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# CHAPTER 5: LOGARITHMIC, EXPONENTIAL, AND OTHER TRANSCENDENTAL

FUNCTIONS
5.1 THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION: DIFFERENTIATION
• LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Develop and use properties of the natural logarithmic function
o Understand the definition of the number
e
o Find derivatives of functions involving the natural logarithmic function
• THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION
o Recall that the General Power Rule,
1
, 1
1
n
n
x
x dx C n
n
+
· + ≠ −
+

, has an
important disclaimer—it doesn’t work if 1 n · − . Therefore, we also
cannot integrate ( )
1
f x
x
· .
 In this section, we will use the Second Fundamental Theorem of
Calculus to define such a function
DEFINITION OF THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC
FUNCTION
The natural logarithmic function is defined by
1
1
ln , 0
x
x dt x
t
· >

The domain of the natural logarithmic function is the set of
all positive real numbers, ( )
0.∞ .
2
-2
-4
5
5
4
2
t x x
ln y x ·
1
y
t
·
o As you can see from the graph on the left,
1
1
ln 0, when 0 1
x
x dt x
t
· < < <
∫ and
1
1
ln 0, when 1
x
x dt x
t
· > >

THEOREM: PROPERTIES OF THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC
FUNCTION
The natural logarithmic function has the following properties:
1. The domain is ( )
0.∞ and the range is ( )
0.∞ .
2. The function is continuous, increasing, and one-to-one.
3. The graph is concave downward.
THEOREM: LOGARITHMIC PROPERTIES
If
a
and b are positive numbers and
n
is
rational, then the following properties are true:
1. ( )
ln 1 0 ·
2. ( )
ln ln ln ab a b · +
3. ( )
ln ln
n
a n a ·
4.
ln ln ln
a
a b
b
¸ _
· −

¸ ,
1 2 3
2
1.5
1
0.5
t
1
1
1
e
Area dt
t
· ·

• THE NUMBER
e
o The base for the natural logarithm is defined using the fact that the
natural logarithmic function is continuous, is one-to-one, and has a range of
( ) , −∞ ∞
.
 There must be a real number
x
such that ln 1 x ·
• This number is denoted by
e
1. 2.71828182846 e ≈
DEFINITION OF
e
The letter
e
denotes the positive real number such that
1
1
ln 1
e
e dt
t
· ·

THEOREM: DERIVATIVE OF THE NATURAL
LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1. [ ]
1
ln , 0
d
x x
dx x
· >
2. [ ]
1
ln , 0
d du u
u u
dx u dx u

· · >
THEOREM: DERIVATIVE INVOLVING
ABSOLUTE VALUE
If
u
is a differentiable function of
x
such
that , then
ln
d u
u
dx u

1 ·
¸ ]
5.2 THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION: INTEGRATION
• LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Use the Log Rule for Integration to integrate a rational function
o Integrate trigonometric functions
• LOG RULE FOR INTEGRATION
o The integration rules
1
ln
d
x
dx x
1 ·
¸ ]
and ln
d u
u
dx u

1 ·
¸ ]
that we
studied in the last section produce the following integration rule:
THEOREM: LOG RULE FOR INTEGRATION
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1.
1
ln dx x C
x
· +

2.
1
ln du u C
u
· +

or ln
u
du u C
u

· +

 The second formula for
u
comes from the fact that du u dx ′ ·
• Example: Find the indefinite integral.
1.
10
dx
x

10 1
10
10ln
dx dx
x x
x C
·
· +
∫ ∫
2.
2
3
3
x
dx
x −

2
3
2
3
3
3
2
2
3
3
1 3
3
3
3
3
1
1
ln
3
1
ln
1
3
3
3
3
x
dx
x
du x dx
x x dx
dx
x
du
u C
u
u
k
u
x
x
C

· −
·

·
· − +
·

·

− −
·

+

∫ ∫

2.
GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATION
1. Learn a basic list of integration formulas.
2. Find an integration formula that resembles all or part of the
integrand, and, by trial and error, find a choice of
u
that
will make the integrand conform to the formula.
3. If you cannot find a
u
-substitution that works, try altering
the integrand. You might try a trigonometric identity,
multiplication and division by the same quantity, or addition
and subtraction of the same quantity.
o Example: Using long division before integrating
 Find
2
2 7 3
2
x x
dx
x
+ −

( )
( )
2
2
2
19
2 11
2
2 7 3
2 2 7 3
2
2 4
11 3
11 22
19
x
x
x x
x x x
x
x x
x
x
+ +

+ −
· − + −

− −

− −
Now,
2
2
2
19 19
2 11 2 11
2 2
1
2 11 19
2
11 19ln
11 19ln 2
x dx xdx dx dx
x x
x
x du
u
x x u C
x x x C
¸ _
+ + · + +

− −
¸ ,
· + +
· + + +
· + + − +
∫ ∫ ∫ ∫

INTEGRALS OF THE SIX BASIC
TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
1.
sin cos udu u C · − +

2.
cos sin udu u C · +

3.
tan ln cos udu u C · − +

4.
sec ln sec tan udu u u C · + +

5.
cot ln sin udu u C · +

6.
csc ln csc cot udu u u C · − + +

o Example: Derivation of the Cosecant Formula
Find csc xdx

( )
2
2
rewrite integrand
simplify
let csc cot , so
csc cot
csc csc
csc cot
csc csc cot

csc cot
csc csc cot

1
u x x du
x x
xdx x dx
x x
x x x
dx
x x
x x x
dx
u
du
u
· + ·
− + ¸ _
· −

+
¸ ,
¸ _ − −
· −

+
¸ ,
− −
· −
· −
∫ ∫

2
csc csc cot
apply log rule
back substitute
ln
ln csc cot
x x x
u C
x x C
− −
· − +
· − + +
o Example: Find tan xdx

trigonometric identity
let cos , so sin
apply log rule
back substitute
sin
tan
cos
sin

cos
ln
ln cos
u x du xdx
x
xdx dx
x
x
dx
x
u
du
u
u C
x C
· · −
·

· −

· −
· − +
· − +
∫ ∫

5.3 INVERSE FUNCTIONS
• LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Verify that one function is the inverse function of another function
o Determine whether a function has an inverse function
o Find the derivative of an inverse function
• INVERSE FUNCTIONS
o Inverse Relation
Interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair in a
relation produces the inverse relation.
If a relation is defined by an equation, interchanging the variables produces
an equation of the inverse relation.
 Example: Find the inverse of the relation
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
0,1 , 5, 6 , 2, 4 − −
Solution:
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
1, 0 , 6, 5 , 4, 2 − −
Notice that the pairs in the inverse are reflected across the line
. y x ·
 Example: Find an equation of the inverse relation
2 2
2 5 4 x y + ·
Solution:
2 2
2 5 4 y x + ·
• One-to-One Functions
A function
f
is one-to-one if different inputs have different outputs—that is, if
, a b ≠
then
( ) ( ). f a f b ≠
Or a function
f
is one-to-one if when the outputs are
the same, the inputs are the same—that is if
( ) ( ), f a f b ·
then . a b ·
• Properties of One-to-One Functions and Inverses
o If a function is one-to-one, then its inverse is a function.
o The domain of a one-to-one function
f
is the range of the inverse
1
. f

o The range of a one-to-one function
f
is the domain of the inverse
1
. f

o A function that is increasing over its domain or is decreasing over its
domain is a one-to-one function.
• Horizontal Line Test
If it is possible for a horizontal line to intersect the graph of a function more
than once, then the function is not one-to-one and its inverse is not a function.
• Finding Formulas for Inverses
o Obtaining a Formula for an Inverse
If a function
f
is one-to-one, a formula for its inverse can generally be
found as follows:
1. Replace
( ) f x
with
. y
2. Interchange
x
and
. y
3. Solve for
. y
4. Replace
y
with
1
( ). f x

• Example: If the function is one-to-one, find a formula for the
inverse:
5 3
( )
2 1
x
f x
x

·
+
Solution: First we graph the function to see if it will pass the
horizontal line test. As you can see from the graph below, it will,
so we have a one-to-one function.
Now we can use the steps above to find the inverse function.
1.
5 3
2 1
x
y
x

·
+
2.
5 3
2 1
y
x
y

·
+
3.
( )
( )
2 1 5 3
2 5 3
2 5 3
2 5 3
3
2 5
xy x y
xy y x
y x
x
x
x
y
y y
x
+ · −
+ · −
− · − −
− · − −
+
· −

4.
1
3
( )
2 5
x
f x
x

+
· −

The graph of
1
f

is a reflection of the graph of
f
across the line
. y x ·
• Inverse Functions and Composition
If a function
f
is one-to-one, then
1
f

is the unique function such that each of
the following holds:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1 1
, for each in the domain of , and
, for each in the domain of .
f f x f f x x x f
f f x f f x x x f
− −
− − −
· ·
· ·
o
o
• Restricting a Domain
o If the inverse of a function is not a function, we can restrict the domain so
that the inverse is a function.
 Example: Consider
2
. y x · If we try to find a formula for the
inverse, we have

2
2
x y
y x
y x
·
·
· t
This is not the equation of a function. We can, however, only
consider inputs from [ ) 0, . ∞
This will yield an inverse that is a
function.
THEOREM: REFLECTIVE PROPERTY OF INVERSE FUNCTIONS
The graph of f contains the point ( )
, a b if and only if the graph of
1
f

contains
the point ( )
, b a
THEOREM: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY OF INVERSE
FUNCTIONS
Let
f
be a function whose domain is an interval
I
. If
f
has an
inverse function, then the following statements are true:
1. If
f
is continuous on its domain, then
1
f

is continuous on its
domain.
2. If
f
is increasing on its domain, then
1
f

is increasing on its
domain.
3. If
f
is decreasing on its domain, then
1
f

is decreasing on its
domain.
4. If
f
is differentiable at
c
and ( )
0 f c ′ ≠
, then
1
f

is
differentiable at ( )
f c
.
THEOREM: THE DERIVATIVE OF AN INVERSE FUNCTION
Let
f
be a function that is differentiable on an interval
I
. If
f

has an inverse function
g
, then
g
is differentiable at any
x
for
which ( ) ( )
0 f g x ′ ≠
. Moreover,

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
, 0. g x f g x
f g x
′ ′ · ≠

o Example: Find
( ) ( )
1
f a
− ′
for the function ( )
cos 2 f x x · on the
interval 0
2
x
π
≤ ≤ and the given number 1 a · .
We know that cos 2x is monotone (decreasing) on the given
interval. ( )
0 1 f a · · . This gives us the ordered pair ( )
0,1 for
f . Therefore,
1
f

must have the ordered pair ( )
1, 0 .

( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
1
2sin 2
1
1
1
1
0
1
2sin 2 0
1
0
undefined
f x x
f
f f
f

′ · −

·

·

· −

· −
·
5.4 EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS: DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION
• LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Develop properties of the natural exponential function
o Differentiate natural exponential functions
o Integrate natural exponential functions
• THE NATURAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION
o Definition of the Natural Exponential Function
The inverse function of the natural logarithmic function
( ) ln f x x ·
is called the natural exponential function and is
denoted by
( )
1 x
f x e

·
That is,
x
y e · if and only if ln x y ·
 The inverse relationship between the natural logarithmic function
and the natural exponential function can be summarized as follows:
( )
ln
x
e x · and
ln x
e x ·
• Example: Solve the following problems
1.
ln2
12
x
e ·
ln
ln2
12
2 12
6
x
x
e x
e
x
x
·
·
·
·
2.
6 3 8
x
e − + ·
6 3 8
3 1
ln
4
14
3
1.5404
ln
x
x
x
e
e
e
x
− + ·
·
·

3. ln 4 1 x ·
1
ln 4 1
4
4
4
0.6796
x
e x
e x
e
x
x
·
·
·
·

Theorem: Operations with Exponential Functions
Let
a
and b be any real numbers.
1. 1.
a b a b
e e e
+
·
2.
a
a b
b
e
e
e

·
4
2
-5 5
f x
( )
= e
x
Properties of the Natural Exponential Function
1. The domain of ( )
x
f x e · is ( )
, −∞ ∞ and the range is ( )
, −∞ ∞
2. The function of ( )
x
f x e ·
is continuous, increasing, and one-to-one on
its entire domain.
3. The graph of ( )
x
f x e · is concave upward on its entire domain.
4.
lim 0
x
x
e
→ −∞
·
and
lim
x
x
e
→ ∞
· ∞
.
• DERIVATIVES OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
Theorem: Derivative of the Natural Exponential Function
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1.
x x
d
e e
dx
1 ·
¸ ]
2.
u u
d du
e e
dx dx
1 ·
¸ ]
4.
o Proof:
[ ]
Recall that ln .
ln
1
1
x
x
x
x
x x
e x
d d
e x
dx dx
d
e
e dx
d
e e
dx
·

¸ ]
1 ·
¸ ]
1 ·
¸ ]
 Example: Find the following derivatives
1.
2
x
y e

·
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
derivative of
2
2
x
x
x
x x
y e
y e
y xe

·

·

· −

2.
3
2
5
x
y e ·
( )
3
3
2
4
2
4
5 6
30
x
x
dy
e x
dx
e
x
− ¸ _
· −

¸ ,
· −
• INTEGRALS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS
Theorem: Integration Rules for Exponential Functions
Let
u
be a differentiable function of
x
.
1.
x x
e dx e C · +

2.
u u
e du e C · +

4.
o Example: Integrate the following exponential functions:
1.
5
2
x
e dx −

5 5
5
let 5 , 5 2 2
1
2
5
2
5
2
5
x x
u
u
x
u x du dx e dx e dx
e du
e C
e C
· · − · −
¸ _
· −

¸ ,
· − +
· − +
∫ ∫

2.
2
1
3

x
e
dx
x

( )
2 3
2
2
2
1
3
3
1
1
let , 2
1
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

x
u
u
u
x
u x du x dx
x
e
dx
x
e x dx
e du
e C
e C
− −

· · · −
· − −
· −
· − +
· − +

5.5 BASES OTHER THAN e AND APPLICATIONS
• LEARNING OBJECTIVES
o Define exponential functions that have bases other than
e
o Differentiate and integrate exponential functions that have bases other
than
e
o Use exponential functions to model compound interest and exponential
growth
• BASES OTHER THAN
e
o Recall that the base of the natural exponential function is
e
 This is used to assign a meaning to a general base
a
5 10 15 20
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
h x ( ) = 100 ⋅e
0.06 ⋅x
g x ( ) = 100 ⋅e
0.05 ⋅x
f x ( ) = 100 ⋅e
0.03 ⋅x
Definition of Exponential Function the Base
a
If
a
is a positive real number ( )
1 a ≠
and
x
is any real number,
then the exponential function to the base
a
is denoted by
x
a
and is defined by
( )
lna x
x
a e ·
If 1 a · , then 1 1
x
y · · is a constant function.
o
 Example: Compound Interest. Consider a deposit of \$100 placed in
an account for 20 years at % r compounded continuously. Use a
graphing utility to graph the exponential functions giving the growth
of the investment over the 20 years for each of the following
interest rates. Compare the ending balance for each of the rates.
1. 3% r ·
2.
5% r ·
3. 6% r ·
Solution: The formula for continuous compound interest is
( )
rt
A t Pe ·
Definition of Logarithmic Function to Base
a
If
a
is a positive real number ( )
1 a ≠
and
x
is any positive real
number, then the logarithmic function to the base
a
is denoted
by
log
a
x
and is defined as

1
log ln
ln
a
x x
a
·

 Why?!
• Consider the change of base formula
ln 1
log ln
ln ln
a
x
x x
a a
· ·
Properties of Logarithmic Functions to Base
a
1. log 1 0
a
·
2. log log log
a a a
xy x y · +
3. log log
n
a a
x n x ·
4.
log log log
a a a
x
x y
y
· −
Properties of Inverse Functions
1. log
x
a
y a x y · ⇔ ·
2.
log
, 0
a
x
a x x · >
3. log ,
x
a
a x x · ∀

• DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION
o Derivatives for Bases Other than e
Theorem: Derivative for bases other than e
Let a be a positive real number and let
u
be a differentiable
function of
x
.
1. ( )
ln
x x
d
a a a
dx
1 ·
¸ ]
2. ( )
ln
u u
d du
a a a
dx dx
1 ·
¸ ]
3.
[ ]
( )
1
log
ln
a
d
x
dx a x
·
4.
[ ]
( )
1
log
ln
a
d du
u
dx a u dx
·
4.
 Example: Find the derivative of each function
1. 5
x
y ·
( )
ln5 5
x
y′ ·
2.
3
1
2
x
y
¸ _
·

¸ ,
( )
3
3
2
2
1 1
ln 3
2 2
1 1
3 ln
2 2
x
x
dy
x
dx
x
¸ _
¸ _ ¸ _
·

¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ,
1
¸ _ ¸ _
·
1
¸ , ¸ ,
¸ ]
3.
x
y x ·
[ ] [ ]
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
take natural log of both sides
product rule
ln ln
ln ln
ln ln
1 1
1 ln
1
1 ln
1 ln
1 ln
x
x
x
y x
y x
y x x
d d
y x x
dx dx
dy
x x
y dx x
dy
x
y dx
dy
y x
dx
dy
x x
dx
·
·
·
·
¸ _
· +

¸ ,
· +
· +
· +
o Integrating
 Option 1: Convert to base e using the formula
( ) lna x x
a e ·
and then
integrate or
 Option 2: Integrate directly using the integration formula

1
ln
x x
a dx a C
a
¸ _
· +

¸ ,

• Example: Find the following integrals.
1. 5
x
dx

( )
1
5 5
1
5
1 1
1
5
ln
5
5
ln5
x
x
x
x
x
dx dx
dx
C
C
− −

·
¸ _
·

¸ ,
¸ _
· +

¸ _
¸ ,

¸ ,

· +
∫ ∫

2.
sin
2 cos
x
xdx

sin
sin
let sin , cos 2 cos 2
1
2
ln 2
1
2
ln 2
x u
u
x
u x du xdx xdx du
C
C
· · ·
· +
· +
∫ ∫

2

4

y=

1 t y = ln x
-2

5

2

x

x

5

-4

t

o As you can see from the graph on the left,
x

1 1 ln x = ∫ dt < 0, when 0 < x <1 and ln x = ∫ dt > 0, when x > 1 t t 1 1
THEOREM: PROPERTIES OF THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION The natural logarithmic function has the following properties: 1. The domain is

x

( 0.∞ )

and the range is

( 0.∞ ) .

2. The function is continuous, increasing, and one-to-one. 3. The graph is concave downward.

THEOREM: LOGARITHMIC PROPERTIES If 1. 2. 3. 4.

a

and

b

are positive numbers and

n

is

rational, then the following properties are true:

ln ( 1) = 0

ln ( ab ) = ln a + ln b

ln ( a n ) = n ln a

a ln   = ln a − ln b b

e e ≈ 2.  There must be a real number • x such that ln x = 1 This number is denoted by 1. is one-to-one.• THE NUMBER e o The base for the natural logarithm is defined using the fact that the natural logarithmic function is continuous.5 1 Area = ∫ dt = 1 t 1 e 1 0.71828182846 DEFINITION OF e The letter e denotes the positive real number such that 1 ln e = ∫ dt = 1 t 1 e 2 1.5 1 2 3t . ∞ ) . and has a range of ( −∞.

THEOREM: DERIVATIVE OF THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION Let u be a differentiable function of 1. x. d 1 [ ln x ] = . x > 0 dx x d 1 du u′ = . 2. then x such d u′  ln u  =  u dx  5.2 • THE NATURAL LOGARITHMIC FUNCTION: INTEGRATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES o Use the Log Rule for Integration to integrate a rational function o Integrate trigonometric functions • LOG RULE FOR INTEGRATION o The integration rules d 1 ln x  =  x dx  and d u′ ln u  =  u dx  that we studied in the last section produce the following integration rule: . [ ln u ] = dx u dx u u >0 THEOREM: DERIVATIVE INVOLVING ABSOLUTE VALUE If u is a differentiable function of that .

1. 10 ∫ x dx 10 1 dx = 10 ∫ dx ∫x x = 10 ln x +C x2 2. ∫ dx 3 3− x x2 ∫ 3 − x3 dx u = 3 − x3 du = −3 x2 dx −3 k= −3 2 x 1 − 3 x2 dx dx = ∫ 3 − x3 −3 ∫ u 1 1 = − ∫ du 3 u 1 = − ln u +C 3 1 = − ln 3 − x 3 + C 3 . 2.THEOREM: LOG RULE FOR INTEGRATION Let u be a differentiable function of 1. x. 1 ∫ x dx = ln x + C 1 u′ du = ln u + C or ∫ du = ln u + C ∫u u  The second formula for u comes from the fact that du = u′dx • Example: Find the indefinite integral.

o Example: Using long division before integrating  Find 2 x2 + 7 x − 3 ∫ x − 2 dx 2 x + 11 + 19 x−2 2 x2 +7 x −3 11x − 3 − ( 11x − 22) 19 2 x2 + 7 x − 3 = x −2 x−2 − ( 2 x 2 − 4 x) Now. multiplication and division by the same quantity. Find an integration formula that resembles all or part of the integrand. by trial and error. Learn a basic list of integration formulas. 2. find a choice of u that will make the integrand conform to the formula. If you cannot find a u -substitution that works. try altering the integrand. 3. and. You might try a trigonometric identity. or addition and subtraction of the same quantity. 19  19  dx  2 x + 11 + dx = 2 ∫ xdx + 11∫ dx + ∫ ∫ x−2 x−2 x2 1 = 2 + 11x + 19∫ du 2 u = x 2 + 11x + 19 ln u + C = x 2 + 11x + 19 ln x − 2 + C .2. GUIDELINES FOR INTEGRATION 1.

so du = − csc x − csc x cot x apply log rule back substitute 2 ∫ tan xdx ∫ tan xdx = ∫ sin x dx cos x − sin x = −∫ dx cos x u′ = − ∫ du u = − ln u + C = − ln cos x + C trigonometric identity let u = cos x. 5. so du = − sin xdx apply log rule back substitute . 4. 2. ∫ sin udu = − cos u + C ∫ cos udu = sin u + C ∫ tan udu = − ln cos u + C ∫ sec udu = ln sec u + tan u + C ∫ cot udu = ln sin u + C ∫ csc udu = − ln csc u + cot u +C ∫ csc xdx  − ( csc x + cot x )   dx csc x + cot x  rewrite integrand o Example: Derivation of the Cosecant Formula Find ∫ csc xdx = −∫ csc x    − csc 2 x − csc x cot x = −∫   dx csc x + cot x   − csc 2 x − csc x cot x dx u 1 = − ∫ du u = − ln u + C = −∫ = − ln csc x + cot x + C o Example: Find simplify let u = csc x + cot x. 3.INTEGRALS OF THE SIX BASIC TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 1. 6.

if a ≠ b. ( −2.  Example: Find the inverse of the relation { ( 0. −2 ) } Notice that the pairs in the inverse are reflected across the line y = x. ( 5. ( 6.5) . −4 ) } Solution: { ( 1.3 • INVERSE FUNCTIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES o Verify that one function is the inverse function of another function o Determine whether a function has an inverse function o Find the derivative of an inverse function • INVERSE FUNCTIONS o Inverse Relation Interchanging the first and second coordinates of each ordered pair in a relation produces the inverse relation. . If a relation is defined by an equation. interchanging the variables produces an equation of the inverse relation. then f ( a) ≠ f (b). then a = b. the inputs are the same—that is if f ( a) = f (b).5.  2 2 Example: Find an equation of the inverse relation 2 x + 5 y = 4 2 2 Solution: 2 y + 5 x = 4 • One-to-One Functions A function f is one-to-one if different inputs have different outputs—that is. ( −4. 0 ) .1) . 6 ) . Or a function f is one-to-one if when the outputs are the same.

so we have a one-to-one function. −1 The range of a one-to-one function f is the domain of the inverse f . 4. 3. it will. Interchange x and y. • Finding Formulas for Inverses o Obtaining a Formula for an Inverse If a function f is one-to-one. Solve for y. • Horizontal Line Test If it is possible for a horizontal line to intersect the graph of a function more than once. a formula for its inverse can generally be found as follows: 1. 5y − 3 x= 2 y +1 . As you can see from the graph below.• Properties of One-to-One Functions and Inverses o o o o If a function is one-to-one. 2. −1 The domain of a one-to-one function f is the range of the inverse f . then its inverse is a function. • Example: If the function is one-to-one. find a formula for the 5x − 3 inverse: f ( x) = 2x +1 Solution: First we graph the function to see if it will pass the horizontal line test. 1. Replace f ( x ) with y. then the function is not one-to-one and its inverse is not a function. 5x − 3 y= 2x +1 2. −1 Replace y with f ( x). A function that is increasing over its domain or is decreasing over its domain is a one-to-one function. Now we can use the steps above to find the inverse function.

and for each x in the domain of f − 1 . If we try to find a formula for the inverse. −1 −1 −1 −1 for each x in the domain of f . f −1 ( x) = − x+3 2x − 5 −1 The graph of f is a reflection of the graph of f across the line y = x. • Inverse Functions and Composition −1 If a function f is one-to-one. This will yield an inverse that is a function. 2  Example: Consider y = x . ∞ ) . a ) . then f is the unique function such that each of the following holds: ( f of ) ( x) = f ( f ( x ) ) = x.3. THEOREM: REFLECTIVE PROPERTY OF INVERSE FUNCTIONS The graph of the point f contains the point ( a. we have y = x2 x = y2 y=± x This is not the equation of a function. • Restricting a Domain o If the inverse of a function is not a function. x ( 2 y + 1) = 5 y − 3 2 xy + x = 5 y − 3 2 xy − 5 y = − x − 3 y ( 2 x − 5) = − x − 3 y=− x+3 2x − 5 4. however. ( f of ) ( x) = f ( f ( x ) ) = x. we can restrict the domain so that the inverse is a function. only consider inputs from [ 0. We can. b ) if and only if the graph of f −1 contains ( b.

If 4. Let g′( x) = o Example: Find interval −1 1 . . Therefore. cos 2x is monotone (decreasing) on the given f ( 0 ) = 1 = a . then f −1 is f ( c) . then g is differentiable at any x for which f ′ ( g ( x ) ) ≠ 0 . then the following statements are true: f be a function whose domain is an interval I .1) f . If f has an f is continuous on its domain. domain. f ( x ) = cos 2x on the ( f )′ ( a) π 2 for the function 0≤ x≤ and the given number a =1. Moreover. f ′( g ( x) ) f ′ ( g ( x ) ) ≠ 0. This gives us the ordered pair ( 0. If 2. If f has an inverse function g . then f −1 is increasing on its f is decreasing on its domain. domain. then f −1 is continuous on its f is increasing on its domain. f −1 must have the ordered pair ( 1. If inverse function. differentiable at THEOREM: THE DERIVATIVE OF AN INVERSE FUNCTION f be a function that is differentiable on an interval I . domain. If 3. for We know that interval. 0 ) .THEOREM: CONTINUITY AND DIFFERENTIABILITY OF INVERSE FUNCTIONS Let 1. then f −1 is decreasing on its f is differentiable at c and f ′ ( c ) ≠ 0 .

4 • EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS: DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES o Develop properties of the natural exponential function o Differentiate natural exponential functions o Integrate natural exponential functions • THE NATURAL EXPONENTIAL FUNCTION o Definition of the Natural Exponential Function The inverse function of the natural logarithmic function f ( x ) = ln x is called the natural exponential function and is denoted by That is.f ′ ( x ) = −2sin 2x ( f ) ′ ( 1) = −1 f ′ ( f −1 ( 1) ) 1 f ′ ( 0) 1 2sin ( 2 ⋅ 0 ) 1 = =− =− 1 0 = undefined 5. f −1 ( x ) = e x y = ex if and only if x = ln y .

eln 2 x = 12 eln 2 x = 12 2 x = 12 x=6 e ln x =x 2.6796 . The inverse relationship between the natural logarithmic function and the natural exponential function can be summarized as follows: ln ( e x ) = x • and eln x = x Example: Solve the following problems 1.5404 3. ln 4 x = 1 ln 4 x = 1 e1 = 4x e = 4x e x= 4 x ≈ 0. −6 + 3e x = 8 −6 + 3e x = 8 3e x = 1 4 ln e x = ln 14 3 x ≈ 1.

∞) is continuous. e a eb = e a+ b ea = ea− b eb 4 f (x) = ex 2 -5 5 Properties of the Natural Exponential Function 1. f ( x) = ex x→ ∞ is concave upward on its entire domain. increasing. a and b be any real numbers. lim e x = 0 and lim e x = ∞ . 2. and one-to-one on its entire domain. 3. ∞) and the range is ( −∞. .Theorem: Operations with Exponential Functions Let 1. 2. 4. 1. The domain of The function of The graph of x → −∞ f ( x) = ex is f ( x) = ex ( −∞.

d x e  = ex dx   d u du  e  = eu dx   dx 2. 1.• DERIVATIVES OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS Theorem: Derivative of the Natural Exponential Function Let u be a differentiable function of x . d  ln e x dx  1 d x e x e dx  d x e dx   1. o Proof: Recall that lne x = x . d = [ x]  dx = 1   = ex  Example: Find the following derivatives y = e− x 2 y=e − x2 2 y′ = e− x ( ) ( −2 x ) 2 derivative of − x 2 y′ = −2 xe− x . 4.

1. 4.2. e x dx = e x + C ∫ eu du = eu + C ∫ o Example: Integrate the following exponential functions: 1. 2. du = 5dx 1  = −2  ∫ eu du 5  2 = − eu +C 5 2 = − e5 x +C 5 . −2e5 x dx ∫ ∫ −2e 5x dx = − ∫ 5 x dx 2 e let u = 5 x . y = 5e 2 x3 dy  e 2 x3  − x−4 = 5 ( 6 ) dx   30e x =− 4 x • 2 3 INTEGRALS OF EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS Theorem: Integration Rules for Exponential Functions Let u be a differentiable function of x .

2.5 • BASES OTHER THAN e AND APPLICATIONS LEARNING OBJECTIVES o Define exponential functions that have bases other than e o Differentiate and integrate exponential functions that have bases other than e o Use exponential functions to model compound interest and exponential growth • BASES OTHER THAN e o Recall that the base of the natural exponential function is e  This is used to assign a meaning to a general base a . du = − x dx 2 −2 3 − 1 u e ( − x−3 dx) ∫ 2 2 1 = − ∫ eu du 2 1 = − eu +C 2 1 1 x2 =− e +C 2 =− 5. e x ∫ x3 dx e x ∫ x3 dx 1 2 1 2 let u = 1 x 2 = x .

03 ⋅x 5 0 5 1 0 1 5 2 0 . Consider a deposit of \$100 placed in an account for 20 years at r % compounded continuously. then y = 1 = 1 is a constant function. r = 3% r = 5% r = 6% Solution: The formula for continuous compound interest is 30 5 A ( t ) = Pert 30 0 20 5 h (x) = 100 ⋅e 0. then the exponential function to the base a is denoted by a x and is defined by a x = e( ln a ) x x If a = 1 . o  Example: Compound Interest. Compare the ending balance for each of the rates. 3. 2.Definition of Exponential Function the Base a If a is a positive real number ( a ≠ 1) and x is any real number.05 ⋅x 10 5 10 0 f (x) = 100 ⋅e0. 1. Use a graphing utility to graph the exponential functions giving the growth of the investment over the 20 years for each of the following interest rates.06 ⋅x 20 0 g (x) = 100 ⋅e 0.

3. x > 0 loga a x = x . 2.Definition of Logarithmic Function to Base a If a is a positive real number ( a ≠ 1) and x is any positive real number. ∀x • DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION . y = ax ⇔ x =loga y a loga x = x. 3. 2. 4. loga 1 = 0 log a xy = log a x + log a y loga x n = n loga x x loga = log a x − log a y y Properties of Inverse Functions 1. then the logarithmic function to the base a is denoted by loga x and is defined as 1 loga x = ln x ln a  Why?! • Consider the change of base formula log a x = ln x 1 = ln x ln a ln a Properties of Logarithmic Functions to Base a 1.

4. y = 5x y′ = ( ln 5 ) 5 x 2. 1 y =   2 x3 dy   1    1  = ln     dx   2    2    x3 ( 3x ) 2 x3   1   1  = 3 x 2 ln      2   2   3. u be a differentiable d x  a  = ( ln a) a x dx   d u du  a  = ( ln a) a u dx   dx d 1 [ loga x ] = dx ( ln a x ) d 1 du loga u ] = [ dx ( ln a u dx ) 2. y = xx .o Derivatives for Bases Other than e Theorem: Derivative for bases other than e Let a be a positive real number and let function of x . 1.  Example: Find the derivative of each function 1. 3. 4.

1.y = xx ln y = ln x x ln y = x ln x d [ ln y ] dx 1 dy y dx 1 dy y dx dy dx dy dx o Integrating  Option 1: Convert to base e using the formula integrate or  take natural log of both sides d [ x ln x ] dx 1  = ( x )   + ( 1) ( ln x ) x = = 1 + ln x = y ( 1 + ln x ) = x x ( 1 + ln x ) product rule a x = e( ln a ) x and then Option 2: Integrate directly using the integration formula  1 a x dx =  ∫  ln a •  x  a +C  Example: Find the following integrals. ∫5 −x dx .

5− x dx = ∫ ( 5− 1 ) dx ∫ x 1 = ∫   dx  5 1 1 =   +C 1  5 ln    5 −5− x = +C ln 5 2. x x ∫2 sin x cos xdx cos xdx = ∫ 2 u du = let u = sin x . du = cos xdx ∫2 sin x 1 u 2 +C ln 2 1 sin x = 2 +C ln 2 .