SF6 Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS

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N.MAHESH 09261A0240 ¾ E.E.E, B.TECH MGIT , GANDIPET Mobile No. 7416380626 naallamahesh10@gmail.com

D.ANIL KUMAR 09261A0216 ¾ E.E.E,B.TECH MGIT,GANDIPET Mobile No.9000179052 anildarmula@gmail.com

low weight. Both small transformer substations and large loadcenter substations can be designed with GIS technology. Introduction: The increasing demand of electrical power in cities and industrial centers necessitates the installation of a compact and efficient distribution and transmission network. voltage and current transformers. disconnectors. The high voltage GIS is highly reliable. The range of application of SF₆ Gas Insulated Switchgear extends from voltage ratings of 72. . the three phases of GIS are generally in a common enclosure at higher voltages the phases are segregated.5 kV up to 145 kV applications. as it offers the following advantages: 1. This report discusses the following aspects of SF6 GIS: enclosures. connection modules. Up to ratings of 170 kV. The space occupied by the switchgear is greatly reduced. GIS equipment is usually of modular construction. low maintenance and long life. cable terminations and joints are contained in earthed enclosures filled with sulphur hexafluoride gas (SF₆).5 kV up to 800 kV with breaking currents of up to 63 kA. After general study and search this report represented the most aspects of GIS 145 kV Type respect to the Manufacturers Manual and International Standards. high reliability. The encapsulation consists of non-magnetic and corrosion-resistance cast aluminum or welded aluminum sheet. Extensive in-plant preassembly and testing of large units and complete bays reduces assembly and commissioning time on the construction site.Abstract: In 1960 the first gas insulated metalenclosed switchgear went into service in the German 110 kV network. and in special cases up to 80 kA. circuitbreakers. High voltage gas insulated switchgear (GIS) is ideal for such applications. GIS is an attractive alternative to conventional air insulated substations (AIS) because of the increased availability. Today GIS technology is successfully used for voltages up to 800 kV. three-phase encapsulated GIS equipment dedicated to 72. The distinctive advantages of SF₆ Gas Insulated Switchgear are: compact. Gas Insulated Switchgear (GIS) that uses compresses sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas overcomes many of the limitations of the conventional open type AIS. instrument transformers. safety against touch contact. type testing. disconnectors and earthing switches. All components such as busbars. circuit breakers. and it’s compact and flexible design saves space as well as reduces civil work. It can be assembled on site very quickly. reliability and the reduced life cycle costs.

on unstable ground or in seismically active areas) 5. .2. or desert climates. 3. In figure below the single-line diagram of a double bus-bar arrangement is shown. SF6 has the advantages of being nontoxic and non flammable. 4. It is easier to install in difficult site conditions ( e. In addition to having a dielectric strength much greater than that of air. AIS Substation Comparison of Required Area between 220 kV GIS S/S and AIS S/S GIS Components: Comparison between GIS & AIS GIS Substation In GIS all live parts are enclosed in compressed gas system which is divided into a number of compartments. This division enables the isolation of one compartment for maintenance or repair purpose while the other compartments remain pressurized.g. It possesses a high degree of operational reliability and safety to personal. It is totally unaffected by atmospherically conditions such as polluted or saline air in industrial and coastal areas.

1. Disconnectors 3. Circuit Breaker : Circuit breakers differ from switches in that they not only manually make and break the circuit while carrying their normal currents. Fault clearance time has been reduced during the last 50 years due to the high technology adopted in circuit breaker design and the use of static relays. Control Cubical of system stability is consequence of slow fault clearance. Pressure relief devices 7. Interrupter 5. Under short circuit conditions. Fixed contact assembly 8. Earthing Switch 4. Current Transformer 5. Cast enclosure 6. Basic components that make up any one GIS bay are as follow: 1. Support insulator 3. but are also capable of making and breaking the circuit under the severest system conditions. Cover 2. Voltage Transformers 6. Loss Basic components of the circuit breaker are shown in the figure below as follow: 1. Cables Compartment 7. Barrier insulator 4. It is duty of a circuit breaker to interrupt such currents as soon as possible to avoid equipment damage.In figure below the diagram shows a typical gas GIS circuit breaker Bay. Bottom plate . the current may reach tens of thousands of amperes at a power factor as low as 0. however. Breaking or making the circuit under load conditions represents no real problem for a circuit breaker since the interrupted current is relatively low and the power factor is high. Circuit Breaker 2.

. The main features are motorized or manual operation. Disconnectors must be carefully designed and tested to be able to break small charging current without generating too-high overvoltage. The high speed earthing switch is achieved by means of a springclosing device. the slowoperating earthing switch and the fastclosing (high speed) earthing switch.Disconnectors: Disconnectors are made up from insulators. otherwise flashover to earth may occur. and mechanically lockable end positions Earthing Switch Two different types of earthing switch are normally used. but are operated only when it is certain that the high-voltage system is not energized. The operation mechanisms of the disconnectors and earthing switches are of the same design for most GIS. enclosures. Slowoperating earthing switch are used for protection purpose when work is being done in the substation. electrical interlocking against incorrect operation. The fast-closing earthing switch can close against full voltage and short circuit power. and conductors of different geometrical shapes to give an optimum layout. They are equipped with copper contacts that are spring loaded to give the disconnector high electrical efficiency and high mechanical reliability.

three voltage transformers are placed in one enclosure. The capacitance between the inner conductor and a concentric measuring electrode near the enclosure is then used as the high-voltage capacitor. Voltage Transformer: The most commonly used voltage transformer VT is of the inductive type. In three-phase enclosed GIS designed. The advantages of the voltage Transformer as follow: .The advantages of Make-proof earthing switch (high speed) are as follows:  High speed closing and opening by mechanical spring charged mechanism.  Induced current switching of overhead lines. This design is suitable only for the highest system voltages.  Insulated by removable earth link for measurement on individual phases of the primary circuit without gas handling. It is also possible to design a voltage transformer consisting of a lowcapacitive voltage divider connected to an electronic amplifier.

The return current in the enclosure is broken by an insulating layer. In three-phases enclosed GIS design the cores of the current transformers are normally located inside the . enclosure. The advantages of the three-phase Current Transformer as follow:  Cores in air outside the SF6  Gas compartment to reduce access of moisture and to suppress gas-tight bushings for secondary connections.  Flexible gas compartment allocation for optimal service oriented gas supervision. the core of a current transformer is located outside the enclosure.  Integrated disconnecting facility for GIS and power cable testing without dismantling and gas handling. Variable location on feeder and busbars.  Variable length for optimal. They are preferably placed outside on the SF6 busing or on cables. thus ensuring a completely undisturbed electrical field between the enclosure and the conductor. Current Transformer: In the single-phase enclosed GIS.

Adjustable support structures for minimum requirements for the GIS floor. Cables compartments have some features as follow: 1. 3. The boxes shall be designed to accept the cable along with its terminations cone from below. Local Control Cubicles “LCC” LCC is the interface cubicles to all secondary systems of a substation which are represent a station control and protection. LCC includes control and alarm functions as well as the correct distribution of auxiliary power supply for the relevant GIS bay. no need for special foundation (steel beams….etc).Cables compartment: It is sealing end box for underground cable termination which is suitable for SF6 gasfilled for accommodating XLPE or LPOF single core copper cable terminations. Optimized solution for IEC dry-type (plug-in type) power cable connection. . Fixation to the GIS floor by cemented anchor bolts. The scope shall also include necessary cable supports and cable terminations suppliers shall be made for proper electrical and mechanical interface. 2. it is in charge for a safe and reliable operation and monitoring of all switchgear elements.

odorless. interlocking bypass.  Control of Circuit Breakers Control of the closing and tripping coils. also occur with design material (e.Main functions realized in the local control cubicles:  AC-Supply Motor drives. interface to protection devices. a large part of the decomposed gas recombines. and double action prevention of the mechanisms  Control of Disconnectors & Earthing switches ON/OFF control. with vaporizing arcing contact material). panel lighting. Reactions may. and panel sockets. Electrical discharges and arcs will decompose SF6 gas. non-inflammable. and supervision of spring charging time. heating. anti-pumping. interface to synchronizing devices. non-poisonous. supervision of operating times and intermediate positions. inert. However. Relief Device It is a device which fitted in each gas compartment including GIS surge arrester to relieve over pressure created by internal arcing faults automatically and instantaneously. On cooling. Metering 4. almost water insoluble.  Alarm indication & Signalization Alarm unit for alarm indication and signalization. Remote control 2.  Arc Detection System  Interlocking Interlocking between the high voltage mechanisms on the GIS  Human Machine Interface (HMI) Mimic equipped with control switches and position indictors. protection SF6 Gas (sulphur hexafluoride): The properties of SF6 gas are many and this is why GIS now being commonly used more than AIS because pure SF6 gas is chemically very stable. Measuring 5. This result in the formation of gaseous sulphur fluoride and solid metallic fluoride are powder and in the presence of water or moisture also in the development of hydrogen-fluoride and sulphur dioxide.  DC-Supply Control and alarm indication  General control functions Remote & local control. .g.  Supervision of SF-6 Gas Compartments Supervision of the gas pressure (stage 1. colorless and heavier than air. stage 2)  Terminal Interface 1. Some of these decomposition products are conspicuous through their unpleasant piercing odour. Interlocking 3.

Operating and Mechanical Endurance Test Tests of GIS: : 1. Capacitive Current Switching Test 4.2. Temperature Rise Test 3. Water Burst Test .

Surface treatment ( cleaned and painted ) 4.5. Dielectric Test 3. Checking the Dimensions 5. Supply of Casting 2. Pressure and Tightness Test . Voltage Transformer HV Test 1.

etc) enclosed in metallic enclosure and filled with pressurized SF6 gas. HV Site Test used for the monitoring of current and voltage. CTs. The use of vacuum circuit breakers ensures unrestricted mechanical and electrical functionality throughout the service life of the system. production and commissioning are simplified. and project planning. DS/ES). The plug-in technology reduces assembly times at site to minimum 2. safety and system reliability are increased. digital bay control and protection system. control gears (CB. HV Test Equipment . operator convenience. VTs and other protective devices (rupturing disc. Control Panel Conclusion: The GIS comprising of busbars. Both appropriately rated sensors and conventional instrument transformers can be . pressure gauges.1. In conjunction with the computerized. The new optimized gas-insulated switchgear unites progressive and futuristic concepts and techniques.

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