest in a typical form of their intellectual property infringement. ‘As compared to the case of Gh. Unfortunately. Up to the present moment. who was responsible for the administration and accounting of the income the respective assets would bring at the end of the war. for which the American oil corporations should have paid the royalties. a ‘naïve inventor’ as he had once said about himself. Constantinescu. to the Romanian inventor for using his above mentioned Patents. In this respect. The proclamation of the state of war between Romania and the USA at the end of 1941 had among other effects also the sequestration of the assets that were on the territory of Northern America and belonged to Romanian citizens: these included also the Patent of engineer Basgan.
5 . Aspects of Technical and Economic Espionage. Military Printing House. Bucharest. Mocanu.5 The Diary of the famous Romanian scientist and technician Ion Basgan ended the 27th of September. Sorin Basgan. Constantin (Dinu) Basgan. Ion Basgan and his family: Angela Basgan.‘omission’ that had been probably organized by the directly interested parties`. Dr. 1975. 1975 with an affectionate note in which he specified that his son Sorin Basgan was leaving for nine months to Medgidia to fulfil his military service. I.
Kennedy and the Inspector for Registered Patents and Marks. Eng. dated 1977. C. Eng. The Basgan’s archive still contains a correspondence of Ion Basgan. Eng. Ion Basgan. Marshall Dann. . Dimitrie Leonida’ (1980). senator Eduard M. Prof. Dr.Ion (Ginel) Basgan and Florentina (Tita) Basgan. Emil Prager and academician Matei Marinescu at the Symposium of the Technical Museum ‘Prof.
. 1980 the Romanian inventor Ion Basgan departed from this world.On the 15th of December. for which he had worked and created extensively.
1980). TECHNICAL ACTIVITY . Eng.Dr. Eng. Dimitrie Leonida’ (the 4th of December. Ion Basgan at the Technical Museum ‘Prof.
that was validated through the Report No. as well as other mining sites in Austria. Ion Basgan visited the lignite mining site near Vienna. 1925. 206. 1961 by the Superior Commission of Diplomas. Migle Steaua Română’ company and the certificates. Poland and Romania. 208 in the Northern area No.4. 18 and 22. 1925. as an oil field worker at the oil field No. Moineşti. Namely. of the 17th of July. Boldeşti. He started his practical mining activity at the coal mines of Seegraben-Leoben (Austria) and the iron mines Eisenerz-Steiermark (Austria). Between the 1st of January and the 1st of April. 2 C of Moreni. he performed a practical training of several months at the oil fields of Pechelbron (Alsacia). From the 1st of April to the 15th of April. Up to 1932. Ion Basgan carried out his activity as a deputy engineer of the Section chief in the Southern area of Moreni. by the Ministry of Public Works and the Report No. working on the oil fields No. working on the oil fields No. In order to better understand and become acquainted to this domain of activity. 1925. the salt pit of HallstadtSalzkammergut (Austria). Ion Basgan carried out his activity as a manufacturer of oil drilling plants in central workshops and from the 15th of April to I . Ion Basgan travelled on foot around all the oil fields in Romania. the magnesium mines of Veitsch (Austria). 1926. In July. in the ‘Alian a’ system at PâscovMoreni and from the 15 th of September to the 15th of October. that were issued by the Mining Inspectorates of Ploieşti and Moreni for leadership in oil and natural gas exploitation are attesting the professional evolution of the young man Ion Basgan.902 of the 13th of February. 1. From the 15th of October to the 1st of December. 1925. 10. 38. from the 25th of July to the 15th of September. Ion Basgan worked at the oil fields No. in the Southern area of Moreni. 1926. Ion Basgan was an oil field worker at the ‘Rotary’ oil well No. Podenii Noi. where he studied the oil exploitation through galleries.on Basgan graduated from the High School of Mines and Metallurgy (Montanistische Hochschule 5. Ceptura. with the Diploma No. Mislea. 1926. Scăioşi. 39 in the ‘Alian a’ system. he was a deputy engineer of the Section chief in the Northern area of Moreni. Câmpina. Germany. and 44 in the ‘Alian a’ system. 208 and 210. 1925. Leoben – Austria. 1926. Gura Ocni ei. Ion Basgan was employed as a probationer engineer at the ‘Steaua Română’ company. all of them working in the ‘Rotary’ system. In the summer of 1924. 6. 44 of the 22nd of April. such as: Moreni. 1925 to January. From the 1st of December.
2. that were under drilling conditions and on the oil fields No. 41 and 46. in order to continue his activity as a Section chief engineer. 1926. as a result of the practical work he had carried out in this domain and the exam. in the ‘Rotary’ system. on the oil fields No. In 1931. the oil well No. 9 and 13. As a Chief Engineer of the oil drilling team for oil exploration. working on the oil field No.the 1st of July. 1927 (Patent No. In 1930. that were commissioned to start oil production. 1926. The work experience and method that he applied were to be used later in Galitia . as the deputy of the drilling section Inspectorate. Ion Basgan was in charge of the leadership of the oil fields at Podenii Noi (Prahova) and Scăioşi (Prahova). 3. Therefore. 10 in the ‘Rotary’ system and attending to the rigging up of the oil fields No. on various Romanian oil fields: Ceptura (Prahova). he had the function of deputy engineer of the Section chief in the Southern area of Moreni. Ochiuri (Dâmbovi a) and Moreni. where there had been problems with the deep ‘Rotary’ drilling. 8. specialising in the ‘Rotary’ oil drilling. 39 and 44. where every field included several dozens of production and a few drilling oil fields. 11 of Boldeşti.Poland. that were going to be rigged up. of the ‘Indian’ system and the oil field No. that he had passed in August. Ion Basgan worked on the Ceptura oil field (Prahova) as a chief engineer of the Şoimescu Section. four ‘Calis’ exploitation oil wells and several ‘Rotary’ oil wells. From the 1st of July to the 25th of July. 38. at the oil fields of Moineşti. 1. . In this sense. that had been drilled with violent outburst into the air and to work at the oil well No. 471 of Scor eni – Mislea. Zemeş and Solon. His high responsibility and professionalism had earned him the confidence of the company managing staff who entrusted him several high difficulty tasks: he was required to do the fishing job at the oil well No. where he joined in the drilling of several ‘Rotary’ oil wells (at Podeni). Ion Basgan was a Chief of exploitation in oil and natural gas since the 7th of May. 4. Ion Basgan was transferred to Câmpina. 6. he passed an exam in August. 1926 at the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. 39). he was appointed Director of the oil field exploitation works of the ‘Steaua Română’ company in the Bacău District. all the drilling works on the company’s field were under Ion Basgan’s leadership. 3 and 5. 1926. As a Chief Engineer of oil field exploitation. 29 of Moineşti witnessed the first attempt of Ion Basgan to implement the ‘Rotary’ drilling in the region of hard rocks in Moldavia.
covering the entire oil industry and the oil-extraction industry. Ion Basgan elaborated the general framework for an independent economic policy through the nationalisation of the Romanian oil industry and the industrialisation of the Romanian economy. as a referent of the Oil and Mining Section and a founder member of the Association for the Study of the Economic Situation in Romania and on this occasion he published a series of economic syntheses studies. As we have mentioned before. On this occasion. He established the statistical framework for the monitoring of various sectors and phenomena specific to these industrial and economic activities. Paris and London institutes. Ion Basgan passed con brio his Doctor degree examination on the 7th of July. by the Ministry of Industry and Commerce. by visiting the Vienna. with his work ‘Die Arbeitsweise und Form des Rotary Meissels in Erdölgesteine’. including: exploitation drilling. as a referent at the Oil and Mines Section. 1933 contained a report of the first World Oil Congress in London and a photo of the official participants and delegates from all over the world. When he was in London. he was appointed the official delegate of Romania at the first World Oil Congress in London. that he had been carrying out in order to supplement the Archimedes’ principle and to study the transmission of sonic energy through the drill column. In 1933. resulting in the elaboration of several significant works in this domain. as well as high-productivity oil wells drilling. This kind of practical activity was a good opportunity for Ion Basgan to undertake research and gain experience from the geological. On this occasion. Ion Basgan joined in the leadership of the Oil and Mining Section. He was awarded the Doctor degree in mining sciences – Doktor der Montanistischen Wissen-Schaffen (which was validated by the Superior Commission of Diplomas of the . he represented Romania at the opening session of the Congress and he participated in the debates with a report on the results of his scientific research. Between 1932 and 1933.Ion Basgan carried out a wide range of specific activities at the ‘Steaua Română’ company. he attended the University summer courses ical knowledge. Austria. Ion Basgan brought an excellent contribution to the outlining of the shortcomings of the oil policy in Romania as compared to the world corporations. At the same time he established contacts with similar State-of-the-Market Institutes from abroad. technical and economic point of view. in Leoben. as well as a summary of Ion Basgan’s report. 1933 at the Montanistische Hochschule. ‘The Petroleum Times’ magazine of the 22nd of July.
Ion Basgan worked as an honorific course assistant at the Department of oil study. Fulglewicz mentioned the following in the report of the school Rector: ‘Engineer Basgan had the opportunity to analyse the operation of the Rotary driller during several Rotary boring operations. . as a course assistant of Prof. Ion Basgan’s graduation paper was very appreciated by specialists and it was retained by the examination commission for publication in the school year book and by the Hans Urban Printing House of Vienna. of the 16th of July. In this sense. The paper represents a precious contribution to the technical and scientific bases of the Rotary drilling system. in the presence of the Romanian minister in Vienna. at the Oil study Department. From 1933 to 1944. he established their laws. Dr. Ion Basgan presented rules and formulae to the drilling technician for the correct dimensioning of the drilling equipment. Pirkl and Prof. 1933 and the Universe. Dr. who was a special guest of the school Rector. On this occasion the Romanian flag was raised and the lectures that were held were published in the Austrian and Romanian newspapers (‘Obsersteirische Volkszeitung’. then by mathematical calculation. 1933). 1. that were carried out on the oil fields of Romania and to draw the attention on the rhythmical vibrations that occur in the drilling rods. Eng. When he had received the Doctor degree. Eng. Caius Brediceanu.279 on the 30th of December. first in a practical manner. of the 8th of July. for the drilling pressure. with the equivalent title of ‘Doctor Engineer’. That is how Ion Basgan had made his way painstakingly. as well as for avoiding the resonance effects of the vibrations on the drilling rods’. After an accurate appreciation of these important phenomena. Iscu from the Academy of High Commercial and Industrial studies of Bucharest. Dr. Prof. being appointed by the Professors’ Council of the Academy of High Commercial and Industrial Studies of Bucharest. Ion Basgan would lecture a course on the ’Efficiency of Oil Enterprises’. Both specialists made an extremely favourable conclusion on the theoretical and practical value of Ion Basgan’s Doctor thesis and he was awarded his Doctor Diploma in a solemn festivity. yet gloriously into the realm of the technical activity. 1934). Eng. V.Ministry of Education. on the 26th of January. 1965). As a result of his deductions and conclusions. No.
471. The article ‘Progress in the Drilling Technique through Dr. with a daily output of 10 to 14 wagons and a significant drilling and production stock. the oil field of Răzvad – Dâmbovi a with the well No. 1 having 1. 412 and 473 having 5. 7 of 1938 contained a series of technical data on the performances that he had attained. 3. 1943) of an oil company.454/1940 to draw up the paper ‘Romanian Oil and Natural Gas’. Ion . In 1937. Ion Basgan ensured the export of petroleum wax.799 m in total and an output of 76. as a specialist in drilling and oil field exploitation. namely: the oil field of Moreni with the wells No.481 m in total and an output of 186. 1934 and the 13th of May. 142. Prahova with the wells No.583/1940) the technical adviser of the Oil Inspectorate that had been founded some time before. In this domain. In nine years. 5 and 6 having 9. with the aim to disseminate the experience he had gained in this domain. 1941) and later the administrative leadership (between the 13th of May. In July. Ion Basgan pointed out a series of aspects when speaking on the topic ‘The Water problem in Dobrudja’ at the AGIR Congress of 1943 and on the topic ’Water supply in Dobrudja’ at the Romanian ‘Academy of Sciences’.444 t and the oil field of Ghirdoveni. At the same time as he carried out the above mentioned activities. that is before 1944.782 t. 1. where he presented several applications of his Patents covering the new modern drilling methods. the ‘Romanian Oil Company’. 4. 1940. Basgan’s Method’ that was published in the ‘Annals of Mines’ No. working intensely while being deeply involved in the leadership of both the site and the company. As the unique delegate administrator of the ‘Igienco’ company.991 t .In 1934 he undertook the technical leadership (between the 15th of December. Ion Basgan succeeded to develop that company into a prosperous oil enterprise. thus covering the army demands of this product between 1941 and 1943. that had been set up with a small internal capital just a little before. The Propaganda Ministry invited Ion Basgan (through the Address No. Three production oil-fields were opened by the above mentioned company. in the unyielding Dobrudja rocks. using low financial and technical resources. The ‘Romanian Oil company’ was also responsible for the execution of ten water exploration wells for the army.794 m and an output of 2. 1941 and the 31st of December. Ion Basgan attended the 2nd World Oil Congress in Paris. 2A. in 1940 Ion Basgan was appointed by the Ministry of National Economy (Decision No.
Basgan was invited by Prof. in exploration savings by implementing the above mentioned innovation in the production process. Ion Basgan became ‘the victim of political persecution from fascist governments’ (according to the Certificate No.000 lei in 1954 as a reward. where in 1948 he substantially contributed to the increase of mercury production by 300%. in which he fought against the policy of world oil corporations in Romania. Ion Basgan worked at Sovromcărbune. In 1943. A. he published two articles in the above mentioned magazine. A characteristic feature of Ion Basgan’s activity is that it more often than not encompassed new domains always yielding good economic effects. that focused on the progress achieved by the Romanian engineers in the domain of oil industry. for the exploitation of oil structures and fields.06. as well as because of the law suit that existed between Ion Basgan and the corporations for his inventions. where he collaborated in the exploitation of coal by boring in the Jiu Valley.1957 that was issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs). that were later affiliated to the Ministry of Metallurgy (technical adviser at the ‘Mica’ Company. when he also identified important water supplies in Dobrudja. he was invited as a specialist by the National Union of Oil Enterprises to defend the interests of the national economy against the monopolizing tendencies of the German – fascist groups. 1942. Working for this company. .East of Europe. Ion Basgan worked at several enterprises. because of his technical. he was appointed technical adviser at the ‘Mica’ Company. Fighting for the defense of the Romania’s patriotic interests. he carried out exploration drilling for coal. between 1944 and 1949. Dr. economic and political works. department chief at the Gold and Silver works). at the ‘Gold’ Company. Upon the elaboration of the Oil Law in 1942. Benz of Berlin to collaborate in an anniversary issue of the ‘Oil und Kohle’ magazine for oil industries in the South . Ion Basgan received 5. Therefore. Between 1949 and 1951. that were introduced in the Law-Decree that was issued on the 17th of July. He significantly contributed here to the improvement of the production process by the introduction of heavy pipes. On this occasion. Yet. 053537/21. representing over 30 million lei per year and a new product to be manufactured at the ‘Republica’ Plant. the Romanian patriot could never work for large famous oil enterprises. by analyzing the projects and drawing up the required amendments. that he had published between 1933 and 1949.
As a result. He also elaborated the design and execution principles and guidelines in the hydrological drilling for agriculture and countryside economic units. Ion Basgan joined in as a delegate of Sovromutilajpetrolier in the national Congress of the oil engineers.). Ion Basgan was employed there as a principal engineer at the Technical Service of the General Direction and Oil Wells Exploitation. as a chief of a complex Project. and in 1952 he was transferred to Sovromutilajpetrolifer. later called I.C. Ion Basgan was a department chief at Industrialexport enterprise for oil equipment.C. During 1965. he drew up a ‘Study of the Efficiency of Underground Water Catching’ and co- . In November 1954. Bărăgan and the Northern Moldavia.S.. He was the leader and co-ordinator of the study and water supply of the entire local area of Constanza.P. 1953.000 water plants. As a senior designer engineer at the Institute of Agriculture Design and Construction (I. vibrations in the drill column were not removed and bottom operation accidents were abounding.A. His object of activity was to organize design and implementation in the domain of hydrologic drilling and water supply of the economic units that were subordinated to the Agriculture Ministry.. when Sovromutilajpetrolifer was dissolved. in order to ensure water supply for agriculture and countryside economic units. later called I.S.A. of the State Council of Waters.H. As a president of the Co-ordinating Commission of Drilling and a member of the Technical and Scientific Council of I. the chief of the Drilling Section of the Co-ordination Commission of Drilling at the Agriculture Ministry and later as a specialist engineer at the State Committee of Waters (C.C. Ion Basgan was transferred to the Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover the Archimedes’ pressure was not taken into account. technicians and stahanovists in Ploieşti through the Association of Engineers and Technicians (ASIT). it was pointed out that the Romanian wells generally presented a deflection of 11 to 33 degrees from the vertical. On this occasion.H.A.P. On the 31st of October.P.). When Sovromutilajpetrolifer was founded in 1952. Ion Basgan carried out a titanic pioneer’s work in breaking new ground for 12 years. it was suggested to utilize and experiment the new Basgan methods of well drilling as a remedy. he notified and adapted the hydrological studies and projects to the local characteristics of the field.A. thus setting up 1.S.In 1951.
by the appraisals that were made by high reputation cultural organizations and specialists from Romania and from abroad. Ion Basgan’s personality was rounded up by the works he published. in the ‘Hidromecanica’ magazine. the President of the local Popular Council of Constanza would acknowledge his skilled contribution as regards the rising of the living standards of Dobrudja and the Seaside area. It may be concluded that Ion Basgan’s activity was characterized by dynamism and strength in the direct approach of new domains. I. He is the referent who brought the preliminary study before the Government.A.C. Bulletin of the National Situation Institute.P. As a result of the performances that Ion Basgan had obtained through this kind of work.New York. Actually. Moreover. the following are mentioned: ‘Ion Basgan is the first specialist in drilling. The Petroleum London . etc.P. in national economy and defense. Bulletin of the Romanian Institute of Energy.ordinated the activity of three institutes.H.P. the results appeared immediately and the economic effects contributed to the prosperity of enterprises for which he worked. in his Report No. 1 and No. 1959 addressed to the agriculture minister. at the rhythm required by the national economy requirements and by the interests of the companies whose leader he was. who carried out a series of works. Ion Basgan had the spiritual strength to collaborate at several magazines. 3. Besides the technical and administrative activity which he had been performing at an ardent pace. regarding the theories that had been elaborated by the Romanian scientist. that aimed at the identification of deep underground water in Dobrudja.. I.S. Bergban und Geologie of Vienna. Öel und Kohle of Berlin.C..S. He is the President of the Coordinating Commission of Drilling of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and he may be of great help to us in carrying out our works’. that had been drawn up by I. such as: Bulletin de la Section Scientifique – Académie Roumaine. the reviews that were written by other specialists on his works and by the reproduction of his articles in various foreign and .H. His real value as a man and scientist was attested by the prizes he was awarded. that had joined in as collaborators in drawing up this study. Bulletin of the ‘Politehnica’ Society. in 1956. Bulletin of AGIR. namely: I. Internationale Zeitschrift für Bohrtechnik – Erdöl. No.C.. Nature. He required further assistance from the specialist Ion Basgan. Obviously. Libertatea.A. regarding the local water supply of Dobrudja. 8 of 1958.439 of the 15th of September.
William J. Madgearu – Romania. No. ‘The Operation and Form of Rotary Drill in the Oil Rocks of Romania’). 12. L. 228-229. page. page 99). • Professor Engineer T. 1932. Ficşinescu (introduction to Ion Basgan’s work: ’The Operation and Form of Rotary Drill in the Oil Rocks of Romania’). page 279 contains reviews of Ion Basgan’s work: ‘Oil explorations in the Teleajen Valley’). The National Supply Corporation). Supplementary Issue. Wiliam Harvey Emmons – USA. 228 of 1930. • ‘Moniteur du pétrole roumain’ (No. Director for Europe. page 182). Mrazec. • ‘l’Independence roumaine’ (the 21st of September. • ‘World Petroleum’ (New York – London. 1933. London writes on: ‘Scientific Considerations of the Technique of Modern Drilling’). Bulletin’ (April. ‘Geology of Petroleum’. such as: Fuglewicz – Austria (Leoben). Eng. vol. Bulletin’.. ‘Developments in Oilfield Equipment During 1934’.I. Vienna.R. It is worth while mentioning here several works of Romanian and foreign authors that included reference elements from Ion Basgan’s work: • ‘Moniteur du pétrole roumain’ (No.I.Romanian publications. • ‘The Petroleum Times’ (London. C. Rău . • ‘Annales des mines de Roumanie’ (1932. V.R.G. reviews ‘The Operation and Form of Rotary Drill in the Oil Rocks of Romania’). • ‘A.14. the 22nd of July 1933. • Eng. quotes from Ion Basgan’s work ‘Oil Region of Moreni – Gura Ocni ei’). ‘Technics in the Romanian Oil Industy’. page 94. George Constantinescu (Introduction to the work: ‘Die Arbeitsweise und Form des Rotary Meissels in Erdoelgesteine’.G. July 1933. page. page 43). • ‘The Petroleum Times’ (Special Congress Issue. 133. Wigney. I. It should be mentioned that his technical. 1934. 1933). William Harvey Emmons (USA. 1935. St Predescu (‘A. Simionescu. • Prof. 3 of the 1st of February. the 19th of January. • Eng. both in the country and abroad by renowned professors. geological and economic works were quoted or introduced in university courses. Technical Chronicle. . 1932.
Bulletin’. aspects of the Conference ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Exploration Works and the Fuel Matter’. • Dr. • Prof. 6 of 1934. T. 1935). Eng. No. ‘I.E. Eng.G. I. Arcadian (‘Organisation of National Economy’. Bulletin’. No. • ‘A. • ‘Curentul’ (the 25th of April.G. • Prof. ‘Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie.E. aspects of the Conference ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Exploration Works and the Fuel Matter’). No.G. presents debates on the Conference ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Exploration Works and the Fuel Matter’. ‘General Reports’ of A. pages 354 and 362). 4. Geologie und Paläontologie’.R.E. 3rd year. 3rd year. 3rd year.R. • ‘The Universe’ (the 24th of November. 3. • Eng. 4. C. • Prof. Eng. Buşilă (‘I. Ficşinescu (‘I.• Prof. • Prof. 4. Eng. presents aspects of the Conference ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Exploration Works and the Fuel Matter’. No. P. Buşilă (a speech delivered on the occasion of the 10-year anniversary of the Romanian Energy Institute. 1934. • S. L. Siscenko (1935. writes on Ion Basgan’s ‘Scientific Bases Of Modern Drilling Methods’). page 771). Bulletin’). Sp. Baku – Moscow. page 271). March 1936. Bulletin’. page 143). Iacobescu (‘I.I. Gala i.E.R. 1937). Jahrgang. 1938).E. 4. Bulletin’ (May 1938. • ‘The Morning’ magazine (the 1st of October. • ‘Annales des mines de Roumanie’ (No. Bulletin’.R.I. T. No.I. Simionescu (‘Our Country’. C.R.R. C.. Mrazec (the Report that was submitted to the Romanian Academy for the awarding of the prize for Ion Basgan’s work ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of Exploration Works and the Fuel Matter’. Krejci Graf (Freiberg – Bergakademie. • Prof. session 1936. • Prof. Cristea (‘A. I. 1935). • ‘Petroleum Technologist London’ (‘New Fields in Romania’. Technical Chronicle about: ‘Technical Aspects and the Scientific Interpretation of the Rotary Drilling System’). Congress 1934.R.R. 3rd year. Bulletin’. Ghi ulescu (‘I. . Dr. • Eng.
USA. Dr. • I. • Italo Zingarelli. Mrazec (foreword to ‘Oil and Natural Gas’). page 358-369. 1939). .R. V. Paris 1946. 1938. Petrescu – Livadea (‘Romanian Annals of Mines’. • A. pages from 254 to 255. 1949. • ‘Argus’ (19 May. 60. pages 104 and 105). L. 127). • Prof.• Prof. Jahrgang. Rome (the 6th of November. page. Gh. 1941. Bernhardt (‘Bulletin de l’Association Francaise des Techniciens du Petrole’. J.I. No. Bulletin. L. Geologie und Paläntologie’. Mrazec (‘General Course in Minerals and Rocks’.R. Geologie und Paläntologie’. Eng. Hawkins and Norman Lamont (in ‘Drilling and Production Practice’. • Prof. M. • ‘The Journal of the Petroleum Technologist’ (July 1943. 411). 1948. Dr. Stoup (‘The Oil and Gas Journal’. Madgearu (‘Evolution of the Romanian Economy’. 7. 10. Bernhardt (in ‘Bulletin de l’Association Francaise des Techniciens du Petrole’. C. • Eng. page 193. USA. 1940. page 112). No. a report on ‘Water Matter in Dobrudja’ and ‘Principles of Economic Policy in the Romanian Oil Legislation’). Vol. P. 60.G. Bulletin (the 9th of October. ‘The Analysis of Axial Stresses in Drill Stems’. No. 1939). M. • Prof. Jahrgang. No. a report on ‘Oil industry and the spirit of new times’). V.G. ‘Cisterne Tricolori Sul Danubio’). • Murray F. 24. • ‘Romania’ (2 May. Dr. 1946. 1940. No. Dr.I. V. page 255. Cristea. 1938. 1-3. pages 62-63. J. 6. Part 2. page 279-280. comments on ‘Drillcollars. a report on ‘The Role and Weight of Heavy Rods in Drilling’. • Eng. October 1943. P. 1938. • Prof. Basgan’s Method’). L. ‘Recent Progress in the Drilling Technique through Dr. • Prof. • Prof. Dr. Stamatiu (A. Their Use and Manufacturing’. Eng. No. Vol. • Eng. ‘La stampa’. Leon (‘Economic and Statistic Annals’. Philipsborn Freiberg – Bergademie (‘Neues Jarbuch für Mineralogie. ‘Elasticité et résistence des longues colonnes creuses utilisées dans le forage des puits profonds’). 22nd January. Hengelein – Karlsruhe (‘Neues Jarbuch für Mineralogie.
published at London and translated by the Academy of The Popular Republic of Romania in !961. 1960. ‘Calculation aspects of rod strings for deep sucker plants’. . ‘Deviation of oil wells in the process of drilling’. 193 of the 16th of September. 3rd trimester. that was presided by the Minister Mihai Florescu. USSR. 1960). • V. the 12th of October. • ‘Informative Bulletin’ of the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania. 1957 .• Report of Inventions and Innovations Direction of the Council of Ministers. • G. • Report and Notification No. 1956. through the Address of 27th of December. • ‘Drilling International’ (a USA journal that required Ion Basgan to publish a technical and autobiographical article. 1958. that resulted from the application of the USA Patent No. • Carl Gatling. M. with the participation of the delegates of the Council of Minister.809 / the 28th of October. No. Huston. the Academy of the popular Republic of Romania. March. ‘Petroleum Engineering Drilling and Well Completion’ (USA. that Ion Basgan had held at the science and technique courses of the Academy. about the lecture on the promotion of sonicity in oil exploitation and water supply. • The Report of the Scientific Council of the ‘Politehnica’ University of Bucharest for the awarding of the degree ‘Doctor Honoris Causa’ to the Engineer George Constantinescu of the 2nd of October. 12. 1961. Lubinschii (‘Gostoptehizdat’. M. the Office of Standards and Inventions. 1960. the Finance Minister. . to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding the recovery of the income. Wooss and A.. 1960 of the Technical and Scientific Council of the Ministry of Industry and Oil. of which the original copy is kept at the Romanian Trading Chamber. • Ross Bassinger (‘The Oil and Gas Journal’. 3. Best (in ‘Selecting Drillcolar Length by Pressure Method’. USA. USA. Kasimov (‘Nefteanae hazeaistvo’. in which Basgan’s inventions and their success were mentioned as a practical example of sonicity achievements. the 50th ‘SONICS’ Conference of George Constantinescu. page 36. which was held in London and New-York in 1959 about the successful application of Basgan’s Patents in USSR. • D. 1960. 1953.
and German editions. as well as their scientific and technical significqnce. • ‘The Magazine’ periodical of the 1st of the August. Ion Basgan’s inventions represent the corner stone of modern drilling. the article focused on the Basgan drilling methods. Scientific Printing House. 1964 contained a presentation of George Constantinescu. that are the basis of international drilling: ’Today. as a result of the conference of the 18th of November. (‘The Oil and Gas Journal’. Eickmeier (‘Diagnostic Analysis of Dynamometer Cards’ in ‘Journal of Petroleum Technology’. about the contribution of Ion Basgan to the world technical and scientific achievements. Ştefan. mentioned Ion Basgan’s contribution to the fatigue breaking of drilling rods in the drilling of deviated oil-wells. 1967 the articles: ‘The Effect of Archimedes’ Pressure and Sonic Energy. a technical and commercial publication of Romania for foreign countries. English. M. pages 98-106). . and ‘The Applications of Basgan’s Drilling Methods in Italy’. pages 97-106. • J. the forerunner of sonicity and Ion Basgan. with the conclusion: ‘the drilling methods that are applied in Italy confirm the importance of the drilling methods by utilizing ‘Basgan’ heavy proportional rods and show that large deviation drillings are generated.• Dinu Moroianu and I. 1965. January. ‘The Living Fire. • ‘La revista italiana del petrolio’ published in April. especially. presenting Basgan’s Patents abroad. M. R. in the French. A Short History of Romanian Inventions and Discoveries’. • The Technical Director of the State Office for Inventions published the article ‘The Forerunners’ in the ‘Economic Life’ magazine of the 10th of December. 1966. Essential Conditions for the Future of Drilling’. in which there were mentioned the drillings where these methods were applied. • Rollins H. • ‘Machines et equipements roumaines’. In his article ‘Drill-Pipe Fatigue Failure’ the author. 1963. 1965. and are well-known in all the industrialized countries’. his follower. 1967. pages 173-176. who was a specialist at Drilco Oil Tools Inc. published in its first issue of 1967 an official article entitled ‘Contributions Roumaines au Développement de la Théorie et de la Practique du Forage Moderne’. the 18th of April. when this method is not applied’.
that described the limitation of the effect of Archimedes’ pressure and the sonic energy: an essential condition for the future of deep drilling. Profession: An Atheist of the Science’. 1967. ‘High Depth Sonicity’. No. 6 of the 7th of February. This work included comments on the 7th World Oil Congress in Mexico City. 2-8 April. 1967. Vol. of the 20th of October. namely: ‘The Basgan Effect’. and an essential contribution to the .• In ‘Le petrole lubri Europe’. Renato Calapso from the University of Messina. entitled ‘Debates. 1967 published an editorial and a few pages that were dedicated to the scientific and technical contribution of Ion Basgan. original written comments quoted from the western magazines. Ion Basgan’s ‘The Rotary-percussion drilling’. 1965: ‘Ion Basgan’s inventions represent the basis of modern drilling and are unanimously acknowledged by all the industrialized countries’. • Prof. 6. Mexico. • In ‘Via a economică’ (No. as well as from the conferences of the great world scientists on the fundamental matters that Basgan had brought to the fore in world-oil exploitation. 127. • Don E. as he is the follower of his fundamental idea of putting a genius’ creation into the service of humanity and of the human welfare’. as well as his latest works and his activity. containing the reviews of the dissertations that Ion Basgan held at the World Oil Congresses. of the 10th of December. of the 20th of June. No. Lembert (‘Western nations dominate exchange of information’ in ‘World Oil’. The author also quotes an excerpt from the ‘Via a Economică’ magazine.000 m . including his portrait and an interview. Paris there was published the article entitled ‘Les nouvelles méthodes de forage scientifique’. No.Drilling’. page 31-32). • ‘Le petrole lubri Europe’. an interview of Ion Basgan was published. 1967) there were published several articles. The author presented short quotations of Dr. 1968. 51 of the 22nd of December. the organizer of the Archimedes’ Commemoration. No. 1967. ‘A Romanian Invention Makes a Revolution in the Domain of the Drilling Technique All over the World’. wrote in the Preface to ‘The Archimedes’ Principle’: ‘Ion Basgan is indeed a truthful follower of Archimedes. 1967 of Paris there was published the review of the dissertation that Ion Basgan had presented at the 7th World Oil congress. 1967. • In the magazine ‘Petrole informations’. • In ‘Via a studen ească’. ’Near-Future Perspective: the 15. 6.
namely for the drilling of 1. according to international norms. 1968. in which he presented the inventions of the Romanian oil specialist. No. which referred to the replacement of the heavy conventional drilling rods of 1 to 4 tons of weight and about 6 m of length by heavy rods of 100 to 300 m and 20 to 30 t of weight. April. The specialists of the USA and Federal Republic of Germany estimated that a 30% efficiency as compared to classical methods was obtained by applying Ion Basgan’s inventions. No. pages 409-413) focuses on the importance of the fact that Ion Basgan noticed the negative effect that would appear during drilling. resulting in the increase of drilling speed. Ion Basgan focused on the significance of this solution. Dan Bodnărescu (in ‘Oil and Gas’.130 oil wells that amounted to 1. 4.440m had brought about a profit of 30 billion dollars. The solution that Ion Basgan elaborated and patented both in Romania and abroad. By the combination of the rotary and simultaneous percussion process with another process that was invented by Ion Basgan. utilizing the proportional heavy rods. that was called the ‘Basgan effect’. (Mention should be made that in the article no information sources were specified regarding the utilization of Basgan’s inventions in the USA). while the neutral zone should be maintained inside the heavyrods column. 7.001. namely the Archimedes’ force applied onto the lower part of the drilling rig. the heavy rods should carry a supplementary load besides that which was required for exerting a pressure on the base. In order to prevent this effect. Trying to analyze the causes of drills deviation from the vertical position. namely the Archimedes’ principle. it was achieved a quicker advance of the drill. I.182. . the Romanian inventor had to reconsider an already existing physics postulate. However.solving of the matter of penetrating the lithosphere down to the socalled Mohorovitz layer. that were calculated proportionally to the weight of the displaced liquid and the necessary pressing load on the drill. Tretieni in ‘La Roumanie d’aujourd’hui’.770. that should be equivalent to the Archimedes’ force. published the article ‘The Basgan Effect’. • A. The utilization of Basgan’s inventions in the USA for 22 years. 1968. the inventor was not granted the due payment for the utilization of his methods.
that when dipped into water. such as. an 11t-load was used to lower the neutral zone and to reduce the compressed zone. on the Ocni a oil field. starting from a study of the Archimedes’ principle in the case of long and thin elastic bodies.The author mentioned that the existence of this effect was experimentally confirmed by M. A deviation of oil wells below 1o resulted. oil wells deviation was 12o to 16o and the cost of 1m of drilled surface was 160 dollars. By applying the Basgan method in sonic drilling the deviation was reduced below a half of a degree. In 1949. The author summed up: ‘The drilling methods that were applied in Italy confirm the importance of Basgan drilling by means of heavy proportional oil rods and demonstrates that extended deviations result when this method is not applied’. Troina. The article also alluded to the controversies from the part of several foreign specialists and scientists regarding this theory. Pizzo e Bellafontana. ‘On the off-shore drilling rig of Ravenna at 3400 m oil well depth.’ Good results were obtained at drilling oil-wells in Sicily. Under these conditions. Under these conditions. when drilling the 3500 m-oil well at Valle of Comoechio (Ravenna). Lomont from the University of California. that were obtained in the drilling of oil wells and salt exploitation. As a conclusion the author states the following: ‘A short presentation of the matter. and that the inventor had the merit to have the intuition of this phenomenon. shows that the Basgan effect is a real fact. for instance: 1) in Romania. for the calculation of fatigue resistance of pumping rods. and the cost of one drilled meter was about 80 dollars. the deviation range was between 4o and 70o at the 400 m-oil wells and 12o at a 1000 m-oil well. heavy proportional rods of 15 t were used to drill with a 9 t load on the drill. somewhere else on another oil field. as a result of utilizing Basgan’s invention. 2) in Italy. The author presents some practical results. The author states the importance of applying the ‘Basgan effect’ in the domain of crude-oil extraction by pumping. they measured the negative load and the location of the neutral zone by means of special electrical apparatus for a 2” pipe of lucita . using heavy proportional rods of 16 t (108 m). Hawkins and N. the oil wells deviation was 3o to 4o . that were . a 5t-load on the drill. For instance. heavy rods of 30 t (about 300 m in length) were used to drill at 20 t to 25 t load on the drill into the hard oil formations of Galiano.
789/1934 (Romania). as it was the case of oil well drilling and crude . In ‘La Roumanie d’aujourd-hui’ periodical (of the 4th of April. STUDIES AND PUBLICATIONS .oil wells pumping’. 1968. Ştefan. Dinu Moroianu and I. ‘La revista italiana del petrolio’ (the 30th of April. PATENTS. This periodical quotes several such comments. Bucharest. M. perfectly vertical oil-well holes resulted. As a result. as compared to other oil-wells holes. 1968) it was published an article on the ‘Basgan effect’ in which the following comment was made: ‘World-famous scientists and many specialized publications all over the world have made praising comments about the achievements of Ion Basgan the inventor’. in ‘Passion of Science’ (The Didactic and Pedagogical Publishing House. that were drilled by classical methods and presented a 15o to 20o deviation from the vertical. pages 419-427) concisely present Basgan's patents 2103137 in 1937 (USA) and 22. 1970) focus on the advantages that were obtained by applying the Basgan effect at the oil wells of the ENEI-AGIP company.suspended and immersed into liquids.
that is a medium advance of 64 m per day. page 411: ‘Usually. by means of rotary percussion and damping of hydro-mechanical pressure (Romanian Royal Patent. 22. • A new process of drilling wells for oil and gas. at an average drilling of 125 m per day. ‘The Constitutive Substances of the Earth Layer’. It is by applying the Romanian Ion Basgan’s principle when drilling for the ‘Mining Credit’ company. L. Nowadays. Professor Dr. T Patents • Method for the increasing of the efficiency and the improvement of rotary drilling. to draw any conclusions as to its successful use’. whereby efficiency of drilling operation is increased. that the ‘Romanian Oil company’ attained 1915 m in 30 days in Pliocene with the oil well No.he brilliant Romanian scientist Ion Basgan was the author of a broad range of patents. This is being watched with great interest. 470 called ‘The Mining Credit’. of the 19th of January. by means of controlling hydromechanical pressures (USA Patent No. with the oil well in perfect vertical direction’. at Girdoveni. Mazarec. ex-president of the Romanian Academy mentioned the following in ‘The General Course of Minerals and Rocks’. 739. the author showed on the basis of his research. William J. No. but it is much too early. In the case of the heavy proportional rods drilling. some of their applications are used worldwide in the oil industry. Wigney. deep oil-wells drilling results in a deviation from the vertical by tens and even hundreds of meters. the Director for Europe of the National Supply Corporation mentioned the following concerning this Patent. Mr. using rotary and percussion movements combined. 1935: ‘Engineer Basgan of Romania has just evolved a drilling system combining rotary and percussive movements by means of pressure pulsations. the 2nd Part. uicani. studies and publications. presented below in this chapter. including all the operations.789 of 1934). in his article entitled ‘Developments in Oilfield Equipment During 1934’. that was published in The Petroleum Times London. that the hydrostatic pressure of .632 of 1934).
1945. or from the underground.103. plus the load that is exerted on the drill (drilling pressure) and consequently varies with the hole depth. The intermediary weight value between that of the heavy rods of 1934 and the value that is stipulated in the Patent is consistent with the program of this method. also known as the sonic or vibrating drilling. in order to obtain vertical holes. that is based especially on resonance and magnetostriction. The heavy proportional rods drilling was based on the Archimede’s force and its effect: compression from the lower part of the drilling rig and the neutral zone. The simultaneous Rotary percussion drilling. The removal of the compressed zone from the heavy rods represent the invention made by the author in 1934-1937 through the Romanian and American Patents for the implementation of the heavy proportional drilling rods. USA Patent No. • Rotary Drilling Apparatus. the sonic drilling. with 30% higher efficiency per every drilled meter. there were introduced the heavy proportional rods whose weight was equal to the weight of the liquid volume being displaced plus the drilling pressure. 1937. The Patent is guaranteed by the USA Government for originality. These Patents contain modern drilling methods. This drilling method is achieved through the utilization and adjustment of the existing vibrations in the drilling rig of the Rotary system or by setting up a new vibration regime to the drilling rig during rotation. 2. by applying the principle of the pneumatic or hydraulic hammer. as far as possible to the drill only. that resulted in the deviation of oil-wells (the ‘Basgan effect’). These heavy proportional rods have a weight equal to that of the liquid volume that is displaced by the drilling rig. In order to remove the compressed zone from the drilling rods.137 of the 21st of December. that represent original discoveries with unknown effects. entitled ‘Drilling by means of Rotary Hammer’). either from the surface. was patented by the author in Romania and the USA between 1934 and 1937. 37.the liquid at the drilled hole was not taken into account before 1934 and he discovered the compressed and the neutral zones of the drilling rig. The rotary percussion drilling. namely the heavy proportional rods drilling and the sonic drilling (and they were improved through the Patent No.743 of January. was founded on the sonic energy transmission for the first time through .
838 that was communicated by the Ministry of Justice of the USA. A 30% reduction of drilling cost was obtained by the application of this invention. These Patents have been applied all over the world. The heavy proportional rods drilling has been applied immediately after patenting. through the application of the Basgan method. It had become almost a legend that salt pit holes would develop a natural deviation upon salt exploitation. when perfectly vertical bore holes were obtained for the first time. the article signed by the Deputy Minister Ion Pacoste). As a result. it was planned to reduce the hole deviation below 1° for the salt pits No. the USA Patent was put under distraint by the American Government during the war until 1965. In 1964. 3 of Ocna Mureş for the salt pit exploitation. Table 1 Salt pit Bottom [m] Heavy rods: 6 5/8” pres . deviations lower than one half of a degree were obtained at the above mentioned salt pits. The Minister of Mines applied the sonic drilling at the Oil Field No. 8 of 1964. with a 30% higher efficiency. the Oil Ministry decided on the implementation of heavy rods. Efficient exploitation of salt pits required perfectly vertical direction of pit holes. No. The Ministry of Oil experimented this method on the oil-field of Roşiori-R. Heavy drilling rods were immediately extended from a couple of meters to 200 m in length. the heavy proportional rods drilling was successfully applied in the past by some Romanian oil companies (see ‘Annals of Mines’ No. when the Distraint Order was abrogated through the Order S. 1965. Sărat in 1961. as well as in all the countries with a developed oil industry. No. Unfortunately. 3 of Ocna Mureş.the drilling rig to the drill. resulting in vertical holes with higher efficiency.A. 25). as they were described in the Basgan Patents (See ‘Oil and Gas’. Deviations varied between 4° and 7° at the 400 m salt pits of Ocni a and up to about 12° at the 1000 m salt pits of Ocna Mureş. Salt pit exploitation data are presented in detail below (see Table 1) for the salt pits No. VI. In Romania. Rotary percussion drilling was utilized at international scale. 20. In 1960. 7/1938. 3 of Ocna Mureş. from 70 to 150 m in length.530 of the 30th of November. from the very stage of design. in the American industry. by performing simultaneous percussion and rotation. cap.
by applying the combined drilling method and the lower drilling pressure. In this respect. of the State Office for Invetions (Eng. by means of reducing the pressure on the drill (axial load). 3 of Ocna Mureş. . the former controller of the Ministry of Mines. engineer Dan Bodnărescu. Eng. V. entitled ‘Exploitation of Salt in Vertically Drilled Pits through the Rotary and Percussion Drilling System with the Limitation of the Arhimedes’ Pressure. Rusu Abrudeanu) confirmed these results. the specialists of the Ministry of Mines (Eng. The results that were obtained were published by the Oil Ministry in the ‘Oil and Gas’ magazine (No. 3 of Ocna Mureş by applying the Basgan drilling method. At these discussions. On the 9th of May. according to the axial load on the drill and the volume of the displaced liquid. 1968. there were drilled four holes by applying the heavy proportional rods drilling and the simultaneous rotary percussion drilling. engineer Oprişor specified at the end of discussions that it was absolutely necessary that the Romanian inventor Ion Basgan should receive his financial and moral rights as they were due to him. permitting to lower the centre of gravity of the drilling rig. 7. Dima). As a Technical Director of the Ministry of Mines and a President of the Conference Board. heavy proportional drilling rods were utilized (200 m to 400 m in length). the Installation and Method therefor’. the General Direction of Standards and Inventions issued the Patent No. In the drilling of these salt pits. Bedivan Elena. with simultaneous vertical oscillation of the drill during operation. The drilling was initiated at the request of the Oil Ministry and it ended under the control of the Mines Minister in 1962. to the effect that the sonic energy that was generated at the end of the drilling rig at the surface should be conveyed to the drill. 1968). would focus in a conference held at the Ministry of Mines. on the results that had been obtained at the salt pit No. 50912 for Ion Basgan. It was for the first time that perfectly vertical salt pit holes were drilled in Romania.Length 112 113 114 115 1100 1100 1100 1100 80 m 80 m 80 m 85 m Weight 16 t 16 t 16 t 17 t At the salt pit No.
Evescenko confirmed the principle of Ion Basgan in the ‘Manual for Oil Drilling Wells’ (Technical Printing House. 3 and 4 / 1961). Germany and other countries. gradually extending to cover every country. a prejudice to the mankind. that he gathered on the oil fields. a creator of genius and a fine observer of the scientific phenomena came to existence. Prof. Vozdvijenski mentioned that the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid generates an upward contraction of the drilling rig and therefore a contraction (compression) of the lower part of the column takes place. I. Prof. by ignoring the effect of the liquid pressure on the drilling rods. USSR. Under the same circumstances. No. 1937). Prof. No.The scientific grounding of these patents gave rise to sustained controversies at the top.M. In this respect. It was only after 10 or 15 years from patenting that the first important application works appeared. In France. the existence of a neutral zone and a compression area in a freely suspended column in a liquid. 60. Ion Basgan would state that for 2000 years the Archimedes’ principle had represented a scientific interpretation flaw. 1946. Okon of the Oklahoma University (in his Doctorate Thesis). and attesting the efficiency of the Basgan effect for the completion and improvement of the Archimedes’ principle. Paris. Best and other renowned researchers theoretically and experimentally confirmed the value of the Romanian research. he reached the conclusion that this principle as it had been stated could not be applied to the drilling rigs. Moor U. 1953. the hydrostatic . Holmquist. On the basis of practical experience. People had to wait until Ion Basgan. it is recommended that the lower part of the column should be made of heavy drillcollars…’. As he had noticed. A. Handelman. D. engineer Bernard noted the error that had been made in hydro-mechanics. Hawkins and Lamont of the Louisiana University. engineer Bernard quoted Ion Basgan’s lecture held on the occasion of the World Oil Congress (Paris. In ‘The Mechanics of Drilling’ (Moscow 1949). Karl Gatlin of the Texas University. page 60) in the chapter ‘The effect of the liquid hydrostatic pressure’. Prof. showing its importance in one of his articles of ‘Bulletin de l’Association Française des Techniciens du Pétrole’.I. B. Economic results that Ion Basgan’s patents had brought at international scale were acknowledged (‘Oil and Gas’. USA. in Romania. the author specifies that: ‘in order to reduce the breaking stress. In the USA. M.
103. This zone was established by Ion Basgan through mathematical calculation and by his equation. the stress impact of the penetration movement loosens the rock which is easily and quickly displaced by the rotary movement of the drill bit. up to the surface. Ion Basgan’s idea was based on a simple process. George Constantinescu. The genius of Ion Basgan would bring about a revolution in deep drilling. The effect may be understood as a combination of the drilling method proper (that is based on the sonicity principle) and certain technical aspects regarding the upgrading of the drilling equipment for the increase of the weight and size of the heavy rods. That is how the inquiring spirit of the Romanian Ion Basgan has created a new method of going even deeper down into the earth: the simultaneous penetrating drilling. but on the contrary. Ion Basgan evolved therefore a process for the practical utilization of this energy. After extended and thorough observation. 2. a compression zone is generated at the lower end. the compressed zone and the zero zone at the lower part of the drilling rig were designated by the term the ‘Basgan effect’. by the application of this invention. that should be conveyed to the drill bit by means of penetrating shocks. Another invention of Ion Basgan. namely to create a permanent vibrating regime during drilling. it acted on the lower end of the rig.137 c/255/24. breaking new grounds to make a huge step forward in the progress of mankind. Therefore. had as a scientific background the theory of sonicity of our renowned fellow countryman. in order to remove the negative effect of the Archimedes’ pressure. The negative stress. Ion Basgan presented his discovery at the World Oil Congress held In London. also called the sonic drilling. in 1937 the invention that resulted from that discovery was covered also in the USA by Patent No. Ion Basgan noticed the existence of the sonic waves in the metal column and in the liquid that passed through the drilling rigs. .pressure was not only on the center of gravity of the drilling column and it was not equally distributed on its entire length. on the drill. It can be stated unreservedly that the Basgan effect brought about ‘a revolution of the drilling technique in the world’. Thus. in 1933 and later. with a neutral zone upward on the vertical and a column under tension following next.
The Ion Basgan effect has long before been applied abroad in the construction of many drills. 1965 were not prescribed. It is worthwhile mentioning in this respect the comments made by the Romanian scientist George Constantinescu in ‘Revista italiana del petrolio’ (the 30th of April. Drăgan.530 of the 30th of November.137 and the Divesting Order S. there were made calculations attesting the above mentioned idea. 1959) regarding the application of the drilling method in the USA: ‘During a visit I had paid to America. The expert appraisals that were made by German specialists and filed at the Romanian National Bank showed that his Patents had brought an economy of about 30 billion . They also guaranteed that his case could be won 85%. who established on the basis of very accurate calculation that Basgan’s patent when applied in oil drilling ensures a 30% reduction of the cost per one meter of drilled area. C. What is really fulminating about this invention to those who have not yet realized its value is the economic effect. 20. Eng. Minoli. and others) confirmed through their legal investigations carried out in the USA that Ion Basgan’s rights in the USA that were deriving from his USA Patent No. 2. that may be achieved through its application. Dr. I was informed that the drilling method that has been invented and experimented by our fellow countryman Dr. these companies obtained a profit of several thousands billion dollars. Ion Basgan is applied in this country successfully in oil exploitation. research and experimenting of one of our fellow country men’. One should be filled with awe at the fact that some of our countrymen have contributed and still contribute to the progress of world science and technique. by legal experts and highly qualified technicians from the USA and Germany. Consequently. To mention only the USA. A – 837 with the address of the Ministry of Justice of the USA. the international cost of this idea. billions of meters had been drilled by that time by hundreds of oil companies that possessed thousands of oil wells. No. then the total profit obtained by these countries would amount to huge incomes. I am glad that the theory of sonicity has found an application in the studies. The principles that Ion Basgan has stated represent accurate landmarks for us and contribute to the progress in the domain of deep drilling. If profits that had been obtained by the companies of other countries where this method was applied were added to this amount of money.103. Renowned international lawyers (Prof. In this respect.
000 m could be surpassed. In 1964.000 m/s to the drill and by reducing the compressed zone in the drilling rig. German and Portuguese groups. 44 of the 22nd of June. Prof. Portugal and the Arab countries. by conveying sonic energy by 5. was issued in Italy and filed for France. concluding that: ‘Ion Basgan’s inventions represent today the corner stone of the modern drilling. the Limitation of the Effect of Archimedes’ Pressure. USA.000 dollars by Italian. • Rotary and Rotary Percussion Drilling System with Sonic Frequencies. The international scientific and technical effect of Ion Basgan’s Patents was described also by the Technical Director of the State Office for Inventions in his article of the ‘Via a Economică’ magazine of the 10th of December. in England focusing on the contribution that this Romanian Invention has brought to the world. French. In 1959. the Romanian scientist G. Wolf Erich from the University Department of Ships Statics published in the Federal Republic of Germany in ‘Erdöl und Kohle’ magazine a study in which he confirmed the new scientific principles and the advantages of utilizing Dr. even more specifically stated than in his former Patents. The innovation was attested also by the Direction of Inventions and Innovations through the Report No. 1953 and disseminated in Romania to several ministries through the Report . Constantinescu held a radio conference. mentioning that his financial rights amounted to several billion dollars. 1951). It allowed that the critical depth that had been attained by then of about 8. Ion Basgan’s legal action abroad of 1967 was financed with approximately 30. 1965. and are attested in all the industrially developed countries’.dollars to the USA industry. That was why. This Patent that had been achieved in the West in 1967. the Installation and Apparata therefor. Basgan’s heavy drilling rods. Innovations • The Utilization of the Heavy Pipes at the Crelius KAM Prospecting Rig and any Prospecting Rigs and Drilling Systems of this Type (January.
99 of 20th of November. Based on this innovation.A and M.P. some of which had even passed through the salt. 8). for which Ion Basgan received a reward in 1954. • Drilling by Means of the Drilling Rig Similar to the Lead String (that was first committed to be design by the Water State Committee through IPACH in 1964). 1955.I. Cardaş in Romanian and French. It presents a map of the isobath of the Moreni Dacian layer on the Southern site and of the Meotic layer isobath on the Northern side. stating several conclusions.No. An increase of 30% of the work speed and 10 to 15% savings for the exploitation cost resulted from the expert appraisals and an annual economy was calculated for Romania of over 30 billion lei. the Ministry of Metallurgy launched into manufacturing a prototype at the ‘Republica’ Works. thousands of crude oil wagons and billions of cubic meters of gas were lost. Connections between various exploitation sites were made in this work. This work was published at a time when the works on the Moreni oil field was in full swing. Studies and publications • ‘The Oil Region Moreni-Gura Ocni ei’ (a study published in collaboration with engineer I. for the entire region. in ‘Annales de Mines de Roumanie’. in 1960/1961).M.A.C in 1960/1961).I. and M. The Southern side of the 3rd Meotic layer was unknown and the Northern side was anomalous with difficulties at water stopping at its launching into production. Since the oil wells were blowing into the open air and the drilling technique was not yet perfected. Topraisar (for which Ion Basgan was rewarded from the Agriculture Ministry funds in 1956.S. • Heavy Proportional Rods in Rotary Drilling (registered at I.T. • Simultaneous Rotary Percussion Drilling (registered at I.C. • Water Supply at S. The salt limits were defined by a transversal profile that was drawn to scale on the basis of the drilled salt pits.S. This standard profile of the region would be quoted any time when .P.P.P. No. 1926. because the zone had not been thoroughly explored by then. that would be taken into account for its subsequent development.
Professor and Head of the Department of Geology and Mineralogy. No. containing the following appreciation: ‘In his study entitled ‘Oil Exploitation on the Teleajen Valley’. that would be largely used later in the Romanian oil industry. 11. 22 of 1930. No.279. page 1. page 94. • ‘Oil Industry’ (1929). Mr. Later. utilizing the American Waukesha engines. this process would be largely developed. drilling and extraction in the respective regions’. Ion Basgan focuses on the importance and the results of the exploitations in these regions. Technical Chronicle.the Moreni region was to be mentioned (see ‘Geology of Petroleum’. which he had the opportunity to gather and systematize while he was in charge of the exploitation. . published in Romanian and French. pages 537-539). that are estimated to be a most valuable reserve for our oil industry. regarding their geological characteristics. in the Review of the Association of Engineers and Technicians of the Mining Industry (Bucharest. was generally applied after the year 1925 in Romania. A review was made on this work in ‘Moniteur du Pétrole Roumain’. in ‘Anales des Mines de Roumanie’. namely Copăceni. The study described the first experiment that had been made in Romania by the author. Nevertheless it was not supported by an adequate technical and scientific literature. November. We shall insist nevertheless on the connections in oil wells drilling and others. by William Harves Emmons. it also presented the economy which may be obtained through the drilling by thermal engines. • ‘Operation and Form of the Rotary Drill in the Romanian Oil Rocks’ (published by the Romanian Academy). • ‘Waukesha Engines in Rotary Drilling’ (a study published in Romanian and French. No. The study is characterized by the fact that the author’s comments are based on accurate data. 10. 1930. Scăioşi and Boldeşti. that had been introduced from America. in the ‘Romanian Annals of Mines’. 1929. This note cannot present in detail the interesting guidelines that he gives for each of these regions. the author’s own remarks. University of Minnesota). either in Romania or in the USA. the 12th year. It was the outcome of practical work and drilling still belonged to the domain of art more than to that of technique and science. The utilization of the Rotary drilling. • ‘Oil Exploitation on the Teleajen Valley’.
was presented to the ‘Romanian Academy’ by Professor L. such as: the principle of the drilling feed.This work analyzed and established for the first time the scientific principles and the laws that define drilling. the functions of the mud and its properties in drilling.R. Eng. Eng. ‘Bulletin of A.I. that is made by a technician as the engineer Ion Basgan. page 228. a person with perfect scientific and technical training. T. This work. the rotary speed. No. such as: ‘Annales des Mines de Roumanie’. No. as well as the form and the adaptation of the drill to the variation in soil hardness. the laws of mud circulation. of the 1st of February. Reviews of this work are contained in various specialised magazines. during the session of the 11th of March. Professor of drilling at the ‘Politehnica’ School of Bucharest. page 692.G. Mrazec. represents a serious contribution to the developing science of oil drilling’. while setting the drilling practical work on scientific grounds’. Teodor Ficşinescu. 229.G. 1933. 1932. the drilling pressure. to name only a few. ‘The Technique in the Romanian Oil Industry’. 1932 and it was published in ‘The Memorials of the Scientific Section of the Romanian Academy’.’. A review published in a ‘Bulletin of A. the diameter of the drill and of the holes. . vol. N. with the afferent mathematical and practical formulae of these phenomena. April 1933. page 99. This work was translated into Romanian and presented to the Romanian Academy by Prof. ‘Bulletin of A. 14.I. Vasilescu – Karpen. Ficşinescu spoke of this work in the following terms: ‘The analysis of the action and form of the Rotary drill in the oil rocks. ‘Moniteur de Pétrole Roumain’. In this respect.G. the penetration and the factors affecting the feed.I. Prof. It describes the specific way in which various vibrations are generated in the liquid circuit and in the drilling rods.’ mentioned that: ‘This work covers a gap in the technical literature of oil drilling. • ‘Schwingungsphaenomene und Deren Wirkung auf die Arbeitsweise des Meissels im Rotary Bohrsystem’ (Vibrating Phenomena and their Effect on the Action of the Drill in The Rotary Drilling System).R. with a foreword by Eng. a former Rector of the ‘Politehnica’ School of Bucharest. who has gathered and proved his observations in effectively working on the oil fields for almost 8 years.R.’. 3. 12.
• ‘Die Arbeitsweise und Form des Rotary Meissels im Erdoelgesteine’ (Hans Urban Publishing House. 1934). the form and construction of various drills. Geologie und Paläntologie’. Chapters II and III describe the drilling speed. such as: the vibrations specific to the drilling rods system. There are depicted the various categories of vibrations that are generated both in the drilling rods and in the mud circuit. Peter and others made commendatory remarks on Ion Basgan’s Doctorate Thesis. Chapter I presents the principles of the drill feed. as well as their effect on the drilling rods and the drill operation. This work was reviewed by Prof. the equation of the drilling rig stability. Jahrgang 1934. The action of these vibrations in drilling is calculated by means of the formulae of the sonic theory and it is estimated the possibility of utilizing them for another drilling system. Romanian and German magazines made the following comments at that time: ‘The Romanian Minister of Vienna who attended the solemn festivity was deeply impressed by the success that the Romanian . such as Prof. page. Prof. Dr. The Doctorate Board including renowned professors in the domain of German technique. It is calculated the propagation speed of these vibrations. 771. 50 plane drawings and 3 pictures. Krejci-Graf of FreibergBergakademie and it was published in ‘Neues Jarbuch für Mineralogie. It is established the role of vibrations in obtaining vertical drilling holes. This work is the Doctor Thesis of Ion Basgan with a foreword by Gogu Constantintscu. He received the Doctor of Science degree under the same solemn festivity as the mining engineer Hoover several months before when he was awarded the Doctor Honoris Causa title by the president of the USA. Eng. Vienna. their sharpening and maintenance during operation. Figlewicz. Josef Pirkl. Gersthoferstrasse 70. comments on the particular cases that may appear during drilling. Prof. as well as the general conditions of obtaining vertical grilling holes. while establishing the importance of the drilling pressure and of the heavy drilling rod regarding the resistance and the behavior of the drilling rods. including three chapters covering 90 pages. Eng. Eng. the vibrations that are generated by the pressure changes in the liquid circuit affecting the mud column and the walls of the drilling rods. as well as twisting vibrations.
the policy of contingency aims at directing our import and export towards certain countries. 1933). • ‘The Division of Europe and the Contingency of Import’ (‘The Movement’. Ion Basgan pointed out the following: ‘At a given moment it seemed that the old Europe was united by a movement of brotherhood. the efficiency of the contingency principle in itself is debatable and the problems had already become manifest. Therefore. . In spite of all these facilities that were obtained through sacrifices and limitations as regards the free trading. through our export and then the backward payment in the limit of the money available. the 15th of January. that brings high prejudices to our commercial and industrial activity. On this occasion. thus allowing the intervention of the state in leading a customs and commercial policy. as a result of the favourable attitude regarding the value of Ion Basgan’s work manifested by the German school and technique’. Our import has dropped from 29 billion lei in 1929 and 23 billion in 1930 to 15 billion in 1931 and about 11 billion lei in 1932. this was not by need of lowering import which in the latest years has dropped without the intervention of this economic protectionism. only in those countries in which we have exported. Right at a moment when the Pan-europeanism was gathering momentum. we are witnessing the introduction of the most protective customs regime that ever existed in the Great Britain. as well as the division among the European States. in point of both the economic achievements. The state which shall not favor our export runs the risk of failing to cash in the amount we are due to pay. Moreover.technique had marked. The contingency system shall permit us to cover first the import. the Romanian government has resorted to the control of the currency and then to the contingency system. and the way of applying this system. as a justified action of continental solidarity in front of the new world. aiming at a co-ordination of the import policy with the payment possibilities abroad for the imported goods. Consistently with this protective regime. the sums which we have in a state hardly can be transformed in order to cover our debts in another state. that reminds one of the old Chinese walls. which in its technical and economic ascent was attempting to conquer all the branches of the economic development of the old world.
New York – London. 1933. 1933).G. in London. 1933. 1933.I. including the opportunity of new initiatives. that have established trade relations in a certain country. page 133. 1933.Under the present conditions. ‘World Petroleum’ . No. Bulletin. The contingency policy is a part of the political intervention methods into the economic life. in London. as well as in the ‘Annals of Mines’. etc. that result in a directed economy.R. Vol. the market quotation acts as an encouragement for the corporations and consortiums. causing great problems to industrial enterprises and commercial houses. that is the industrial and the agriculture Europe are grinning at each other in front of their mutual adversary’. pages 279-280. pages 353-444. . other than that which is imposed by the contingency policy. as against the disorders that it implies. This limitation of freedom presents temporary advantages. in 1934. This work was translated and published in Baku and Moscow. 1933. The extensive damages of drilling rods taking place without any apparent specific reason have caused both Romanian and foreign specialists to pay the most serious attention to the drilling dynamics. • ‘The Technique and the Scientific Interpretation of the Rotary Drilling System’ (its summary was published in the A. is a rational approach of the dynamic phenomena that occur in the drilling rig during drilling. 10. with a foreword by S. 1934. This restraint of the economic freedom seems to be possible only in the framework of the Autarchy. which is so much disputed today. Supplementary Issue. July. the economic solidarity of the European states can be hardly attained. which is a condition still far from us. under the title ‘The Scientific Grounds of Modern Drilling Methods’. with a direct effect first of all on the reduction of our export. the 22nd of July. page 431 and ‘The Journal of The Petroleum Technologist’. 20. The two Europes. as well as the limitation of the quality selection. I. pages 279-280. with a review made for it in ‘The Petroleum Times’. • ‘Scientific Considerations of the Technique of Modern Drilling’ (that was published both individually and in the volume ‘World Oil Congress’ of July. Siscenko: ‘The Report presented by Ion Basgan at the International Congress of the oil magnates. With this kind of policy. Special Congress Issue.
Salt. Practical experience showed that the drill. Gold. The author as a referent of the Mining Section published a synthesis regarding the economic situation and a statistics in the domain of oil. The drill worker who understands the problems raised by the vibration of the drilling rig can adjust the intensity of the vibrations. Coal. of the 24 th of July. coal. which has ended its feed drill in fact starts to operate again under the effect of the longitudinal vibrations. Gas. the 14 th of July. in 1933. even to the extent of utilizing them in order to increase the drilling feed. page 79. the drill may be compelled to oscillate and thus by creating a dynamic alternative load on the base. structure and organization of the world oil industry and the way the Romanian oil industry could fit in this new form of evolution. in the case of the rotary drilling.Zeitung’. . • ‘The Policy of the Fuel in the Light of Progress’ (‘The Universe’. 1933 and published in ‘The Movement’. Ion Basgan stated his point of view on the future development. On this occasion. 1933 and in ‘L’Indépendance Roumaine’ on the 21st of September. The American practical experience also proves that the worker can change the feed intensity by changing the number of pump strokes and the pressure’. the number of pump strokes. Therefore. • ‘The Oil Market in England’.The theory shows that drilling may generate such conditions in which the rods are subject to significant oscillation. • ‘Reports on the Occasion of the World Oil Congress’ (a conference held at the radio station on the 7th of September. Vienna. 1934. 1933). 1933). Silver’. the pressure on the base.und technicher . 1933). • ‘The Economic Situation in the Domains of Oil. The lecturer presented the participation of Romania to the first World Oil Congress in London. gold. Siscenko confirmed the efficiency of the new drilling methods that were introduced through the above mentioned improvements. silver for the period 1929 – 1934 in the ‘Bulletin of the Institute of Economic Situation’. The National Printing House. gas. • ‘Die Erdoelproduction Rumaeniens’ (‘Allgmeine Oesterreichische Chemicher . In his foreword. salt. on the 12th of September. by changing the drilling regime. 1933. a significant increase of the drill feed may be obtained. that may affect their resistance and result in immediate damage.
1936). Congress. ‘A.R. Simionescu mentioned and quoted parts of this work in ‘Our Country’ magazine. in 1934). This work was awarded a prize by the Romanian Academy on the basis of Mr. 11. pages 550 – 600). • ‘Important Factors in the Carrying Out of a National Oil Policy’ (Wichtige Faktoren behufs Verwirklichung einer Nationaler Petroleumpolitik. • ‘Norms for Materials Specific to the Oil Industry’ (a work written in collaboration with engineer A. • ‘The Role of the State in Industrialisation’ (published also in the ‘A.R. 1937 and published in the Congress works.• ‘The Scientific Rotary Drilling’ (presented at the 8th Congress of the Romanian Association for the Advance of Sciences. Iaşi. I. L. Industrie und Handelszeitschrift.E.I. The work is a short presentation of the mining production of Poland and of the experience Ion Basgan had on the study trip of A. Julius Springer Publishing House. • ‘The Oil Policy in Accordance with the Exploitation Conjuncture and the Fuel Matter’ (published in January. • ‘Bohrungen im Vorlande des Oelgebietes von Rumanien’ (published in: ‘Leobener Bergmannstag’. • ‘La Pologne productive’ (‘Annales des Mines de Roumanie’. in October. No. No. . 11/1936 and ‘A. 1936.I. Bulletin’.R. Vienna and in ‘Bohrtechniker Zeitung’. No. 10. Professor I. page 33). 55 (1937). Vellan.R.I. ‘Industry and Commerce’ magazine. 1936 in the ‘I.313 . This was a work that had been carried out for the ‘Reşi a’ and ‘Malaxa’ companies for the manufacturing of the materials and pipes in Romania as required in the oil industry. 1936. the 3rd year.I.G. 1937. between the 29th of April and the 2nd of May. 1936. pages 309 . 4.I. 1936. No.G.G. 11/1936. March. Bulletin’. • ‘The Report on the Industrialisation of the Country’ (this work was written by Ion Basgan as a speaker at the A.R. Bulletin’. pages 354 and 362. • ‘The Role and Necessary Weight of the Heavy Rods in Drilling’ (lecture held at the World Oil Congress.G. 1934). quoted and developed by engineer Bernard in one of his works of 1946).R. Mrazec report in the session of 1936. Paris. in Bucharest. No. Bulletin’. in collaboration with engineer Rusu Abrudeanu.G.
1941). Roma. 1 of the 20th of January. Bulletin’. Freiberg Bergakademie. Gennaio 1941 – XIX) . No.I. the 8th year. M. 1939 and published in the ‘Annals of Mines’. • ‘The Economic Report of the Oil Section at the A. 3. a Romanian and French translation of the above mentioned work). Berlin.M. Roma. Febbraio 1941 – XIX). Jahrgang. • ‘Sfruttamento del petrolio in Romania’ (‘La Revista Italiana Del Petrolio’. September. Virgil Madgearu. 1939. Argus. No.G. 1940. No. • ‘New Oil Fields in Romania’ (‘Nouveaux chantiers de pétrole en Roumanie’. Congress’ (presented in May. 224 and in the ‘I. the 22nd of October. • ‘Efficient Exploitation of Oil Fields’ (‘A. Berlin.R. Geologie und Paläntologie’. No. • ‘The Campaign of Oil Production Increase Through the Exploitation and Search of New Oil Fields’ (‘Oil .I.E. The work was reviewed by Prof. • ‘Oil and Natural Gas in Romania’ (this work was written at the official demand of the Ministry of National Propaganda and published in the ‘Romanian Institute of Energy’. • ‘Erdoelgewinnung in Rumaenien Bohren und Foerden des Erdoels und Dessen Verarbeitung’ (‘Oel und Kohle’. 1940). 40.I. 40. Geologie und Paläntologie’. page 255. Philipsborn. on the 19th of May. pages 254. Dr. 1940). Bulletin’.T. 1937.The work focuses on various types of Romanian oil anticlines and describes the activity on the new oil fields of Bucşani and Mărgineni. 1938. 255 and by Prof. 11. in ‘Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie. 1940) • ‘Oil Exploitation in Romania – Oil Extractive and Processing Industry’ (‘Romanian Annals of Mines’. ‘The Evolution of the Romanian Economy’. V. • ‘Charakteristic des Rumaenischen Erdoels’ (‘Oel und Kohle’.R. Jahrgang 1938.Bearing Romania’. Hengelein in ‘Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie. 7 of 1934. No. review published in the ‘Annales des Mines de Roumanie’. • ‘Caratteristiche degli olii greggii romeni’ (‘La Revista Italiana Del Petrolio’. the 26th of March. by Prof. as well as the works in the plain area. published in ‘Annales des Mines de Roumanie’. No. November. No. pages 104 and 105). 1940). the 22nd of October. Dr.
1943). • ‘The Products’ Quality of Sovromutilajpetrolifer’ (Bucharest.• ‘The Question of Water in Dobrudgea’ (published in the ‘A. 1954). January. No. 1940. Oil Extraction and Processing Industry’ (‘Romanian Annals of Mines’. the 13th of July. • ‘Increase of Oil Production’ (published in the ‘Romania’ newspaper. 10 of October. December. 1940).I. No. 1943 and in miscellaneous excerpts).G. 1951 in prospecting drilling exploitations. Bulletin’. • ‘The Water Supply in Dobrudgea’ (lecture held at the Academy of Sciences. 10 of October 1943 and in miscellaneous excerpts). page 193). September.G. 1940). • ‘The New Law of Oil and the National Capital’ (see ‘Oil – Bearing Romania’. 9/10. the 7th of November. • ‘Oil Exploitation in Romania. No. This work represents the written text of Ion Basgan’s lecture which he held at the headquarters of A. October. in Bucharest. The work includes the following chapters: How the oil equipment industry came into being in Romania. • ‘Mines’ (quarterly chapter issued in the ‘Bulletin of Romanian Institute of Economic Situation’). • ‘Principles of National Oil Policy’ (‘The Universe’.R.I. • ‘Drinking Water Supply in the Countryside’ (published in the ‘Hydrotechnics’ magazine. • ‘Proportional Heavy Rods Drilling’.G.I. 8/1959).R. No. 1940 and in ‘La Stampa’. Bulletin’. 1951. No.R. 1942. of the 14th of October. 1940 and the reviews of the ‘A.S. Bulletin’. • ‘Political and Economic Principles in the Oil Legislation of Romania’ (‘A. 1941). the 1st of August. of the 6th of November. the 22nd of August. 1940). on the 11th of April.T. • ‘Oil Situation and National Interests’ (‘Oil – Bearing Romania’. 1 of the 20th of January. .I. • ‘Romanian Oil Industry and the Spirit of New Times’ (‘Oil – Bearing Romania’. There are also included quotations from foreign authors. containing a technical and scientific description of his innovation which he had introduced in January. who made a confirmation of the scientific and technical principles underlying this improvement of the drilling technique.
‘Remarks on the Occasion of the World Oil Congress’. 21. This work had been required by the Ministry of Metallurgy. 1933).R. 34. the 27th of May. the 26th of August. the 3rd May.I. July. 1933. concluding that: ‘Mr. page 10) Conferences • ‘Oil Industry’ (held at the ‘Prof. page 11) • ‘Ludovic Mrazec’ (‘The Economics’ Life’. Iorga’ University. No. of May 1933. ‘Oil Policy in Keeping with the Situation of the Explorations and the Fuel Matter' (conference held first on the 19th of April. the 4th year. No. Buşilă). under the boarding of Prof. Critical remarks on the utilization and maintenance of the oil equipment on the oil fields.Technical and scientific measures for the improvement of the oil equipment quality. the 4th year. Quality improvement in oil equipment repair. that were very little known and the awareness of which may soon bring a change in the deep drilling system’. Technical and organizational measures for the improvement of oil equipment quality. at the ‘Politehnica’ . Quality improvement by means of new high technique equipment.G. 1929). Suggestion for the remedy of the shortcomings in the utilization and maintenance of oil equipment.R. (‘Radio Bucharest’. • ‘A New Science and its Important Applications’ (‘The Economics’ Life’ magazine. Bulletin’. in Vălenii de Munte. 1966. Ion Basgan presented original analytic calculations for certain phenomena. the 7th of November. The technical review of the ‘A. 1935 in the cycle of conferences organized by I.E. • ‘The Technique and Scientific Interpretation of the Rotary Drilling System’ (‘Politehnica’ Society. 1966. published a report on this conference. N.
the 4th year.035. The debates that were held on this conference were published in the I. the 15th of July. Buşilă made the following comments: ‘Mr. page 1. T. 1935). put them in an attractive form and held a beautiful and useful lecture to us’. • Professional Course Held at the Industrial-Import Enterprise (a cycle of four conferences on internal combustion engines. 4. technical characteristics.035 and 1. 1950). . December. Ion Basgan held a beautiful conference. Prof. C. Mrazec to the Romanian Academy was published in the I. • Professional Course on Oil Wells Drilling (training course held at Sovromutilajpetrolifer and at the Ministry of Agriculture for the upgrading of the General Direction staff. L. Basgan from the documentary point of view.Society and repeated at the request of his colleagues from the Association of Mining Engineers in Moreni. Iacobescu of the Academy of High Commercial and Industrial Studies of Bucharest would state the following: ‘I heartily join the spirit of Mr.R. Prof. spare parts.E.036. On this occasion. 1951). Eng. No. He has gathered a series of facts that are extremely interesting. 1957). • Drinking Water Supply in Dobrudja (Conference held at the Ministry of Agriculture in May. • ‘Sonicity in Oil Exploitation and Water Supply’ (Lecture held at the science and technique courses of the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania. Basgan’s lecture. on the 24th of April. 1935 and in the ‘Movement’. Prof. The written text of the report that was presented by Prof. Bullletin. technical and commercial documentation. We enjoyed his lecture: first of all it showed his courage to state his own remarks and conclusions in the oil policy’. he made a thorough description of the oil policy to us’. the 1st of March. 1952. Sp. This work was rewarded by the Romanian Academy. The written text of the lecture was published in ‘Curentul’ magazine. 1953). on the 27th of April. Bulletin. Ficşinescu appreciated this lecture in the following terms: ‘I cannot help praising the outstanding contribution of Mr. 4.E.R. 1957 and the ‘Informative Bulletin’ of the Popular Republic of Romania. their classification. 1935. page 1. the 3rd year. No. 1936. of December. ‘Scânteia’ newspaper.
during the work session of the Academy. that was presided by I. sonic pumping and sonic paraffin removal). • ‘Schwingungsphaenomene und Deren Wirkung auf die Arbeitsweise des Meissels im Rotary Bohrsystem’ (Vibration Phenomena and their Effect on the Operation of the Drill in the Rotary Drilling System). 1972). • ‘Debates in Sonicity’ (lecture held at the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania on the 5th of October. 1958. S. 1958). the vice-president of the Academy and the Romanian scientist George Constantinescu). • ‘A New System of Drilling Wells for Oil and Gas Using Rotary and Percussion Movements Combined’. 1961). • ‘Romanian Contributions and the Priority of Discoveries and Inventions in the Science and Technology of Drilling’ (lecture held at the Romanian Library of New York. Works rewarded by the Romanian Academy • ‘Oil Policy in Keeping Explorations and The Fuel Matter’. with the Situation of Lectures held at the Romanian Academy • ‘Operation and Form of Rotary Drill in the Oil Rocks of Romania’.• ‘Sonicity in Oil Exploitation and Water Supply’ (Lecture held at the science and technique courses of the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania. . on the 7th of November. • ‘Applications of Sonicity in the Technique of Drilling and Extraction’ (lecture held at the science and technique courses of the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania on the 22 nd of December. 1961. in October. ultrasonic drilling. on the following topics: sonic drilling. Gheorghiu. • ‘Drinking Water Supply in the Countryside’ (lecture held at the Ministry of Agriculture. on the 11th of October.
1937. 1943). in Paris. on the 6th of April. 1937. Austria). between the 2 nd and the 8 th of April. Lectures and reports held at national congresses . 1967. 1937). • ‘The Limitation of the Effect of the Archimedes’ Pressure and the Sonic Energy – Essential Conditions for the Future of Deep Drilling’ (lecture held at the 7th World Oil Congress. this lecture was held at the World Oil Congress of Paris. Mexico. and in the scientific circles’. in June. with international participation. • ‘The Role and the Required Weight of Heavy Rods in Drilling’ (‘Role et poids necessaires du drillcollar pendant le forage’). this lecture was published in the Congress works and translated in Russian). June.Lectures held at the Academy of Sciences • ‘Drinking Water Supply in Dobrudgea’ (Ion Basgan’s lecture was held by Prof. 1967). on the 18th of December. (Leobenen Bergmannstag. Paris. including the following remarks: ‘The lecture was enjoyed and appreciated both in the oil. It was also reviewed by American magazines and the Institute of Technical Documentation of Bucharest. Ştefan Cantuniari. • ‘New Oil Fields in Romania’ (‘Bohrungen im Vorlande des Oelgebietes von Rumaenien’). A review of this lecture was published in the ‘Le Pétrole’ magazine. International congress participation • ‘Scientific Considerations of the Technique of Modern Drilling’ (the World Oil Congress.
Iaşi. Bucharest. • ‘Scientific Rotary Drilling’ (the Congress of the Association for the Advance of Science in Romania. 1939 and partly quoted by Prof.H. Madgearu in ‘The Evolution of the Romanian Economy after the world war’ pages 104. Leonida’.• 1934).I. Virgil N. October. ‘Efficient Exploitation of Oil Fields’ (A. Manoilescu. • ‘The Role of the State in Industrialisation’ (A. Scientific Printing House. Dr.G.I. Scientific Printing House. D. 1936.G. 7. engineer D. This report was published in ‘Argus’. on the 19th of May. Congress of Iaşi. Bucharest. on the 19th of May. Bucharest. N. 1939. Eng.R. Congress. Vasilescu – Karpen). 105) Monographs • ‘Life and Work of George Constantinescu’. the Technical Section presided by Prof. Bucharest.G.A. 1967 (this work was written in collaboration with other scientists). 1936). • ‘Economic Situation in the Oil Industry’ (Ion Basgan held this lecture that was an Economic Report of the Oil Section at the Congress of the Engineers’ Association of the Mining Industry.R. 1934. • ‘Report On The Industrialisation Of Romania’ (held in collaboration with engineer Rusu Abrudeanu at the A.830.I. 1968 Outstanding projects carried out at I.C. with Prof. . No.P. engineer Ştefan Mihăiescu.R. Pastia and others joining in the debates. M. • ‘Life and Work of Prof. Congress.
while he also proved that all these applications were based on sonicity.• ‘Technical Guidelines in the Design. Ion Basgan was awarded the State Prize of the Popular Republic of Romania for his technical and scientific activity and the results that he had obtained through the implementation of his inventions in industry.C. including also the applications of the French. 1966). that were members of the State Committee of Waters. which is a Romanian achievement). at the Popular University.A. in 1964). Spain.H. Renato Calapso..A. utilizing the sonic drilling..C. as well as applications of the Archimedes’ principle in the modern technique. in collaboration with the following institutes: I.H. • ‘Synthesis and Final Study on the Efficiency of Underground Water Catching Designed at I. and I.H.P.C. • ‘Archimedes’ Principle’ (a new enunciation and interpretation. Portugal. Manufacturing. • ‘To the Centre of the Earth’ (a Conference that was held in the industrial and scientific circles in Italy. as well as in other circles) The State Prize of the Popular Republic of Romania In 1962. Germany and in Romania.H. Exploitation and Maintenance of the Oil Wells Network for Hydro-Geological Control in Hydrological Improvement’ (this Project was carried out by Ion Basgan as the Chief of a complex Project at I.C. I. The work covers 370 pages and has a foreword by Prof. Soviet and American scientists in the domain of ultrasonics.P. • ‘Sonicity and its Applications’ (this work was written by Ion Basgan as a result of his studying the archive of George Constantinescu at Coniston in England and it focuses on the applications made by the author in the world. .S. France.A. the president and organizer of the international Congress held in homage to Archimedes in the 20th century). written in Romanian and English.’ (Ion Basgan carried out this work as the Chief of a complex Project.P.S..P.
Social activity Ion Basgan’s social activity covered especially the political and economic domains. He held lectures at the science and technique courses of the Romanian Academy (see the Informative Bulletin of the Academy of the Popular Republic of Romania. Between 1935 and 1940 he published a series of works. Ion Basgan worked as a honorific course assistant at the Department of ‘Oil Study’ at the Academy of High Commercial and Industrial Studies (Certificate No. 3rd quarter. In spite of the good results that he received on this examination test. he passed an examination at the ‘Politehnica’ University of Bucharest. scientific organizations. 1958. many of which were rewarded with prizes by the Romanian Academy for the truth and courage of his assertions. 04203 of the 24th of March. page 36 and the curriculum of the courses for the first semester. he would not occupy this position. asking for the nationalisation of the Romanian oil industry. In 1946. when he held a lecture in front of the examination commission and the students. the president of the Coordination Commission of Drilling for Water Supply and a member of the Technical and Scientific Board of the State Committee of Waters. Ion Basgan . Didactic activity Between 1933 and 1934. 1994). 1961). Ion Basgan was a specialist working at the Institute of Agriculture Studies and Design. He held a series of lectures at international and national congresses.At that time. as well as professional training courses and upgrading of the personnel in various enterprises. in order to occupy a lecturer position at the Department of oil fields drilling and exploitation. Thanks to his tough character and his outlook regarding the nationalization of this important national economy sector.
he was appointed a member of the staff of the Ministry of Metallurgy. – Câmpina the Commission that had been appointed by the Central Committee of the Romanian Working Party for the investigation of the drillcollars matter and their supply to the oil industry. 1952).T. In January.M.S. 1952 to be appointed a member of the staff of the Ministry of Metallurgy that was in charge of the organization of the industrial exhibition ‘The Planned Economy of the Popular Republic of Romania in Full Progress’ (that opened up in December. through the Order No.S. Ion Basgan was called out of production through the Order No. 177 of the 20th of July. through the execution of hydro-geological drilling for the water supply in the countryside (see ‘Hidrotehnica’ magazine No. 1953.C. of the trade union and ARLUS.I. in order to raise the living standard of the agriculture workers and of the countryside inhabitants. 1. For twelve years he had been carrying his activity in the social and economic domains.U. Ion Basgan was appointed the president of the Commission for the Approval of the Internal Norms of the Ministry at the Metallurgy Department.T.P.R. continuously working for these social bodies. and ARLUS from their foundation. 146. 1954 he joined together with Dr. 1958). Reşi a.794 of the 7th of December. as a specialist in the equipment for oil drilling and exploitation. 146.I. 1953. 1948. that organized the industrial exhibition between June and November.Geller of I. at the S. 777/1953. Reşi a and S. through the Order No. through the Decision of the Ministry of Mines and Oil and by the Address No.C. .909 of the Ministry of Metallurgy that was issued in the Address No.was appointed a member of the Commission for the inventory of the nationalized mining goods of the Gold and Silver Works and the president of the Commission for the inventory of the mining goods in the Brad region. He had joined in the trade union in 1947 and had been a member of A.575 of the 26th of October. 1953.R. especially by organizing training courses for professional upgrading of his colleagues from several enterprises. His professional certificates and the characterization of his professional and social activities.S.. He was a member of A. 1 of August. that were issued by the Sovromutilajpetrolifer and the Corporation of Land Improvement are a confirmation of his carrying out successfully this type of activity. In June.
1966 up to the 20th of December. During the activity he had carried out abroad for one year. Group of the Corporation of Land Improvement. He also analyzed the works that had been prepared on the occasion of the 20th century commemoration of Archimedes and he himself presented his own work on the Archimedes’ principle to professor Renato Calapso. he would elaborate works. He suggested to the Academy of the Socialist Republic of Romania that at least a funeral stone should be donated for the memorial tomb of George Constantinescu. in which Ion Basgan was bringing to the fore the work of the renowned Greek scientist of old times. Germany and in other countries. hold lectures and establish scientific.I. he contacted several representatives of science and industry from institutes. In December. with a focus on the effect of his discoveries on the modern drilling technique. 1967. In the meantime. Portugal. 1966. where he studied and took photos of the archive. England. and that his archive should be brought to Romania. that his good friend had left behind. Ion Basgan visited and studied the native place of Archimedes in Syracusa. in keeping with this kind of social responsibility. in the region of lakes in England. namely in Italy. also a member of honor of the Romanian Academy. the organizer of this world Congress. 1967 he left on a pilgrimage tour to the tomb of George Constantinescu. being involved in legal investigations and negotiations that were required for obtaining his Patent rights as an inventor in the USA.T.In 1959 he was the Chief of the hydro-geological and drilling staff of the A. other institutions and companies. technical and industrial contacts. He lived in the atmosphere in which Archimedes had produced his work in the old times. Spain. France. developing the activity that he had been entrusted.S. International activity From the 20th of November. Ion Basgan carried out his professional activity in the West. In January. universities. Later. Professor Renato Calapso wrote the foreword to this work. the Romanian forefather of sonicity. always aiming at the acknowledgement by foreign scientists of the Romanian contribution to the international scientific and technical achievements. .
1967. 1967. Sicily and in other locations. ‘Pétrole informations’ of the 20th of June. Idrill and other companies. The problems that were raised in France would become the subject of complex articles in the specialized publications.In Italy. he was a guest of the European Dragan Foundation. ECONOMIC ACTIVITY . The Romanian Ambassador in Paris notified Ion Basgan that the French government supported his actions regarding his legal claims in the USA. technical and industrial achievements. In Germany and Spain he vas invited by the industrial corporations representatives. and he presented the Romanian scientific. He visited the local work sites and held lectures on his own drilling methods.. when he was aware that his drilling methods were utilized in Rovenna. in the magazines ‘Le pétrole lubri Europe’ of the 6th of April and the 20th of October. that had brought about a favorable effect on the development of the relations between Portugal and Romania. he was the guest of the Essence et Carburants Society and of other enterprises and institutions. as well as by the Gulbenkian Foundation representatives. In France. ENI-AGIP. In Portugal he was the guest of the Sacor corporation. 1967 and in the Congress of the Inter-parliamentary Union of Palma de Mallorca in March. 1967. He had scientific and technical contacts and joined in the Economic Conference of Bonn in January. where he held extended scientific and technical lectures and discussions. that were supporting his legal actions of Patent rights claiming in the USA. where he was received by the leader of the oil industry and of the state. of Butangaz. the Oil Union of Rome.
with no industrialisation and development of production means being created in the meantime. Ion Basgan showed that the oil production of Romania tended to be maintained at a maximum Standard that had been attained in respect to the development requirements of the respective period. The import of oil products for England. Moreover. Ion Basgan’s estimation was that during 1929-1933. Therefore he had master the economic mechanisms of the activity he monitored. oil exploitation in Romania was not economical.on Basgan’s scientific achievements had always been doubled by his endeavours in economics. Although. social and political conditions both in Romania and abroad. salt. that resulted in some resources depletion. silver. as a result the autarchic spirit that defined the policy of the year 1933. coal. gold and silver under extremely complex economic. France and Germany testified for the fact that at that time the European economy was in a boom. coal. the resources that were explored and the sales possibilities on the international market. although there existed a tendency in import decrease. Between 1929 and 1933 the Romanian export of oil products doublet. well as the technical development. extremely low prices that were a common practice had enabled the great oil enterprises to obtain profits through the increase of the amount that was manipulated. These facts. the author underlines the importance of the exploitation activities in oil. USSR fulfilled its oil production Plan by 40% as compared to the preceding year (1933) I . In this sense. gas. gas. that could ensure an economic structure based on several production factors. For the period between 1929 and 1933 that was studied. under the conditions in which the European consumption of oil products had increased in 1933. with a shovelling away of dumping from its export. By 1936 a menacing oil production decrease had already become manifest in Romania. Ion Basgan made several studies that represented an efficient work tool at that time. In his work ‘The Situation of oil. with exceeding export. More often than not he was in a position to take decisions. gold. as a result of the end of the economic crisis in many countries entitled Ion Basgan to forecast the favourable situation of 1934 for the oil industry. that had become manifest by that time and an increase of the international consumption. consumption was getting up. in the Western Europe and in Russia. a favourable situation for the oil industry depended mainly on the fact that the USA maintained an orderly production and sales of the oil products. salt. In addition to it.
both at home and for the export. As a consequence. As compared to the previous year. had resulted in a remarkable improvement of the coal quality of the Jiu Valley. Extended investments. Ion Basgan estimated a consumption increase for both 1932 and 1933. 54 in 1932 and 47 in 1933. Ion Basgan estimated that some progress had already been registered thanks to the special attention paid to the exploitation works in the gold mines of the . through topping. As for the gold and silver production. had brought about a series of disturbances in the economic domain.those who were interested in the Irak oil had to consider its introduction on the international market. through rather high fuel amount savings. The total value of extracted coals was however continuously diminishing during the latest five years. the cost of coal in the Jiu Valley that he calculated comparatively to 1929 with the yearly ups and downs. mainly as a result of gas consumption in the oil region. that worked on 22% naphtha and 78% coal. under the conditions in which the gas of the oil region were not consumed before gasolene extraction. Coal consumption was lowering because of the market competition of naphtha. in this activity sector. Ion Basgan had done these forecast studies in good earnest. Ion Basgan stated that the Romanian coal industry covered only the internal consumption. This entailed a significant lowering of cost of one ton of steam water and therefore a reduction of the Romanian Railways budget. The main consumer was the Romanian Railways. that were made in this particular economic sector. For natural gas. the index of the coal production was 78 in 1931. there was registered also a decrease of the personnel employed in coal extraction. Moreover. Between 1929 and 1933. Ion Basgan also noticed that during that period. under the conditions of a constant ratio between naphtha and coal consumption. and especially in the sector of coal consumption. Moreover. the pit gas consumption in Ardeal was decreasing. He estimated that important amounts of gas remained unemployed at that time. The decrease of coal consumption resulted also in a lowering of production. at a time when the costs of oil products were increasingly dropping down. Ion Basgan found that there was a small increase for the year 1933. The analysis that Ion Basgan had made in the domain of salt exploitation entitled him to state that the salt production had lowered down between 1930 and 1931 and it slightly increased starting with 1932.
simplify useless formal procedures. first as a result of creating a viable industry . now menaced by depletion’. Ion Basgan maintained that ‘the future mining regime which is to be elaborated should bring in clear norms. Ion Basgan stipulated that this activity should be efficiently carried out. Ion Basgan suggested that long term investments should be made for the exploration and exploitation of these resources with pay off possibilities during a period of time longer than that ‘usually covered in the exploitation of rich deposits. payment facilities. Romania also had at that time (1938) several fields ‘That were known to be good and sure for oil exploitation’ with a reserve of about 35 million tons. with the simultaneous sparing and saving oil deposits. Ion Basgan estimated that for the achievements for this policy in the domain of crude oil processing it was necessary that the state should be firmly involved in encouraging adequate investments in this particular domain. Under these conditions the gold price was stationary.Apuseni Mountains and Baia Mare. producing revenues and currency that were necessary to the economic revival of Romania. exploration possibilities for all those that are willing and can do it. Concerning exploitation. and that of the silver was dropping down. In this respect. In this sense. as well as by upgrading the methods of crude oil processing and by raising the gasolene ratio obtainable from the raw material. As A result of this policy. incentives. economic and carried out so that it can ensure a long lasting indisputable reserve to the State’. while sustaining several activities at national scale mainly through granting the best land of the state into exploitation. Ion Basgan estimated that this activity ‘should be efficient. the state was expected to lead a policy that should encourage the production and stimulation of the national capital. As for crude oil processing. The ‘Economic Report of the Oil Section’ That was drawn up by Ion Basgan showed a series of aspects of the oil policy with imperative economic effects. Ion Basgan estimated that the evaluation of oil supplies of Romania represented a starting point for the setting up of the future economic plan of Romania. incentives for those who carry out exploration works conscientiously. The industrialisation of Romania was thus estimated to reach a favourable standard by creating new industries. In this sense. as well as severe penalties for those who do not fulfil their duties’. Ion Basgan had estimated that an increase of the domestic consumption should take place. under the specific contemporary economic conditions.
In this sense. to its national defence capacity. it was very important that the temporary interests of the state should be put in line with the progress of mankind. and it had always been under discussion both in the country and abroad. including extraction products that were obtained from oil and gas derivates. Moreover. with the aim of permitting the Romanian state to support Romanian political trends in the context of wider European economic interest. so that the oil industry may be differently structured. The Ministry of National Economy had studied a series of anteprojects for the law of mines suggested by various interested parties. Ion Basgan showed that oil legislation had an important part to play in the Romanian economy. namely from the Calimachi code (published in 1817) in which it was stipulated in the Art. as well as the development of the production of munitions and warfare materials. Ion Basgan estimated that the Romanian state should not perpetrate the mistake of the end of the century. An efficient domestic consumption could not be envisaged but as a result of the creation of the internal oil exchange. 183 that the underground deposits were a possession of Romanian princes. Marinescu was appointed the leader . Ion Basgan made a short survey of the legislation principles starting from the past century. in dependence to the existing oil fields deposits. As for the activities of oil exploitation. ‘The Principles of Economic Policy in the Romanian Oil Legislation’. In his work. his entire life and work were closely attached to the interests of his country. Ion Basgan stated that the export should be lowered in favour of the internal consumption and only finite products export should be raised.that would depend on the structure of the county and ensure the independence of the Romanian economy and increase the civilisation standard. As Ion Basgan was a great patriot. his economic policy aimed at creating reserves of discovered deposits and the deposits of finite products in all the strategic centres of Romania. No decision was taken until C. on the contrary. it had been assimilated with the mining legislation. Regarding the policy that the Romanian state should have applied in the domain of crude oil export. Professor Ion Basgan estimated that the oil legislation had not been clearly stated before the end of the 19th century and moreover. namely that the government should ignore the importance of oil legislation. In support of his statements. temporary objectives should be overlooked in favour of the long term interests of the Romanian nation.
that had been concluded by the representatives if various domestic and international groups of interests.I. In the above mentioned work and in the U. 1942. including Ion Basgan showed that the Romanian oil companies that were founded before 1900. The new law project would bring about principles of oil legislation that showed a real economic progress.of this Ministry.) was invited to state its opinion concerning the oil law. as a result if the special understanding that the State leadership had manifested in this particular domain.I.P. the specialists of the time. reconciling these sundry interests with those of the national economy and the exceptional requirements of his epoch. the oil law project presented the tendency to facilitate the promotion of national capitals through the distribution of zones. The principles that were suggested by this Union in support of the national capital interests were entirely approved by the State leadership. Moreover. that was submitted to discussion to the interested parties. The new Law of the oil was issued on the 17th of July. Marshal Ion Antonescu.N.000 ha that were grouped in 12 oil . either lacking a provisional policy in the oil activity of the state. It was estimated that the new oil law project included also a series of measures that were determined by the exceptional war conditions. This tendency was inoperative.N. The Ministry of National Economy drew up a first ante-project of the oil law.I. by making available to then about 500.P. The National Union of the Oil Enterprises (U. as well as those that had been founded on the nationalist principles of the Law of mines of 1924 could not develop. Any other interventions and protocols failed. or misapplying the national principles of former legislation. The new Law of the oil would encourage first the large oil producing enterprises. The Romanian authorities stated in this sense that these measures prevented Romania from having a law with a general character. Memorial. the State leader of the time accepted the principles suggested by U. irrespective of the nationality of their capitals. as a result of an inappropriate procedure of oil land distribution.P. The minister C.N. Marinescu awarded special attention to the oil matter. taking it out of the general framework of mining. that may be applied also in the period following immediately after the war. at the beginning of oil activity in Romania.
so that smaller Romanian companies should also be allowed to benefit from the incentives of that Law. while the State would retain for itself the rights of the second and third structures. the only that were capable to meet the exploration demands and to ensure the achievement of standards required in the oil technique and economy. with the aim to obtain practical results. reduction of royalties and taxes. 1942.000 lei. a grouping of the national capital should necessarily be envisaged into companies with a capital if at least 400. by setting aside special shares of the oil surfaces of the State and granting to it significant advantages. As a consequence. the above-mentioned Law-decree subordinated the legal principles to the technical principles. The explorer was granted an entire structure. A deadline was granted for this action until 31st of December. that was later extended for another limited period if time. under the form of financial facilities. Time was too short for anybody to have the opportunity to analyse the practical results ensuing from this law regarding the promotion of the national capital in the oil industry. in spite of the initiative that had been taken by the Ministry of National Economy to encourage these regrouping actions through special credits and reserves of exploitation fields. The law granted to the State the right to invite the national capital to these explorations. 1942 envisaged the possibility to promote the national capital in the oil industry. only by grouping it into large industrial units. credits.000. Experience in the domain of oil industry also showed that the financial threshold that had been set up for those who could not benefit from the national advantages of the law should not be lowered down. Moreover. in order to benefit from the advantages that were granted by this law. The Romanian oil worker had always proved to be pre-eminently an individualist who would hardly accept unification into larger groups. The legislator of the Law of the 17th of July. that made the proof of having technical and economic capacity.fields districts and several geological structures for the exploration and exploitation of the oil underground. . The experience that had been gathered until that time showed that the oil companies with internal capital did not succeed to group themselves. that were urgently required under the exceptional contemporary conditions.
that should be applied in the exploitation of oil deposits. the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Communications. research.Ion Basgan presented a series of aspects of the exploitation of oil fields in Romania in his lecture ‘Efficient Exploitation of Oil Deposits’.I. the Railway system. it was absolutely necessary that there should be continued the works for the discovery of new oil fields through exploration by means of deep drilling wells. that were most necessary to ensure a ‘policy in keeping with higher interest. Ion Basgan estimated that in order to maintain the contemporary. The explanation in favour of his suggestion was the lack of coordination that was specific at that moment between the Ministry of Mines. this was an incentive also for the industries that were based upon the consumption of this type of products.500 m. based on firm stable long-time principles. (Gala i. oil production of Romania and develop it in this future.G. the state policy is presented. The statements that Ion Basgan had made were grounded on the progress of the drilling and exploitation technique. The increase of the internal consumption of oil and pit gas may be obtained first by increasing the efficiency of the oil production industrialisation. the foundation of this state body could have ensures a certain stability. Ion Basgan also suggests the foundation of an internal Oil Exchange and the setting up if several regulations for export. depending on the situation of deposits. 1937). In his work ‘New oil fields in Romania’(which be presented at the Mining Congress in Leoben. which he held at the 12th Congress of A. Ion Basgan estimated that there should be urgently set up ‘a state body for investigations. in the basis of a policy for efficient exploitation of oil deposits. with the environment and the technical progress if mankind’. coherence and interdependence in decision taking. 1934). October. Ion Basgan also pointed out the necessity to speed up the campaign of oil deposits inventory. on the 2nd of September. for the analysis of problems and establishing the measures that had been adopted. and should permit to act in defence when facing conjuncture events. both in the domain of oil deposits and in the wider framework of fuel and mining’. respectively. as well as the exploration of oil deposits in new areas that were supposed to have oil deposits. With this end in view.000 and 3. Moreover. between 2.R. study and research. Therefore. He was confident . On this occasion. in order to stop the export of crude petroleum and to stimulate the export of industrialised products.
German and Romanian chain hoists that permit oil well drilling at 200 m in 2 to 3 months. whose unique solution was that mentioned above. As regards Ion Basgan’s concern for the macroeconomy his work ‘The Role of the State in industrialisation’ presented general favourable ideas for an industrialisation that should meet the demands of Romania so that it may become a powerful state organised on the principle of complex economy. The most adequate oil deposits of Romania were expected to be those of the Flysch region and the most proficient oil region. Ion Basgan estimated that the problem of water supply could be solved in the same way also fir the health resorts that were located on the Black Sea shore. iu was a fact established on this occasion that the possibility to drill water wells in the rocky land of Dobrudja was an essential condition for the utilisation of the underground water on Dobrudja. At the time when Ion Basgan made these remarks on the problems generated by the lack if water supply in Dobrudja. that were seriously lacking drinking water. there had already been carried out the first lot of ten wells for the search of underground water. by the analyses that they include. In this respect. that was endowed with the latest types of American. At the marginal region of the Flysch area. he estimated that oil deposits may exist at the bottom of the Transylvania basin under the gas deposits. Ion Basgan estimated that the Ecogen and Oligocen were the layers that carried oil deposits. As a conclusion. Ion Basgan’s studies and the works he carried out in his entire lifetime also testified for his concern regarding the drilling for water reserves in several regions that lacked adequate water supply. Water extraction could be done by means of piston pumps actuated by explosion engines. Thus. He considered that Maramureş region. In the end of his lecture. in the sense that Romania should have . the Moldavia plateau in the continuation of the Moineşti region and the Meridional Carpathians region at the west of the Olt river must also be considered potential oil regions. water supply in Dobrudja was a technical and economic problem. Mec ian and Dacian (located at the south of the Meridional Carpathians) in the Neogen region were considered to contain the rich oil deposits of Romania. in the north of Romania.that Romania had many oil fields available. was estimated to be that of the Neogen zone. Ion Basgan mentioned the technical advantages of Rotary drilling system.
. under extremely difficult conditions for the county. Ion Basgan maintained that ‘a new industrial legislation is necessarily required by the need to unify the legislation for all the regions of Romania. the textile and agriculture machinery. through its control tools. According to Ion Basgan. as well as their capacity on the framework of a national program. industrial legislation. This could only be conceived to be closely related to an economic urge by the State. the industrialisation should have been achieved at an accelerated pace. raw materials and financing possibilities for a powerful and systematic industrialisation. the state should mediate the development of the heavy metallurgical industry. in order to create the mechanical industries. In this sense. on the principle of setting up trade unions for every production industrial branch and regulations for the trade unions cartels. At that time.sufficient means of communication. The State should establish exactly what industries had to be created. Ion Basgan stated that: ‘the governing potential of the parties shall be measured by their financing possibilities and the carrying out of the national programme expressed in indexes calculated by neutral institutes and economic offices’. the manufacturing means. currency control. so that a thorough change of its official worker’s mentality may take place. approved by the constitutional bodies and accepted by the public mentality. as well as the national defence industries. namely: customs tariff. as well as by the need to control investment’. With this aim in view. Therefore. the State should have had a special organisation of its technical staff. contingency.
which he had been carrying out as a member of the National Liberal Party. Ion Basgan lived ardently. Ion Basgan jointly with other renowned Romanian engineers founded the Society of the Liberal engineers. members of the National Liberal Party. the love of one’s country and the act of human creation can make man to catch a glimpse of eternity. In whatever he did. and also a renowned engineer. a Romanian. The Report of the 19th of January. called ‘Vintilă Brătianu’. mention should be made of his initiative in the domain of the economic policy. A REPORT The undersigned. have met today. Through their enthusiasm and professionalism they testified for their wish to get involved in the solving of economic problems of Romania. No matter how week man may be. Ion Basgan would prove that here on earth the love of God. In this respect.POLITICAL ACTIVITY God-fearing man. creating immensely for his people and his country. engineers. . As a matter of fact. in accordance with the intention and demand expressed by Mr. in an extremely difficult historical period. 1945 is a speaking example in support of the above mentioned in relation to the professional body that had been set up. his belief in God can make him strong and give him strength to came out as a winner out of all the hardships of live. Ion Basgan’ life was a success the more so as he had always believe in what he did. Ion Basgan served the interests of the Romanian economy with priestly. a patriot. 1945 and decided on the foundation of the Society of Liberal Engineers. Through all his writings and practical achievements. on the 19th January. sincerely. In 1945. He was involved in political activity only as a consequence of his desire to be useful to his country. it was the urge of his heart to act in response to the desperate ‘cry’ of the mind.
Anghel Saligny. Vasilescu. Eng. In this respect.’ C. and Gh. Munteanu its Secretary. in order to ensure a better development of the commercial activity in Romania’ for the Armistice Commission. Dinu Popescu was the speaker in charge of this document. to the National Liberal Party and to the country in general. the President of the Party and with the tasks that we had received from Mr. A. he estimated that it was possible to renounce the autarchic policy only provided an agreement could be made between . Mrazec and others. Braniski Al. in which he stipulated the necessary conditions that were required to avoid the manifestation of an autarchic policy. The report that Ion Basgan presented in the framework of the Circle of Studies of the National Liberal Party. Brătianu. a team of specialists. It is through the Technical Circle of Studies. Ion Basgan was appointed President of the Society of Liberal Engineers ‘Vintilă Brătianu’ and Eng. in particular. Duca. in order to offer solution of economic revival. as well as the trends that must be folowed. to establish the activity programme. Gr. is but another opportunity for us to remember his ability to understand and make a synthesis of the phenomena that the Romanian economy was facing at that time. The Society of Liberal Engineers operates in the traditional spirit of the National Liberal Party that has been gloriously sustained by the collaboration of remarkable engineers of the past. Basgan. Gh. including also Ion Basgan. drew up a report ‘regarding several pressing measures. through lectures and conferences. In the framework of the Circle of Studies of the National Liberal Party. A series of materials were elaborated in the framework of the Industrial Policy section of the Society of Liberal Engineers. Eng. practical measures. the President of the Circles of Studies. in order to gather up the General Assembly. such as the Brătianu brothers. With this end in view. A report containing the request made by Ion Basgan and other renowned engineers for the foundation of the Society of Liberal Engineers ‘Vintilă Brătianu’. The society will try to study in a realistic and objective light the general technical problems that Romania has been facing and that shall be dealt with by the National Liberal party decissively. that the Society of Liberal Engineers shall try to bring its contribution in the framework of the general activity of the Party. Eng. the Trade Section.Dinu Brătianu. there shall be set up a delegation represented by Prof. industrial revival. Veniamin.
. – to achieve an economic system that should offer wider possibilities of co-operation to his own generation.the majority of governments or among all the states. – to ensure political stability. and ensuring the reinstatement of the production and trade credit in those countries that had been afflicted with unfavourable consequences of war.. – to achieve international actions that should result in both maintaining the stability of economic exchanges. that should thoroughly utilise labour and ensure a unitary economic security. in order to create a better world with thriving economy perspective. – to renounce the quantitative control of the foreign trade through the Preferential Union between states.’ .the state governments should beforehand agree on a method of reducing the quantitative control of foreign trade and on a viable financial and economic system for resuming economic activity. – to achieve a programme in order to resume the co-ordinated activity in the framework of an economic plan between states. – to avoid economic slumps and to ensure the integral and continuous utilisation of labour by an agreement between states. so that the following conditions could be met: ‘.
mention should be made of the conditions that Ion Basgan considered to be necessary in order to avoid the return back to the quantitative control of the outer trade. that should aim at simultaneously maintaining the stability of exchanges and the reinstatement of production and trade credit in the countries that have suffered the damaging effects of the war. – the effect of inflation is unemployment and limitation of trade.Original sheet of Ion Basgan’s manuscript containing suggestions regarding the economic development of Romania. a special . in order to obtain the stability of currency. in this sense. Ion Basgan also maintained that these conditions should have been promoted in the framework of the economic policy of the National Liberal Party: – the instability of currency had caused the quantitative control of foreign trade. Under the context of what has been mentioned above. an international action. in order to fight against dumping.
mechanism must be created that should permit to supply credits, in order to cope with the changes that had become manifest in the balance of accounts, and to proceed to methodical changes in the parity of the currency of various countries; to co-ordinate and align the financial national policies and to facilitate trade and multilateral clearing (Ion Basgan recommended that the conclusions regarding the future international financial stability that had been expressed by Victor Bădulescu at Bretton Woods should be re-examined). Ion Basgan considered that the national currency remained the payment means for both international relations, as well as for external liabilities. The gold standard would remain the base of the monetary system, with certain limitation. Therefore, the stability of the Romanian currency had to be ensured through financial co-ordination and aligning. In this sense, the signatory states should take the following measures: to refrain from availing themselves of the monetary depreciation as a competition means on international markets, as it happened between 1930-1939, in the case of the pound and the dollar; currency alignment should not be performed by fixing the currency parity in gold or dollars. According to Ion Basgan the International Monetary Fund and the Bank for Reconstruction and Development. Based on these ideas, Ion Basgan stated that: ’we will have to start analysing the quantitative and evolution structures of the industrial and commercial sectors in order to establish the principles in general and then the National Economic programme, that will have to be disseminated to the parties and the public opinion. The plan shall include: the necessary momentary measures for the transition period and for the time of economic stability that has been mentioned before. This plan will have to come out from the Liberal Party, that of all the Romanian parties was the animating and leading spirit of the national economy. We have to count on the conscious and well grounded opposition of the left-wing parties, that are under the influence of the statistic precision and the customs of the USSR. Unless we understand the present economic demands, we shall be overcome by the events’. Ion Basgan would strive to harness all his intelligence in the domain of the technical and economic sciences, in order to offer a series of suggestions to the National Liberal Party (which he considered to be among the principal responsible agents in achieving a stable and prosperous national economic policy), regarding the approach
of the development of the industrial policy and the reform of the credit system. All Ion Basgan’s theories, that were positively appreciated by the members of the National Liberal Party, together with other principles forwarded by other specialists of the party who most of them are members of the Society of Liberal Engineers, shall be finally included in a Programme Project of the National Liberal Party, under the following structure:
PROJECT PROGRAMME OF NATIONAL LIBERAL PARTY NATIONAL ECONOMY • Economic Freedom Economic freedom is the fundamental principle that has always defined and shall underlay the economic policy of the National Liberal Party. Economic freedom implies individual initiative, private property and economic competition. The recognition and valuation of these three basic elements of the economic freedom, our country has developed and shall continue to make economic progress, resulting in the prosperity of private economies and the increase of the state economic power and independence. Private economic liberties, that have been promoted and always encouraged by the National Liberal Party, were manifested and shall also develop in the future in the political and economic framework of the liberal state founded upon order, harmony and progress. Order means the organisation of the national economy by the power of state, according to simple and through principles, depending on the resources of the country, the creative genius of the nation and the labour power of all its citizens, with the state assuming no other role than that of guidance and supervision. Harmony of the national economy implies the setting up of relations and an equilibrium among all the productive economic categories, so that whole country may derive the greatest benefits from their interplay. By progress we mean to support and apply to the Romanian economy all the technical achievements, in all the domains of industry, transport, agriculture. Encouraging and developing such technical achievements will result in the employment of the working elements of the nation and therefore higher standards of social life may be attained for all the country inhabitants. For the reinstatement of the economic liberties in their natural framework, the National Liberal Party shall take care that many of the functions that had been undertaken in charge by the state, regarding life and the organisation of the commerce and industry should be shifted upon the competent professional organisation. The state will be therefore relieved of tasks and an interference that are not only useless to it, but also harmful to the order, harmony and progress that should characterise these domains. • Industry
The progress standard of a country in the hierarchy of modern civilisation is defined among other achievements by the level of industrialisation that has been reached by that country as compared to the other development countries. The National Liberal party has valued this principle from the very beginning of its activity and contributed to the foundation and the development of all kinds of industrial enterprises in Romania, for more than three quarters of a century. It strove to create favourable economic conditions for the national economy and the legal framework that was necessary for a free development of this domain of activity. Faithful to this principle and taking into account the technical progress and the organisation tendencies of the future, the National Liberal Party is aware of and intends to support the latest achievements and that are the most adequate to the economic elements and specific characters of our country, for its welfare and the granting of all the material and spiritual demands of its citizens. In this respect, the party will stimulate reorganisation and adaptation of existing industries to the new economic and social conditions emerging after the war and it will strive to support the foundation of the basic industries, as well as all the processing industries, in order to cover both home consumption and export demands, so that an active commercial balance could be obtained as soon as possible. The development of processing industries of the raw materials and semiproducts into finite products will preclude the export of raw materials, thus filling in the gaps in the national economy made by the raw materials, that were basically exported before the present war by Romania and that could no longer be counted on in the same way. Regarding the mining reserves and oil deposits, in particular, the National Liberal party will try to establish a unitary and continuous state policy, to support the intensification of exploitations, an efficient exploitation of resources and a most advanced industrial processing of the underground deposits, for their maximum internal revolution. The party shall try to encourage and develop the mining exploitation and industrialisation of the mining products down to the last phase and the oil products, in particular so that the Romanian capital should be more and more involved in these exploitations and production enterprises, as a result of the productivity increase by technical progress. National underground resources, that should be efficiently turned to good account in sincere collaboration with the foreign capital, could represent a basis for providing the necessary financial means for a quick revival of the country. The rights that have been gained regarding the underground resources shall be respected. The metallurgical industry that has been developed lately for the war condition, shall be adapted to the production under peace conditions, to the production of agriculture machinery, rolling stock and construction materials, in particular, for the country revival. It was aimed that the protection intended for this industrial domain should not make a heavy burden for the general economy of the Romania. It will be developed the production of rare ore (manganese, chromium, molybdenum, aluminium), that are available in our country, while on the contrary, it shall be envisaged the import of iron ore that is lacking in Romania, for the national metallurgical production.
Besides oil, Romania has other significant power sources, such as: coal, pit gas, water falls (white coal), electrical power, etc. The National Liberal party shall back up the revaluation of these sources, for their wide and rational utilisation in various industrial activities and for the achievement of a higher and cheaper standard of life, at hand for the entire population of Romania. According to the National Liberal Party, it is required a strong industrialisation of the agriculture, animal and wood production, so that it might be covered the internal demands and also exported a lot of such manufactured products, that should replace the export of grains, animals and wood as raw materials. Regarding the textile industry, based on the products of the national soil: wool, textile herbs, artificial textile fibres, it shall be envisaged the development of the production of such raw material and semi-products in Romania, so that the internal consumption should be covered by the Romanian industry and limit the import of raw materials and other textile fabrics as much as possible. The National Liberal Party shall also back up all the other industrial activities, including the household and domestic industry, all kinds of professions, by ensuring them special facilities for credits, tools and raw materials or semi-products. It should be taken into account that the development of these productive activities will bring about an economic and social progress in the life of towns and villages, besides the fact that all the labour available could find employment and made efficient. The development of the national industry along the above mentioned trends implies favourable economic and legal conditions to such activities, efficient production and industrial goods traffic, that are a necessary condition ensure order, harmony and progress in this domain. The National Liberal Party shall strive to ensure these conditions in the future also and support the conclusion of industrial contracts and agreements, in order to lower the cost as much as possible and to ensure the sales of industrial products at right prices, fighting the monopoly in fact and sanctioning the unlawful speculation. It would also underline the fact that the prosperity of the industrial enterprises implied also the prosperity of the employees, the more so as their own material and spiritual welfare would ensure the development of the former and therefore the general progress of the entire nation. • Commerce The freedom of traffic facilitates and intensifies the circulation of goods from the location of their production to the location of their consumption, from the producer to the consumer. Taking into account this principle, the National Liberal Party should strive as it also did in the past to ensure the development in the future of the economic environment and adequate conditions, that are required for the prosperity of the Romanian commerce, both at home and abroad. As regards the inner trade, it should be promoted and supported the competent commercial organisations, in order to make more efficient the supply of merchandise that are necessary for the internal consumption in the towns and in the country, as well as their sales without any intermediary. It was thus stimulated the creation and the sufficient means for this purpose, such as: credits for the purchase of goods, storehouses and general stores, enterprises for shipment and transport, representatives, the development of co-operation in the local commerce, etc. The freedom of transactions should reinstate the principle of stability of the agreements and of the respect for the spoken word, and bring about a
making also resort to international co-operation. based on skilled specialists. may entrust them any money amount and value in all safety. capital and spiritual conception forces. so that illicit gains should be precluded. as well as the proper development of any means of conveyance for people and goods. the extension and development of the railways network. • Capital and credits Private and public savings together with the natural resources of a country represent the capital of the nation. as a result of their reputation and seriousness. that ensures its economic independence and its means of development along the technical and spiritual path. commerce. the more the traffic of goods and spiritual values takes place more intensely and the entire nation may partake of and contribute to the betterment of living standards and civilisation. such as the telegraphy.simplification of the legal dispositions and the reinforcement of their execution power. to raise the accumulated capitals in all the domains of economic activity of the country. With this aim in view. On the other hand. that should be made according to the latest technical data. through the mediation and with the credit of private enterprises. In order to carry out this programme of extensive works and investments. telephone and radio-communications. the party will strive to harness all the labor. the National Liberal Party has aimed to promote and develop the capital saving spirit in the ranks of the Romanian people as much as possible. they succeeded to ensure a wide development of trade and to promote our foreign economic relations. The Liberal National Party would strive for free. The National Liberal Party more conscious than ever of its importance and its role it may have to play in the life and independence of the Romanian state. These organisations have built themselves a solid reputation at national level and. as it always did. in order to limit illicit activities and tax dodging. while industry. The National and Liberal Party shall strive to stimulate. It should also aim to conclude international commercial agreements. reestablishing the relations that existed with the foreign partners. so that the population. • Communication means and means of conveyance The main factor of the economic and spiritual progress of every nation is conditioned by the proper development of its domestic communication means and their connection to the international communication facilities. shall continue to support the actions of the state and the private initiative for the reconstruction. that may ensure import markets of raw materials and merchandise. of the river and sea. From its very beginning. of the roads. in order to establish favourable conditions for the commerce. to begin with the least depositor up to the greatest capital owners. through the commercial representatives. yet fair commerce prices. as well as air traffic ways. agriculture and handicrafts may find in these institutions the main . the National Liberal Party has supported the foundation and organisation of several national bank and credit enterprises. as well as sales markets of the Romanian goods at fair costs. As for the outer trade. there should be envisaged financial procedures simplification and facilities. The more they are developed and well distributed in any part of the country. the national saving spirit and to make prosper the national credit institutions. at international level. it is intended to attain a freedom of exchanges. It shall also support the development of modern communication means.
so that the economies that are concentrated in banks and other such institutions may be directed towards the most useful and efficient activities. but also the professional value of those who will be requiring them. it shall proceed to the simplification of certain special laws that are applicable in the economic domain. • Security and insurance The dominant principle of the economic policy of the National Liberal Party was to ensure first the security and stability in the internal and international economic relations. Moreover. that must be rebuilt and turned to good account in keeping with the requirements of the technical progress and the demands and the role of the Romanian people in the South – East of Europe. the National Liberal Party shall try to reinstate and further develop the security in the economic agreements. That is why. it is through these institutions. will also tend to establish security in this domain. Both of them create that legal security climate that is essential to the economic progress. It is also intended to set up and develop as extensively as possible the special institutions of credit for the specialised economic activities (constructions.). a legislation whose unification and revision in this spirit shall represent one of the main concerns of the National Liberal Party. The present economy is developing in an atmosphere. the Party will try to restore the value of the traditional norm of respecting the freely agreed conventions and to apply them mutually in good earnest. while stability ensures the balance of the services that result from these relations. a principle without which a normal development of the national economy and order in the compulsory relations of the private right cannot be conceived. . the National Liberal Party will strive to improve the granting of credits. etc. With this end in view. At the international level. investments. trying that all the legal rules that are required by the modern progress should be include in the fundamental legislation of Romania.prosperity resources through credit. that is characterised by a wider and more complicated range of risks. Based on the same principle. In the framework of these activities. the National Liberal Party that has always been concerned with the necessity of establishing security in this domain. while promoting and supporting all those institutions that are intended to secure the risks of any kind. that have lowered the creative power of the contractual duties. that may result from the carrying out of economic agreements. Romania was confronted with extended damages of its economic institutions and great patrimony losses. for their own activities. whose legal safety must be reinstated. taking into account not only the real offered guarantees. Security brings about trusting relations in the conclusion of economic agreements of any kind. that an economic constructive collaboration may be established with the foreign capital. production. whose intense participation to the reconstruction of the country and the prosperity of the national economy shall represent at the same time an agent of peace and progress. • Economic revival During and as a result of the war. The Party will also reinstate the principle of respecting the state contract agreements with the private persons.
. thus contributing to the conclusion of new commercial and trading agreements. our people. In order to attain these objectives. that the average employee and especially workers of all categories could also afford. The National Liberal Party will proceed to the modernising of villages and towns and will stimulate the building up of healthy living places.With this end in view. • Economic co-operation and international exchange Technical progress. according to a general plan and by providing all the necessary facilities. while creating the climate necessary for the mutual respect of these agreements in the supreme interest of the peace and progress spirit. the National Liberal Party will try to support and also develop in the future the setting up and intensification of economic relations with other countries based upon mutual trust and their own achievements. food supply and public health resorts. that should ensure the free exchange of goods and currency. the national Liberal Party will support the reconstruction and modernising of the country through the rebuilding of all the economic and cultural institutions. for their mutual welfare. cultural institutions and health resorts. as an element of national and international solidarity. of the means of communication and conveyance. In order to attain this high target. who is willing to establish relations and co-operate in perfect harmony with every other nation and the National Liberal Party will try to re-establish and develop the international relations with all the neighbouring and far-off states. while also asking support from international institutions. Being guided as it has always been by the economic and social reality and the value of the development of the international co-operation spirit. the limitation of space distances among nations through the increase of the speed of various means of conveyance and communication imply and determines a permanent co-operation of all the people making up the international community in all the domains of activity. the Party will harness the entire labour force and all the technical and financial means of the country. in order to ensure the general progress and the development of spirit of peace and solidarity. the unequal distribution of raw materials in the world. the ever more intense application of the labour division principle.
. mention should be made of the policy in the domain of oil. as conceived by Ion Basgan.Original manuscript sheet of the Program Project of the National Liberal Party. In the end of this chapter. under the conditions of German involvement in the Romanian oil industry.
it suggested the sales of these action to Romania and the financial parties of Bucharest. that were described by Mr. Later on. Although Romania in its oil policy had not taken any actions with economic results during the first world war. Royal Dutch and Shell. to Holland and England. the majority of the ‘Steaua Română’ company shares were taken over by the ‘Anglo-Persian’ and ‘Banque de Paris et Pays Bas’ while ‘Concordia’ and ‘Vega’ were taken over by the Belgian capitalists. after the war. which Russia also joined in. Romania was denied and we could not back up our interests. of the USA. the unique occasion maybe in the history of our nation to become owners of our own house. mostly through the Swiss financial bodies. for loyalty reasons towards the allies. USSR nationalised its entire oil industry by seizure although the shares belonged to Standard Oil. The distraint administrators appointed by the Romanian State became the mediators acting in order to place there important parcels of oil shares to the interested financial parties of the allies. The Romanian state officials refused to purchase them. Therefore. The Geneva Conference of April 1922. respectively.‘German interests during the first world war At the beginning of the first world war. it was nevertheless confronted with difficulties at the peace conference. through the Deutshe Bank. Russia concluded with Germany the friendship treatise of Rappallo and it was in a position to deny all the allies’ claims regarding the USSR oil industry. where there was decided the fate of these distraint properties. ‘Vega’. That which other states were allowed to and succeeded to achieve. Germany owned a significant parcel of shares of the Romanian oil industry. did not yield the expected results. ‘Concordia’. . Gheorghe Brătianu in his work ‘Romania’s political and military actions in 1919’. Even smaller states. The Romanian state acknowledges this transfer of the shares the hands of the war losers to other stranger hands and consequently loses the most favourable occasion. to mention here only the large oil exploitation and processing companies: ‘Steaua Română’. such as Iran and Mexico succeeded to face large and powerful states such as England and the USA with positive results. When Germany lost the war. before the peace conference.
D. together with Mr.R. Sar Petrol and newly set up companies such as: SARDEP.000. Petrol-Blok 470. C. Mrazec and engineer Tănăsescu.000. In 1924. as well as other smaller enterprises as: Moldonafta.Intending to win back this lost economic battle. Explora. the Administrator of the Romanian National Bank. The Oil Law that had been elaborated in 1924 had to allow this capital to secure the reserves and new oil fields that could have been discovered in Romania.000.000. as a President of the Council of the Creditul Minier. Sticescu. contains the principles that should underlie the new Oil Law that was under way to be elaborated and it made it . as a representative of London oil corporations. amounting to 1.470. the National Liberal party took the legislation initiative in 1924 and elaborated the following laws: Power. Tancred Constantinescu are the representatives of this action.P. that resulted in the elaboration of the Law of Mines of 1924 and its application with positive results up to 1924.000. changed the Law of Mines. 25% of the Steaua Română. that was concluded in February 1942 between the German Government represented by Minister Fischer and Mr. under the pressure of foreign officials and as a result of mutual promises with the foreign diplomacy.000. etc. Thus it was completed the positive action of the National Liberal Party to nationalise the oil industry. Vintilă Brătianu.000. Waters and Mines with the aim to nationalise the oil industry. Doiceşti.000. Magdearu. Continental Oil. I. Present German interests in Romania The political pre-eminence that Germany exerted in Romania during the second world war opened up the way to its economic offensive in our country in order to win back the grounds that it had lost here in the first world war. Germany succeeded to purchase approximately 30% of the oil industry and to participate with about 4 billion lei paid-in capital. together with Forachi Românească and Vega. 600. Helped by the Romanian leaders of the oil enterprises. The Fischer-Credit Minier Protocol The famous Fischer-Credit Minier Protocol. Meotica Română. Columbia amounting to 380. Germany owns today the following companies in Romania: Concordia.
’ . in order to bring back a part of the war losers’ shares back to the national patrimony. As a Doctor at a German Polytechnics University and therefore never to be accused of disliking the Germans at a Time when Germany was dominating over Bucharest. I had the opportunity to oppose this Protocol decidingly.D..impossible for the Romanian state and the national capital to obtain any reserve of oil fields in the areas that were to be explored. and in front of the National Council of the Oil Enterprises.R. The foundation of the House of Administration of the Enemy’s Goods represent a good opportunity to entrust to competent bodies honest and patriotic the administration of the enemy’s oil possessions. Romania should and we estimate that it would act among these three large international oil corporations. such as: I. represented the support of diplomatic discussions that followed regarding Protocol elimination and ignoring it in the elaboration of the Law of Oil that had been passed on the 17th of July. may be carried out efficiently taking into account our rights and especially the Romanian oil and blood that are consumed today on the battle field on the allies side and for their victory. 1942. Romanian oil at the peace conference Today. Sar Petrol and other had a national capital before the war.P. and the majority of these enemy’s companies have a minority national capital structure. both before Professor Mrazec. we are faced with the same opportunity we had at the end of the first world war with the difference that USSR will also join in as the representative of the Russian ‘Aznef’ corporation together with England and the USA as the representatives of the international corporations ‘Royal Dutch’ and ’Standard Oil’. referee. with the role to prepare the works of the peace conference and for the preceding negotiations. The Memorandum that was drawn up on this occasion and handed in to the President of the Council of Ministers. We consider that the preparation and the success of this economic problem that is of top importance today for Romania. It should be taken into account that some of the enemy’s possessions.
.THE BASGAN EFFECT AND ITS APPLICATIONS The Archimedes’ Principle and Oil Drilling. His work ended when he discovered that the drilling rig when operating in the liquid is subjected to the effect of the Archimedes’ hydrostatic pressure. Never before had the Archimedes’ hydrostatic pressure been taken into account in the process of drilling. Between 1925 and 1933. Ion Basgan carried out an extensive research aiming to improve the technological process of drilling and to identify the causes of the drilling holes deviation.
Thus it was for the first time in the history of the universal science and technique that Ion Basgan .The act of creation. but on the lower surface of the bit. A specific attitude if Ion Basgan. Its effect was not on the centre of gravity of the drilling rig.
As a result of his research. deviation and drilling rod and bit breakage. The length of the compressed zone of the drilling rig increases accordingly to the depth and it represents the main reason of drilling holes deviation. that reaches up to the hook. elastic bending takes place that is higher in the compressed zone. the compressed zone and the neutral zone. As a result of drilling rig rotation that may reach up to 300 rot/min.supplemented the Archimedes’ principle as it was applied at high depth liquid drilling. then it enters into the tension zone. the length of the compressed zone of the drilling rid is equal to the length of the . According to the classic definition of the Archimedes’ principle. the distribution of the axial unitary efforts in the drilling rig does no longer agree to the old conception that the drilling rig has only a tension in the range from zero (at the drilling bit) to the maximum value (at the upper hook of the drilling rig). The compression value decreases down to the zero value in the neutral zone. it was believed that the hydrostatic Archimedes’ pressure applied at the centre of gravity of the drilling rig was proportionally distributed along the drilling rig. Ion Basgan admitted first that the area of the floating force application was at the lower end of the drilling rig. which explains the loss of steady balance of the drilling rig. This effect of the hydrostatic force. Thus he discovered and then calculated the compressing zone and the position of the neutral zone. According to the Ion Basgan’s theory (published in the theses of his inventions of 1934-1938). a maximum compression takes place at the bit. that were discovered by Ion Basgan were defined as the Basgan effect. any vertically suspended column in a lower density liquid than that of the drilling column material was considered to act as having a new specific density smaller and equal to the difference between the specific weights of the material and the liquid. a fact that generated the notion of apparent weight. According to the classic principles and interpretations. According to the Basgan effect. in the lower end of the drilling rig that stays in the liquid with the base free of it. and made a new interpretation of the Archimedes’ principle. This way of thinking and solving the problem would ignore the phenomena taking place at the lower end of the drilling rig. on its entire length before reaching the bit under stress. Essentially.
In this respect. permitting to reach ever deeper down into the land. namely: ‘the lower part of drilling rig vertically and partially suspended in a liquid is compressed as a result of the displaced liquid by the entire drilling rig’… ‘The lower part of the drilling rig that is vertically immersed into the liquid and partially supported at the lower end is under compression and is equal to the weight of the displaced liquid by the entire drilling rig plus the reaction of the support’. partially and vertically immersed in a liquid is pushed upward by a force equal to the weight of the displaced liquid. . the force corresponding to the drilling pressure is 7 tons and the weight of proportional drilling rigs is 22 tons. plus the drilling pressure necessary for rock piercing. the displaced volume is 15 tons. This neutral zone ‘travels’ along the bar depending on the depth to which the bar is immersed and on the support load’. Ion Basgan’s discoveries made it possible to deal with the compressed area of the drilling rig by means of proportional heavy rods. weight of the displaced volume.’ Based on the scientific and technical provisions of his interpretation. Ion Basgan issued a series of new laws specific to the hydrostatics and the drilling technique. ‘There is a neutral zone along the vertically and partially immersed bar. the following example is to be mentioned: with a drilling rig of 100 tons. 30 tons under the conditions and the depth of modern drilling. Mention should be made that the principle is correct also for aluminium and plastics drilling rigs. The weight of the new type of rods.drilling rig immersed into the liquid multiplied by the ratio of the specific weight of the liquid and that of the steel. on the basis of the research and result obtained. called proportional rods is equal to the weight of the displaced volume of liquid by the drilling rig. separating the compressed zone from the tension zone. This represents 15-20% of the drilling rig weight. Proportional heavy rods drilling. with the upwardly acting force being applied on lower surface of the body. respectively. thus lowering the neutral zone in the mass of the heavy rods and practically acting in perfectly vertical holes. The result of the Archimedes’ hydrostatic pressure is in direct proportion to the depth and length of the drilling rig immersed into the liquid. Ion Basgan gives the following special interpretation to the Archimedes’ principle: ‘A body in a bar form. that may reach approx. Therefore.
the ‘Republica’ Works started the production of the first new product. The scientific Romanian and international circles were involved in this special event. by means of mud pumps and by sonic waves of a supplementary energy from the surface through the drilling rig to the bit. resulting in a series of technical and scientific controversies. U. This is a remark pledging for extending the methods of the Romanian inventor. As we have mentioned before. After patenting and applying this invention. down to 9000 m. The drilling wells are perfectly vertical and the works are performed under very advantageous economic conditions. In the USA. Ion Basgan established the conditions that are specific to the transmission. 1 ton. Other wells that where these methods are not applied. In 1954. the weight of the rods increased to 20-30 tons. no sooner than the Patent of 1937 was obtained. Prof. debates and analyses. with rods 200 m to 300 m in length and 10 to 30 tons in weight. also called a ‘drill-collar’. G. Its length was from 6 to 9m and its weight approx. In Italy. ‘heavy rods’. 1967: ‘The methods invented by the Romanian Ion Basgan are applied in the oil exploitations of the company ‘Eri-Agip’. there are registered deviations from the vertical between 150 and 200. Gatlin. Handelman. It was only experimentally that 2-3 tons rods had been used. D. technical and economic importance of this invention it should be noted that before 1934. as a result of some extensive research taking place mainly on the oil fields of Moineşti. P. drilling vertical holes. Best. G. based upon the technologic transfer of Ion Basgan’s invention. M. Breakage of rods and hooking was eliminated. Homquist. drilling was made by means of heavy long rod (bit). Okan had reached the same conclusions as Ion Basgan.’ Sonic drilling. when renowned American scientists. T. Texter. H.To get the scientific. Taking as a starting basis the laws of . Starting from the ‘Theory of Sonicity’. O. the following comments were made in the ‘Italiano del petrolio’ of the 30th of April. Things were going to quiet down only in 10 or 20 years. such as H. containing very hard rocks. the proportional heavy rods drilling was implemented. the new procedure resulted in an output increase of about 30% at the cost of one drilling metre. Moore. Ion L. In the USSR the method of modern drilling as initiated by Ion Basgan was introduced in the university courses in 1947.
the drill collar.sonic energy transmission under the form of waves through solid liquids and gas. in order to simultaneously convey rotation and percussion shocks to the bit. USA). Very good results were attained during the experiments. vibration energy generator. Rotary drilling procedure and system with sonic vibrations conveyed through the drilling fluid to the oil well bottom (Patent 3507341. the sonic drilling’. that may be captured at the bit. Laboratory results also attested the essential progress in deep drilling. as well as the required endowment including the bit. the crane. the assertion is true that Ion Basgan is the inventor of the ‘rotary simultaneous drilling. that was achieved by applying the complex method of percussion and rotation. Under these conditions. Therefore. by means of percussion vibrations and bring about an improvement of the preceding methods. resulting in vertical holes was patented in 1934 in Romania and 1937 in the USA. A short description of Ion Basgan’s inventions. in the USA. and frequency of bit oscillations. 21 April. . and other bottom engines. as mentioned above. drilling rods and the lifting system. That was low Ion Basgan achieved a unique drilling system. is a unique opportunity to show an attentive reader the way these ‘jewels’ of the Romanian creativity were produced. He obtained bit oscillation of several centimetres during his oil field experiences. a series of patented improvements were made based on the Ion Basgan Patent. I. as well as the remote sonic energy retrieval. The Patent refers to a rotary hydraulic drilling system. This system includes drilling equipment with adequate frequency. underground turbines. up to drilling indices three times higher than usual. He succeeded to produce a kind disturbing penetration force. the mechanical work of the bit. as well as the resonance regime at the bottom of the hole have maximum values. by means of percussion. through sonic energy transmission from the surface. 1970. namely quickness and vertical penetration. Ion Basgan calculated the mechanical work. respectively. utilising the magneto-static method. direction amplitude. This ‘Vibrating’ drilling system was tested on the oil fields. This new drilling method that increases the drilling output. that would integrate the advantages of Rotary drilling and percussion drilling. Later.
This makes the drilling rigs to be maintained under stress. This pressure acts on the drilling rig upwardly. the drilling rig is under stress. The oil drilling mud has a very high pressure at the base of the oil well. Essentially. resulting in the compression of the lower part of the oil rig on a certain length. Above the compressed section. thus drilling rods bending can be avoided. reaching up to approximately 140 000 lb/in (980 kg/cm2) at 5 mile in depth. without utilising complex tools and devices. the invention refers to the fact that the neutral zone of the drilling rig is lowered by utilising a heavy drill collar. . The compressed zone is comprised in the drill collar mass.Ion Basgan’s invention was meant to deal successfully with the disadvantages of the traditional methods. as a result of suspension and under its own load with the neutral zone in between these zones. 10 to 15% heavier than the displaced drilling mud.
In a drilling system. including drilling rods and the lower section. that is rigidly connected to the upper section and the drilling bit fixed at the lower section. the frequency and ratio between the generating force of the flow of infrasonic frequency and the pressure at the oil well base. including the tubular drill collar. the exciting force of K vibrations. The invention permits to obtain an efficient infrasonic regime of drilling at a certain amplitude. that are required to fix the drilling rig to its upper end for suspension and adjustment of the P weight action on the bit during drilling. counterbalancing the sudden variations in resistance of the drilling bit. the pressure difference Pp of the pump and the internal cross section of the drilling rig are higher than the ordinary values. down to 10 or 15 km. ‘My invention. The drilling rig based on this procedure was endowed with a drill collar up to 450 ft in length. there is one more advantage resulting from the long moment of inertia in the rotation of the drill collar. says the author of the Patent. As result of the absence of any lateral bending of the drilling rig. the drilled hole is absolutely vertical. in 1970. Besides the above mentioned advantage. the system includes the means of . This process offers the possibility to drill vertical oil well holes under economical conditions. Patented invention in the USA. His invention also permits to increase the commercial and mechanical drilling speed. Claims 1. the drilling rig is made of the upper section. equipment mounted at the surface. when the depth of the oil well is up to 6600 ft. Consequently. Periodical extraction of the drilling rig every time the bit needs replacing and the coupling of another drilling rod segment to the drilling rig is a habitual operation in the process of a well drilling. the length of a drill collar must be increased from time to time. In the newly wrought system.Technical drawing of the oil well for percussion sonic drilling. with the increase of the oil well depth. requires that new segments of drill collars should be added in order to maintain their total weight in the structure of the respective drilling rig in the above limits’.
The system claimed under 2. where Y varies between 1. in descending direction through the upper section of the drilling rig towards the upper part of the lower section.5 and 1. The hydraulic system is endowed with means for pressure variation between the minimum and the maximum limit. where the Gc weight neutralises the hydraulic pressure of the mud acting on the bottom of the drilling bit. The assembly described under claim 3 also contains an apparatus attached to the above mentioned cylinder. performing its immersion into the mud filling up the oil well hole.3 and the pressure K raises and lowers the bit. the Gc weight of the lower section is 10 to 50% higher than the sum of (1) the G weight of the mud displaced from the oil well hole by the drilling rig and (2) the P weight. a piston moving inside this cylinder. means of power supply for piston actuation at a frequency of n strokes and a means of regulation and adjustment of n strokes. both of them being subject to stress. being related to the circuit of mud of the drilling rig in its upper part. 2. as a result of general longitudinal vibrations in the metal of the drilling rig and conveyed from the vibrations generating device downwards. the ratio of K and P (the pressing weight on the bit) is expressed by the equation: P·Y = K. that measures and indicates the difference between the maximum and the minimum pressure generated in the cylinder. The system described under Claim 1 includes hydraulic means of pressure pumping of the drilling mud to the drilling rig. . the differential pressure is Pp.preparation and feed of the drilling mud towards the upper end of the drilling rig. 3. as a results of piston movement at n frequency. with a pumping system of the drilling mud towards the lower part of the rig is endowed with a cylinder. this pressure multiplied by the internal cross section of the drilling rig results in pressure K. thus submitting to compression the upper part of the drilling bit and rig and its lower section. 4.
with its immersion into the mud filling up the oil well hole. the lower section.3. surface located means and attached to the upper part of the drilling rig. means of drilling mud feed. containing rods. In a drilling system. The manipulation and direction process of the drilling system in geological structures involves the type the type of drilling system. the system including the generation device of pressure variations between minimum and maximum values. being made of the upper section. containing the drill collar rigidly fixed to the upper section and the drilling bit mounted at the bottom of the lower section. the hydraulic system is connected to the upper part of the rig for the feed of the drilling mud into the rig under pressure. with a Pp differential pressure. 5. in order to maintain it in suspension and adjust the P pressing load on the bit during drilling. the process including the feed of drilling mud by means of a variable pressure between a minimum and maximum. that may increase up to the value whose K product with the interior cross section of the upper part of the above mentioned drilling rig is related to the P pressure. that may be .1 and 1. with the immersion of the drilling rig into the mud that fills the oil well hole. where Y has a value between 1. at the upper end of the rig.as well as a measurement apparatus of ‘n’ frequency with an indicator. 6. that are fixed at the upper part of the drilling rig. the drilling rig is made of: the upper section comprising the drilling rods and the lower section comprising a tubular drill collar. pumping means of the drilling mud at the upper part of the drilling rig. that is rigidly fixed to the upper part and the bit mounted at the bottom of the lower section. including: the string of rods for rotary drilling. the differential pressure is Pp. according to the equation P·Y = K. in order to maintain it in suspension and to adjust the P weight of pressing on the drilling bit during the drilling process. surface mounted means. the G weight of the lower section is 10 to 500% higher than the sum of: (1) the G weight of the displaced mud in the hole of the drilling rig and (2) the P weight.
In such a body. while the rotation of the drilling bit breaks up and removes it easily. both the operation method. resulting in straight oil well holes and a higher oil drilling efficiency. In order to generate and transmit percussion to the drilling bit during . 1937. If the drilling bit receives vibration impulses during rotation. with the result of increasing drilling efficiency. As a result of percussion. the drilling bit produces the weakening of the drilled matter at the oil well base. USA). as a result of longitudinal vibrations generated in the metal of the drilling rig and conveyed from the vibration generation device downwards upper section of the rig to the upper part of the lower section. generating vertical oscillation in the bit. with both sectors under stress. As a consequence. In this case. which results in a percussion action. as a result of utilising a drilling rig for which the ratio value between its length and its cross section is very high. the drilling bit advances under the action of rotations and under the load applied to it. This invention contains the improvement of rotary drilling in the drilling of oil wells. the drilling bit easily maintains the vertical drilling direction. which may be properly adjusted through calculation. where Y has a value between 1. longitudinal vibrations are generated and easily transmitted on a specified frequency. Ion Basgan’s invention Patent stipulates that the drilling bit operates through simultaneous rotation and percussion. II. Oscillating percussion may be easily achieved. concerning. with an increased efficiency.3.5 and 1. 21st of December. It changes the principle of the system. the ratio between K and P (pressing load on the drilling bit) is expressed by equation P·Y = K. ‘Rotary well drilling apparatus’ or rotary installation for well drilling (Patent 2103137. the K pressure rise and lowers the drilling bit.multiplied by the internal cross section of the rig to obtain pressure K. The practical applications of this process were a confirmation of the exactness of the above mentioned description. In rotary drilling. the efficiency of drilling operations increases substantially. as well as the assembly of the drilling rig and equipment. The effect of percussion increases if the drilling rig is equipped with a larger weight at its lower end.
Equipment for rotary drilling containing: string of drilling rods. support means of the drilling rig. with the drilling rods rigidly connected to the drilling bits. According to this invention. As a result of utilising heavier drill collars. so that longitudinal vibrations should be generated in this column and the sting of rods. with the rods being rigidly connected to the drilling bit. to generate percussion. in order to provide a communication means between the bottom of the well and the interior of drilling rods. This is achieved by means of heavy drill collars. including pipe-shaped rods and the drilling bit with an opening for communication between the oil well bottom and the interior of drilling rods. The compressed zone is contained in the mass of the drill collar. that may be transferred onto the surface drilling rig. increasing the drilling efficiency. their weight being higher than the weight of the displaced drilling mud. 2. The drilling rig with the above mentioned structure displays a certain eight per length unit. that contributes to obtain regular rotation and vertical and vertical oil well holes. support means of the drilling rig and means for pumping the cleaning liquid inside the drilling rigs. Referring to the rotary drilling by means of an equipment representing an assembly containing: the rod string including (coreless) drilling rods and a drilling bit with a hole. in order to generate pressure variation in the liquid column of the circuit described above and in the drilling rods. an additional weigh is applied and concentrated at the bottom of the drilling rig. the drilling rods are maintained under stress.its rotation. one pumps and pipes connected to the drilling rig for pumping the cleaning liquid through the drilling rods and a second pump connected to this hydraulic circuit. apart from the bit weight by means of the drill collar. the weight should be concentrated at the lower end of the drilling rig to compensate (removal or fighting) for the hydro- . either a liquid column inside the drilling rig. Claims 1. or an adequate mechanical device is utilised.
1934). III Method for improving the output and process of rotary drilling by percussion rotation and hydro-mechanical pressure damping (except from the Romanian patent No. Rotary percussion drilling combining rotation and percussion. pumping means of the cleaning liquid through the drilling rods. that is contrary to the drilling bit direction. support means of the drilling rig. including drilling rods (pipe) and the drilling rig with an opening for communication between the bottom of the well and the interior of the drilling rods. as well as the application of this process in drilling apparata manufacturing. commensurate with the increase of the total weight of the . or by mechanical action on the rods. the above mentioned weight is 20% of the weight of the drilling rod string plus 50 kg. A process for the generation of the weight. resulting in percussion shocks of the drilling rotation. Drilling process using a concentrated weight added in the parts representing the lower part of the drilling rig to their existing weight.mechanical pressure acting upwards. with the rigidly connected to the drilling bit. that should be concentrated at the lower part of the drilling rig. 2. 3. 22789. This process is characterised by the generation of a vibration region in the drilling rig. until the weight calculated according to the above mentioned principle is reached. the weigh concentrated at the lower part of the drilling rig for neutralising the negative hydro-mechanical pressure acting contrary to the drilling bit direction. Claims 1. Rotary drilling equipment containing the drilling rig. 3. the above mentioned weight is up to 15% of the drilling rig weight plus 50 kg. The characteristic of this process is to dampen the negative resultant of hydro-mechanical pressure and to gradually the weight of the drilling rig (which is under a definite ratio with the rig weight) increase of the latter. either by hydraulic action by means of pressure variation of the liquid circuit. the 18th of May.
namely the Derrick cranes of 176 ft and other oversized equipment. The author claimed that shorter drilling time. In ‘The Oil and Gas Journal’ of the 21st of June. The last of these oil wells was drilled and launched into production in 38 days as compared to the first oil wells that had been drilled in about 70 days. 4. if taking into account the fact that the oil well hole was upright. or utilising the same parts from the drilling rigs with higher nominal dimensions for drilling rigs with lower minimal dimensions. either replacing the parts (the bit.drilling rig. P. Drilling records were attained. that should permit a shift from the present weight of the bit. Specialists in the domain expressed their opinion concerning these achievements. in order to avoid the occurrence of deviation drilling holes. Sanders mentioned the success obtained by the Shell Oil Co. The largest drilling installations in the world at that time were used to drill the oil wells of Rio Bravo. in the article ‘San Josquing Drilling Time Reduced by Improvements’. drill collar. drill collar. that is higher drilling bit advancing speed could be attained by increasing the pressing weight on the drilling bit. that is characterised by the fact that it may be obtained by. I. any other part) that make up the lower end of the drilling rig and are sized in order to ensure a weight. in drilling deep oil wells of the San Josquin Valley. higher than the traditional drilling installations could yield. including piping and cementing 1100 ft/day deep drilling output and 6 min coupling and lowering were achieved. That was an exceptional achievement. Machining and modifying the parts (bit. 1938. drill collar. as the weight of the drilling rig increases. or any other parts) at its lower end by specially devised heavier parts. 9887 ft were drilled in 30 days at one of these oil wells. Recently there has been adopted a . Five oil wells were drilled by means of such equipment at Rio Bravo. that will ensure the required proportion (according to the above mentioned principle) between the weight concentrated at the lower part of the rig and the total weight of the drilling rig. ‘For many years the weight applied on the drilling bit has been carefully maintained at a minimum level. or any part up to the concentrated weight. and two pipe-columns were used at a depth of 8200 ft (2460 m). or even extended.
in which the stress replaces compression. . 120-140 ft heavy rods (drill collars) of the largest diameter were used at the ‘Ten Section’ oil well. About 1/3 of the total weight of the drill collars is held in suspension. There result several advantages. The drilling bit with the overweight is like a leader string (pendulum). The drill collars that were utilised with the majority of oil wells on the Rio Bravo oil field had 147 lb/ft. This method prevents damages as a result of stress generated by vibrations. the drilling rods that are placed above this heavier section are maintained under stress. but often several heavy drill collar were used. Moreover. that produces the drilling bit deviation. that should ensure a good circulation of the drilling fluid. Therefore. that the former is generated in the mass of the drill collar. thus the bending of rods being avoided.’ Sometimes the drilling bits were made heavier by means of lead segments attached to the ordinary drill collars. Utilisation of heavy drill collars.new method that permits to concentrate the weight directly above the drilling bit. The additional suspended weight generates stress in the drilling rig. when a heavier weight is applied on the drilling bit’. while 2/3 of the interior part are applied on the drilling bit. instead of the upper part of the drilling rods. it is in the neutral zone of the drilling rig. The author stated that: ‘The service life of ‘rock bits’ may be considerably extended even with soft rocks. The ‘superior Oil Co’ utilised 365 ft (about 109m) drill collars at the Rio Bravo oil wells. which prevents excessive bending to occur at relatively high speeds. The drilling bit had a weight of about 1200 lb (6436 kg). with a part of the drill collars weight of about 16t being applied to the drilling bit.
As it was mentioned in this chapter in a summary. .
one third of their weight was not utilized for pressing on the drilling bit. which could only be achieved by taking into account the effect of floating. It was for the first time that the specialised literature mentioned the principle of increasing the weight of the drill collar by a weight that is meant to lower the neutral zone from the rods to the drill collar mass. that is 4 years after the Basgan’s Patent registration in the USA. It had been admitted the necessity to maintain the integrity of the drilling rods under tension. .the actual drilling performed in 1938. As it may be seen. was a confirmation of the fact that heavy drill collars were utilized .
through the drilling rig. The whole world would utilise them. Ion Basgan would only be taken seriously when his theories resulted in new deep drilling methods under technical safety and economic profitability conditions.CONCLUSIONS any articles were written on the controversial personality of Ion Basgan and his achievements. More often than not the holes were not vertical. Scientists and specialists still believed in the legendary and classical principle of Archimedes. M . for the first time permitted to convey sonic energy generated at the surface to the bit. The new interpretations of the Archimedes’ force action were viewed with scepticism. This process had a disadvantage. The rotary percussion drilling invented by Ion Basgan between 1930-1934. resulting in significant drilling losses. His theories were slow to make their way into the contemporary international world of science and technique. drilling straight holes. replacing one of the classical drilling processes. by means of up and down bit oscillation (without raising the drilling rig). namely that with rotary plate. so that if may follow a vertical direction at a specified frequency.
by his passion for the continuous renewal of the technique. at Moineşti. by concern of Ion Basgan.330 m/sec in the liquid circuit. so as to generate a percussion travel. Gura Ochi ei and Moreni) were confirmed later by mathematical calculation Ion Basgan utilised the mathematical formulas of his master. That was an episode of utmost significance in the creative life of Ion Basgan. The essential condition for this state to be attained was that the drilling rods should be under continuous stress. on the basis of a deep scientific analysis. announcing the future struggle to recover his legal author rights for the utilisation of these inventions in Romania and abroad. as compared to other classical processes. Then. This modern drilling method has the advantage of reducing the drilling pressure. That was how the so-called break-up phenomenon could be prevented from occurring with the drilling rigs. In Romania. This specific phenomenon takes place at the moment when the amplitude of the current pressure and of the current itself are in one phase. as well as various publications confirmed the importance of this Romanian invention in the domain of sonic drilling. It was created by Ion Basgan himself. the results were also checked up by the Allievi formulas and it was established that the speed of sonic waves propagation in the drilling rig walls in 5. The Basgan phenomenon was not a chance event.The sonic drilling and the utilisation of the heavy proportional rods were Ion Basgan’s invention that played an essential part in the progress of mankind. The results that had been first obtained on the oil fields (sonic. It increases the working time of the drilling bit into the ground and results in perfectly vertical holes. . then the maximum mechanical work is achieved. Spectacular results had been calculated: when the kinetic and potential energies of the sonic flow in the drilling rig walls are equal. with the advantages of both the percussion and rotary systems. The patent is obtained in 1934 in Romania and later in the USA. in order to permit the up and down oscillation of the bit. that is the neutral line dividing between the compressed zone and the zone under stress should be in the mass of the heavy drilling pressure should be properly adjusted. with higher drilling indices. that is rotary and percussion drilling. this method has been applied experimentally since 1936.000 m/s and 1. George (Gogu) Constantinescu. The sonic drilling system was generalised in the USSR and USA in 1950 and other industrial countries.
the drawing up supervision lists is so accurately performed especially when Romania is concerned. as is said. The cost of oil products and energy was dictated by the creative potential of the Romanian specialists. from a moral point of view. It has been a remarkable fact about the life and work of Ion Basgan his continuous struggle under unfavorable conditions.Romania has been a part of the international oil family. Nevertheless. As the facts of real life technical and scientific experience have shown. have they themselves paid their own debts to those countries which they are under litigation with. Under these circumstances it has been often mentioned that the respect of the intellectual property rights is an essential condition of building up this type of civilisation. the success of exploitation works has been favourably affected by the technological level of the Romanian creativity. This is an international rule of the law and of commercial fair play in the domain of the international technological transfer. Unfortunately. That is why. a scientist whom contemporaries would not appreciate and reward according to his international status. As a result of annual revisions. that utilises the ‘Basgan effect’ on the territory of Romania should be conditioned by the way in which the dispute regarding the payment of the author rights to Ion Basgan by the users was solved. the copyright and author rights policy proves to be still rather subjective and discriminating when applied by various countries. even present. as a unique way towards the highest standards of human civilisation and progress. at the beginning of the third millennium. any technological application in the domain of deep drilling. An authentic democracy has been always expected to harbour authentic competition and progress. Industrially developed countries are setting forth their models of democracy. ‘The truth has always been on the side of the most powerful’. The emergence of a renowned scientist like Ion Basgan in the history of Romanian science and technique was a real privilege for the Romanian people. in the hope of ever getting back what was his own. as a result of what the genius of its specialists have created in this domain. It is the very case of the Romanian scientist and inventor Ion Basgan: there have always been neglected the official measures that should have put an end to the illegal practices of Ion Basgan’s Patents . no remarks are ever mentioned regarding the way in which those who are responsible for drawing up such ‘black’ lists of respecting property rights.
that had been beneficent to whatever he would undertake to achieve. Unfortunately. Ion Ştefănescu. Dr.utilisation. In guise of a conclusion. regarding the promotion and the support of the Basgan case. namely Prof. that was not enough. it may be stated that all these actions. was the setting up of the Foundation ‘Ion Basgan’ and the awarding of the ‘Ion Basgan’ Prize by the Technical Museum ‘Eng. that was ever taken to the memory of Ion Basgan. They succeeded to organise and hold a series of conferences. it was mostly through the efforts of those who appreciated the genius of Ion Basgan. Dimitrie Leonida’. while Romania and Ion Basgan himself could never benefit from their own rights. as well as to set up a memorial stand of Ion Basgan at the Notional Oil Museum of Ploieşti and the Technical Museum ‘Engineer Dimitrie Leonida’ of Bucharest. that there have always been Romanians who will not forget forerunners and will sometimes do even impossible things in order to render them homage. that have been carried out to the memory of the renowned Romanian creator of the deep drilling are a proof. the journalist Haralambie Lerea and others. the Director of the Technical Museum ‘Engineer Dimitrie Leonida’. as a Romanian citizen have been exploited. who will always cherish their memory in their hearts. The life story of this man and his life struggle are an authentic testimony to the fact that sometimes history and international interests overpower the intention to be useful to a nation and earn an honest living through the mere creative power of a man’s mind. the Romanian scientist. Bucharest 9 November. that were intended to highlight the life and work of Ion Basgan. In Focşani. Eng. These remarkable Patents of Ion Basgan. Ion Basgan . 1997 . What was achieved especially after 1989. the School No 2 and the street where the inventor was born were named by his own name. 1995 – 9 November. Nicolae Diaconescu. has always been a friendly person and he knew how to establish and maintain a network. But the most significant action. the Director of the National Oil Museum of Ploieşti.