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Philippine Journal of Crop Science (PJCS) August 2005, 30(2): 55-60 Copyright 2005, Crop Science Society of the

Philippines Released 19 June 2005

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSING POSSIBILITIES OF MACAPUNO CULTIVARS DEVELOPED AT LEYTE STATE UNIVERSITY
ROBERTA D LAUZON
Leyte State University, ViSCA, Baybay 6521-A, Leyte, Philippines

Physico-chemical analysis of the different macapuno cultivars developed at the National Coconut Research Center (NCRC), Leyte State University (LSU), Visca, Baybay, Leyte was undertaken. Physical, functional, proximate and sensory attributes of the endosperm were determined. Processing potentials of the cultivars were assessed and sensory qualities of the developed products were evaluated. It was noted that variety affects the physical and functional properties of macapuno. VMAC-4 exhibited the largest physical measure but relatively low percent meat yield, and VMAC-1 the smallest. Proximate composition of endosperm was found significantly different in all cultivars evaluated. Macapuno endosperm exhibited a high fat component of 30.81-44.97%, protein of about 9.31-10.85%, and very low fiber content of 0.17-0.31%. It is seen that different fresh macapuno endosperms do not significantly differ from each other in sensory attributes except for juiciness and texture. Regardless of cultivar, macapuno has acceptable sensory qualities. The bland taste and absence of strong odor makes the macapuno endosperm a high-potential material for food product development. It is important to exploit the morphological diversity of the LSU-developed macapuno cultivars, which are an important scientific breakthrough. coconut, functional properties, Leyte, macapuno endosperm, morphological diversity, physical properties, physico-chemical analysis, processing possibilities, proximate composition, scientific breakthrough, sensory attributes, technology development

INTRODUCTION
Coconut is one of the most important cash crops in the Philippines. Claimed as the tree of life due to its diverse uses, the coconut has also been considered as a good source of high-value food products. More so the coconut sport (Smith 2002), or coconut mutant, the macapuno, already reported from the Philippines in 1947 (Fairchild) and earlier, in 1931 (Adriano & Manahan). The word macapuno (or makapuno) literally means tends to fullness in Filipino (Frank A Hilario, personal communication 2005). In technical terms, the macapuno is described as a white viscous, translucent jelly (Ramirez & Mendoza 1998); in non-technical terms, it is so meaty and tender (Blogger 2005). It is always delicious to eat even when raw. It is conceivable that the country, where it comes from, can benefit more from macapuno than the normal coconut. The macapuno coconut is by far more important to food processors. Aside from its high moisture content, the protein content of macapuno has been reported higher than that of the normal nut (Adriano & Manahan 1931). The crude fat fraction is more than 90% saturated fatty acids (Jacobs 1957, Banzon & Velasco 1982). Most of the saturated fat in coconut oil is easily digestible and

converted into quick energy and not stored in the body as fat (Loha-Unchit 2005). An elite type of coconut, if not used in ice cream, the macapuno meat is commonly processed into bottled sweetened macapuno shreds. The meat is scraped or shredded and cooked in a syrup consisting mainly of sugar and water. In the Philippines, macapuno is traditionally processed into delicacies like mazapan and candies. However, relatively few pieces of true macapuno delicacies find their way in the shelves of stores, big or small. This is because of the limited supply of the product and poor quality of some homemade macapuno products. Processing methods, poor packaging and improper handling of the commodity are some of the factors which affect the shelf life of a processed product. The supply is another big problem. Ordinarily, a coconut tree that has shown a tendency to produce macapuno nuts among normal ones produces those nuts only occasionally, only 1 or 2 (Ohler undated) and cannot be relied upon for commercial production. Leyte State University (LSU) in the Visayas has developed some macapuno cultivars. Unique in their kind, physiologically these LSU-developed coconut trees can assure a grower bunches of nuts all of them (100%) macapuno. The development of LSU macapunos is an important scientific break-

through. Economically, the LSU macapunos can provide a reliable source of raw materials to food processors. While we wait for the macapuno plantations in the country to grow and multiply as more farmers shift to macapuno farming, anticipating a great supply of this elite nut, it is important to obtain benchmark information on the physico-chemical aspects of the commodity. Once this basic information has been obtained, we can proceed to develop the appropriate processing technology so as to maximize the processing potential of this unique country resource. Thus, the current project was undertaken to evaluate the physical and chemical properties as well as the processing possibilities of the four LSU-developed macapuno cultivars: VMAC-1, VMAC-2, VMAC-3, and VMAC-4. METHODOLOGY Sample collection. Newly harvested macapuno nuts of
VMAC-1, VMAC-2, VMAC-3, VMAC-4 were obtained from the

Statistical analysis. The data obtained from the physicochemical evaluation was subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to locate the differences between and among treatments following Gomez & Gomez (1976) in terms of statistical significance. Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance was used to analyze the results of the sensory evaluation while the Multiple Comparison Between Treatments was used to locate the differences between and among treatments, following Siegel & Castallan (1988). Product development. Utilizing the basic information gathered previously in the study, 3 products, namely Macapuno Leather, Macapuno Delight and Macapuno Balls were formulated and their processing technologies later optimized. Different ratios of ingredients for each product were tried and the most acceptable formulations were determined.

RESULTS & DISCUSSION


Physical evaluation
Varietal differences affect some of the physical qualities of macapuno. Weights of the whole and dehusked nuts, crosswise and lengthwise measurements of the dehusked nut as well as thickness and weight of the shell and meat significantly differ from each other (Table 1). VMAC-4 has the longest measurements of 132.6 mm by 151.3 mm for crosswise and lengthwise diameter, respectively. The average weight of the whole nut is 2,389 grams with an average endosperm weight of 1,005 grams. Of the cultivars evaluated, VMAC-3 gives the highest percent meat with 48.07% and VMAC-1 the lowest with only 31.18%. Comparing the thickness of meat of macapuno with that of the normal coconut, macapuno is much thicker by at least more than 7 mm. According to Banzon (1991), a normal coconut solid endosperm can reach a thickness of about 15 mm. In comparison, the macapuno can range from 22.03 to 27.93 mm. In the current study, the cultivar that exhibits the thickest meat is VMAC-3 with a thickness range of 22.5-34.80 mm; the cultivar that is the thinnest is VMAC-2 with 18.2-28 mm, still much thicker than the normal coconut. VMAC-1 and VMAC-2 do not significantly differ from each other in thickness of meat while VMAC-3 significantly differs from the two; VMAC-4 is not significantly different from any of the three other cultivars, that is, its meat thickness is inbetween. Table 2 shows the data on the percent weight of endosperm and shell. In fruit weight, VMAC-4 is the heaviest with 2,389 grams, and this is significantly higher than the other three cultivars. VMAC-3 with 2,244 grams does not differ significantly with VMAC-2 with 1,116 grams. It is noted that two cultivars have the thickest shells, VMAC-2 with 13.94% and VMAC-3 with 13.19%; these same two cultivars Properties Of LSU Macapuno

experimental fields of the National Coconut Research Center (NCRC) at LSU in Visca, Baybay, Leyte. The macapuno nuts were split opened and parts of the endosperms containing the embryos were separated and collected for propagation while the rest were used as samples for the study. Physical evaluation. The dimensions of the macapuno nuts were measured. Crosswise and lengthwise diameters of the nuts were determined using a ruler while the thickness of the meat was measured using a vernier caliper. The weight of the meat was obtained using a platform balance. pH and total soluble solids. Fresh macapuno endosperm was homogenized in a blender and poured into a beaker, and the pH was determined using a pH meter. Total soluble solids were determined following the standard method of AOAC (1980). Functional property evaluation. The viscosity was determined following the modified procedure of Circle et al (1964). The foaming capacity and stability were studied and evaluated using the modified method of Coffman & Garcia (1977). Proximate analysis. Fresh macapuno endosperm was analyzed for proximate composition following the standard procedures prescribed by AOAC (1980). Sensory evaluation. The sensory attributes of fresh macapuno endosperm evaluated in the study were juiciness, color, texture, sweetness and overall acceptability. The sensory properties were assessed by 15 experienced panelists composed of faculty, staff and students of the Department of Food Science and Technology of LSU using structured quality scoring in combination with the 9-point Hedonic scale. Evaluation of samples was done at mid-morning in individually positioned booths. Products were coded with 3-digit random numbers. A glass of water was provided to each judge for mouth-rinsing after every sample-tasting. 56

Table 1.

Means of physical measurements of LSU-developed macapuno cultivars


Characteristics
VMAC-1 LSU-Developed Macapuno Cultivars VMAC-2 VMAC-3 VMAC-4

Weight of the whole nut (grams)** Weight of the whole dehusked nut (grams)** Crosswise diameter (mm)** Lengthwise diameter (mm)** Thickness of shell (mm)** Weight of shell (grams)** Thickness of meat (mm)** Weight of meat (grams)*

743.1 c 369.1 c 90.26 c 87.64 c 2.55 d 83.16 c 22.03 b 231.5 c

1,116.0 b 666.9 b 113.9 b 103.8 b 3.06 c 155.6 b 21.08 b 522.7 b

1,244.0 b 739.0 b 108.9 b 108.4 b 3.51 b 164.1 b 27.93 a 598.0 b

2,389.0 a 1,250.0 a 132.6 a 151.3 a 4.20 a 282.9 a 24.39 ab 1,005.9 a

** Highly significant, * Significant. Means are taken from representative sample of three replications with 6 nuts per replication. Means having the same letter are not significantly different from each other at both 5% and 1% level of significance through DMRT.

also have the thickest meats, VMAC-3 with 48.07% and VMAC-2 with 46.83%.

pH
The pH values of the 4 different macapuno endosperms in the study range from 6.455 to 6.739 (Table 3). This indicates that the macapuno endosperm is near neutral (pH 7) and not acidic. This result conforms with the findings of Diaz & Lauzon (2000).

and VMAC-4. Results imply that VMAC-1 has the greatest resistance to flow. This can be attributed to its relatively sticky endosperm and higher fat content, which increases viscosity and furnishes more fat globules for clumping (Bennion & Hughes 1975).

Foaming properties
The LSU macapuno cultivars do not exhibit foaming properties. It may be due to the fact that macapuno is oily in nature, as the presence of oil causes the rupture of air cells. In addition, the protein components of macapuno do not have the same functionality as egg proteins. The macapuno cultivars have protein contents in the range of 9.31-10.85% almost similar to that of normal coconut.

Total soluble solids

Table 3 shows that the total soluble solids (TSS) of the fresh endosperms of the 4 LSU macapunos are significantly different at 1% and 5% DMRT. VMAC-3 has the highest TSS value of 10.15%, significantly higher than those of VMAC-2 (8.40l%) and VMAC-1 (7.00%), but not significantly different from VMAC-4 (9.80%). VMAC-3 and VMAC4 have TSS values significantly Table 2. Percent weight of macapuno endosperm & shell higher than VMAC-1 and VMAC-2. Variety Fruit Weight Shell Meat (%) (grams) (%)

Binding, fat and waterholding ability


It is noted that the macapuno endosperm regardless of cultivar possess a good binding capability. It is observed that when macapuno is deep-fried, there is no disintegration of the fried mass. When subjected to cooking, it is noted that a negligible amount of macapuno particles separates from the whole mass. This implies that macapuno has good binding ability. In terms of fat absorption, variety does not significantly affect the ability to absorb and hold fat. The same is true with the waterholding ability of the endosperm wherein variety does not significantly affect this 57

Viscosity
The data shows that both VMAC-3 and VMAC-4 have higher percentages of total soluble solids (Table 3). The solid content of a fruit or vegetables is reported to be an indirect indication of viscosity (Gould 1974). Higher TSS values may therefore require adjustments in product formulation owing to the TSS effect on viscosity. VMAC-1 has the highest viscosity of 174,000 cp followed by VMAC-2, VMAC-3 Roberta D Lauzon

VMAC-1 VMAC-2 VMAC-3 VMAC-4

743.10 c 1,116.0 b 2,244.0 b 2,389 a

11.19 13.94 13.19 11.84

31.18 46.83 48.07 42.10

Table 3. pH, viscosity & total soluble solids (TSS) of the endosperm of LSU-developed macapuno cultivars Properties Variety
VMAC-1 VMAC-2 VMAC-3 VMAC-4

pHns 6.739 6.650 6.606 6.455

TSS** (%) 7.00 c 8.40 b 10.15 a 9.80 a

Viscosity** (centipoises) 174,000 a 89,500 b 79,500 c 77,000 d

ns not significant at both 5% and 1% level of significance; ** - highly significant. Values having the same letter are not significantly different from each other.

particular attribute. The ability of macapuno endosperm to absorb fat and oil and the negative disintegration during cooking makes macapuno an excellent binder as well as raw material for the development of novel food products.

In terms of texture, VMAC-4 has the smoothest endosperm at 3.97. Although VMAC-1 ranks the least at 2.32, yet it still falls under the soft and smooth category in the scale. The smooth and soft texture makes macapuno an ideal material for food product development.

Proximate analysis
Proximate composition of the different macapuno cultivars developed by LSU is presented in Table 5. In general, oil (crude fat) is evidently the chief constituent of macapuno, which ranges from 30.87 to 44.97%. The nitrogen-free extract (NFE) values range from 4.36 to 25.34% among cultivars.

Processing potentials
Preliminary assessment on the processing potentials of macapuno endosperm was done. It was found that the different macapuno cultivars have high potentials as raw materials for the development of food products. Among the products developed and evaluated are the sweetened and dehydrated products. In the case of sweetened macapuno, Table 7 shows that color, aroma, taste and sweetness are significantly influenced by the level of the sweetener used that somehow influences the general acceptability of the product (Table 7) rather than the variety. In the case of the dehydrated products, Table 8 shows no significant differences among treatments in all sensory attributes regardless of the cultivar used. This result implies that LSU-developed macapuno cultivars have a bright future in the food processing industry.

Sensory evaluation
Sensory evaluation of the fresh macapuno endosperms shows that juiciness and texture (Table 6) are significantly influenced by variety. VMAC-3 has the highest value for juiciness, 3.13, while VMAC-1 has the lowest, 1.4; the two are significantly different. Color, sweetness as well as general acceptability are not significantly different in all cultivars evaluated. The juiciness of macapuno can be attributed to its moisture content.

Table 4.

Binding, fat and waterholding ability of macapuno endosperm of LSUdeveloped macapuno cultivars
Disintegration In Water In oil Fat Absorption 6.5 6.32 6.4 6.41 H2O Absorption 2.8 2.61 2.91 2.83

Variety

VMAC-1 VMAC-2 VMAC-3 VMAC-4

Very negligible Very negligible Very negligible Very negligible

Table 5.

Proximate composition of the different LSU-developed macapuno cultivars


Composition
VMAC-1

Cultivars
VMAC-2 VMAC-3 VMAC-4

Moisture % Wet Basis % Dry Basis Ash** Crude Fat** Crude Fiber** Nitrogen-Free Extracts (NFE) 27.97 c 38.83 c 2.59 c 41.20 a 0.17 c 16.72 33.92 bc 51.33 bc 2.94 a 30.87 b 0.31 ab 21.15 31.36 b 45.69 b 2.33 b 31.6 b 0.25 abc 25.34 37.60 bc 60.26 bc 1.80 c 44.97 a 0.32 a 4.36

All means having the same letters are not significantly different. **Highly significant

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Properties Of LSU Macapuno

found acceptable in the market.

CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS


Recommendations

Conclusions
Varietal differences affect physico-chemical and functional properties of LSU-developed macapuno cultivars. Sensory properties of fresh macapuno endosperm from different LSU-developed cultivars do not significantly differ from each other except juiciness and texture attribute. Regardless of variety, LSU-developed macapunos have acceptable sensory qualities. The bland taste, absence of strong odor and good binding capability mark the macapuno as of a high potential material for food product development. Sweetened and dehydrated macapuno can be developed from fresh macapuno endosperm. Both products are

Exploitation of the morphological diversity of all LSUdeveloped macapuno cultivars should be pursued. Each variety can be used in food products that cater to select markets according to customer tastes. Optimization of process and formulation for the production of sweetened as well as dehydrated macapuno should be looked into. Development of other novel food products from macapuno endosperm should be given importance. Packaging and shelf-life studies of macapuno-based food products should be conducted. A wider consumer acceptance study should be done. Nutritional evaluation should be made of the developed macapuno food products.

LITERATURE CITED
Adriano FT & Manahan M. 1931. The nutritive value of green, ripe and sport coconuts (buko, niyog, and makapuno. Philippine Agriculturist 20(3): 195-199 AOAC. 1980. Official Methods Of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington DC Banzon JA. 1990. Coconut As Food. Diliman, Quezon City: Philippine Coconut Research and Development Foundation Inc (PCRDF) Blogger. 2005. Suburban coconut harvesting tips. scentofgreenbananas.blogspot.com Cagampang GB & Rodriquez FM. 1980. Methods of analysis for screening crops of appropriate qualities. Analytical Services Laboratory. Institute of Plant Breeding, University of the Philippines Los Baos Circle SJ, Meyer EW & Whitney RW. 1964. Rheology of soybean dispersion. Effect of heat and other factors on gelation. Cereal Chemistry 41:157-172 Coffman DG & Garcia VV. 1977. Functional properties and amino acid content of a protein isolate from mungbean flour. Journal of Food Technology 121:473-484 Diaz LC. 1999. Physical-Chemical Evaluation Of The Different Macapuno Cultivars Developed In ViSCA. BS Thesis. Visayas State College of Agriculture, Baybay, Leyte. pp 11-37 Fairchild David. 1947. The makapuno coconut of the Philippines. In Plant Immigrants, Occasional Paper #17, Fairchild Tropical Garden, Florida Gomez KA & Gomez AG. 1984. Statistical Procedures For Agricultural Research, 2nd ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 820 pp Gould WA. 1974. Tomato Production, Processing And Quality Evaluation. Westport Connecticut: AVI Publishing Company Jacobs L. 1938. The Chemical Analysis Of Foods And Food Products. Huntington, New York: Robert E Krieger Publishing Company. p 87 Loha-Unchit Kasma. 2005. Coconut oil a good oil. webmaster@thaifoodandtravel.com Ohler JG (ed). Undated. Modern Coconut Management: Palm Cultivation And Products. Food and Agriculture Organisation. Internet version, http://ecoport.org Ramirez Dolores A & Mendoza Evelyn Mae T. 1998. The Macapuno Mutant Coconut. Bicutan, Taguig, Rizal: National Academy of Science & Technology Siegel S & Castallan NJ. 1988. NM Parametric Statistics For The Behavioral Sciences, 2nd ed. McGraw Hill Book Co. pp 174-183 Smith Wanda A. 2002. Two coconut products star in many Filipino sweets. Island Life. honoluluadvertiser.com

Roberta D Lauzon

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Table 6.

Rank average ratings following the Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance of the different LSU-developed macapuno cultivars Sensory Qualities

Variety
VMAC-1 VMAC-2 VMAC-3 VMAC-4

Juiciness 1.4 c

**

Texture 2.32 c

**

Colorns 2.26 2.21 2.49 2.91

Sweetnessns 2.13 2.76 2.53 2.58

General Acceptancens 2.23 2.70 2.56 2.51

2.62 bc 3.13 ab 2.85 ab

2.33 bc 2.42 abc 3.97 a

** - Highly significant at 5% and 1% level of significance; ns not significant. All means having the same letters are not significantly different. Range of Scores: Texture: 1 = not juicy, 5 = very juicy. Texture: 1 = coarse & gritty, 5 = soft and smooth. Color: 1 = dirty white, 5 = clear white. Sweetness: 1 = bland, 5 = equals sweet. General Acceptance: 1 = highly unaacceptable, 5 = highly acceptable.

Table 7. Water: Sugar Ratio 1:2 1:1 2:1 1:3

Mean sensory ratings of sweetened LSU-developed macapuno as affected by the sugar levels Sensory Qualities Color* 3.766 c 4.000 b 3.600 c 4.467 a Aroma* 3.663 c 3.433 d 4.000 a 3.833 b Taste* 2.700 ab 2.800 a 2.266 c 2.600 b Texturens 4.600 5.333 4.266 5.266 Sweetness* 2.399 b 2.366 b 2.200 c 3.00 a General Acceptance 5.000 b 5.233 a 4.466 c 5.033 ab

* - significant at 5% level of significance. Range of scores: Aroma : 6 absence of copra odor, 5 very faint copra-odor, 4 noticeable copra-odor, 3 slightly dominant copra-odor, 2 moderately dominant copra-odor, 1 predominant copra-odor. Texture: 6 soft, 5 soft but firm, 4 firm, 3 firm and rubbery, 2 rubbery and tough, 1 tough. Taste : 5 desirable, 4 moderately desirable, 3 slightly desirable, 2 slightly undesirable, 1 undesirable. General Acceptability: 7 highly acceptable, 6 moderately acceptable, 5 slightly. acceptable, 4 neither acceptable nor unacceptable, 3 slightly unacceptable, 2 moderately unacceptable, 1 highly unacceptable.

Table 8.

Effect of flavorant on the sensory attributes of dehydrated LSU-developed macapuno Sensory Qualities

Treatments Control Passion fruit Pandan Kalamansi

Color 4.200 a 3.800 ab 4.000 ab 3.533 b

Aroma 3.633 3.867 3.600 3.533

ns

Texture 4.400 a 3.267 b 4.267 a 3.667 ab

Taste 3.667 ab 4.000 a 3.933 a 3.267 b

Flavorns 5.000 5.267 5.200 4.667

General Acceptancens 5.200 5.167 5.333 4.733

ns not significant. Range of scores: Aroma : 6 absence of copra odor, 5 very faint copra-odor, 4 noticeable copra-odor, 3 slightly dominant copra-odor, 2 moderately dominant copra-odor, 1 predominant copra-odor. Texture: 6 soft, 5 soft but firm, 4 firm, 3 firm and rubbery, 2 rubbery and tough, 1 tough. Taste : 5 desirable, 4 moderately desirable, 3 slightly desirable, 2 slightly undesirable, 1 undesirable. General Acceptability: 7 highly acceptable, 6 moderately acceptable, 5 slightly acceptable, 4 neither acceptable nor unacceptable, 3 slightly unacceptable, 2 moderately unacceptable, 1 highly unacceptable.

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Properties Of LSU Macapuno