The Vratyas Author(s): A.

Berriedale Keith Reviewed work(s): Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, (Jan., 1913), pp. 155-160 Published by: Cambridge University Press Stable URL: . Accessed: 11/01/2012 12:47
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact

Cambridge University Press and Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

?Sarngadeva on another measure : ly four and a half ojavodaoxts free from husk and placed crosswise (is onade) an oiigida the little here: described in accordance with this measure there are. 151 seq<|. has described the form of a Vina-stick V. finds in them the founders of the widespread Rudra-Siva of the later and modern ancestors cult. xxiii. Shamasastry. The of the ritual were per Vratyastomas formances circle of to mark such the admission within the Brahmin to the cult of whose addiction Vratyas. and the spiritual Sivaites.?He 155 has definitely [i. yavodaras in the measure free of from the husk and khdni crosswise? : placed stick of the hollow Vina] as . is no other than Vratya himself and simultaneous^7 Uudra-Siva counter hisearthty part. 355-GS. Siva in his dread forms rendered them an object of to their more orthodox fellows. II.e.THE VttATVAS IV. book xv. Sarngadeva] as settled in the science the measure of an angula uo angula of arithmetic: of five yavas is seen either in or in popular use. The In a recent Vratvas to the Vienna Oriental contribution has endeavoured Journal1 Paul Charpentier to establish a new account of the He Vratyas of the Vedic tradition. the Further. suspicion of the Atliao'vaveda. An angula is made the Sastras ly fixed six [the finger of the right hand (is used). Cf. twenty-two name of the first] with the Ekavira [the commencing about these we are going to speak. the Sivaite ascetic. varieties before. In the first place the argument : its can be from the later literature is disregarded point 1 xxv. of Vina-sticks. . The theoiy is attractive and interesting: to it remains consider how far it can claim to be more than a speculation or to have real value. the author.

yajatdm a bow. It is go to the sky and Rudra that the Vratyas must be connected with Siva. a goad (tiryaiinaddhd). . now bhese families cannob from the despised mixed castes. and in one passage in the Rgveda7 he has a niskdm and and yajata visvdrrvpam. includes a turban apparatus a particular kind of bow (pratoda). (niska). expressly given it is argued that the Grhapati of the Vratyas Thirdly. 1. as the passages and any theory could be stand in no conceivable relation. a silver over. 14. Maruta. and it is therefore it has for later days. 7. viii. are described as those left behind when the Vratyas the went to the world In the Satapatha* of heaven. 2 x.156 that Manu and Mallas have been for the fact l derives THE VRATVAS from a Rajanya bhe Licchavis Vratya fame . 1 1. he c is in the Aitareya and carries Brahmana referred to as li/snasavdsi. 22. validity needless to consider what is argued that in the PancavimsaBrahmana2 Secondly. and it is stated that they in the Buddhist texts as practising Brahminical appear can This suggestion offerings. never that of Rudra-Siva. ZDMG. vi. in their offerings is Siva himself his apparatus is because the leader of those similar to that of Siva. clearly be of no value for of early Vedic times or throw light on the early character the Vratya. S. drawn by a horse two Now sheepskins Rudra-Siva fastened has at the the sides turban. explained and dhanuh by Latyayana6 a black planked ornament and ani?u). garment rough and an ass. 11. 4 Srauta * v. a i. 7 ii. 4. 11. xxii. 3. as an ayogyam by Katyayana4 The as a dhanuska the gods deduced (jydhroda. Sec Roth. supported yet in the Pancavimsa is left behind as Dyutana not Siva at all. Sutra. The argument is wholly without value. * Srauta Siitra. but of Buddhisb derived that an unbrahininic they practised religion. 0. 24(1. gods is left behind. krsnabalakse. 1. a (krsnasam wagon vdsah). 33. were allowed if such evidence to stand good .

the exact correspondence and Rudra-Siva. support xv. 9. the goad. 0. 28. of the Grhapati's attire and accompaniments are the wagon. of Charpentier Nor does confirm with In the face of this obvious real explanation. the easterners.THE VRATYAS 157 raj ata attired regular Grhapati the same dramatic "stehen Rudra-Siva circle time of einander sehr nahe ". wholty There is. that matters. and it is the bow The bow is there. is . in Rudra at all : where is there. represent The whole to ceremoiy character the is comparable at the performances The buying But all this or the Mahavrata. the rite. apparatus Vratyas. That doubt section deals known it hy Atharvareda. Thus jedenfalls is accepted the ottering into the by and the followers of the the gods. 1 Srauta 2 beyond the vipatha. but not tiryaiinaddha. Latyayana1 oxpressty " a chariot of the vipatha is a prdcyaratha. It is onty open transform itself into oxljata to please us. to fall back that black on the krsnasaoii is a common vasas. but at comrades ghostty iu its Soma also abandon of Rudra-Siva. is without sure ground. not the common turban. Katyayaiia. greater part has no parallel the sheepskins. any proof of the identity of the Grhapati The obvious explanation is that of the whole of the outfit it is the description of a local form of dress worn ly the to the texts: indeed." of the and the rite ends with the bestowal an a Mdgadhades'iya2 to brahona-baoidhu.ta kind that is the point. of a peculiar Nor will yajo. lacking is essential in detail which for the uncanny and dread. tells us that easterner. viii. but not the jydhroda. the Vratya is shown to the turban. the goad ? The turban and it is the mode. the references But I find nothing in it to show that the Vratya Sutra. G. from this the effort that to is clearty it win any invalid. by and the Magadha. their older the faith by uncanny. viii. Latyayana. 22 . but be it remembered associated colour regularly with in fact. xxii. 4.

5.158 Rudra-Siva. it is not a very probable one. The THE VRATYAS is a late one. and can be further from the truth . vii. 4. Atharraveda. the usual god. and. 370. with which it is confronted. and it celebrates but such are common in the theological peculiarly speculations to suppose that behind and render it needless Atharvaveda. but all that is there said became Mahadcva and I&ina. not proofs assigned healing Rudra nature. Pas u pati.. I sana. Nor can any weight of his original is depicted to the conjecture2 that the Vratya on him from the wound inflicted Prajapati incest with his be as by The faets are daughter. I. 374. all signs of his cosmic potency. are his servants. Bhava. vi. 3 1 VOJ. the Sataru But nothing is clear proof of Samhitas of all the Yajurveda driya in all his aspects full acceptance his by those to whom the period owes its religious tendencies. the Vratya Charpentier sees proof of this in xv. 2. in Brahmana piece style. Ugradeva. n. 1)4. . * lies the figure of a great god. is no pp. the first the case. 4-8. for in doubt are hardly ever wise. and a priori Secondly? assumes that to the serious?it is still more and this such a rite is conceivable Hindus was a strange of the Brahmana period Rudra-Siva one outside circle of the pantheon. for on Bloomfield's3 accounted all adequately hypothesis as Brahman under Sivaite is celebrated that the Vratya for his influence. xv. lack of serious evidence is there a complete no attempt to deal with it makes the theory. Sarva. as Aufrecht4 xxv. 2 Ibid. Seo his Aitareya Brdhmana. But denials of possibility religion no trace of any such rite in the Vedic is there religion. while is that the Vratya in 1 seq. in the highest way the Vratya. Rudra. p. In difficulties fundamental But not only for the no explanation is offered of the peculiar place the god is supposed himself to nature of the rite in which That into the order of the orthodox be received gods.

it is Rudra-Siva ago pointed and the Kausltaki of such texts as the Aitareya We to the nuy. hand.1 Vratyas krsi or trade. that Rudra-Siva to the Brahmana was extraneous origin period. iii. in sense.THE VRATYAS 159 who is the great out. though Sudras. is the code of adandyam dandeoia caranti. that they are distinct strange Indians who Moreover. case why for 'But in aiy doubtful. comparing but this theoiy of the Satapatha is very Boxihmana. 1. obvious 303. Rudra. believe with characteristics we cannot he was <*ods. We are there told that the3r do not practise in culture from the Brahminical i.2 is speech. 2. IS. of Rudra-Siva should worshippers have been ignorant of agriculture and trading. for that ghnanlas both.4 vac is not vada. but this characteristic thinks is not Charpentier:i intelligible. and the 4. for they call what they have a at the least a to say diflicult. VOJ. 2. real meaning dreadful practise they have of in the times a different of the Brahmanas law. . but that to the composers of the Brahmanas of "od that the is he long god Brdhonanas. see Weber. regard having that the Rudra of the Brahmanas Rgvedic is a god from aboriginal borrowed tribes. easy point indicating in which Prakrit had been consonants conjunct speech as speaking are described softened. and that the sense is that. 1 3 xvii. and have differed in speech from the ordinary Vedic Indians ? There is no explanation possible a strange a different diksitavddam may realty be unless new we god accept of the all that 2 4 view the the 4.e. 0. xxv. a is a We believe a god not wholty received into the circle must not confound the fact that a god in some with the view aspects of Charpentier the theoiy god. this contradicts view texts. Thirdty. 40. meant the dlksitavdda they reckon their genealogies. xvii. 83. persons On the other meant are x. diksitavdcam They and though adiksitdh. to explain the characteristics fails of the completety as they appear in the Pancavimsa Brdhmana.

53. xv. 357. learning 1 V0J. though he has many else in this practice. 5. xxv. throws additional light curious rite. the commentators having Viz. is clearly of but the suggestion help on any nor does prdmaganda really suggest Magadha scientific principle. xxv. available. n. 24-6 . See Macdonell The text Bengali this Verrs note is not the result of that On the contraiy. 21. 21. however. really as used by on the Vratyastomas To the authorities should be added the text of the Baudhayana. judge. ii. reasonable is that the Vratya do not help to bear out the theory Rudra-Siva. 306-8.0 so far as and add any tiling which.160 non-Brahminical SOME BENGALI VERUS tribes of a less advanced be noted. Charpentier the energy of Caland has now made Srauta Sutra. Charpentier4 of Dhanamjapya. dift'erenb 4 VOJ. Berriedale Keith. & Keith. M x. . 38. have we really anyone predecessors nor ? Neither Indian editions5 but Dhanamjayya early the views can be quotes to distinguish py and yy in really expected 15-18 is it fair to banish paragraphs Nor Devanagari. they perfectly even if they in a glorification of the Vratya. 459 . It does not. 474. p. : are as a later addition of Atharvaveda. obscure A. readings. on this I can. but. is open culture to no intelligible objection.3 sprung Vratyas no or serious value. i. 6 xviii. that of Latyayana. repeatedly Secondly. obscure saikhaka of the names of castes may crux Charpenticrl as to the in the Rgveda2 some receive light from the are among from the variants which in Manu. 14. three Of minor* points that the famous suggests sense of naicdsdkha may or saisaka. Some I should premise or research. i? wholly 5 das uncertain. Vedic the only justification Index. which MSS. iii. Uber ritncVa Sutra (Us Baudhayana.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful