You are on page 1of 5

1 (5)

Dynamic SDCCH 7.1 Introduction The Dynamic SDCCH feature enables the configuration of the Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (SDCCH) resources according to the actual SDCCH traffic situation of a cell. When the BTS needs temporarily larger SDCCH capacity than normally, idle traffic channel (TCH) resources are configured for SDCCH use by the BSC. When the SDCCH congestion situation is over, the extra SDCCH resources are configured back to the TCH resources. The feature offers special benefit in traffic cases where signalling is the only transmission mode during the connection to the network. Short Message service (SMS) traffic as well as location updatings are counted among them. In some special locations such as airports and ports, the location updatings can produce sudden short time SDCCH traffic peaks which can now be handled without any need to configure extra permanent SDCCH capacity for the sake of safety only. The operator is required to configure to the BTS the minimum static SDCCH capacity sufficient to handle the normal SDCCH traffic. An extra SDCCH resource is allocated only when the actual SDCCH congestion situation has started after the last free SDCCH is allocated. Consequently, when the dynamic SDCCH radio resource is totally free again, it is immediatelly configured back for TCH use. Thus the maximum number of TCHs is always in traffic use depending on the actual need of the SDCCH resources at the time. Dynamic SDCCH is an optional feature in the BSC. 7.2 Description of feature 7.2.1 Properties Creation of dynamic SDCCH resource When additional SDCCH capacity is required in a BTS due to congestion, then an idle TCH radio time slot (RTSL) is configured by the BSC as a new temporary SDCCH resource. SDCCH resource which is created dynamically, is always an SDCCH/8. Any idle TCH resource is possible to be configured to SDCCH in order to get immediate relief when SDCCH congestion occurs. Thus there is no need to wait for a particular TCH resource to be released. Therefore, every radio channel resource which is configured on the Abis O & M interface to be a TCH RTSL represents on the Abis Telecom interface except a TCH resource also a dynamic SDCCH resource. In order to keep the maximum TCH capacity available all the time, the additional SDCCH resource is configured as near as possible to the moment the SDCCH congestion situation starts and an SDCCH channel is requested. The optimum result is reached when the configuration is done at the time of channel activation. The BTS is told the new configuration of the idle RTSL in the Channel Activation command sent by the BSC. Consequently, when the need for extra SDCCH resource no longer exists, the RTSL is configured immediatelly back for the TCH use. At the moment all subchannels are free the BTS does the reconfiguration without waiting for any special command from the BSC. The RTSL is then ready for TCH use, for example, the idle channel measurements are immediatelly started for the TCH subchannels. Also in the BSC the idle dynamic SDCCH resource is at the same time returned to the original TCH configuration. SDCCH resource can be configured dynamically when an MS is accessing the BTS and the SDCCH is allocated for immediate assignment.

2 (5)

The placement of the new dynamic SDCCH depends on the following factors: An RTSL of least uplink interference is selected. The SDCCH is configured to a TRX which does not yet have any SDCCH resource or has the smallest amount of them. The preference order of the TRXs also influence the TCH configurations: priority is given to the TRX which has least working traffic channels.

These requirements are compromised according to the actual TCH occupation situation of the TRXs. Possible configuration contradictions of the dynamic resources on the Abis Telecom interface of the BTS and BSC are handled without any extra procedures made for this particular purpose. When the BTS detects a fault in the telecom signalling link, the BTS releases active channels of the TRX and reconfigures dynamic SDCCH resources back to the TCH. The configuration information of the RTSL is received in the next Channel Activation command from the BSC. The BTS accepts the data and configures the idle RTSL to SDCCH or TCH, depending on what is requested. When the BSC detects a telecom signalling link fault, it blocks the TRX. After the signalling link has recovered, the TRX is deblocked. The BTS always has to be created with the minimum static SDCCH configuration via the Abis O & M interface, the BCCH TRX must have an SDCCH (see Radio Network Configuration Management /14/); this ensures that the BTS has SDCCH capacity while dynamic resources cannot be configured for resource reasons or the optional feature Dynamic SDCCH is turned off. Allocation of SDCCH channel Principles which are followed when a radio channel is allocated from the SDCCH resources of the BTS are: SDCCH is always allocated from static SDCCH resource if there is a free channel. When SDCCH is allocated from the dynamic SDCCH resources, then the one with the smallest amount of idle SDCCH subchannels left is used.

These rules are for minimising the consumption of the TCH resources in the dynamic SDCCH allocation. 7.2.2 Restrictions Dynamic SDCCH resource is configured only when an SDCCH is allocated as an initial signalling channel at the time of the call set-up. During the SDCCH handover dynamic SDCCH configuration is not allowed. However, already existing free dynamic SDCCH resources are used in the target cell of the SDCCH handover. The CBCH carrying the SDCCH cannot be configured dynamically. The operator has to configure the CBCH carrying the SDCCH as well as the combined CCCH/SDCCH. Both of the channels represent the static resources on the Abis Telecom interface. 7.2.3 Capacity Maximum SDCCH capacity The upper limit for the number of SDCCHs in the BSC depends on the number of TRXs that are connected to the BSC Signalling Units (BCSU) and the number of BCSUs that are working in the BSC. The maximum SDCCH capacity of the BCSU is calculated with the following formula:

3 (5)

Max_SDCCH_count_per_BCSU = 12 * Max_TRX_count_per_BCSU Max_SDCCH_count_per_BCSU includes both the static SDCCHs, which the operator configures, and the dynamic SDCCH resources. With maximum TRX configurations the average SDCCH capacity per TRX equals 12 channels. The amount is the same as the upper limit for the SDCCHs which the operator can configure per TRX (see Radio Network Configuration Management /14/). However, dynamic SDCCH resources can be shared between all TRXs of the BTS. The absolute limit is that the maximum SDCCH number in a TRX must not exceed 16 channels; when this limit value is reached, at least one of the two SDCCH/8 resources must be a dynamic one. The capacity restrictions of the 16 kbit/s Telecom signalling link produces additional constraints to dynamic SDCCH configuration. The uplink capacity is not sufficient in the worst traffic load cases. The main reason for the capacity loss is the increased uplink load in measurement result reporting. The maximum number of dynamic and static SDCCH channels together is limited to 12 subchannels (that is, SDCCH/4 and SDCCH/8) in those TRXs which use the 16 kbit/s link for the Telecom signalling. TRXs of higher capacity signalling link (32 kbit/s or 64 kbit/s) can be configured up to 16 SDCCHs. The restriction of 12 SDCCHs per TRX is sufficient when the maximum configuration of TRX consists of 18 radio channels maximum, that is, SDCCHs and 6 TCHs. This maximum channel configuration can be exceeded when the HR option is taken into use; the number of the channels per TRX can then vary between 8 and 24 SDCCHs and TCHs together. So when the Telecom signalling links of 16 kbit/s are used and the optional feature Dynamic SDCCH is activated, the HR configuration is recommended to be restricted so that the requirement of maximum of 18 channels is fulfilled. There are three possible alternatives: When the BCCH TRX has the combined CCCH/SDCCH, then no HR supporting TCH resource can be configured to the TRX. When the BCCH TRX does not have the combined CCCH/SDCCH, then maximun of four HR supporting TCH resources can be configured to the TRX. Non-BCCH TRX can be configured to maximum of three HR supporting TCH resources.

With the TRX configuration of more than 18 radio channels, a 32 kbit/s LAPD link is highly recommended for supporting the telecom signalling which HR requires. The overload of the signalling link can be monitored by the Telecom LAPD link supervision of the Abis Interface Services with a possibility to set an alarm in an overload situation. For more information, see Abis Interface Services (ABCSEB) /18/.

7.2.4 Interaction with other network elements BTS The Dynamic SDCCH is supported by all BTS generations. The BSC checks whether the SW of the BTS supports the Dynamic SDCCH when the BTS is restarted. No BTS configuration parameter handling is needed. 7.2.5 Interaction with other features In general, the principles and procedures which are followed in the TCH allocation are applicable also when it has to be decided which of the TCH resources of the BTS are to be reconfigured to the SDCCH. The following features are dealt with in more detail. Floating TRX

4 (5)

A floating TRX can be used in a sectorised cell as a reduntant TRX to replace a faulty BCCH TRX of any sector. When there are Abis circuits allocated for the floating TRX, it can also be used as an extra capacity in any of the sectors (see Radio Network Configuration Management /14/). When the floating TRX is in extra capacity use, the static type of SDCCH resources are not allowed to be configured in it. Otherwise, when a faulty BCCH TRX of some sector has to be replaced with the floating TRX, the SDCCH resources carried by the floating TRX may be lost in the sector where the TRX was configured initially. This restriction does not apply to the dynamic SDCCH resources. The working floating TRX is treated equally with the other TRXs when creating the dynamic SDCCHs. While the floating TRX is moved to an other sector, the lost dynamic SDCCH capacity can be configured to the remaining TRXs when needed. ISDN Abis The ISDN Abis TRXs are treated in dynamic SDCCH allocation equally with the TRXs which have the fixed 2 Mbit/s interface based connections to BTS. For more information, see ISDN Abis /16/. Extended cell range The Dynamic SDCCHs can be configured both to TRXs of extended and normal range area of the cell (see Radio Network Configuration Management /14/). The definition of which TRX is used is based on which part of the cell area the MS access is received from. Intelligent underlay-overlay The Dynamic SDCCHs as well as the static ones can be configured to the TRXs of the regular frequency area only (see Intelligent Underlay-Overlay /11/). FACCH call set-up due to SDCCH congestion When the feature FACCH call set-up is activated, in SDCCH congestion of the BTS the MS can be assigned from the CCCH to the TCH with the Immediated Assignment procedure. The TCH is then used for signalling (see FACCH Call Set-up /8/). This feature can be applied also with the Dynamic SDCCH. However, Dynamic SDCCH resources are always used whenever possible. The FACCH call set-up is used only in true SDCCH congestion when no more dynamic SDCCHs are possible to be configured in the BTS. Also when the last TCH resource of the BTS is going to be taken in use and and the connection requires a TCH it is recommended to use the FACCH call set-up when allowed instead of reconfiguring the TCH to the SDCCH resource. Radio network supervision Radio network supervision provides information of the function and the duty of the SDCCHs and TCHs (see Radio Network Supervision in BSC /15/). The dynamic SDCCH brings about a new standpoint to the channel specific supervisions because the BSC can occasionally reconfigure TCH resources for SDCCH use and back to TCHs. The reconfiguration can happen during the same supervision period. The supervision data of the dynamic SDCCH resources is maintained on only during the time the resources themselves survive. So at the end of each supervision period the data is available only for those SDCCHs which have not been reconfigured back to the TCH. The supervision data of these SDCCHs is handled and interpreted in the same way as the data related to the static SDCCH

5 (5)

resources. The supervison data of TCH channels are preserved though the TCH resource has been configured dynamically for SDCCH use.