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ASP Chapter1&2 2010

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Department of Telecommunications Engineering Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology E-mail: do-hong@hcmut.edu.vn

To introduce fundamentals of analog signal processing, with major emphasis on circuit analysis, differential equations, convolutions, Fourier methods, Laplace methods and applications in filtering and analog communications.

Outline

Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Circuit Analysis Chapter 2: Introduction to Signals and Systems Chapter 3: Time-Domain Analysis of Continuous-Time Systems Chapter 4: Signal Representation by Fourier Series Chapter 5: Continuous-Time Signal Analysis: Fourier Transform Chapter 6: Continuous-Time Signal Analysis Using Laplace Transform Chapter 7: Frequency Response and Analog Filters

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE ASP2010 BG, HCMUT

Textbooks

[1] J. W. Nilsson and S. A. Riedel, Electric Circuits, 8th Ed, Prentice Hall, 2008. [2] B. P. Lathi, Signal Processing and Linear Systems, Berkeley-Cambridge Press, 1998.

Grading

20% for midterm examination. 20% for homeworks/assignments 20% for in-class quizzes 40% for final examination.

Passive and Active Elements: Passive elements cannot generate energy. It cannot deliver more energy than has previously been supplied to it by the rest of the circuit. Resistors, capacitors, inductors. Active elements can generate energy. Generators, batteries. Independent and Dependent Sources: An independent source (voltage or current) may be DC (constant) or time-varying, but does not depend on other voltages or currents in the circuit. A dependent sources value depends on another voltage or current in the circuit.

Independent Voltage Source: Two-terminal elements maintains a specified voltage between its terminals regardless of the rest of the circuit. The voltage is completely independent of the current through the element. Circuit symbols:

v = vs

Independent Current Source: Two-terminal element through which a specified current flows. Circuit symbol:

i = is

Remarks We do not know the current in the voltage source: Circuit analysis has to be applied on the entire network to determine the current. We do not know the voltage across current source: Circuit analysis has to be applied on the entire network to determine the voltage.

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Dependent Voltage Source: A dependent or controlled voltage source is a voltage source whose terminal voltage depends on, or is controlled by, a voltage or current defined at some other location in the circuit. Symbol:

There are two types of dependent voltage source (categorized by controlling variable): Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS) Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS)

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Dependent Current Source: A dependent or controlled current source is a current source whose current depends on, or is controlled by, a voltage or a current defined at some other location in the circuit. Symbol:

There are two types of dependent current source (categorized by controlling variable): Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) Current-controlled current source (CCCS)

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Linear Controlled Sources: VCVS : voltage gain dimensionless

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VCCS g: transconductance seimens (1/ohms)

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Example: The dependence source is a CCVS with controlling current i1 and transresistance r = 0.5 .

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Example: Determine the power supplied by the dependent sources

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Dependent Sources: Essential for producing amplifier: Circuits that produce outputs more power than their inputs. Integral to active filters and all kinds of electronic circuits. Prevent loading. Isolate one part of a circuit from another. Provide negative resistance.

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Resistive Circuits Ohms law Define the simplest passive element: the resistor. Kirchhoffs laws The fundamental circuit conservation laws: Kirchhoff current law (KCL), Kirchhoff voltage law (KVL). Analysis of simplest circuits: Series equivalents Voltage division, Parallel equivalents Current division. Wye-Delta Transformations. Resistors: A resistor is a circuit element that dissipates electrical energy (usually as heat). Real-world devices that are modeled by resistors: light bulb, heating elements (stoves, heater, etc.), long wires. Parasitic resistances: many resistors on circuit diagrams model unwanted resistances in transistors, motors, etc.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Ohms Law: The voltage across a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through the resistor. v=iR, R0

Linear resistor: The resistor obeys Ohms law The resistance is a constant Nonlinear resistor: The resistance varies with the current flowing through.

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G = 1/R: conductance

Example: Determine the current i and the power p absorbed by the resistor and the energy it dissipates each hour.

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Short Circuit: The resistance R = 0 Perfect conductor capable of carrying any amount of current without sustaining a voltage drop across it.

Open Circuit: The resistance R = , (or G = 0) Perfect insulator capable of supporting any voltage without permitting any current flow through it.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Equivalent Subcircuits Circuit analysis procedure: Simplify wherever possible Replace with simpler subcircuits Subcircuit: Any part of a circuit: Two-terminal subcircuit Terminal current Terminal voltage Terminal law describes the behavior of a two-terminal subcircuit. It is a function described by v = f (i) or i = g (v), where i, v are terminal variables. Two two-terminal subcircuits are said to be equivalent if they have the same terminal law. Equivalent subcircuits may be freely interchanged without altering any external current or voltage.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE ASP2010 BG, HCMUT

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Example: Find the terminal laws

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Circuits A circuit is composed of elements (sources, resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc.) and conductors (wires) Elements are lumped Conductors are perfect Schematic A schematic diagram is an electrical representation of a circuit The location of a circuit element in a schematic may have no relationship to its physical location We can rearrange the schematic and have the same circuit as long as he connections between elements remain the same

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Nodes Definition (Node): A point of connection of two or more circuit elements, together with all the connecting wire in unbroken contact with this point. To find a node, start at a point in the circuit. From this point, everywhere you can travel by moving along perfect conductors is part of a single node. Example: A three-node circuit and its equivalent circuit

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Kirchhoffs Laws Kirchhoffs Current Law (KCL) and Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL) are fundamental properties of circuits that make circuit analysis possible. Kirchhoffs Current Law KCL Statement: The algebraic sum of the currents entering any node is zero. The algebraic sum of the currents leaving any node is zero. The sum of the currents entering any node is equal to sum of the currents leaving the node. Example:

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Kirchhoffs Voltage Law KVL Statement: The algebraic sum of voltage drops around any closed path is zero. The algebraic sum of voltage rises along any closed path equals zero. The sum of voltage drop equals the sum of voltage rises along any closed path (i.e., loop). Example:

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Notes: A loop is any closed path through a circuit in which no node is encountered more than once. The voltage encountered + to is positive. The voltage encountered to + is negative. Supernode (Surface, or Balloon): The algebraic sum of currents entering any closed surface is zero.

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Voltage Division The voltage across series resistors divides up in direct proportion to their resistances. Example:

Rs = R1 + R2 + R3

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Series Voltage Sources

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Series Current Sources

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Current Division The current through parallel resistors divides up in direct proportion to their conductance. Current Divider: is only for two resistors. Smaller resistances (larger conductances) have larger current flows in a current divider:

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Parallel Current Sources

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Example: Find v and i

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Example: Find Vo in the network shown below

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Wye-Delta Transformations In some circuits it is necessary to do the conversion between Y-connected and - connected resistors.

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Y-to- and -to-Y Conversion

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Example: Find the current i for the circuit shown below

Using -Y conversion:

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Total resistance equals: Thus, i =12 /10k =1.2mA

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Example: Determine the total resistance RT in the circuit shown below.

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Example: Find i.

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Example: An equivalent circuit for a FET common-source amplifier or BJT common-emitter amplifier can be modeled by the circuit shown below. Determine the gain of the amplifier.

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Nodal Analysis (Node Voltage) Nodal Analysis A general method of circuit analysis in which voltages are the unknowns to be found. Reference node: Ground or node with largest number of branches. Nonreference node: Some characteristics to be found. Node voltage: The voltage of each of the nonreference nodes with respect to the reference node. Reference direction: + ends at the nonreference nodes, ends at the reference node. Circuit with N nodes: N 1 nonreference nodes and N 1 node voltages.

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Introductory Example: The output voltage v of this circuit is proportional to the sum of the two input currents i1 and i2. This circuit could be useful in audio applications or in instrumentation. The output of this circuit would probably be connected to an amplifier.

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Remarks: In this circuit: There are no series or parallel resistors to combine. We do not have a single loop or single-node-pair circuit. We need a more powerful analysis technique Nodal Analysis.

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Nodal (or Loop) Analysis: The analysis techniques in the previous chapters (voltage divider, equivalent resistance, etc.) provide an intuitive approach to analyzing circuits. They cannot analyze all circuits. They cannot be easily automated by a computer. Node analysis (and loop analysis) are both circuit analysis methods which are systematic and apply to most circuits. Analysis of circuits using node or loop analysis requires solutions of systems of linear equations. These equations can usually be written by inspection of the circuit.

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Nodal Analysis: In nodal analysis, the unknowns are the node voltages. No matter what the node voltages are, KVL will always be satisfied.

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The node equation of an element is given as follows:

The current from node 1 to node 2 through a resistor is the difference of the node voltage at node 1 and the node voltage at node 2 divided by the resistance R.

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Steps of Nodal Analysis: Choose Ground, set its node voltage to 0. Label Node Voltages: Label all other node voltages with symbols Write Down Equations: Write down KCL at all nodes other than ground using Ohms law whenever possible. Solve Equations: Solve the resulting system of linear equations. Linear independent equations have a unique solution and can be solved by Gauss elimination, Cramers rule or matrix inversion. The equations can also be solved using MATLAB or other software systematically.

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(1) Choose Ground:

The reference node is called the ground node. (2) Label Node Voltages:

v1, v2, and v3 are unknowns for which we will solve using KCL.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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(3) Write Down Equations

KCL at Node 1:

KCL at Node 2:

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KCL at Node 3:

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Shortcut Method: These equations can be written by inspection. The left side of the equation: The node voltage is multiplied by the sum of conductances of all resistors connected to the node. Other node voltages are multiplied by the conductance of the resistor(s) connecting to the node and subtracted. The right side of the is the sum of currents from sources entering the node. This is also called shortcut method.

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Example of shortcut method:

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Matrix Notation: The three equations can be combined into a single matrix/vector equation:

The matrix is symmetric! The equation can be written in matrix-vector form as Av = i The solution to the equation can be written as v = A-1i

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Solving the Equations with MATLAB: MATLAB (from http://www.mathworks.com) is a very powerful tools for solving linear systems. In this problem, suppose i1 = 3 mA and i2 = 4 mA. Using MATLAB: >> A = [1/500+1/500, -1/500, 0; -1/500, 1/500+1/1000+1/500, -1/500; 0, -1/500, 1/500+1/500]; >> i = [3e-3; 0; 4e-3]; >> v = inv(A)*i v= 1.3333 1.1667 1.5833

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Example:

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Example (Shortcut Method): Write the equations for the network and determine the node voltages with R1 = R2 = 2 k, R3 = R4 = 4 k , R5 = 1 k, iA = 4 mA, iB = 2 mA.

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Circuit with Dependent Source: Choose Ground:

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KCL @ Node 1:

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System of Equations:

Matrix is not symmetric due to the dependent source (compared with the previous problem!). Using MATLAB:

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Example: Write the equations for the network and determine the node voltages with R1 = 1 k, R2 = R3 = 2 k, R4 = 4 k, iA = 2 mA, iB = 4 mA, = 2.

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Circuits Containing Voltage Sources: If there are voltage sources, use supernodes! Go inside each balloon to get an equation: Top Balloon: v - v = 6 Bottom Balloon: v - 0 = 12 Next, write KCL at Top Balloon:

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Example: Find the node voltages at v , v and v .

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Example: Find the node voltages at v , v and v .

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Example: Use nodal analysis to find v for the circuit shown.

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Loop Analysis (Mesh Current) Nodal analysis was developed by applying KCL at each nonreference node. Nodal analysis results in a system of linear equations which must be solved for unknown voltages. Loop analysis (or mesh current) is developed by applying KVL around loops in the circuit. Mesh analysis results in a system of linear equations which must be solved for unknown currents. Loop analysis only applies on planar circuits circuits that can be drawn on a plane surface.

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Steps of Loop Analysis: Identify loops (meshes). Label a current to each loop. Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents. Solve the resulting system of linear equations.

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Example: Identifying the loops:

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Apply KVL around each loop to get an equation in terms of the loop currents:

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KVL around Loop 2:

Solve the resulting system of linear equations. Matrix Notation: The two equations can be combined into a single matrix/vector equation:

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Solving the Equations If V1 = 7 V and V2 = 4 V, then I1 = 3.33 mA and I2 = -0.33 mA Vout = (I1 I2) 1 kW = 3.66 V

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Circuits with Current Sources

Identify loops:

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Assign loop currents:

The current sources in this circuit will have whatever voltage necessary to make the current correct. We cant use KVL around the loop because we dont know the voltage. The 4 mA current source sets I2: I2 = -4 mA The 2 mA current source sets a constraint on I1 and I3: I1 I3 = 2 mA We have two equations and three unknowns.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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We need the third equation:

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Matrix notation: The three equations can be combined into a single matrix/vector equation:

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Example: Use loop analysis to find Vo in the circuit:

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Advantages of Nodal Analysis: Solves directly for node voltages Current sources are easy Voltage sources are either very easy or somewhat difficult Works best for circuits with few nodes Works for any circuit Advantages of Mesh Analysis: Solves directly for some currents Voltage sources are easy Current sources are either very easy or somewhat difficult Works best for circuits with few meshes Disadvantages of Mesh Analysis: Some currents must be computed from loop currents Does not work with non-planar circuits Choosing the supermesh may be difficult

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Nodal or Mesh Analysis? Choose the methods with fewer equations Nodal equations the number of node minus one (reference node) minus the number of voltage sources Mesh equations the number of mesh minus the number of current sources Substitute series and parallel equivalents prior to either nodal or mesh analysis Series elements may give unnecessary nodes Parallel elements may give unnecessary meshes

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Example: Find i using nodal and loop analysis.

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Example: Solve by nodal analysis; then solve again using mesh analysis. Find v and i.

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Linearity (1)

Linearity is a mathematical property of circuits that makes very powerful analysis techniques possible: Laplace transforms Fourier transforms (Bode plots) Stability analysis Linearity leads to many useful properties of circuits: Superposition: the effect of each source can be considered separately Equivalent circuits: Any linear network can be represented by an equivalent source and resistance (Thevenins and Nortons theorems) Linearity leads to simple solutions: Nodal analysis for linear circuits results in systems of linear equations that can be solved by matrices Nodal analysis for nonlinear circuits results in equations that must be solved numerically

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Linearity (2)

Linear circuits (and more generally linear systems) have behavior that is predictable small perturbations stay small Sinusoidal sources in a linear circuit result in sinusoidal responses with the same frequency Nonlinear circuits or systems may have chaotic behavior small perturbations result in large changes If x and y are circuit variables associated with a two terminal element, the element is linear if multiplying x by K results in the multiplication of y by K. This is called the proportionality property (Ky) = k (Kx) if y = kx Linear elements: Resistors: v(t) = R i(t) Inductors: v(t) = L di(t)/dt Capacitors: v(t) = 1/C i(x) dx General equation: a1(Kx1) + a2(Kx2) + + an(Kxn) = Ky

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Linearity (3)

Linearity is a mathematical property of a model. We use linear models whenever possible Real circuit elements are never exactly linear, but many are close enough for practical purposes Linear circuit: Any circuit containing nothing but linear elements and independent sources

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Linearity (4)

Determining linearity: The relationship between current and voltage for a linear elements satisfies two properties: Homogeneity Let v(t) be the voltage across an element with current i(t) flowing through it In an element satisfying homogeneity, if current is increased by a factor of K, the voltage increases by a factor of K Additivity Let v1(t) be the voltage across an element with current i1(t) flowing through it, and let v2(t) be the voltage across an element with current i2(t) flowing through it In an element satisfying additivity, if the current is the sum of i1(t) and i2(t), the voltage is the sum of v1(t) and v2(t)

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE ASP2010 BG, HCMUT

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Linearity (5)

Examples: Resistor: V = R I If current is KI, then voltage is R KI = KV Squarer: V = I2 If current is KI, then voltage is (KI)2 = K2V Resistor: V = R I If current is I1 + I2, then voltage is R(I1 + I2) = RI1 + RI2 = V1 + V2 Squarer: V = I2 If current is I1 + I2, then voltage is (I1 + I2)2 = I12 + 2 I1 I2 + I22

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE ASP2010 BG, HCMUT

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Superposition (1)

Suppose there are two source ya and yb in a circuit: a1x1 + a2x2 + ... + anxn = ya + yb by killing source b, we have a1x1a + a2x2a + ... + anxna = ya by killing source a, we have a1x1b + a2x2b + ... + anxnb = yb Therefore, we have a1(x1a + x1b) + a2(x2a + x2b) + ... + an(xna + xnb) Principle of superposition: The overall response of a circuit containing several sources is the sum of the responses to each individual source with the other source killed. Supposition only holds in general for linear circuits.

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Superposition (2)

Example: The summing circuit

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Superposition (3)

Applying Superposition: In a network containing multiple independent sources, each source can be applied independently with the remaining sources turned off. Replace voltage source with a short circuit, replace current source with an open circuit. Apply circuit laws to the circuits with individual sources. Add the results together algebraically to obtain the final solution.

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Superposition (4)

Example: (Result: I0 = -16/3 mA)

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Superposition (5)

Example: Find the voltage v and the power dissipated by the 3 resistor.

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Superposition (6)

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Superposition (7)

Remarks: Superposition can be applied to a circuit with any number of dependent and independent sources. Superposition can be applied to the current and voltage in a linear circuit. Superposition cannot be used to determine power because power is a nonlinear function.

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Thevenin Subcircuit: Norton Subcircuit:

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From Norton subcircuit: Comparing the terminal law, we have:

The Thevenin form with voltage source vT and series resistance RT is equivalent to the Norton form with current source iN and parallel resistance RN if RT = RN and vT = RN iN

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Example: Find i

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Consider an arbitrary two-terminal resistive circuit with terminal law v = f (i)

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Example: Find the voltage v0

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Remarks: A circuit with many elements will have Thevenin and Norton equivalents with only two elements. Replacing the original by its two-element equivalent has the desired effect of simplifying the circuit. Given the terminal law for a circuit, it is straightforward to find its Thevenin and Norton equivalents.

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Open-Circuit Voltage: From Thevenin form Let i = 0, we have With terminal law, f (0) must be terminal voltage when terminal current i is zero, f (0) is called open-circuit voltage v = voc Thevenin equivalent voltage vT is equal to the open-circuit voltage vT = voc

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Short-Circuit Current: If short circuiting the terminals, then we have short-circuit current i = isc Since no voltage across a short circuit: Thus,

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Conclusion: Given a subcircuit with open-circuit voltage vOC and short-circuit current iSC Its Thevenin equivalents may be found from:

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Example: Find Thevenin and Norton equivalents (using iSC and vOC)

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From Thevenin, by killing all independent sources, we have v = RT i, or

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RT or RN can be computed as the resistance looking into the terminals of the subnetwork when all internal sources have been killed: Independent voltage sources are killed by replacing them with short circuits. Independent current sources are killed by replacing them with open circuits.

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Example: Find RT (or RN )

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Example: Use Thevenin and Norton Theorem to find Vo.

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Circuits containing both independent and dependent sources Both the open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current have to be calculated to find the Thevenin resistance Dependent source and its controlled variable cannot be split when breaking the network

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Example: Use Thevenins theorem to find Vo.

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Maximum power transfer: The maximum power that can be delivered to a load. Consider the circuit shown, the power delivered to the load is given by

To maximize Pload with respect to RL, we have to take derivative w.r.t. RL and set it to zero.

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Thus, maximum power transfer happens when the load resistance RL equals R.

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Example: Find the value of RL for maximum power transfer and the maximum power that can be delivered to this load.

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For maximum power transfer, RL equals RT, i.e., RL= 6 k The maximum power is given by:

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What is Operational Amplifier: An operational amplifier (op amp) is modeled as a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS). An operational amplifier has a very high input impedance and a very high gain. Symbol:

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Practical Operational Amplifiers

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Use and Applications Op amps can be configured in many different ways using resistors and other components Most configurations use feedback Amplifiers provide gains in voltage or current Op amps can convert current to voltage Op amps can provide a buffer between two circuits Op amps can be used to implement integrators and differentiators Op amps can be used for lowpass and bandpass filters

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Op Amp Model

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The voltage vi1, vi2, vo are defined relative to ground Ground is usually omitted The op amp input voltage, or voltage across the op amp input terminals, is vin= vi1 vi2

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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The input resistance Rin is very large (practically infinite) The voltage gain A is very large (practically infinite), typically between 10,000 and 1,000,000 Amplification requires power that is provided by the DC voltage sources connected to VCC and VEE

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Transfer Plots

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The ideal op-amp: The input resistance is infinite The gain is infinite The op amp is in a negative feedback configuration Ideal Voltage Amplifier The op amp output vo is controlled by vin, the difference between op amp input terminal voltages. The VCVS voltage gain A indicates the degree of amplification of the input voltage in passage through the op amp. A is referred to as the open-loop gain of the op amp.

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Example: Suppose the (ideal) op amp has an open-loop gain of 100,000. Find the source current and load voltage.

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Ideal voltage amp model substitution:

Some observation The op amp draw no current from the input sources! Decreasing load resistance makes arbitrary large power delivery! How about the improved op amp model?

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Improved Op Amp Model

Add input resistance Ri, output resistance Ro Guarantee nonzero input current finite power delivery For the ideal model, Ri = and Ro = 0 Typical values: Ri = 1 M and Ro = 30

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE ASP2010 BG, HCMUT

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Negative feedback: Any change of the output has the algebraically opposite effect on the input. In a negative feedback system, an increase in the algebraic value of the output yields a decrease in the algebraic value of the input, and vice verse Negative feedback systems tend to resist change and thereby stabilize their own outputs Negative feedback in an op amp circuit: Make a current connection between the output terminal and the inverting input terminal

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Voltage Follower

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Voltage transfer ratio: Without negative feedback: A With negative feedback: A / (A+1) 1 for large A (voltage follower) What do we get? Using negative feedback trades raw gain for constancy of gain Insensitive to open-loop op amp gain (temperature, frequency, aging, etc.) Negative feedback configuration: Closed-loop circuit

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Example: Determine the voltage transfer ratio v2/v1. Use the ideal voltage amplifier model.

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Example: Without Voltage Follower:

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Inverting Amplifier:

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Using ideal Op Amp model:

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The voltage transfer function (voltage gain or closed loop gain) is always negative for the inverting amplifier. The voltage gain set by the designers choice of RF and RA The voltage gain does not depend on open loop gain A

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Noninverting Amplifier:

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Using ideal Op Amp model:

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE ASP2010 BG, HCMUT

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Inverting Summer: The inverting summer is similar to the inverting amplifier but with more than one input.

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Using ideal Op Amp model:

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Noninverting Summer:

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Example: Find the current in the 5 k resistor if vg = 5 V.

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Example: Find i.

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Example: Find v2/v1

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Example: Differential voltage gain

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Example: Determine the input/output relationship of the circuit.

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Using superposition:

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Comparators:

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Capacitors store energy in an electric field. Inductors store energy in a magnetic field. Capacitors and inductors are passive elements: Can store energy supplied by circuit Can return stored energy to circuit Cannot supply more energy to circuit than is stored Voltages and currents in a circuit without energy storage elements are linear combinations of source voltages and currents. Voltages and currents in a circuit with energy storage elements are solutions to linear, constant coefficient differential equations.

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Engineers almost never solve the differential equations directly. Instead, they use: Laplace transforms AC steady-state analysis These techniques convert the solution of differential equations into algebraic problems circuit analysis (e.g., the voltage divider) can be applied directly. Energy storage elements model electrical loads: Capacitors model computers and other electronics (power supplies) Inductors model motors Capacitors and inductors are used to build filters and amplifiers with desired frequency responses: RF amplifiers in a receiver Instrumentation amplifiers

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Capacitors are used in A/D converters (PCM encoders) to hold a sampled signal until it can be converted into bits. For high frequency signals, inductance and capacitance are more significant effects than resistance.

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Capacitor: Capacitance occurs when two conductors (plates) are separated by a dielectric (insulator). Because of the dielectric, charges cannot move from one conducting body to the other within the device. Charge on the two conductors creates an electric field that stores energy. Symbol:

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Commercial capacitors are produced either as discrete elements or are deposited onto IC substrates during manufacturing. Practical capacitors dissipate small but nonzero amounts of power primarily due to leakage currents. Circuit model for a practical capacitor:

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The voltage difference between the two conductors is proportional to the charge: q=Cv The proportionality constant C is called capacitance. Units of Farads (F) - C/V Differentiate both side of the equation, we have the current voltage relation for a capacitor:

If v is constant, then i is zero. A capacitor acts like an open circuit to a DC voltage. Abrupt or instantaneous changes in the voltage across a capacitor is not possible.

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Continuity principle: The voltage across a capacitor is always continuous even though the current may be discontinuous. Capacitor voltage:

The energy accumulated in a capacitor is stored in the electric field located between its plates. An electric field is defined as the position-dependent force acting on a unit positive charge. Mathematically (with v(-) = 0), energy stored in capacitor:

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Continuity of capacitor voltage: The energy stored in a capacitor is continuous since the voltage in a capacitor is continuous. Ideal switch open at t = 0 t = 0 : the time just before the switching action t = 0+ : the time just after the switching action

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Example:

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Inductor: An inductor is a two-terminal device that consists of a coiled conducting wire wound around a core. A current flowing through the device produces a magnetic flux forms closed loops threading its coils. Total flux linked by N turns of coils, flux linkage = N For a linear inductor, = Li L is the inductance. Unit: Henry (H) or (Vs/A)

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Practical inductors are only available as discrete elements, not as part of IC Practical inductor dissipate a small but nonzero amount of power Circuit for a practical inductor:

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Law of electromagnetic inductor: The induced voltage is equal the time rate of change of the total magnetic flux. Mathematical form:

Dept. of Telecomm. Eng. Faculty of EEE

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Continuity principle: The current through an inductor is always continuous. Inductor current:

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Example: Suppose iL(0-) = 2 A, find all the current right after t = 0.

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Example: Find the voltage v across a 20 mH inductor whose current is i(t) = 4 sin 10t + 1 A.

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Operational amplifier circuits can be used to implement differentiator and integrator: Differentiator: The output voltage of the circuit is proportional to the derivative of the input voltage.

Integrator: The output voltage of the circuit is proportional to the integral of the input circuit.

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Differentiator:

KCL at node A:

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Integrator:

KCL at node A:

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Example: The waveform applied to the input of the differentiator circuit is shown below, determine the waveform at the output if R = 1 k and C = 2 F.

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Example: The waveform applied to the input of the integrator circuit is shown below, determine the waveform at the output if R = 5 k and C = 0.2 F.

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Examining the behavior of a circuit as a function of time after a sudden change in the network occurs due to switches opening or closing. Because of storage elements, the circuit response to a sudden change will go through a transition period prior to settling down to a steadystate value. First-order circuit, second-order circuit.

184

Example: Consider the flash circuit in a camera. The voltage source Vs and resistor Rs model the batteries, the capacitor C models the energy storage, the switch models the push button, and the resistor R models the flash lamp.

185

186

First-Order Circuits: Any circuit with a single energy storage element, an arbitrary number of sources, and an arbitrary number of resistors is a circuit of order 1. Any voltage or current in such a circuit is the solution to a 1st order differential equation. Total response of first-order circuit containing sources: Natural response simple RC and RL circuits without independent sources. Forced response governed by the independent sources.

187

Source-Free RC Circuits:

188

Solving differential equation:

189

With initial condition:

190

Example:

191

Source-Free RL Circuits:

192

Time Constants: To characterize the rate at which the natural response decays to zero. Defined as a natural response to decay by a factor 1/e or e-1

193

Time Constant of RC/RL Circuits:

194

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