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Volume 34, No. 3, 2008

MULTINOMIAL POINTS

E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

Communicated by Jutta Hausen

Abstract. We describe the integervalued functions which can arise as

the image of an integral coecient polynomial in k variables when it or

a related power series is evaluated at ktuples of integers from the domain

{0, 1, . . . , n1} and also when it is evaluated at ktuples of natural numbers.

There is an interesting duality between the coecients and the values of such

polynomials and power series, which has applications in number theory.

The techniques include expanding Lagrange interpolation polynomials to

power series with respect to a basis for multivariable polynomials, called the

integral root basis, and constructing higher dimensional analogs of Pascals

innite matrix.

1. Introduction

In [3], we dened a polynomial sequence of length n to be a sequence of in-

tegers of the form (f(1), f(2), . . . , f(n)) for some polynomial f(x) with integer

coecients. In that paper, we characterized the additive group, denoted P

n

, of

polynomial sequences among the group Z

n

of all sequences of n integers. The

technique was as follows:

Let Z[x] be the additive group of polynomials with integer coecients, and let

the valuation map v : Z[x] Z

n

be dened by v(f) = (f(1), f(2), . . . , f(n)) for

f Z[x]. Clearly, v is a homomorphism whose image is P

n

. Let Z[x]

n

be the

subgroup of Z[x] of polynomials of degree < n. We showed that the restriction of

the valuation map v : Z[x]

n

Z

n

is an isomorphism of Z[x]

n

onto P

n

.

We then constructed a basis for Z[x], here called the integral root basis, R =

j

(x) : j = 0, 1, . . . , where

0

(x) 1 and

j

(x) =

j1

(x)(x j) for j 1.

1991 Mathematics Subject Classication. Primary 13F20, 15A36. Secondary 20K21, 20K25.

Key words and phrases. Integral polynomials in several variables, Lagrange interpolation

polynomials, integral root basis, innite integral matrices, Pascals matrix.

661

662 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

The integral root basis has the property that for all n 1, its rst n terms form

a basis for Z[x]

n

. Then the image of the integral root basis for Z[x]

n

under v

is a basis for P

n

, here called the Gamma basis,

j

: j = 0, . . . , n 1, where

j

= ((i)

j

: i = 0, . . . , n 1). The symbol (i)

j

is the falling factorial, dened by

(i)

j

=

_

_

i(i 1) (i j + 1) if i j 1

1 if j = 0

0 if i < j.

Each component (i)

j

of

j

is an integer divisible by j!, namely (i)

j

= j!

_

i

j

_

.

Dividing each component of

j

by j! yields a basis for Z

n

, called the Alpha basis,

j

: j = 0, . . . , n 1, where

j

=

_

_

i

j

_

: i = 0, . . . , n 1

_

. Using the Alpha

and Gamma bases, it is straightforward to compute

Z

n

P

n

=

Z

2!Z

Z

3!Z

Z

(n 1)!Z

.

Writing the Alpha and Gamma bases as columns produces nonsingular lower

triangular integral matrices A

n

and C

n

. The former is known as Pascals matrix.

It has an integer entry inverse whose (i, j)entry is (1)

i+j

_

i

j

_

, i, j = 0, . . . , n1.

Let D

n

be the integral diagonal matrix whose jth diagonal element is j! for

j = 0, 1, . . . , n 1. Then C

n

= A

n

D

n

, which implies immediately that C

n

is a

nonsingular matrix whose inverse has rational entries. More precisely, the (i, j)

entry of C

1

n

is

(1)

i+j

j!(i j)!

if i j, and 0 otherwise.

Implicit in [3] is an interesting duality between the coecients and values of

any f(x) Z[x]

n

. This duality is best understood in terms of the matrix C

n

. In

the following theorem, we view a as a column vector.

Theorem 1.1. Let a = (a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

n

) Z

n

. Let

a

(x) be the Lagrange interpo-

lation polynomial for a. Then

(1) C

1

n

a is the sequence of (rational) coecients of

a

(x) with respect to the

integral root basis.

(2) C

1

n

a Z

n

if and only if a P

n

.

(3) C

n

a is the sequence of values at 1, 2, . . . , n of the polynomial in Z[x]

n

whose sequence of coecients with respect to the integral root basis is

a.

In [4] we extended these results to the innite case by introducing the group of

formal power series with respect to the integral root basis, Z[[x]]

R

=

i=0

a

i

i

(x) :

a

i

Z. Z

n

was expanded to , the group of all integer sequences, sometimes

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 663

called the BaerSpecker group, and the valuation map became one from Z[[x]]

R

to , with the power series being valued at 1, 2, . . . , and the image of Z[[x]]

R

being denoted by P. The valuation of the power series was well dened because

i

(j) = 0 for i j. The Alpha and Gamma bases expanded in a natural way

to

i

: i = 0, 1, . . . and

i

= i!

i

: i = 0, 1, . . . , and A

n

grew to the

innite Pascals matrix A [1, p 2]. C

n

and D

n

grew correspondingly to

matrices C and D with C = AD. Structurally =

i=0

i

) and P =

i=0

i

),

so that

i=2

Z

i!Z

.

The power series analog of the Lagrange polynomials was obtained, yielding the

extension of Theorem 1.1 above. The purpose of this paper is to extend the results

of [3] and [4] to higher dimensions, using integral polynomials in several variables.

In matrixvector multiplications, the matrix acts on the left, with the vector

considered as a column. If necessary to render division by nonzero integers mean-

ingful, we consider a torsionfree abelian group to be imbedded in its divisible

hull [5, p 107].

2. Multinomial points

We begin by describing the notation needed to extend the results of Section

1 to multivariable polynomials. In an eort to simplify the notation, everything

possible is indexed from 0 so that, for example, the integral root basis becomes

1, x, x(x 1), . . . and functions are evaluated at 0, 1, 2, . . . . This slight change

in notation from [3] and [4] does not, of course, change any of the previous results.

As usual, N denotes the natural numbers beginning with 0, Z the integers and

Q the rational numbers. For all k 1, let S(k) = 0, 1, . . . , k 1. Denote by X

k

the set x

i

: i S(k) of indeterminates and by Z[X

k

] the ring of polynomials in

X

k

with integral coecients, sometimes referred to as multinomials.

The degree in i of a non-zero monomial ax

m0

0

x

m1

1

x

m

k1

k1

in Z[X

k

], denoted

deg

i

, is m

i

N; its total degree is the sequence m = (m

i

: i S(k)) and its

maximum degree, denoted deg

max

, is maxm

i

: i S(k). Write X

m

k

for the

monomial x

m0

0

x

m1

1

x

m

k1

k1

, so that a typical element of Z[X

k

] is a sum of terms

of the form a

m

X

m

k

where a

m

Z. Note that the additive group of Z[X

k

] is free

of countably innite rank.

We now need the multivariable analog of the subgroup Z[x]

n

. Let Z[X

k

]

n

denote the additive group of polynomials in Z[X

k

] generated by monomials of

664 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

maximum degree < n. As a subgroup of the free group Z[X

k

], Z[X

k

]

n

also is

free, although of nite rank n

k

.

Let C(k, N) denote the set of all ktuples of natural numbers, and let C(k, n) be

the set of all ktuples in C(k, N) whose entries are in S(n). Then the total degree

of any monomial in Z[X

k

] is in C(k, N) and the total degree of any monomial in

Z[X

k

]

n

is in C(k, n).

By allowing zero coecients if necessary, we can assume that every f(X

k

)

Z[X

k

]

n

has the form

f(X

k

) =

mC(k,n)

a

m

X

m

k

where a

m

Z for all m C(k, n).

We now need the multivariable analog of the valuation map v : Z[x] Z

n

. If

f(X

k

) Z[X

k

] and b = (b

0

, . . . , b

k1

) is a ktuple of integers, f(b) denotes the

value of f at b, that is, the integer obtained by replacing each occurrence of x

mi

i

in f by the integer b

mi

i

and calculating the resulting sum.

Let Z

C(k,n)

be the set of all functions from C(k, n) to Z and dene v : Z[X

k

]

Z

C(k,n)

by v(f(X

k

))(b) = f(b) for all b C(k, n). In the following proposition,

we consider Z

C(k,n)

as a ring under pointwise addition and multiplication. Its

additive group is free of rank n

k

.

Proposition 2.1. v is a ring homomorphism.

Proof. It is well known and easy to check that for each xed b C(k, n), the

map f(X

k

) f(b) is a ring homomorphism of Z[X

k

] into Z. Hence the map

f(X

k

) (f(b) : b C(k, n)) of Z[X

k

] into Z

C(k,n)

is a ring homomorphism.

But this map is precisely v.

The image of v, denoted MP(k, n), is called the ring of multinomial points.

The next step is to determine the kernel of v, and to do this, it is necessary to

establish the multivariable analog in Z[X

k

] of the integral root basis of Z[x]. It

is easy to see by induction that since R =

i

(x) : i N is a basis of Z[x], then

R =

i0

(x

0

)

i1

(x

1

)

i

k1

(x

k1

) : i

j

N, j S(k)

is a basis of Z[X

k

], which we also call the integral root basis. For all i =

(i

0

, . . . , i

k1

) C(k, N), dene

i

(X

k

) =

i0

(x

0

)

i1

(x

1

)

i

k1

(x

k1

). It readily

follows that R

n

=

i

(X

k

) : i C(k, n) is a basis for Z[X

k

]

n

, which we continue

to call the integral root basis.

With this notation, we proceed to extend the results of [3] and [4] to higher

dimensions. That the extension is signicant is demonstrated by the following

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 665

example. By Theorem 1.1, no polynomial in one variable can generate any permu-

tation of the sequence (1, 0, 0, 0), because in any such permutation (a

1

, a

2

, a

3

, a

4

),

the expression a

1

/6 a

2

/2 + a

3

/2 a

4

/6 can never be an integer. On the other

hand, by Corollary 3.5 below, each arrangement of (1, 0, 0, 0) indexed by the ele-

ments of C(2, 2) can be generated by some polynomial in two variables, depending

upon the arrangement.

3. The Extended Valuation Map

To prove the multivariable analog of the isomorphism between Z

n

and P

n

,

we need to demonstrate that the only multinomial in Z[X

k

]

n

which annihilates

C(k, n) is 0.

Proposition 3.1. Let f(X

k

) Z[X

k

]

n

. If f(C(k, n)) = 0, then f = 0.

Proof. The proposition certainly is true for k = 1, since the only polynomial in

Z[x]

n

which has n zeroes is 0 itself. Thus assume the truth for some k 1 and

express f Z[X

k+1

]

n

in the form of an element of (Z[X

k

]

n

)[x

k

]

n

, f(X

k+1

) =

n1

i=0

g

i

(X

k

)x

i

k

, where g

i

(X

k

) Z[X

k

]

n

. Since Z[X

k

]

n

is an integral domain and

f(C(k, n), i) = 0 for all i S(n), the coecients g

i

(X

k

) must satisfy g

i

(b) = 0

for all b C(k, n), i S(n). By the induction hypothesis, g

i

(X

k

) = 0 for all

i S(n), so f must be 0.

Denote by I(k, n) =

n

(x

i

) : i S(k)) the ideal of Z[X

k

] generated by the k

polynomials

n

(x

i

), i S(k).

Proposition 3.2. (1) I(k, n) is the kernel of the valuation map v.

(2) I(k, n) is an additive direct summand of Z[X

k

] with complement Z[X

k

]

n

which is isomorphic to MP(k, n).

Proof. (1) Since

n

(m

i

) = 0 for all 0 m

i

< n, i S(k), I(k, n) ker v.

Conversely, suppose f Z[X

k

] satises f(C(k, n)) = 0. Express f as f(X

k

) =

iC(k,N)

a

i

i

(X

k

) with almost all coecients a

i

Z equal to 0. f(X

k

) can be

expressed uniquely as f(X

k

) = g(X

k

)+h(X

k

) with g(X

k

) =

iC(k,n)

a

i

i

(X

k

)

Z[X

k

]

n

and h(X

k

) =

iC(k,n)

a

i

i

(X

k

) where, in each term of h(X

k

), the prod-

uct

i

(X

k

) =

i0

(x

0

)

i1

(x

1

)

i

k1

(x

k1

) contains at least one factor with i

j

n; i.e., h(X

k

) I(k, n). Since

i

(C(k, n)) = 0 for all such terms, h(C(k, n)) = 0.

It follows that g(C(k, n)) = 0 also and, from Proposition 3.1, that g = 0, so

f(X

k

) = h(X

k

) and ker v I(k, n). Thus ker v = I(k, n).

(2) From the decomposition of f in (1) above and from Proposition 3.1, it is

clear that v restricted to Z[X

k

]

n

induces an isomorphism between Z[X

k

]

n

and

666 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

MP(k, n). Since Z[X

k

]

n

is free, MP(k, n) is also, so Z[X

k

] = Z[X

k

]

n

ker v, by

the projective property of free groups. From (1), I(k, n) = ker v, concluding the

proof.

Recall from the Introduction that the Gamma basis of P

n

is the image un-

der the valuation map of the integral root basis of Z[x]

n

. We now show that

a similar construction works for MP(k, n). For all m = (m

0

, . . . , m

k1

) and

b = (b

0

, . . . , b

k1

) C(k, n), it is easy to check that

m

(b) Z evaluates to

(b

0

)

m0

(b

k1

)

m

k1

= m

0

! m

k1

!

_

b

0

m

0

_

_

b

k1

m

k1

_

.

Dene

m

Z

C(k,n)

by

m

(b) =

m

(b), and let ((k, n) =

m

: m C(k, n).

Corollary 3.3. ((k, n) is a free basis for MP(k, n).

Proof. By Proposition 3.2 (2), v is an isomorphism of Z[X

k

]

n

onto MP(k, n).

Hence it maps the integral root basis of Z[X

k

]

n

onto ((k, n).

Carrying over terminology from one dimension, we call ((k, n) the Gamma

basis of MP(k, n). Recall from the Introduction that the Alpha basis

i

:

i S(n) for Z

n

was dened by

i

=

i

/i! =

_

_

i

j

_

: j S(n)

_

. A similar

construction works here too.

For m = (m

0

, . . . , m

k1

) and b = (b

0

, . . . , b

k1

) C(k, n), dene

m

Z

C(k,n)

by

m

/m

0

! m

k1

! so that

m

(b) =

iS(k)

_

bi

mi

_

and let /(k, n) =

m

: m

C(k, n).

Theorem 3.4. /(k, n) is a basis of Z

C(k,n)

.

Proof. Since rank Z

C(k,n)

= n

k

= [/(k, n)[, it suces to demonstrate that

/(k, n) spans Z

C(k,n)

; i.e., that each f Z

C(k,n)

can be expressed as a linear

combination f =

mC(n,k)

m

m

,

m

Z. For x = (x

0

, . . . , x

k1

), y =

(y

0

, . . . , y

k1

) C(k, n) (or C(k, N)), we write x y if x

i

y

i

for all i S(k).

Observe that for m and b C(k, n),

m

(b) = 0 unless m b. Thus at

0 = (0, . . . , 0), the only nonzero

m

is

0

, and

0

1.

We induct on k. The statement is true for k = 1 by [3], so let f Z

C(k+1,n)

.

By the induction hypothesis, the function g : C(k, n) Z dened by g(b) =

f(b, 0), b C(k, n), can be written as g =

mC(k,n)

m

m

. Set

(m,0)

=

m

for all m C(k, n). Observe that f(b, 0) =

mC(k,n)

(m,0)

(b,0)

(b, 0) for all

b C(k, n), because

(m,0)

(m, 0) =

m

(b) and

(m,0)

=

m

for all m C(n, k).

Now suppose we have found

(m,i)

Z for all m C(n, k) and all 0 i j < n 1

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 667

satisfying

f(b, x) =

mC(k,n)

(m,i)

(m,i)

(b, x), 0 i j < n 1

for all b C(k, n) and for all x such that 0 x j < n 1.

We seek

(m,j+1)

Z satisfying

f(b, x) =

mC(k,n)

(m,i)

(m,i)

(b, x) +

mC(k,n)

(m,j+1)

(m,j+1)

(b, x)

for all 0 i j < n 1, for all b C(k, n) and for all x such that 0 x

j + 1 n 1.

From our observations above,

(m,j+1)

(b, x) = 0 for all b C(k, n) and for

all x such that 0 x j, so that, by the induction hypothesis, we can solve the

equation

f(b, j + 1) =

mC(k,n)

(m,i)

(m,i)

(b, j + 1) +

mC(k,n)

(m,j+1)

(m,j+1)

(b, j + 1)

0 i j < n 1, for

(m,j+1)

. Thus /(k + 1, n) spans Z

C(k+1,n)

and so is a

basis.

In [3] we described the Smith normal form of the nite abelian group Z

n

/P

n

by using the stacked Alpha and Gamma bases of the free groups Z

n

and P

n

[5,

Lemma 15.4]. In the present context, the Alpha basis for Z

C(k,n)

and the Gamma

basis for MP(k, n) are stacked in a weaker sense [2]. We therefore conclude:

Corollary 3.5.

Z

C(k,n)

MP(k, n)

(m0,...,m

k1

)C(k,n)

Z

m

0

! m

k1

!Z

We also have for all k 2,

Corollary 3.6.

Z

C(k,n)

MP(k, n)

=

n1

i=0

Z

C(k1,n)

i!MP(k 1, n)

Proof. Since /(k 1, n) and ((k 1, n) are stacked bases for Z

C(k1,n)

and

MP(k 1, n), /(k 1, n) and i!((k 1, n) are stacked bases for Z

C(k1,n)

and

i!MP(k 1, n) so that

Z

C(k1,n)

i!MP(k 1, n)

(m0,...,m

k2

)C(k1,n)

Z

i!m

0

! m

k2

!Z

.

668 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

From this, it follows that

n1

i=0

Z

C(k1,n)

i!MP(k 1, n)

=

n1

i=0

(m0,...,m

k2

)C(k1,n)

Z

i!m

0

! m

k2

!Z

.

But this latter expression is equivalent to

(m0,...,m

k1

)C(k,n)

Z

m0!m

k1

!Z

, which

by Corollary 3.5 is isomorphic to

Z

C(k,n)

MP(k,n)

.

4. Multivariable interpolation

To simplify the notation for the rest of the paper, we assume that m =

(m

0

, . . . , m

k1

) and b = (b

0

, . . . , b

k1

) are generic elements of C(k, n). We

write

_

m

b

_

for

iS(k)

_

mi

bi

_

and m! for

iS(k)

m

i

!. We also write (1)

m

for

(1)

iS(k)

mi

.

In order to generalize Theorem 1.1, we must show how to represent multidi-

mensional matrices and their operations. Let k, n and m be positive integers.

An nm integral matrix in k variables is a function M : C(k, n) C(k, m) Z.

The set of all n m integral matrices in k variables is denoted /

Z

(k, n m).

Addition in /

Z

(k, n m) is dened pointwise, and multiplication for matrices

proceeds as follows:

If M /

Z

(k, n m) and N /

Z

(k, m ) then MN /

Z

(k, n ) is

dened by

MN(a, b) =

cC(k,m)

M(a, c)N(c, b)

for all a C(k, n), b C(k, ).

It is routine to check that these operations satisfy the usual axioms for matrix

addition and multiplication and reduce to ordinary matrix addition and multi-

plication when k = 1. Furthermore, /

Z

(k, n n) is a unital ring. We say

M /

Z

(k, n n) is invertible in /

Z

(k, n n) with inverse N if there ex-

ists N /

Z

(k, n n) such that MN = I

C(k,n)

= NM, where for all a, b

C(k, n), I

C(k,n)

(a, b) = 1 if a = b and equals 0 otherwise. In traditional delta

notation, I

C(k,n)

(a, b) = (a, b). We write N = M

1

.

In particular, when m = n and = 1, /

Z

(k, n n) acts on Z

C(k,n)

in such a

manner that k = 1 corresponds to matrix multiplication of a vector. Just as in

ordinary linear algebra, the statement Ma = b, where M /

Z

(k, n n) and

a, b Z

C(k,n)

, means that we are interpreting a and b as column vectors, i.e.,

as elements of /

Z

(k, n 1). If M and b are known, then a is a solution of the

linear system M X = b, in which X = (x

m

: m C(k, n)). In this case, if M is

invertible, then a = M

1

b.

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 669

The meanings to be attached to Q

C(k,n)

and /

Q

(k, n n) are obvious. They

are needed at this stage because we shall see that certain essential integral matrices

are invertible in /

Q

(k, n n) but not in /

Z

(k, n n). Similarly, we shall need

some matrixvector products in Q

C(k,n)

.

We are now ready to dene the multivariable analog of the matrices A

n

and

C

n

of Theorem 1.1. Dene A

kn

and C

kn

/

Z

(k, nn) by A

kn

(m, b) =

m

(b)

and C

kn

(m, b) =

m

(b). With these notational understandings, the following

proposition can be proved by using the identity

k

(1)

k

_

r

k

__

k

n

_

= (1)

r

nr

, n Z, r N [8, p 63, (34)].

Proposition 4.1. (1) A

kn

is invertible in /

Z

(k, n n) with

A

kn

1

(m, b) = (1)

m+b

_

m

b

_

.

(2) C

kn

is invertible in /

Q

(k, n n) with

C

kn

1

(m, b) = (1)

m+b

1

m!

_

m

b

_

.

interpolation polynomial. As in [3], it is convenient to express it in terms of the

integral root basis.

Let a Z

C(k,n)

. The multivariable interpolation polynomial for a is the ratio-

nal polynomial

L

a

(X

k

) =

mC(k,n)

b

m

m

(X

k

)

where b = (b

m

: m C(k, n)) Q

C(k,n)

is the unique solution of the linear

system C

kn

X = a, X = (x

m

: m C(k, n)).

Lemma 4.2. Let a Z

C(k,n)

. Then v (L

a

(X

k

)) = a.

Proof. Suppose a = (a

c

: c C(k, n)). We need to show that L

a

(c) = a

c

. But

L

a

(c) =

mC(k,n)

b

m

m

(c) =

mC(k,n)

b

m

m

(c) =

mC(k,n)

b

m

C

kn

(m, c) =

a

c

, as required.

Our main nite rank theorem is

Theorem 4.3. Let a Z

C(k,n)

. Let L

a

(X

k

) be the multivariable interpolation

polynomial for a. Then

670 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

(1) C

kn

1

a is the indexed set of (rational) coecients of L

a

(x) with respect

to the integral root basis of Z[X

k

]

n

.

(2) C

kn

1

a Z

C(k,n)

if and only if a MP(k, n).

(3) C

kn

a MP(k, n) is the indexed set of values in Z

C(k,n)

of the polynomial

in Z[X

k

]

n

whose coecients with respect to the integral root basis are a.

Proof. (1) This is just the denition of L

a

(X

k

), using the denition of C

kn

previously given.

(2) If C

kn

1

a Z

C(k,n)

, then by (1), the coecients of L

a

(X

k

) are integral

so its values are in MP(k, n). Conversely, if a , MP(k, n), then at least one

coecient of L

a

(X

k

) cannot be integral, so C

kn

1

a , Z

C(k,n)

.

(3) By (1), C

kn

1

(C

kn

a) = a is the indexed set of coecients of L

C

kn

a

(X

k

)

with respect to the integral root basis. By Lemma 4.2, the indexed set of values

of L

C

kn

a

(X

k

), which is an element of MP(k, n), is C

kn

a.

In [4] we noted the work of Green and Tao, that for every positive integer n, there

are innitely many arithmetic progressions of length n, which consist entirely of

primes [7]. Here we prove a weaker but analogous result about multinomials which

assume only prime values on C(k, n), based upon Theorem 4.3. Taking liberty

with terminology, we dene a prime (k, n)cube to be a function in Z

C(k,n)

which

takes on only prime values.

To reach the desired result, we need a lemma, easily proved with the aid of the

following summation formula [8, p 57, (18)]:

ij

_

r

i

_

(1)

i

= (1)

j

_

r 1

j

_

, j N.

Lemma 4.4. For every m C(k, n), m ,= 0 (all zeros),

bC(k,n)

(1)

b

_

m

b

_

= 0.

If m = 0, then the sum totals 1.

Proof. The sum is just

iS(k)

_

biS(n)

(1)

bi

_

mi

bi

_

_

and from the summation

formula with j = n 1 and r = m

i

j, each

biS(n)

(1)

bi

_

mi

bi

_

= 0 or 1,

depending upon whether m

i

,= 0 or not.

Proposition 4.5. For all positive integers k and n, MP(k, n) contains an innite

number of prime (k, n)cubes.

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 671

Proof. For integers k, n 1, select n

k

primes from the arithmetic progression

1+j(n!)

k

: j N and label them p

b

for b C(k, n). By Dirichlets theorem on

primes in arithmetic progressions, there are innitely many such sets p

b

: b

C(k, n).

Each p

b

= 1 + j

b

(n!)

k

for some j

b

N. Dene p Z

C(k,n)

by p(b) = p

b

for

b C(k, n). According to Theorem 4.3 (2), we must demonstrate that C

kn

1

p

Z

C(k,n)

. Now for m, b C(k, n),

C

kn

1

p(m) =

bC(k,n)

C

kn

1

(m, b)p(b)

=

bC(k,n)

(1)

b+m

1

m!

_

m

b

_

_

1 + j

b

(n!)

k

_

=

_

(1)

m

1

m!

_

bC(k,n)

(1)

b

_

m

b

_

+ (1)

m

bC(k,n)

_

j

b

(n!)

k

m!

__

(1)

b

_

m

b

__

.

Because n! appears k times and m

i

![n! for all i S(k), the second term is an

integer. The rst term is 0 or 1 because

bC(k,n)

(1)

b

_

m

b

_

= 0 or 1 by Lemma

4.4. Thus C

kn

1

p Z

C(k,n)

so that p MP(k, n).

5. Extension to Infinite Rank

The highest hurdle to clear in moving up to innite rank is to ensure that sums

are nite. The integral root basis of Z[X

k

] and the Alpha basis of Z

C(k,n)

provide

the necessary thrust. Let Z[[X

k

]]

R

denote the group of formal power series with

respect to the integral root basis,

Z[[X

k

]]

R

=

_

_

_

mC(k,N)

b

m

m

(X

k

) : b

m

Z

_

_

_

.

As in the previous section, m and b denote generic elements, this time of C(k, N).

We consider Z[X

k

] Z[[X

k

]]

R

to be the power series with only nitely many

nonzero coecients, i.e., the multinomials. For any b C(k, N),

m

(b) = 0

for all except the nite number of ms C(k, N) which satisfy m b. As a

result, the valuation map : Z[[X

k

]]

R

Z

C(k,N)

described by (f(X

k

))(b) =

f(b), f(X

k

) Z[[X

k

]]

R

, b C(k, N), is well dened. Let MP(k, N) = image ,

the elements of which we continue to call multinomial points.

672 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

A complication of moving up to innite rank is that Z[[X

k

]]

R

and Z

C(k,N)

,

both being isomorphic to

k

, are not free. We therefore must consider Z[[X

k

]]

R

as the product

mC(k,N)

m

) of the elements of R, which form a basis of the

free group Z[X

k

] =

mC(k,N)

m

).

More generally, let U be a subgroup of Z

C(k,N)

and let u

m

: m C(k, N) be

a subset of U. We call u

m

: m C(k, N) a product basis for U and say that

U is the product of the u

m

s if each element u U can be expressed uniquely as

u =

mC(k,N)

a

m

u

m

, a

m

Z, in such a way that

mC(k,N)

a

m

u

m

(b) is nite

for all b C(k, N), and we denote this as U =

mC(k,N)

u

m

); cf. [6, p 164].

With this notation and terminology, we can describe the innite rank extensions.

Proposition 5.1. The valuation map : Z[[X

k

]]

R

Z

C(k,N)

is an isomorphism

onto MP(k, N).

Proof. It is clear that is a group epimorphism, so we need only prove that

it is monic. Let f(X

k

) =

mC(k,N)

a

m

m

(X

k

) ker and let n be a positive

integer. As in the proof of Proposition 3.2, we can express f uniquely as the sum

of two functions f(X

k

) = g(X

k

)+h(X

k

) with g(X

k

) =

mC(k,n)

a

m

m

(X

k

) and

h(X

k

) =

mC(k,n)

a

m

m

(X

k

). As before, h(C(k, n)) = 0 so that g(C(k, n)) = 0

also. But g(X

k

) Z[X

k

]

n

with g(C(k, n)) = 0 implies that g is 0 according to

Proposition 3.1; i.e., all of its coecients a

m

are 0. Since each coecient of f is

a coecient of g for suciently large n, f = 0.

Corollary 5.2. Let ((k, N) =

m

= (

m

) : m C(k, N). Then ((k, N) is a

product basis for MP(k, N), so that

MP(k, N) =

mC(k,N)

m

).

Proof. is an isomorphism which maps the integral root basis

R =

m

(X

k

) : m C(k, N)

of Z[X

k

] into ((k, N). Since each f Z[[X

k

]]

R

can be written uniquely as f(X

k

) =

mC(k,N)

a

m

m

(X

k

), it follows that each element b MP(k, N) can be written

uniquely as b = (f) =

mC(k,N)

a

m

(

m

) =

mC(k,N)

a

m

m

for some f

Z[[X

k

]]

R

.

Observe that ((k, N) is ((k, n) expanded, because

((k, n) =

m

[

C(k,n)

:

m

((k, N), m C(k, n).

Let MP

(k, N) = (Z[X

k

]), so that MP

of Z

C(k,N)

. Since is monic and maps R to ((k, N), the latter is a basis of

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 673

MP

m

=

m

/m! : m

C(k, N) and

/(k, n) =

m

[

C(k,n)

:

m

/(k, N), m C(k, n).

Proposition 5.3. /(k, N) is a basis of the countable free pure subgroup MP

(k, N)

of Z

C(k,N)

generated by MP

(k, N) and

MP

(k, N)

MP

(k, N)

mC(k,N)

Z

m!Z

.

Proof. Since MP

C(k,N)

which it

generates is countable. Every countable subgroup of

k

is free. The independence

of /(k, N) follows from that of ((k, N), so it remains to show that /(k, N) spans

MP

(k, N)

.

First observe that /(k, N) MP

(k, N)

m

is a multiple

of the corresponding

m

MP

(k, N)

and suppose jf

MP

of the

m

s which span MP

0 coecients, be expressed as

jf =

mC(k,n)

b

m

m

=

mC(k,n)

b

m

m!

m

,

m

/(k, N), b

m

Z

so that jf[

C(k,n)

=

mC(k,n)

b

m

m!

m

[

C(k,n)

. Since

m

[

C(k,n)

:

m

/(k, N), m C(k, n) = /(k, n)

is a basis of Z

C(k,n)

by Theorem 3.4, j divides each of the coecients, j[b

m

m! for

all m C(k, n), so f =

mC(k,n)

(b

m

m!/j)

m

,

m

/(k, N). Thus /(k, N)

spans and is a basis.

The isomorphism

MP

(k, N)

MP

(k, N)

mC(k,N)

Z

m!Z

follows readily because

m

= m!

m

for all m C(k, N).

Theorem 5.4. /(k, N) is a product basis for Z

C(k,N)

=

mC(k,N)

m

) and

Z

C(k,N)

MP(k, N)

mC(k,N)

Z

m!Z

.

674 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

Proof. Let f Z

C(k,N)

. Note that C(k, N) =

n

C(k, n) and recall that /(k, n) =

m

[

C(k,n)

:

m

/(k, N), m C(k, n), so that for each n, f[

C(k,n)

can be

expressed as f[

C(k,n)

=

mC(k,n)

b

m

m

[

C(k,n)

,

m

Z

C(k,N)

, b

m

Z, by The-

orem 3.4.

The case n = 1 is trivial, so suppose b

m

has been determined for all m

C(k, n). Again by Theorem 3.4, there are coecients b

m

of

m

for all m

C(k, n + 1). Proposition 3.1 ensures that the coecient b

m

of

m

found at step

n + 1 will be the same as that found at step n for all m C(k, n). Then

f =

mC(k,N)

b

m

m

.

As in Corollary 3.5, the isomorphism follows from the relationships between

the corresponding elements of the Alpha and Gamma product bases of Z

C(k,N)

and MP(k, N).

In order to extend Theorem 4.3 to the innite rank case, we need to expand

the multidimensional matrices A

kn

and C

kn

of Section 4. We dene an

integral matrix in k variables to be a function C(k, N) C(k, N) Z. The set

of all integral matrices in k variables is denoted M

Z

(k, ). As before,

addition is dened pointwise.

In general, multiplication in M

Z

(k, ) is not dened, because there is no

assurance that sums such as

() MN(a, b) =

cC(k,N)

M(a, c)N(c, b), for all a, b C(k, N)

are nite. To ensure convergence and associativity of matrix multiplication, we

restrict ourselves to the set FM

Z

(k, ) of row nite matrices in M

Z

(k, ),

i.e., those such that for all a C(k, N), M(a, b) = 0 except for nitely many

b C(k, N), the number depending on a. In particular, the identity matrix

and the matrices dened below are all in FM

Z

(k, ). With addition dened

pointwise and multiplication as dened in (), FM

Z

(k, ) is a unital ring to

which the notion of invertibility carries over.

With these conventions, A

kn

and C

kn

expand to matrices A

k

and C

k

FM

Z

(k, ). A

k

and C

k

are in fact invertible with inverses

A

1

k

(m, b) = (1)

m+b

_

m

b

_

and

C

1

k

(m, b) = (1)

m+b

1

m!

_

m

b

_

for all m, b C(k, N).

MULTINOMIAL POINTS 675

Let Z[[X

k

]] denote the ring of formal integral power series in k variables,

Z[[X

k

]] =

mC(k,N)

a

m

X

m

k

: a

m

Z. For b C(k, N), by a generat-

ing function for M M

Z

(k, ) at b, we mean g

b

(X

k

) Z[[X

k

]], the co-

ecients of which are the values of M(m, b) as m ranges over C(k, N); i.e.,

g

b

(X

k

) =

mC(k,N)

M(m, b)X

m

k

. In this sense, A

k

has a generating function

at each point b C(k, N).

Proposition 5.5. Let b C(k, N). The generating function for A

k

at b is

iS(k)

x

bi

i

(1 x

i

)

bi+1

.

Proof. For m, b C(k, N), A

k

(m, b) =

_

m

b

_

, so that its generating func-

tion at b is by denition

mC(k,N)

(

iS(k)

_

mi

bi

_

)X

m

k

. Now this sum of prod-

ucts is just a product of sums

iS(k)

_

miN

_

mi

bi

_

x

mi

i

_

. By [4, Remark 6.6],

miN

_

mi

bi

_

x

mi

i

=

x

bi

i

(1 x

i

)

bi+1

for each i S(k). The asserted result follows

from this latter expression.

Corollary 5.6. Let g

b

(X

k

) denote the generating function of A

k

at each point

b C(k, N). Then

bC(k,N)

g

b

(X

k

) =

iS(k)

1

1 2x

i

.

Proof.

bC(k,N)

g

b

(X

k

) =

bC(k,N)

iS(k)

x

bi

i

(1 x

i

)

bi+1

=

iS(k)

bN

x

bi

i

(1 x

i

)

bi+1

By [4, Remark 6.6], each sum

biN

x

bi

i

(1 x

i

)

bi+1

=

1

1 2x

i

, from which the

claimed result follows.

Finally, to complete the innite rank counterpart of Theorem 4.3, we need a

multivariable interpolation power series for a Z

C(k,N)

, which is dened as the

rational power series

L

a

(X

k

) =

mC(k,N)

b

m

m

(X

k

)

where b = (b

m

: m C(k, N)) Q

C(k,N)

is the unique solution of the linear

system C

k

X = a, in which X = (x

m

: m Z

C(k,N)

). We at last arrive at

676 E.F. CORNELIUS JR. AND PHILL SCHULTZ

Theorem 5.7. Let a Z

C(k,N)

. Let L

a

(X

k

) be the multivariable interpolation

power series for a. Then

(1) b = C

1

k

a is the indexed set of (rational) coecients of L

a

(X

k

) with

respect to the integral root basis of Z[X

k

]

R

.

(2) C

1

k

a Z

C(k,N)

if and only if a MP(k, N).

(3) C

k

a MP(k, N) is the indexed set of values in Z

C(k,N)

of the power

series in Z[[X

k

]]

R

whose coecients with respect to the integral root basis

are a.

Proof. We have seen that for every n N, the initial segment a

of length n of

a is an element of Z

C(k,n)

whose interpolation polynomial L

a

(X

k

) is the initial

segment of length n of L

a

(X

k

). Furthermore, the top left n n corners of C

k

and C

1

k

are C

kn

and C

kn

1

respectively. Hence each clause (1), (2) and (3)

follows immediately from the corresponding clause of Theorem 4.3.

References

[1] P. Barry, On Integer-Sequence-Based Constructions of Generalized Pascal Triangles, Jour-

nal of Integer Sequences, Vol. 9 (2006), Article 06.2.4

[2] J. M. Cohen and H. Gluck, Stacked bases for modules over principal ideal domains, Journal

of Algebra 14 (1970) 493505

[3] E. F. Cornelius Jr. and P. Schultz, Sequences Generated by Polynomials, Amer. Math.

Monthly, 115 (2) (2008) 154158

[4] E. F. Cornelius Jr. and P. Schultz, Polynomial Points, Journal of Integer Sequences, Vol.

10 (2007), Article 07.3.6

[5] L. Fuchs, Innite Abelian Groups, Vol. 1, (1970), Academic Press, New York and

London

[6] L. Fuchs, Innite Abelian Groups, Vol. 2, (1973), Academic Press, New York and

London

[7] B. Green and T. Tao, The Primes Contain Arbitrarily Long Arithmetic Progressions,

http://arxiv.org/PS cache/math/pdf/0404/0404188.pdf

[8] D. E. Knuth, Fundamental Algorithms, Vol. 1 of The Art of Computer Programming,

2nd Ed. (1973), Addison-Wesley

Received November 9, 2006

Revised version received April 16, 2007

College of Engineering and Science, University of Detroit Mercy, Detroit, MI,

USA 48221-3038

E-mail address: efcornelius@comcast.net

School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Ned-

lands, Australia 6009

E-mail address: schultz@maths.uwa.edu.au

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