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Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION

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1.1 PROJECT OVERVIEW


This project is going to help TPO, Student section and Students as well in a lot of ways. It will make task easier for student section for handling the records of students in bulk amount. Student section can add, update and delete student records. He can get the hard copy of Students record. TPO will be also having ease by using this software because he will not have to handle the company records manually. His precious time will also be saved by automation. He can add, update the company details. Company details will contain the company name, field, date and place of visit, annual package, job designation, eligibility criteria required for appearing in the recruitment test. TPO can view the registered students and then he can make a list of students who are actually appearing for the recruitment of that particular company. The students who are placed in any company will be saved in a table by TPO. It will contain the information about the company in which he has been selected and the job designation & package he will be getting for that job. TPO will also be able to generate a hard copy of registered students, appearing students and the placed students in no time. Admin will act as a administrator. He will allot the username and password to the students. Students can use this software for getting registered. By the use of this software Students can view his own record and can see the visiting company details Students will not have to go to TPO office for getting the details of visiting company, their eligibility criteria and for getting registered for that company if they have valid username and password. The main role of this project will come into play when any student will click register button for getting registered. It will check eligibility criteria of the company and qualification of student. If student found eligible then he will be registered for that particular company and will be shown a message REGISTRATION SUCCESSFUL. If the student is not eligible according to the eligibility required by the company then student will not be registered and the message will be shown SORRY!! You are not eligible for the company criteria.

1.2 HARDWARE SPECIFICATION


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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT Minimum System Requirements to Install and Use Visual Studio .NET The minimum requirements are: RAM: 256 MB (Recommended) Processor: Pentium II 450 MHz Operating System: Windows 2000 or Windows XP Hard Disk Space: 3.5 GB (Includes 500 MB free space on disk)

1.3 SOFTWARE SPECIFICATIONS


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1.3.1 FRONT END:

Visual Basic.Net

1.3.2 BACK END:

SQL Server 2000

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Chapter-2 SYSTEM STUDY & ANALYSIS

2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM


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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT In existing system there was a lot of headache for student section to manage the student records manually. He has to handle a lot of files for maintaining the student records which is very cumbersome. TPO was also suffering with this problem that he has to handle a lot of files for maintaining the records of various visiting companies. He had to maintain the list of registered students. Students were also having problems for getting registered. They have to visit the TPO Cell again & again for confirming about visiting company & getting registered. The problems faced in existing system are as follows.

2.1.1 Placement Regarding Problems:While filling the application form of various companies. There can be fake registrations and it can be a reason of black listing of college while Recruitment. It is difficult to find appropriate students for placement. Students have to go to TPO Cell for getting the information about visiting students. Students have to wait for getting registered for any particular visiting company.

2.2 PURPOSED SYSTEM


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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT It is developed in Visual Basic.NET & SQL Server. Visual Basic.NET is used for the design of the forms and the coding part of the software whereas SQL Server is used for storing the database for the software. Database will be containing the information about institute students, registered students, appearing students & placed students. It will also contain the information about the company details. Our software TPO Cell Automation will solve all the problems of existing systems. STUDENT SECTION will be able to add, update, delete, print students record. TRAINING & PLACEMENT OFFICER will be able to add, update the details of visiting company. He can view the list of registered students. He can generate list of actually appearing students and placed students. He can also get hard copy of these lists in no time. STUDENTS can also view their record in read only mode. Students can easily get the information about the visiting company and their criteria as well. They can get registered for the company in a single click. So TPO Cell Automation software will provide ease to all of its users i.e. TPO, Student Section, Students because if is very easy to use. It will save their time as well.

2.3 PROBLEM DESCRIPTION


The problem in the existing manual system is that there is a lot of headache for Training & Placement Officer. He has to manage with all the company records, registered students record, placed students record etc. which is very cumbersome to manage individually. If there is bulk amount of data then there will be a lot of chances of error because it is well known To err is human. Students are also having problem of getting information about the visiting company, their eligibility criteria etc. They have to visit the TPO cell for getting registered. So these are the main problems for which this project is purposed.

FEASIBILITY STUDY
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The feasibility study proposes one or more conceptual solution to the problem set of the project. In fact, it is an evaluation of whether it is worthwhile to proceed with project or not. Feasibility analysis usually considers a number of project alternatives, one that is chosen as the most satisfactory solution. These alternatives also need to be evaluated in a broad way without committing too many resources. Various steps involved in feasibility analysis are: 1. To propose a set of solution that can realize the project goal. These solutions are usually descriptions of what the new system should look like. 2. Evaluation of feasibility of such solutions. Such evaluation often indicates shortcomings in the initial goals. This step is repeated as the goals are adjusted and the alternative solutions are evaluated. Four primary areas of interest in feasibility study are: Economic Feasibility: An evaluation of development cost weighed against the ultimate income of benefit derived from the development system of product. In economic feasibility, cost benefit analysis is done in which expected cost and benefits are evaluated. Technical Feasibility: Technical Feasibility includes existing and new H/W and S/W requirements that are required to operate the project on the Visual Basic.Net . The basic S/W requirement is Visual Basic.Net in which the front end of the TPO CELL AUTOMATION Project has been done. The basic entry forms are developed in VB.Net and the data is stored in the SQL server 2000. Operational Feasibility: Operational feasibility is mainly concerned with issues like whether the system will be used if it is developed and implemented. Whether there will be resistance from users .The essential questions that help in testing the technical feasibility of a system are following: Does management support the project?

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT Are the users not happy with current business practices? Will it reduce the time considerably? If yes, then they will welcome the change and the new system. Have the users involved in the planning and development of the project? Early involvement reduced the probability of resistance towards the new system. Will the proposed system really benefit the organization?

Legal Feasibility: A determination of any violation, or liability that could result from development of the system. Legal feasibility tells that the software used in the project should be original purchased from the legal authorities .

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Chapter-3 SYSTEM DESIGN

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3.1 DATABASE DESIGN


3.1.1ADMIN (TABLE FOR USERNAME AND PASSWORD) ADMIN table is having two fields named uname and pword. Both are of character data type. Uname refers to the username and pword refers to the password. This table will store the username and password of all the users who are authorized to use the software. This table is mainly concern with the login form FIELD NAME UNAME PWORD Description of the fields of the table. UNAME PWORD Username Password DATA TYPE CHAR CHAR SIZE 50 50

3.1.2 REGISTRATION (TABLE FOR STORING THE REGISTERED STUDENTS) FIELD NAME CNAME FIELD TDATE PLACE REGISTERED Description of the fields of the table. CNAME FIELD TDATE PLACE Company name for which student is registered Field of the company Date of test Place of visit DATA TYPE CHAR CHAR DATETIME CHAR CHAR SIZE 100 50 8 100 15

REGISTEREDRollno of the registered student 3.1.3 SRECORD (TABLE FOR STORING STUDENTs RECORDS)

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT SRECORD table is storing the record of students of the institute. This will be used by Student Section user. It will contain the following information.

FIELD NAME ROLLNO SNAME GENDER FNAME DOB STREAM CSEM MOBILE EMAIL ADDRESS QUALI PERCENTAGE YOP BOARD PSEM OMARKS MMARKS BACKLOG Gender of the student FNAME DOB STREAM CSEM MOBILE EMAIL ADDRESS QUALI PERCENTAGE YOP BOARD PSEM OMARKS MMARKS BACKLOG

DATA TYPE CHAR CHAR CHAR CHAR DATETIME CHAR INT CHAR CHAR CHAR CHAR INT INT CHAR INT INT INT INT

SIZE 20 50 10 50 8 30 4 20 50 300 20 4 4 100 4 4 4 4

Description of the fields of the table. ROLLNO Rollno of the student SNAME Students name GENDER

Fathers name of the student Date of birth of the student Stream of the student Current Semester of the student Mobile no of the student Email Address Permanent Address of the student Previous qualification 10+2/DIPLOMA percentage Year of passing 10+2/DIPLOMA Board of 10+2/DIPLOMA previous semester whose result is to be entered Obtained marks in previous semester Maximum Marks of the semester Overall Backlog in the B.tech

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT 3.1.4 COMPANY (TABLE FOR STORING THE COMPANY DETAILS) FIELD NAME CNAME FIELD1 TDATE PLACE CSE ECE MECH EIE EE TCRITERIA MINSEM BPERCENTAGE DPERCENTAGE PACKAGE JOB DETAIL1 LDATE Description of the fields of the table. CNAME FIELD1 TDATE PLACE CSE ECE MECH EIE EE TCRITERIA MINSEM BPERCENTAGE DPERCENTAGE PACKAGE JOB DETAIL1 LDATE Name of the visiting company Field of the company Date for conducting the test Place of visit Computer science & Engg. Electronics & communication Engg. Mechanical Engg. Electronics &Instumentaion Engg. Electrical Engg. Backlogs allowed Minimum semester candidate should be in Percentage in B.tech Percentage in Diploma Package offered Job designation Any details about the company test Last date for registration 13 DATA TYPE CHAR CHAR DATETIME CHAR CHAR CHAR CHAR CHAR CHAR CHAR INT INT INT CHAR CHAR CHAR DOB SIZE 100 50 8 50 10 10 10 10 10 20 4 4 4 10 50 2000 8

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3.1.5 ELIGIBLE (TABLE FOR STORING THE APPEARING STUDENTS) FIELD NAME CNAME FIELD TDATE PLACE ELIGIBLE DATA TYPE CHAR CHAR DATETIME CHAR CHAR SIZE 100 50 8 100 20

Description of the fields of the table. CNAME FIELD TDATE PLACE ELIGIBLE Company Name Field of the company Date of the test Place of visit Appearing student for the company

3.1.6 PLACED (TABLE FOR STORING THE PLACED STUDENTS) FIELD NAME CNAME FIELD JOB PACKAGE PLACED Description of the fields of the table. CNAME FIELD JOB PACKAGE Company name in which candidate is placed Field of the company Job designation Package 14 DATA TYPE CHAR CHAR DATETIME CHAR CHAR SIZE 100 50 50 20 20

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT PLACED Placed Students rollno

3.2 USER INTERFACE DESIGN

3.2.1 LOGIN FORM

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT It is the LOGIN FORM of TPO Cell Automation software. It will be available to all of its users Student Section, TPO and Students. Users having their valid username and password can login from here. Depending upon the type of user next page will be displayed after login. Any user can change his password by clicking on the Change Password button.

3.2.2 CHANGE PASSWORD

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT After clicking the Change Password button this form will be displayed. User will have to type & retype his new password for confirmation and then OK button. If both matches then the message will be displayed PASSWORD CHANGED SUCCESSFULLY.

3.2.3 STUDENT PERFORMA

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT If the user is Student Section then this form will be displayed. User can add, modify and delete the records of students. The right side of the form is for adding and modifying the result details. A hard copy of the students record can be retrieved by clicking the Print button. By typing the roll no in the Find text box & then clicking the Find button any record can be found if available.

3.2.4 TPO FUNCTIONS

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT If TPO has logged on then he will be displayed this form having these four buttons. These are the functions which TPO can perform by clicking the appropriate button for the required task.

3.2.5 CREATE NEW USER

If TPO clicks the Create New User button then a form will be displayed having username and password field. TPO can create new users. He will give username and passwords to all its users. 19

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT It is suggested that for better utilization username should be given according to their university roll no. It will be unique and easy to remember for every user.

3.2.6 ADD/UPDATE COMPANY DETAILS

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT TPO can add or update the company details. Company details contain company name, field, date & place of visit, stream, eligibility criteria of recruitment test, the details of the job, and the last date for getting registered for the company. Any other information regarding company can be given in details text box. All this information will be stored in the database. So it can be found by typing the name in Find text box.

3.2.7 VIEW REGISTERED STUDENTS

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT TPO will just have to select any company name from the combo box. It will show the list of registered students but it is not always true that student who has registered for any company will appear for the same. So TPO can create a new list of actually appearing students by selecting the students from the list of registered students. By double clicking on the entry from list one can be moved to the second list and vice versa and then save the list. To get the hard copy of the list Print button should be clicked.

3.2.8 VIEW PLACED STUDENTS

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT By selecting any company name from the combo box it will show the list of students who appeared for the company. If any student is placed then just double click on that entry from list one and it will move to the list of placed students. Save button will save the table in the database and the Print button will print that list.

3.2.9 STUDENT FORM

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT If any student has logged on then he can perform these two basic operations. 1. He can view his own record. 2. He can view the company details for which he want to get registered.

3.2.10 VIEW STUDENTS RECORD

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT If any student wants to view his record then it will be displayed in this form which was entered by Student Section. Information will be displayed in the read only mode so that it remains correct according to the records of Student Section.

3.2.11 VIEW COMPANIES

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT Student can view the companies which are visiting for recruitment. By selecting any company name he can view the eligibility criteria of the company including the last date for registration. He can get registered for that company by just clicking the register button. If he is eligible then he will be shown a message REGISTRAION SUCCESSFUL!! else SORRY!! You are not eligible for the company criteria and will not be registered.

3.3 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM

This DFD is showing the flow of data in the software TPO CELL AUTOMATION. The software is very much helpful for student for the purpose of getting registered for any company. Here Student Information and T&P information are temporary storage which are shown in parallel bars. In Student section there will be storage of academic results of student. Whenever any student will click the register button his eligibility will be checked from this storage area i.e 26

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT Student Section record. The other one is T&P information. Here the company related information will be stored like companys eligibility criteria and the job specification. Information about registered students, appearing students, placed students will also reside here. As the DFD is showing that firstly student makes an attempt for registration. Then students information will be checked from student section record whether he possess the eligibility which is required by the company. This step is known as the process of verification for registration. If the student is not eligible then it will be considered as fake entry and he will be eliminated. On the other hand if he is eligible then he will be get registered and it will add up to the list of registered students and this information will go to the records of Training & Placement Cell. This information is also transferred to the general student information

3.4 TESTING
In a software development project, errors can be injected at any stage during development. There are different techniques for detecting and eliminating errors that originate in that phase. However, no technique is perfect, and it is expected that some of the errors of the earlier phases will finally manifest themselves in the code. This is particularly true because in the earlier phases and most of the verification techniques are manual because no executable code exists. Ultimately, these remaining errors will be reflected in the code. Hence, the code developed during the coding activity is likely to have some requirement errors and design errors, in addition to errors introduced during the coding activity. Behavior can be observed, testing is the phase where the errors remaining from all the previous phases must be detected. Hence, testing performs a very critical role for quality assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software. During testing, the program to be tested is executed with a set of test cases, and the output of the program for the test cases is evaluated to determine if the program is performing as expected. Due to its approach, dynamic testing can only ascertain the presence of errors in the program; the exact nature of the errors is not usually decided by testing. Testing forms the first step in determining the errors in a program. Clearly, the success of testing in revealing errors in programs depends critically on the test cases. Testing a large system is a very complex activity, and like any complex activity it has to be broken into smaller activities. Due to this, for a project, incremental testing is generally 27

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT performed, in which components and subsystems of the system are tested separately before integrating them to form the system for system testing. This form of testing, though necessary to ensure quality for a large system, introduces new issues of how to select components for testing and how to combine them to form subsystems and systems.

TEST CASES

TC1

To verify user is Go message username password when and are

to

the Press enter key PLEASE on button. submit USERNAME & PASSWORD message should be displayed and user should not be able to login.

able to view the LOGIN button. & enter or click ENTER VALID

blank and user should not be able to login. TC2 To verify user is Go message he and gives when the to

the Press enter key PLEASE or click on ENTER VALID USERNAME & PASSWORD message should be displayed and user should not be able to login. LOGIN button.

able to view the LOGIN button.

user name valid password invalid and user should not be able to login. 28

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT TC3 To verify user is Go message when button. to the Press enter key PLEASE in or click on ENTER VALID USERNAME & PASSWORD message should be displayed and user should not be able to login. LOGIN button.

able to view the LOGIN he gives invalid user name and valid password and user should not be able to login .

TC4

To verify user is Go message he gives when button. the

to

the Press enter key PLEASE in or click on ENTER VALID USERNAME & PASSWORD message should be displayed and user should not be able to login. LOGIN button.

able to view the LOGIN

user name and password invalid and user should not be able to login. TC5 To verify user is Go message he gives when button. the to

the Press enter key PLEASE in or click on ENTER VALID USERNAME & PASSWORD message should be displayed and user should not be able to login. LOGIN button.

able to view the LOGIN

password blank and user should not be able to login. TC6 To verify user is Go able to when he gives the user name 29 to

the Press enter key User should be or click on successfully login and next form should be LOGIN button.

login LOGIN button.

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT and valid. password displayed acc.

To the user type.

Conclusion
We conclude our project by saying that it is great attempt toward automation. Because by using this software staff of TPO cell will save their precious time and it will also help to do their job fast and easily. This software will help TPO section staff in performing most of their jobs. It will not only support the TPO staff but also provide help to the student section and the students of the institute as well. It enables the student to get register for any company very easily. It needs just a single click by the student and he can view his record which is stored in the records of student section department. TPO can easily use this software to store the details of any visiting company and the eligibility criteria for that company. And because this software is build in Visual Basic.Net so it has future compatibility with any of the windows operating system it means if someone wants to extend the features of this software then its very easy to do this.. This software is very much user friendly and easy to handle by new user. The main advantage of this technology in which this software has been built is, in future if anyone wants to combine all the departments of college through automation then he will easily do this with the help of this technology called Visual Basic.NET.

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APPENDIX-A (Visual Basic.NET) What is Visual Basic?


Visual Basic is a "visual programming" environment for developing Windows (also Web now) applications. Visual Basic makes it possible to develop complicated applications very quickly. The programmer designs windows graphically, drags program elements from the Visual Basic Toolbox and writes basic code for each element. Visual Basic is "event-driven" which means that procedures are called automatically when the end user chooses menu items, clicks the mouse, moves objects on the screen, etc.

Why is Visual Basic popular?


Programmers have undergone a major change in many years of programming various machines. For example, what could take days to create an application in other programming languages like C, C++ could be done in hours with Visual Basic. Visual Basic provides many interesting sets of tools to aid us in building exciting applications. Visual Basic provides these tools to make our life far more easier because all the real hard code is already written for us. Visual Basic is not only a programming language but also a true graphical development environment. This environment allows programmers with little programming experience to quickly develop powerful Windows applications. Visual Basic also has the ability to develop programs that can be used as a front-end application to a database system, serving as the user interface which collects user input and displays formatted output in a more appealing and useful form. 31

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT Visual Basic is very popular for the ease with which it allows the programmer to create nice looking graphical programs with less coding unlike many other languages that take thousands of lines of programmer keyed code. As the programmer works in the graphical environment much of the program code is automatically generated by the Visual Basic program.

Visual Basic .NET


Visual Basic .NET provides the easiest, most productive language and tool for rapidly building Windows and Web applications. Visual Basic .NET comes with enhanced visual designers, increased application performance, and a powerful integrated development environment (IDE). It also supports creation of applications for wireless, Internet-enabled hand-held devices. The following are the features of Visual Basic .NET with .NET Framework 1.0 and Visual Basic .NET 2003 with .NET Framework 1.1.

FEATURES OF Visual Basic.NET Powerful Windows-based Applications


Visual Basic .NET comes with features such as a powerful new forms designer, an in-place menu editor, and automatic control anchoring and docking. Visual Basic .NET delivers new productivity features for building more robust applications easily and quickly. With an improved integrated development environment (IDE) and a significantly reduced startup time, Visual Basic .NET offers fast, automatic formatting of code as you type, improved IntelliSense, an enhanced object browser and XML designer, and much more.

Building Web-based Applications


With Visual Basic .NET we can create Web applications using the shared Web Forms Designer and the familiar "drag and drop" feature. You can double-click and write code to respond to events. Visual Basic .NET 2003 comes with an enhanced HTML Editor for working with complex Web pages. We can also use IntelliSense technology and tag completion, or choose the WYSIWYG editor for visual authoring of interactive Web applications.

Simplified Deployment
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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT With Visual Basic .NET we can build applications more rapidly and deploy and maintain them with efficiency. Visual Basic .NET 2003 and .NET Framework 1.1 makes "DLL Hell" a thing of the past. Side-by-side versioning enables multiple versions of the same component to live safely on the same machine so that applications can use a specific version of a component. XCOPYdeployment and Web auto-download of Windows-based applications combine the simplicity of Web page deployment and maintenance with the power of rich, responsive Windows-based applications.

Powerful, Flexible, Simplified Data Access


You can tackle any data access scenario easily with ADO.NET and ADO data access. The flexibility of ADO.NET enables data binding to any database, as well as classes, collections, and arrays, and provides true XML representation of data. Seamless access to ADO enables simple data access for connected data binding scenarios. Using ADO.NET, Visual Basic .NET can gain high-speed access to MS SQL Server, Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access, and more.

Improved Coding
You can code faster and more effectively. A multitude of enhancements to the code editor, including enhanced IntelliSense, smart listing of code for greater readability and a background compiler for real-time notification of syntax errors transforms into a rapid application development (RAD) coding machine.

Direct Access to the Platform


Visual Basic developers can have full access to the capabilities available in .NET Framework 1.1. Developers can easily program system services including the event log, performance counters and file system. The new Windows Service project template enables to build real Microsoft Windows NT Services. Programming against Windows Services and creating new Windows Services is not available in Visual Basic .NET Standard, it requires Visual Studio 2003 Professional, or higher.

Full Object-Oriented Constructs


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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT You can create reusable, enterprise-class code using full object-oriented constructs. Language features include full implementation inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism. Structured exception handling provides a global error handler and eliminates spaghetti code.

XML Web Services


XML Web services enable you to call components running on any platform using open Internet protocols. Working with XML Web services is easier where enhancements simplify the discovery and consumption of XML Web services that are located within any firewall. XML Web services can be built as easily as you would build any class in Visual Basic 6.0. The XML Web service project template builds all underlying Web service infrastructure.

Mobile Applications
Visual Basic .NET 2003 and the .NET Framework 1.1 offer integrated support for developing mobile Web applications for more than 200 Internet-enabled mobile devices. These new features give developers a single, mobile Web interface and programming model to support a broad range of Web devices, including WML 1.1 for WAPenabled cellular phones, compact HTML (cHTML) for i-Mode phones, and HTML for Pocket PC, handheld devices, and pagers. Please note, Pocket PC programming is not available in Visual Basic .NET Standard, it requires Visual Studio 2003 Professional, or higher.

COM Interoperability
You can maintain your existing code without the need to recode. COM interoperability enables you to leverage your existing code assets and offers seamless bi-directional communication between Visual Basic 6.0 and Visual Basic .NET applications.

Reuse Existing Investments


You can reuse all your existing ActiveX Controls. Windows Forms in Visual Basic .NET 2003 provide a robust container for existing ActiveX controls. In addition, full support for existing ADO code and data binding enable a smooth transition to Visual Basic .NET 2003.

Upgrade Wizard

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT You upgrade your code to receive all of the benefits of Visual Basic .NET 2003. The Visual Basic .NET Upgrade Wizard, available in Visual Basic .NET 2003 Standard Edition, and higher, upgrades up to 95 percent of existing Visual Basic code and forms to Visual Basic .NET with new support for Web classes and UserControls.

NET Framework
.NET is a "Software Platform". It is a language-neutral environment for developing rich .NET experiences and building applications that can easily and securely operate within it. When developed applications are deployed, those applications will target .NET and will execute wherever .NET is implemented instead of targeting a particular Hardware/OS combination. The components that make up the .NET platform are collectively called the .NET Framework. The .NET Framework is a managed, type-safe environment for developing and executing applications. The .NET Framework manages all aspects of program execution, like, allocation of memory for the storage of data and instructions, granting and denying permissions to the application, managing execution of the application and reallocation of memory for resources that are not needed. The .NET Framework is designed for cross-language compatibility. Cross-language compatibility means, an application written in Visual Basic .NET may reference a DLL file written in C# (C-Sharp). A Visual Basic .NET class might be derived from a C# class or vice versa. The .NET Framework consists of two main components: Common Language Runtime (CLR) Class Libraries

Common Language Runtime (CLR)


The CLR is described as the "execution engine" of .NET. It provides the environment within which the programs run. It's this CLR that manages the execution of programs and provides core services, such as code compilation, memory allocation, thread management, and garbage collection. Through the Common Type System (CTS), it enforces strict type safety, and it 35

615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT ensures that the code is executed in a safe environment by enforcing code access security. The software version of .NET is actually the CLR version.

Working of the CLR


When the .NET program is compiled, the output of the compiler is not an executable file but a file that contains a special type of code called the Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL), which is a low-level set of instructions understood by the common language run time. This MSIL defines a set of portable instructions that are independent of any specific CPU. It's the job of the CLR to translate this Intermediate code into a executable code when the program is executed making the program to run in any environment for which the CLR is implemented. And that's how the .NET Framework achieves Portability. This MSIL is turned into executable code using a JIT (Just In Time) complier. The process goes like this, when .NET programs are executed, the CLR activates the JIT complier. The JIT complier converts MSIL into native code on a demand basis as each part of the program is needed. Thus the program executes as a native code even though it is compiled into MSIL making the program to run as fast as it would if it is compiled to native code but achieves the portability benefits of MSIL.

Class Libraries
Class library is the second major entity of the .NET Framework which is designed to integrate with the common language runtime. This library gives the program access to runtime environment. The class library consists of lots of prewritten code that all the applications created in VB .NET and Visual Studio .NET will use. The code for all the elements like forms,

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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT controls and the rest in VB .NET applications actually comes from the class library.

Common Language Specification (CLS)


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615030716/7127/06,GTBKIET,MALOUT If we want the code which we write in a language to be used by programs in other languages then it should adhere to the Common Language Specification (CLS). The CLS describes a set of features that different languages have in common. The CLS defines the minimum standards that .NET language compilers must conform to, and ensures that any source code compiled by a .NET compiler can interoperate with the .NET Framework. Some reasons why developers are building applications using the .NET Framework:
o o o o o o o o o o

Improved Reliability Increased Performance Developer Productivity Powerful Security Integration with existing Systems Ease of Deployment Mobility Support XML Web service Support Support for over 20 Programming Languages Flexible Data Access

APPENDICES-B [SQL SERVER]


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INTRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER


Microsoft SQL Server is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) designed to run on platforms ranging from laptops to large multiprocessor servers. SQL Server is commonly used as the backend system for websites and corporate CRMs and can support thousands of concurrent users. SQL Server comes with a number of tools to help you with your database administration and programming tasks. SQL Server is much more robust and scalable than a desktop database management system such as Microsoft Access. Anyone who has ever tried using Access as a backend to a website will probably be familiar with the errors that were generated when too many users tried to access the database. Although SQL Server can also be run as a desktop database system, it is most commonly used as a server database system.

Server Database Systems


Server based database systems are designed to run on a central server, so that multiple users can access the same data simultaneously. The users normally access the database through an application.

Stored procedures
Stored procedures are a powerful part of SQL Server. They can assist programmers and administrators greatly in working with the database configuration and its data. A stored procedure is a precompiled group of Transact-SQL statements, and is saved to the database (under the "Stored Procedures" node). Programmers and administrators can execute stored procedures either from the Query Analyzer or from within an application as required. TransactSQL, which is based on SQL (Structured Query Language), is the programming language used to interface between applications and their databases. Transact-SQL is a relatively easy language to learn and I highly recommend becoming familiar with it.

Benefits of Stored Procedures Modular programming


You can write a stored procedure once, then call it from multiple places in your application.

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Performance
Stored procedures provide faster code execution and reduce network traffic.

Faster execution: Stored procedures are parsed and optimized as soon as they are created and the stored procedure is stored in memory. This means that it will execute a lot faster than sending many lines of SQL code from your application to the SQL Server. Doing that requires SQL Server to compile and optimze your SQL code every time it runs.

Reduced network traffic: If you send many lines of SQL code over the network to your SQL Server, this will impact on network performance. This is especially true if you have hundreds of lines of SQL code and/or you have lots of activity on your application. Running the code on the SQL Server (as a stored procedure) eliminates the need to send this code over the network. The only network traffic will be the parameters supplied and the results of any query.

Security
Users can execute a stored procedure without needing to execute any of the statements directly. Therefore, a stored procedure can provide advanced database functionality for users who wouldn't normally have access to these tasks, but this functionality is made available in a tightly controlled way.

Features of SQL Server:Server is a powerful application, and this tutorial has provided an overview of the main concepts involved in administering SQL Server.

created databases created database tables inserted data into those tables used the Query Analyzer to run a query created a login account created and executed a DTS package executed that same DTS package via a scheduled job and more

REFERENCES
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[1] Visual Basic .NET Programming BY Holzner Steven (BLACK BOOK). [2] SQLPL/SQL BY Ivan Bayross.

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