BIOL 3306 – Evolutionary Biology (1) Why study evolution?

Ricardo Azevedo
August 23, 2011

Outline

General information
Instructors

General information What is evolution? Evolution is both a theory and a fact Why study evolution? Tree thinking ￿
￿

Ricardo Azevedo razevedo@uh.edu Office hours: Diane Wiernasz dwiernasz@uh.edu

August 23 – October 6 Thursdays, 11:30 AM – 12:30 PM October 11 – December 1

5:30 – 7:00 PM SEC 101 SEC 203 BIOL 3301 Genetics (enforced) General information Websites General information Course blog ￿ ￿ General Testing http://BIOL3306F11.General information Meeting information General information Prerequisites ￿ ￿ Tue/Thu.uh.blogspot.edu/ .com/ https://www. 10:00 – 11:30 AM Tue/Thu.casa.

simple questions about material just covered (10 pts total) “Homework” questions (15 pts total) ￿ ￿ Opinion/feedback questions (not for credit) ∼ 20% “free” questions No midterms will be dropped . December 13 ￿ Quick. 4th ed. December 1 Tue. September 22 Thu. Prentice Hall. General information Exams General information Clickers ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ Exam 1: Exam 2: Exam 3: Final (optional): Thu.General information CASA General information Textbook Freeman & Herron (2007) Evolutionary Analysis. October 27 Thu.

both before and after class Do well in clicker questions Remember that topics are closely interrelated Study in groups Ask questions in class.General information Clickers General information Testing ￿ ￿ Clicker questions will begin next Tuesday You can only answer these questions with a clicker Buy it at the UH bookstore or from another student Set it to channel 48 (press: Ch – 48 – Ch) ￿ ￿ ￿ Midterms (3×): Final (optional): Clickers: 25 pts each averaged into midterms 25 pts ￿ ￿ General information Grading General information Recipe for success ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ A B C D F 85 – 100 points 70 – 84 50 – 69 40 – 49 0 – 39 ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ Come to class and take notes Read the textbook regularly. in the blog and/or in office hours No curving .

galaxies language. computer. fashion airplane. Human-chimp DNA sequence divergence E. knowledge. stars. coli evolution in the laboratory. HIV disease progression. (2002) F&H: p 19 F&H p 19 . cancer solar system.What is evolution? Minimal definition (general) What is evolution? Moore’s law — transistors in integrated circuits Change over time Examples: biology physics culture technology evolution. origin of birds from reptilian ancestor Phylogeny of gp120 sequences Metzker et al. communications What is evolution? Minimal definition (biological) Patient Victim Controls What is evolution? HIV-1 from a single patient (gp120 gene) Evolution HIV-1 from a single patient Change in the heritable properties of populations of organisms over several generations Examples: pesticide resistance in insects. development.

What is evolution? Minimal definition (biological) Change in the heritable properties of populations of organisms over several generations Individual organisms do not evolve .What is evolution? Minimal definition (biological) What is evolution? Tasmanian devil facial tumor disease Change in the heritable properties of populations of organisms over several generations Excludes development of an organism (ontogeny) Includes development or cancer from the point of view of the cells McCallum & Jones (2006) To lose both would look like carelessness: Tasmanian Devil facial tumour disease. PLoS Biol 4:e342.

Fig. Thus. and what is accepted as a fact today may be modified or even discarded tomorrow. The simplest explanation is to do with the families that Galton (1886) studied.g. men have either remained consistently 8 % taller than women over the last 110 years. However. Theory: In science. 2000). post-puberty w adults. the secular increase in human height) Fig.stated look for other explanations. it becomes more probable that the hypothesis is correct. an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed. and trend age of menarche. If the deductions are verified. which would bring it nearer for Japanese children time there has been ages. so that in good times boys grow relatively faster. like Kuh et al. Hypothesis: A tentative statement about the natural world leading to deductions that can be tested.What is evolution? Minimal definition (biological) What is evolution? Mean height of conscripts in Italy (1854–1963) Growing up with good nutrition: first 20 years Change in the heritable properties of populations of organisms over several generations Excludes direct effects of changes in the environment (e. found that the percentage difference increased with time. and pro age 20 years. Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences (1999) This sexual dimorphism in the height trend is striking. show Dutch pattern in Tab to a peak at age 11 y then falls back to a v age 2 years. a well-substantiated explanation of Whatever the causation. to describe the nature of science Kuh et al. Hypotheses can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations. about how some aspect for male world behaves under and circumstances. is never final. of the natural plasticity unconvincing. and for all practical purposes. (1991). and the age of peak heigh Fig.. Secular trends between 1950 and 199 1995) Evolution is both a theory and a fact Terms used to describe the nature of science Fact: In science. Eveleth & Tanner (1990) in their discussion of environmental influences on growth make the Law: A descriptive generalization (1991) find the evidence same point. fro increasing trend is spurt. Hermanussen et al. is accepted as “true”. at least i age 17 years. the percentage difference in parental heights could have been greater than that for the general population at that time. whereas in the 1958 cohort is 6·9 % a theory and a fact Terms used men were 9·3 % taller than women. 1995) Fig. Along with secula concomitant change children. to the mean in hereditary stature assumed an 8 % sex difference in height when he adjusted for sex differences in the heights of the Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences family offspring. however. The dramatic increased growth tem maturing earlier. If they were relatively advantaged (as they presumably were). Kuh et al. Among parents born before 1905 fathers Evolutionwerebothtaller than mothers. and was still present when expressed in percentage terms. trend highlights an interesting contradiction. (1991) point out that. and the same value of 8 % is seen in(1999) many populations today (Cole. or they have been getting progressively taller. 2 plots the by age and sex. Thus the secular three distinct period very little trend. Truth in science. 2 shows that t already been achieve To try to underst processes need to b life up to age 2 adulthood. Francis Galton (1886) in his and tested on regression laws.famous paperhypotheses. growth in boys is believed to be more responsive (or plastic) than in girls to changes in the environment. and has not been observed elsewhere. If the deductions are incorrect. However Cole (2000). 2. As an exam . but when times get hard their growth is more affected. Mean height in Italian conscripts from 1854 to 1963. inferences. The two observations are incompatible. the sexual dimorphism in height some aspect of the natural world that can incorporate facts. (From Cole (2000) Secular trends in growth. in general. the original hypothesis can be abandoned or modified. It was greater before 1940 than after. Proc Nutr Soc 59: 317–24. 1.

and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection.Evolution is both a theory and a fact Terms used to describe the nature of science Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution The contention that evolution should be taught as a “theory. experimentation. not as a fact” confuses the common use of these words with the scientific use. it then branched out over time. throwing off many new and diverse species. it then branched out over time. theories do not turn into facts through the accumulation of evidence. ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms F&H pp 38–40 Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3.5 billion years ago. it then branched out over time. Rather. theories are the end points of science.5 billion years ago. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. In science.5 billion years ago. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. and creative reflection. They are understandings that develop from extensive observation. Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences (1999) Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms F&H pp 38–40 ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms . Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. throwing off many new and diverse species. throwing off many new and diverse species.

Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. throwing off many new and diverse species. it then branched out over time. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True.5 billion years ago. throwing off many new and diverse species.5 billion years ago.5 billion years ago. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection.5 billion years ago. throwing off many new and diverse species.Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. throwing off many new and diverse species. it then branched out over time. it then branched out over time. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. it then branched out over time. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution Evolution is both a theory and a fact Summary of the theory of evolution Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms .

(2011) A molecular phylogeny of living primates. . . . F&H pp 756–763 PLoS Genetics | www.Why study evolution? Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution . Dobzhansky (1973) Why study evolution? Human / chimpanzee genome sequence comparison Why study evolution? Apes have already risen.org 3 March 2011 | Volume 7 | Issue 3 | e1001342 Perelman et al... Without that light it becomes a pile of sundry facts some of them interesting or curious but making no meaningful picture as a whole.2% genome-wide nucleotide sequence substitution differences 29% proteins have exactly the same amino acid sequence proteins differ on average in only 2 amino acids The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium (2005) Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome.plosgenetics. Primate Phylogeny ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ 3% genome-wide nucleotide insertion / deletion differences 1. Nature 437: 69–87. PLoS Genet 7:e1001342.

(2011) A molecular phylogeny of living primates.org 3 March 2011 | Volume 7 | Issue 3 | e1001342 F&H pp 585–588 . Why study evolution? Respiration — Proximate explanations Why study evolution? Respiration — Ultimate explanations ￿ Metabolism ￿ ￿ ￿ ￿ glycolysis pyruvate decarboxylation Krebs cycle oxidative phosphorylation ￿ ∼ 2.plosgenetics. the level of oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere began to rise Mitochondria evolved from an α-proteobacterium-like endosymbiont ￿ ￿ Cell biology ￿ mitochondria PLoS Genetics | www.4 billion years ago. Primate Phylogeny Why study evolution? Two types of explanations in biology ￿ ￿ Proximate Ultimate “How?” questions “Why?” questions functional biology evolutionary biology Perelman et al... PLoS Genet 7:e1001342.Why study evolution? Apes have already risen.

Life on earth evolved gradually beginning with one primitive species — perhaps a self-replicating molecule — that lived more than 3. it then branched out over time. Coyne (2009) Why Evolution is True. and the mechanism for most (but not all) of evolutionary change is natural selection. throwing off many new and diverse species.Tree thinking Tree thinking Evolution On the Origin of Species Charles Darwin (1859) Darwin (1837) Tree thinking Evidence for evolution Tree thinking Biogeography Summary of the theory of evolution Many oceanic islands appear over volcanic hotspots That species can be classified easily according to a hierarchical system is a consequence of evolution.5 billion years ago. ￿ ￿ ￿ Evolution as such Speciation Natural selection ￿ ￿ ￿ Gradualism Common ancestry Other mechanisms .

Tree thinking Time Tree thinking Branching Pan Homo Gorilla Pongo Hylobates ￿ Time advances from the bottom (root) to the top (tips) The top of the tree represents the most recent time (typically the present) Pan Homo Gorilla Pongo Hylobates ￿ The tips of the tree (•) represent species The nodes of the tree (•. w–z) represent ancestral species undergoing speciation z y ￿ z y ￿ x w x w F&H pp 50–53 F&H pp 50–53 Tree thinking Ancestors and descendants Tree thinking Relationships Pan Homo Gorilla Pongo Hylobates Pan Homo Gorilla Pongo Hylobates ￿ z y x speciated before y y is the most recent common ancestor of Pan and Gorilla z y ￿ Pan is more closely related to Homo than it is to Gorilla Both Pan and Homo are equally closely related to Gorilla ￿ ￿ x x w w F&H pp 50–53 F&H pp 756–763 .

Tree thinking Tree thinking Pan Pan Homo Gorilla Pongo Hylobates y z y z Homo z x Gorilla y y z Pan Homo Gorilla Pongo Hylobates Gorilla Homo Pan Pongo Hylobates x w w Pongo x w x w Hylobates Rotating clades around a node does not change the tree Changing the orientation does not change the tree Next Lecture Evidence for evolution (continued) F&H chpt 2 .

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