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In the recent year, renewable energy applications are rapidly increasing in power generation systems. Wind is one of the fastest growing energy resource and their penetration levels in power system are increasing worldwide. The benefit of wind power generation is in providing clean energy and saving fossil fuels thereby reducing emissions. Energy generation by wind power plants is without fuel cost but nature dependent. The meteorological factors like wind speed and air density greatly influence the wind power generation. Of these variables, the wind speed has a major influence on wind turbine power output since the power output varies with cubic value of wind speed . The air density variation during different period of a year and at different location is lesser compared to the wind speed variation. In planning a wind power generation in
Kem Sungai Besi, the first thing is to get wind speed at several locations especially at high locations in Kem Sungai Besi. Turbo meter wind speed indicator was used to get the wind speed. As is well known, the term wind power describes the process by which the wind is used to generate mechanical power or electricity. Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical power. Simply stated, a wind turbine works the opposite of fan. Instead of using electricity to make wind, like a fan, wind turbines use wind to make electricity. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity.
Wind turbine diagram
The main objective of this project is to determine and design a suitable wind turbine which could be employed for small scale applications in Kem Sungai Besi using Computer-Aided Design (CAD). The other objective is to analyze the critical static stresses of the design on the components and structures using Computer-Aided Analysis (CAA).
In determine and design of the wind power generation, wind resources is very important. Since in Kem Sungai Besi average wind speed is low, this project will be focus on designing wind turbine that have features suitable in low speed wind and work in this situation.
Scopes of Work
The scopes of this project as shown below: FYP 1 a. Literature study on the function of the main mechanical, structural, control and electrical components of wind turbine. b. Understand a basic knowledge of the construction and operation of the wind turbine for electricity production.
f. Conceptual design. the maximum static stresses on the wind turbine components and structures.c. Using the Computer-Aided Analysis. e. produce a good design of the wind turbine. Using the Computer-Aided Design. FYP 2 d. Determination size of each components and structures by analytical analysis. 4 .
In explanation. creating temperature. The 5 . Wind exists because solar radiation reaches the Earth’s highly varied surface unevenly. basic knowledge of the structures and the components of wind turbine. compared with in colder regions where the air is at a low pressure . the history of wind turbine. The different of heat across the earth will be helping creating the wind. the air is hot in warmer regions of the earth and therefore it is in a high pressure. types of wind turbine. 2.1 Analysis of Wind Speed in Kem Sungai Besi Speed of wind at a location is varying randomly with time. Hence. the speed of the wind at a site should be properly analyzed and understood.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter includes the study of wind in Kem Sungai Besi. advantages and disadvantages of wind turbine. Analyzing the speed of wind is important to design a steady structures and it components of wind turbine with refer to the wind characteristics at the site. density and pressure differences which cause the air to move.
1. Figure 2.movement of air from area of high pressure to low pressure is called wind as shown in Figure 2. The weekly wind speeds at some locations in Kem Sungai Besi are shown in Table 2.1 How wind is created Wind speeds in Kem Sungai Besi is depends on the location which is wind speeds is varying. 6 .1. Turbo Meter Wind Speed Indicator is used to obtain wind speed.
1 September Location Abseiling tower UPNM Iron hill Sri hill Kinabalu 1.1 1.6 2.8 2.7 1.4 1.61 m/s.9 1.Table 2.8 2.8 2.6 1. the wind speeds at 3 locations in Kem Sungai Besi is not consistent. The function is as supplier electricity to the rural areas. After a few years.8 2.3 1. Lastly. a large wind electric generator was built in Cleveland.6 2. 7 . 2.8 1.1. Then.9 2.2 Wind Turbine History Wind turbine is a rotation machine which converts the kinetic energy in wind into mechanical energy.86 m/s.the average wind speed at Sri Kinabalu Hill is 1.1 1.1 1. The era of wind turbine began close to 1990.2 1.9 2.1 2. the average wind speed at Iron Hill is 2.32 m/s.3 0.3 Refer to the table 2.9 1.0 2. The first modern wind turbine was constructed in Denmark in 1890.9 1.4 3 4 Weekly wind speeds in m/s October 1 2 3 4 1 November 2 3 4 1. The average wind speed at Abseiling tower UPNM is 1.6 2.3 1.6 2.0 1.1 3.
the nuclear power was unacceptable. At 1950. the series of horizontal axis wind turbines named MOD-0. Moreover. scientists at Sandia Laboratories were focused on their research. As a result. For an example of improving the behavior of wind turbine is the lightweight constant speed rotors were developed in Germany which the fiber glass blades attached to the simple hollow towers supported by guy ropes. the Darrieus wind turbine was developed. for the safety reasons. During the same time. These factors caused the revival of interest in wind energy. At that time. depend on National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in development of the new model with more performance on the wind turbines will get profit and advantage. At 1980. In 1973. the first speed-up gear box was introduced in the wind turbine design . MOD-1. They are realized that the cost of fossil fuels will be increase year by year. United States believe. the fossil fuel from the plants would be vanished one day. several models of the Darrieus machine in different sizes were fabricate for the good performance . Furthermore. the researcher gets to improve the behavior of wind turbines with using the high tip speed ratio and low solidity concept. the oil crisis had occurred and forced the scientist and engineer to thought the solution without depends on the fossil fuel. MOD-2 and MOD-5 were developed in the better performance and high efficiency . 8 . Then. The rated output was achieved at 100 kW with using 15 m diameter of swept area .Ohio.
The strength of the wind is not constant. c. b. 9 . Does not consume any non-renewable resources. Available in a range of sizes. The wind is free. wind turbine offers several advantages. The advantages of the wind turbine are: a.2 The MOD wind turbine  2. The disadvantages of the wind turbine are: a. d. f. e.Figure 2. with no need for fuel or other materials to be supplied. Wind turbine does not generate pollution or radioactive waste. Wind turbine is cost effective and reliable. Provide electricity to individual homes or other facilities on a self reliant basis.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Wind Turbine Like every form of power generation.
e.4. They are classified into horizontal axis and vertical axis wind turbines based on their axis rotation. The high speed two bladed HAWT can have efficiencies as high as 47% power extraction from the wind.4 Type of Wind Turbine The use of wind turbine to harness the energy in the wind is not a new concept and can be dated back as far back as the Chinese in 2000 B. has a rotor which move perpendicular to wind direction. Blades are mounted radially from the rotor and used to create a lift/drag differential which causes the rotor to rotate. The wind turbine can be damaged in thunderstorms.b.1 Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines The Horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT). They are generally grid connected for commercial use in electricity generation but smaller versions have been fabricated and sold commercially for small scale applications. The blades of wind turbine can hit birds who attempt to fly between them. 2.C. The power output of wind turbine remains restricted by their design. d. A number of different types of wind turbine exist today. 2. Use of wind turbine in poor locations is not effective and does not produce significant energy. c. f. 10 . Some people consider the turbine to have an undesirable appearance.
Figure 2. The final major disadvantage of this type of wind turbine is that there is a need for over speed protection as they can rotate at velocities several times that of the wind speed.The advantages of the HAWT are that it can obtain a relatively high efficiency and that because they are typically tower mounted they have to access to the higher undisturbed wind flows above the ground level. With this advantages of being tower mounted there is also a trade off.3 A horizontal axis wind turbine 11 . There is an increased capital cost incurred in the need for the tower and also the rotor and generator are more difficult to attend to for maintenance and repair than if the wind turbine was mounted on the ground. Figure 2. There is also a general need to orientate them into the wind by means of a tail or yaw mechanism.3 show the HAWT.
There is no requirement for a tower therefore there are lower capitals costs and also the fact that the generator is mounted at ground level means that it is easy to access. VAWTs can obtain efficiencies of up to 37% of the power obtainable from the wind. A Darrieus VAWT. Early designs were used primarily for pumping water as the efficiencies were low but a good low-end torque was obtainable. One of the advantages of the VAWT is that it doesn’t have to be orientated into the wind. Not being able to rotate faster than the speed of the wind often means that extensive gearing is required to match the optimal speed of the rotor with that of the generator.4. Because they are not tower mounted they don’t have to access at higher wind speeds that the HAWTs have and they also have the disadvantage that they possess a lower power coefficient than HAWTs. 12 .2. has rotors which move in the direction of the wind. named after the French inventor George Darrieus.2 Vertical Axis Wind Turbines The vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) as seen at Figure 2. No over speed protection is generally needed as this type of turbine rotates at speed less than that of the wind. The aerodynamics of the rotors creates a pressure differential and induces rotation around the vertical axis.4. With increased research into the vertical axis wind turbines a number of different designs were fabricated and patented. The rotor surfaces rotate around a vertical axis.
tubular steel tower and fixed guyed tower.1 Tower The tower carries the weight of the nacelle and the rotor blades. Schematic views of these towers as shown in Figure 2. 13 .5.4 Darrieus wind turbine  2.5.5 Main Structure of a Wind Turbine 2. The tower also absorbs the huge static loads caused by varying power of the wind. There are three basic tower type which is lattice tower.Figure 2.
Lattice towers used only half of the materials that are required to build tubular tower . 2.5 Different types of towers  The lattice towers are fabricated with the steel bars joined together to form the structure as shown at Fig. Most of the recent installations are provided with tubular steel towers.Lattice tower Tubular tower Fixed guyed tower Figure 2. the towers do not have any lock doors and it is less secure for maintenance. 14 . Moreover. These towers are fabricated by joining tubular sections of 10 to 20 m length.8. This makes it lightweight and cheaper. The tubular tower with it is circular cross-section can offer optimum bending resistance in all directions . Lattice towers are not maintenance friendly which is maintenance of systems are difficult as workers would be exposed to chill on the bad weather. They are same structure to the transmission electric towers.
15 . almost of commercial designs have three bladed rotors. Thought it is possible to design the rotor with a single blade because balancing of such rotors would be real engineering challenge. This operation can be quickly accomplished using only a winch. with the turbine already mounted to the tower top.2 Rotor The portion of the wind turbine that collects energy from the wind is called the rotor.Towers for small wind systems are generally fixed guyed towers. Size of rotor depends on the power rating of turbine. but maintenance as well. 2. Some of these guyed towers are erected by tilting them up. These towers cost less than lattice towers. The rotor usually consists of two or more wooden. Blades are fabricated with a variety of materials range from wood to carbon composites. The wood and metal are usually used to create small scale units of wind turbine. but require more land area to anchor the guy wires. Hence. Two bladed rotors also suffer on these problems of balancing and visual acceptability. fiberglass or metal blades which rotate about an axis (horizontal or vertical) at a rate determined by the wind speed and the shape of the blades. which in turn is attached to the main shaft. This means that there are guy wires anchored to the ground on three or four sides of the tower to hold it erect. This simplifies not only installation. The blades are attached to the hub. Blades of wind turbine have airfoil sections.5.
6. low and high speed shafts. The main components of a wind turbine for electricity generation are the break.7.5. which controls the position of the turbine relative to the wind. controller and brake system.2. 16 . the yaw and control system. and the yaw drive.6 Components of a Wind Turbine Components of a wind turbine usually sit over the tower.3 Nacelle The nacelle is the body of wind turbine. It also contains the blade pitch control. a hydraulic system that controls the angle of the blades.6 Nacelle of a wind turbine  2. The nacelle is shown in Figure 2. the transmission system. the generator. generator. Figure 2. It houses the gear box. Their layout is shown at Figure 2.
6. 17 . Some DC-type wind turbines do not use transmissions. These are known as direct drive systems. . Without a transmission. they have a direct link between the rotor and generator. but a much larger generator is required to deliver the same power output as the AC-type wind turbines.Figure 2.7 Cross-section of nacelle in a wind turbine  2. Instead. wind turbine complexity and maintenance requirements are reduced.1 Transmission System Transmission increases the rotation of the generator to the speeds necessary for efficient electricity production.
6.3 Braking System Wind turbine must have two independent braking systems which is aerodynamic and mechanical braking. Different generator designs produce either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). . or size.2 Generator The generator is what converts the turning motion of a wind turbines blades into electricity. The generator's rating.6. in order to work even in case of electrical power failure. is dependent on the length of the wind turbines blades because more energy is captured by longer blades. The hydraulic system in the turbine is used turn the blades or blade tips back in place once the dangerous situation is over. . 2. 18 . and as a parking brake. The mechanical brake is used as a backup system for the aerodynamic braking system. Inside this component. coils of wire are rotated in a magnetic field to produce electricity. Aerodynamic braking system is usually spring operated. once the turbine is stopped in the case of a stall controlled turbine. and they are available in a large range of output power ratings. and they are automatically activated if the hydraulic system in the turbine loses pressure.2.
Prediction of yaw loads remains uncertain especially in turbulent wind condition. In the same time. the yaw system has proved one of the more difficult parts of the turbine to design. A wind vane usually mounted on the top of nacelle that senses the relative wind direction. The wind direction must be perpendicular to the swept rotor area during normal operation of the turbine. In some designs the nacelle is yawed to reduce power in high winds and in extreme conditions the machine can be stopped with nacelle turned the rotor axis at the right angles to the wind direction . Although simple.6.8 that turns the nacelle according to the actual wind direction using a rotary actuator engaging on a gear ring at the top of the tower. the wind turbine controller can get the signal and then operates the yaw drives. A slow closed loop control system is used to control the yaw drives .2. Figure 2.8 Yaw system of a wind turbine 19 .4 Yaw System A wind turbine has a yaw system as seen at Figure 2.
1 Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Software CAD is a process of design and design-documentation that use computer technology. analysis should be done on the design material to study the performance of the design. 2. shipbuilding and aerospace industries. The advantages of using SolidWorks are user friendly. CAD is used in various applications. For analyzing of the wind turbine. including automotive.7 Review of Computer Software Computer software is very important whether in design or problem solving. low cost and the formats is transferable to any CAE software for analysis process.2.7. To get an excellent design results.2 Computer-Aided Analysis (CAA) Software CAA software is the broad use of computer software to aid in engineering tasks. SolidWorks software is three dimensions mechanical CAD software that are provides tools for mechanical design. several 20 . software that commonly used are computer-aided design software (CAD) and computer-aided analysis software (CAE). For the design of wind turbine. software called SolidWorks is decided to be used for the design process. industrial and architectural design. and many more.7. Computer software can help reduce cost and saves time. easy to understand. In engineering. 2.
thermal and exterior acoustics and also the coupling analysis between various disciplines such as thermal structural and fluid structure interaction. 21 . and analysis setup for MSC Nastran. MSC Nastran offers a complete set of nonlinear analysis capabilities in both implicit and explicit solution technology. (b) MSC Patran MSC Patran is similar software of MSC Nastran which used as pre-processing software for Finite Element Analysis (FEA). It can be used multiple CAA studies including multi physics analysis.software is decided to be used in analyzing the components and structure which are: (a) MSC Nastran MSC Nastran is used for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of simple or structure. providing solid modeling. meshing. In addition.
namely literature review. there are two methods used in the analytical study and computer simulation. 22 . a methodology flow chart is done as a guideline and the work will been done according to the methodology flow chart. Method is used to complete the project which is divided into three stages. several design concepts are required to choose the best and appropriate design concepts. 3. The methodology flow chart of this project is shown in Fig.1 Methodology Flow Chart During design process. The methodology flow chart shows the step project process on how the project will be carried out until the completion of the project.1 Introduction The methodology is generally a guideline method used to achieve the objective of this project. The methodology is early design process to perform the study. 3.1.CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY 3.1. For design analysis. During the design process. the design process and design analysis.
1 Methodology flow chart 23 .Identify Project Title Problem Understanding Literature Review Design Process Analysis of Design Analytical Analysis Computer Analysis Results Conclusion Figure 3.
Variable pitch or yaw control. Rotor axis orientation: 2. Upwind or downwind of tower. Easier installation if a tower is not used. VAWT configurations: Advantages: 1.3. gearbox etc may be placed on the ground so a tower may be avoided. Generator. Rotor Position: 3. 2. Power Control: 5. fixed or free standing. Rotor Blades: 4. The most important design choices related to wind turbine topology as follows: 1. Number of blades. 3. 3.2 Conceptual Design The conceptual design aimed to select the most suitable topology for wind turbine from the endless combinations of design choices.1 Rotor Axis Orientation A basic assessment of strengths and weaknesses was used to assess suitability of both HAWT and VAWT configurations.2. Tilt-up. 24 . Easier to maintain since the drive train components are near the ground. Tower Structure: HAWT or VAWT.
The VAWTs lack of a tower eliminates most of the additional energy available higher up due to wind shear. Can be set up in forests above the tree-line. Environmental impacts associated with tall towers. Bearing replacement requires full strip down of machine. 4. 4. 3. Tall towers improve access to stronger winds. Disadvantages: 1. High thrust loads on bottom bearing due to rotor weight. 2.4. Disadvantages: 1. Usually self-starting. 3. Ability to pitch the blades in a storm to minimize damage. 25 . Yaw mechanism is not required. Blades are to the side of the wind turbine centre of gravity. HAWTs have difficulty operating near the ground where the wind flow is more turbulent. 3. 5. HAWT configurations: Advantages: 1. helping stability. The highly cyclic power and thrust generated by VAWT rotors result in higher fatigue loads. Overall efficiency is low. Transportation of tall towers can be difficult. 5. Efficiency loss from the yaw device tracking the wind is negated. 5. 2. 2.
VAWT appear to have found a niche in urban environments where the wind resource is more turbulent. Disadvantages: 1.2.Conclusion: The HAWT configuration was found to be considerably more suitable and was the chosen configuration. This configuration is by far the most common position for HAWTs. and roof-top mounting is available offering considerable height gains without the use of a tower. Accurate predictions of blade deflections in turbulent wind are required to prevent the rotor blades from striking the tower. Tower shadow effect is much less.2 Rotor Position The rotor position is relevant to only the HAWT configuration and has major consequences on virtually all drive train component design requirements. Lower blade fatigue. noise and power reduction. Tilting rotor blades back to prevent tower strike reduces power output slightly. Upwind configurations: Upwind machines have the rotor facing the wind. Advantages: 1. 3. mainly to efficiency advantages. reducing dynamic rotor blade loading. 26 . The power generation for rural areas and small scale uses appears to be firmly in the HAWT. 2. 2.
Flexible blades can be less expensive to make. Flexible blades may reduce weight. contributing to fatigue damage and a “thump” noise effect. however the 27 . Downwind Configuration: Downwind machines have the rotor on the lee side of the tower. 3. 2. Conclusion: The downwind comparison featured slightly better reliability and maintainability because of the absence of the yawing mechanism. Disadvantages: 1. Advantages: 1. May require an extended nacelle to position the rotor far enough away from the tower to prevent tower strike. Flexible blades may take some loading off the tower in high winds due to the blade bending absorbing some of the wind energy. 5. Blades are subject to large negative impulse loads each time they pass the tower. 4. May be built without a yaw mechanism. Requires load inducing mechanical yaw mechanism to keep the rotor facing the wind. Allows the use of very flexible blades without the risk or tower striking.3. 2. Fatigue and structural failure due to turbulence. 4. if the nacelle is designed to follow the wind passively.
Two Blades : Two bladed rotors are slightly less efficient than three bladed rotors and generally need to be mounted on a teeter hinge to combat the aerodynamic imbalances to the turbine when a rotor blade passes the tower. Three Blades : Three bladed rotors were found to be the accepted industry standard and tend to be the standard against which all other concepts are evaluated. Teetering hubs are considerably more complex than the fixed hubs generally found on three bladed rotors. Cost associated with extra blades. 28 . Disadvantages: 1. 4.3 Rotor Blades The power coefficient increases as the number of blades increase. 3.environmental drawbacks due to increased noise made the upwind configuration marginally more attractive. More dynamically balanced rotor due to 120 degree spacing of blades. 2. Three per revolution noise is less annoying than one or two per revolution. Three percent more aerodynamically efficient than two blades. Lower impulsive noise from tower shadow than two or one blades. 3.2. Advantages: 1.
drive train. 2. Requires a counterweight to balance the rotor. 2. Advantages: 1. Increased rotor noise due to higher tip speed. Requires up to fifty percent increased rotor radius to achieve roughly the same power output as a three bladed rotor. 3. nacelle & yaw bearing load relief due to teetering mechanism. Improved blade. Cost & weight saving over two and three blades. 3. Require higher rotational speeds to yield the same energy output as two blades. they generally experience all the same problems experienced with a two bladed rotor but to a larger extent. Increased rotor noise due to higher tip speed. 3.Advantages: 1. 2. One blade: One-bladed rotors do exist but are not widespread. Disadvantages: 1. Six percent more aerodynamically efficient than one blade. Require higher rotational speeds to yield the same energy output as three blades. tower. Cost and weight saving over three blades. Disadvantages: 1. 29 .
negating the need for a complex teetering hub. This can be to achieve maximum advantage from the wind. Speed control is required to put a ceiling on the rotational speed and output power as the wind speed increases. The cost saving potential for one and two-blade configurations were not expected to be realised due to the requirement for larger blades. 3. required so that the wind turbine achieves maximum advantage from the wind and reaches its maximum or rated power at the desired wind speed.2. Active control systems depend on transducers to sense conditions and motors to drive the control actuation. The mainstream control options are summarized here: Pitch Control : The purpose of pitch control is to optimise the blade angle to achieve certain rotor speeds or power output. 30 . to serve as a protection mechanism preventing the rotor blades from rotating too fast and possibly breaking. For this wind turbine design the control must be simple and passive (use natural forces for actuation) to minimize complexity and cost. adding complexity and cost to the wind turbine design. teetering hubs and counterweight. and also for overspeed protection in high wind.Conclusion: The three blades rotor design was chosen on the grounds of its superior environmental performance and the potential for a simpler design.4 Power Control Various control methods were found to be available to either optimise or limit power output.
Rigid hub can be used with no variable pitch mechanism. 3. 2. Disadvantages: 31 . Large power swings likely to occur due to reaction times. Fairly simple arrangements are possible. 3. Provides aerodynamic braking. Disadvantages: 1. 6. Yaw Control : The yaw control ensures that the turbine rotor is constantly facing into the wind to achieve maximum effective rotor area resulting in maximum power output. Complicated hub arrangement including pitch actuation devices. 2. 3.Advantages: Control can be achieved passively. Advantages: Control can be achieved passively. Increased energy capture. 4. 5. Sometimes powered by hydraulic or electric motors. 2. Reduced extreme loads on the turbine when shut down. Very effective way to limit output power by changing aerodynamic force on the blade at high wind speeds. Can still generate power in extreme wind speeds.
3. 4. and above obstructions such as buildings. trees & hills. and 4 sets of guy wires attached at each joint. Only really practical for variable speed machines. 3. 32 .2.5 Tower Structure The function of the tower is to elevate the wind turbine above the low wind speeds experienced at the base of the vertical wind profile. Large moments of inertia about nacelle and yaw axis. 2. Three basic tower types were found to be used in wind turbine installations and are summarized below: Tilt-up tower : Usually tilt-up towers are tubular steel construction with sections of pipe coupled together. The tower must support the weight of the wind turbine and also handle the thrust loads put on it by the wind. Conclusion : Pitch control and yaw control were assessed as being equally suitable for this application.Requires a robust yaw system. They consist of the tower pole and a “gin pole” that is attached to it at 90 degrees. They both offer minimal negative noise related environmental impact which was a major deciding factor. Both were deemed to be relatively inexpensive to design and manufacture as bearing arrangements and mechanisms were expected to be uncomplicated for this wind turbine. Slower reaction than other control methods.
Disadvantages: 1. Advantages: 1. do not tilt down and are held up by guy wires. guyed tower : These towers are lifted up once. 3. pivoting on a sturdy base. Minor repairs are potentially more difficult due to the requirement to lower the entire tower rather than simply climbing the tower. Installation is possible without a crane by using temporary gin poles however using a conventional crane is the usual method. Easy maintenance with no climbing. 4. Advantages: 1. 3. The footprint area does not need to be as clear and level as tilt-up towers. Large footprint required (a 10 m high tower requires a diamond area 15 m x 10 m).When the tower is down the gin pole sticks up in the air at 90 degrees and is used as a lever to lift or lower the tower. Fixed. The footprint area needs to be clear and reasonably level. 2. 2. No crane required for installation. Disadvantages: 33 . Inexpensive. Inexpensive. Heights of up to 40 m are achievable for wind turbine. 2.
Foundation may require independent civil engineering design. 3. at least a third to half higher cost than tilt-up or guyed towers. Requires very little cleared space.1. Maintenance on the turbine or tower is difficult and requires climbing the tower. More adaptable to composite structural material construction. Enhanced reliability due to elimination of damage to guy wires. 2. 4. Requires crane to install and other equipment to construct concrete foundation. Free-standing tower : These towers have no guy wires but rely on the concrete foundation and the steel or other material tower to hold them up. 3. 2. Maintenance on the turbine or tower is difficult and requires climbing the tower. 3. Conclusion: The tilt-up configuration was considerably more suitable and was the chosen configuration. 2. Most aesthetically pleasing option. Disadvantages: 1. Small footprint required. Requires a crane to install. Advantages: 1. 34 . Expensive. 4. Medium sized footprint is required (a 10 m high tower requires a 10 m diameter footprint). 5.
Rotor axis orientation is HAWT. 4. 3.3 Summary The overall topology of the wind turbine design was selected to best suit the application as follows : 1. 2. Rotor position is upwind. 35 . 5. This information was sufficient to begin detailed component design and selection in the next chapter. Power control is pitch control and yaw control. Rotor is three bladed. Tower structure is tilt up.3.
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