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5 Acid–base

equilbria

Answers

Answers to Topic 5 Test yourself questions

  • 1 Heating sodium chloride with concentrated sulfuric acid produces hydrogen chloride which dissolves in water to make hydrochloric acid. Concentrated nitric acid can be distilled from a mixture of potassium nitrate and concentrated sulfuric acid.

  • 2 Many common acids are oxoacids which form when the acidic oxides of non- metals dissolve in water. Examples include H 2 SO 3 , H 2 SO 4 , HNO 2 , HNO 3 and H 3 PO 4 .

  • 3 Examples include HF, HBr, HI and H 2 S.

  • 4 The formula of any acid contains hydrogen. See answers to questions 2 and 3 for examples.

a)

b)

There are many examples in organic chemistry including hydrocarbons and alcohols.

  • 5 Neutralisation is summed up by the equation: H + (aq) + OH (aq)

  • 6 Two suggestions:

H 2 O(l)

dip an identical pair of electrodes into the two solutions, apply the same voltage across the electrodes and measure the current which flows – the current is much larger with the strong acid add identical strips of magnesium to the two solutions and observe the rate of reaction, which is faster with the solution of the strong acid.

  • 7 Zn(s) + 2H + (aq)

a)

Zn 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g)

b)

CO 3 2 (aq) + 2H + (aq) H 2 O(l)

CO 2 (g) +

c)

CaO(s) + 2H + (aq)

d) OH (aq) + H + (aq)

Ca 2+ (aq) + H 2 O(l)

H 2 O(l)

  • 8 Dative covalent bond

a)

b)

5 Acid–base equilbria Answers Answers to Topic 5 Test yourself questions 1 Heating sodium chloride with

c)

5 Acid–base equilbria Answers Answers to Topic 5 Test yourself questions 1 Heating sodium chloride with

trigonal pyramidal

9

5 Acid–base equilbria Answers Answers to Topic 5 Test yourself questions 1 Heating sodium chloride with
  • 10 Hydrogen chloride and sodium

a)

hydrogensulfate; NaCl(s) + H 2 SO 4 (l)

NaHSO 4 (s) +

HCl(g)

b)

Protons transfer from H 2 SO 4 molecules to chloride ions.

c)

HCl is a gas, so it escapes from the reaction mixture as it forms. This means that the backward reaction does not start so the forward reaction continues essentially to completion.

  • 11 The oxide ion is a base accepting protons from dilute hydrochloric acid forming water molecules.

a)

b)

Hydrogen ions in dilute sulfuric acid combine with ammonia molecules, forming ammonium ions.

c)

Ammonium ions are proton donors giving protons to hydroxide ions, forming ammonia molecules and water molecules.

d)

Hydrogen ions in dilute hydrochloric acid combine with the carbonate ions. The carbonic acid formed decomposes to carbon dioxide and water.

  • 12 Dative covalent bond.

a)

b)

b)

c)

Tetrahedral; the H—N—H bond angle is 109.5°

  • 13 Nitrate ion, ethanoate ion, hydrogensulfate ion, carbonate ion.

  • 14 Hydroxide ion, water molecule, ammonium ion, hydrogencarbonate ion, carbonic acid, hydrogensulfate ion.

  • 15 If an acid is strong it means that it

a)

tends to ionise in water to form hydrated hydrogen ions and the

© G. Hill and A. Hunt 2009 Edexcel Chemistry for A2

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5 Acid–base equilbria Answers Answers to Topic 5 Test yourself questions 1 Heating sodium chloride with

5 Acid–base

equilbria Answers

conjugate base. In other words, the conjugate base has a weak hold on protons in competition with water

molecules.

 

b)

If a base is strong it tends to accept protons and turn into its conjugate acid. The conjugate acid has a correspondingly limited tendency to give up the protons and ionise.

16

a)

pH = 1

b)

pH = 2

c)

pH = 3

17

pH = 1.1

© G. Hill and A. Hunt 2009 Edexcel Chemistry for A2

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5 Acid–base equilbria conjugate base. In other words, the conjugate base has a weak hold on

5 Acid–base

equilbria

Answers

18

a)

b)

5.0

4.0

10

4

moldm

3

10

6

moldm

3

 

So, K a =

+

2

[H ]

[HCN]

c)

2.0

10

7

moldm

3

[H + ] 2 = K a × [HCN]

d)

3.2

10

11 moldm 3

= 4.9 × 10 10 moldm 3 × 0.01

19

a)

Ionisation is endothermic.

 

b)

Extent of ionisation increases as the temperature rises and the hydrogen ion concentration rises as the temperature rises. The number value of the pH falls.

moldm 3 = 4.9 × 10 12 mol 2 dm 6 [H + ] = 2.21 × 10 6 moldm 3 pH = 5.7

c)

No, because [H + (aq)] always equals [OH (aq)].

 

20

a)

pH = 14

b)

pH = 12.3

c)

[OH ] in 0.001moldm 3 Ba(OH 2 )

 
 

= 2 × 0.001moldm 3

14

2

6

 

3

 

So [H + (aq)] = 1 10 mol dm 2 0.001 moldm

= 5 × 10 12 moldm 3 pH = 11.3

 

21

A solution with pH = 3 could, for example, be a dilute solution of a strong acid or a concentrated solution of a weak acid. To determine the strength of an acid it is necessary to know the concentration of the acid as well as the pH.

 

22

Ethanoic acid in solution is only partially ionised into hydrogen ions and ethanoate ions. However, on adding alkali the hydrogen ions are neutralised and turned to water. As a result the equilibrium shifts to the right to form more hydrogen ions – which in turn are neutralised. This continues until all the ethanoic acid has turned into sodium ethanoate. 1 mol ethanoic acid reacts with 1mol NaOH, just as 1mol HCl reacts with 1mol NaOH.

23

a)

F

b)

HCO 2

c)

C 6 H 5 O

K a =

+

[HCN]

24

[H ][CN ]

; but [H + ] = [CN ]

 

© G. Hill and A. Hunt 2009 OCR Chemistry for A2

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5 Acid–base equilbria Answers 18 a) b) 5.0 4.0 10   mol   dm 10  

5 Acid–base

equilbria

Answers

  • 25 [H + ] 2 = K a × [CH 3 COOH]

= 1.7 × 10 5 moldm 3 × 0.05mol

dm

3

so pH = 3.0

K a

=

pH

moldm 3

K a

=

= 1.59

10

  • 28 pK a = 3.8

K a = 6.3

3.86;

K a = 1.38

  • 31 pH = 2.9

  • 32 [H + ] = K a ×

= 8.5 × 10 7 mol 2 dm 6

[H + ] = 9.2 × 10 4 moldm 3

[H ][HCO
26

+ ] 2 and [H + ] [HCOOH] 3 3 2 (2.82 10 moldm ) 3
+
]
2
and [H + ]
[HCOOH]
3
3
2
(2.82 10 moldm )
3
0.050 moldm
−3
10
–4  mol dm
10
−4  mol dm −3
[CH COOH]
3
[CH CO
]
3
2

= [HCO 2 ]

= 2.55 so [H + ] = 2.82 × 10 3

  • 27 Using the same method, K a = 1.4

5 moldm 3

  • 29 10 5 moldm 3

  • 30 First example: pH =

(4.9 + 2) = 3.45

Second example: pK a = (4.86 – 1) =

= 1.7 × 10 5 moldm 3 ×

3

  • 15 cm

3

  • 10 cm

= 2.55 × 10 5 moldm 3

pH = 4.6

  • 33 The ethanoate ion is the conjugate base of a weak acid so it is a relatively strong

base. Ethanoate ions in solution take

protons from water to form ethanoic

acid molecules and hydroxide ions.

  • 34 In a titration the equivalence point is determined by the concentrations of the acid and the alkali and not by their strengths.

  • 35 The ammonium ion is the conjugate acid of a weak base so it is a relatively strong acid. Ammonium ions in solution dissociate to form hydrogen ions and ammonia molecules.

  • 36 CH 3 COOH(aq) + NH 3 (aq)

5 Acid–base equilbria Answers 25 [H ] = K × [CH COOH] = 1.7 × 10

(aq)

H 3 CO 2 NH 4

+

  • 37 In a more acid solution the hydrogen ion concentration is higher. This tends to shift the equilibrium in Figure 5.23 to

the right giving more of the protonated

red form. In a less acid solution the

hydrogen ion concentration is lower.

This tends to shift the equilibrium in

Figure 5.23 to the left giving more of

the unprotonated yellow form.

38

  • a) The indicator would change colour

before the titration reached the

equivalence point.

  • b) The indicator would not change

colour until the titration has passed

the equivalence point.

  • c) Strong acid/strong base titration:

methyl orange, methyl red or

bromothymol blue

Weak acid/strong base titration:

phenolphthalein

Strong acid/weak base titration:

methyl orange or methyl red

  • d) There is only a slight, and rather

gradual change of pH at the end-

point of the titration. There needs to

be a steeply rising part of the graph

spanning at least two pH units to give

a sharp colour change with an

indicator

39

The theory showing that an indicator

typically changes colour over two pH

units assumes that the two colours are

equally intense so that the eye is

equally sensitive to both of them. This is

not always the case.

40

  • a) pH = 7

  • b) pH above 7

  • c) pH below 7

  • d) pH above 7

41

Ethanoic acid molecules turn into

ethanoate ions when they lose a proton.

So the ethanoate ion is the conjugate

base of ethanoic acid.

42

In a solution of a weak acid there are

plenty of acid molecules, but very few

of the ions that are the conjugate base.

So, the solution can neutralise added

alkali, but it can do nothing to respond

to added acid. A salt of the acid must be

© G. Hill and A. Hunt 2009 OCR Chemistry for A2

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5 Acid–base equilbria Answers 25 [H ] = K × [CH COOH] = 1.7 × 10

5 Acid–base

equilbria Answers

added to provide the conjugate base so

that the equilibrium can move in both

43

directions.

  • a) [acid = K a = 6.3 × 10 3

[H + ] = K a ×

[salt

moldm 3

So pH = 6.2

  • b) 12.2g of C 6 H 5 COOH is 0.1mol 7.2 g of C 6 H 5 COONa is 0.05mol [H + ] = K a ×

[acid

[salt

= 6.3 × 10 5 moldm 3 ×

0.1

0.05

= 1.26 × 10 4 moldm 3 .

So pH = 3.9

c) pH = 3.9 because the ratio is the

44

same.

[H + ] = 4.0 × 10 6 moldm 3

[acid

[salt

=

+

[H ]

K

a

=

6

  • 4.0 10 moldm

3

5

  • 1.7 10 moldm

3

= 0.24

© G. Hill and A. Hunt 2009 OCR Chemistry for A2

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5 Acid–base equilbria added to provide the conjugate base so that the equilibrium can move in