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Hawaiian Artistic Culture: Sculptures the Forgotten Art
Maha Humaid Salem U2325385
Professor Hawker ART327, November 6th, 2005
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 2 Polynesia; “poly” a term used to define a “large amount of” or “massive quantity of,” this word is used in the English language in multitude of expressions, for instance; monopoly “one over many;” polyarchy; “ many heads of wealth and rank running an establishment of well organized democracy;” polychrome; “the printing or painting of two and more colors.” All these vocabulary point out to the meaning of the word “poly,” thus “Polynesia” simple points out to the two simple words “many islands,” that geographically lie in both the tropical and subtropical areas on each side of the equator. Besides location being the common denominator of these “many islands,” so are the characteristics of these islands; temperate climate; volcanic activity; adequate rainfall; high rate of vegetation; tiny coral isles. These islands were also known for its chiefdoms, that revolved around the belief the king and chiefs were sacred. Also such societies flourished in the belief system of elaborate mythologies; supernatural power, thus the creation and inheritance of “mana.” There was a good amount of talent, in fact an exquisite amount of talent portrayed in woodwork, such as; canoes; house building; and carving. Other artistic efforts were shown in the forms of; woven mats; netting; feather work; and painted bark cloth, also known as tapa. One of the many fascinating islands to have caught the attention of many is the tropical island of Hawaii. Hawaii is known to others as the fiftieth state of America and one of the many few states to have an identity of their own. Being a nation consisted of many nationalities; descendents of Polynesian ancestors; descendents of European ancestors; Philippines; Chinese and Japanese blood lines, yet it still holds tight to the culture that has made it a tourist destination hot spot. With the national symbols of flower: hibiscus; bird: nene; tree: kukui; and a motto of: “Ua mau ke ea o ka aina i ka pono” (“the life of the land is perpetuated in righousness”).
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 3 The story of the establishment and birth of the people of the Hawaii is a strange yet mystical tale told in chant and song. The story points to an island that has no record of exact origin but only survives with the reputation of the source of the ancestry, birth of the culture, and like Valhalla the place where the souls shall return to once their time on the material world has passed and ended. They had named a few islands commending the memory of the ancestors memories, one of which was the island of Hawaii, that was named after the ancestral Polynesian homeland—Hawaiki. Only little is known on this ancestral homeland. Hawaiki’s time and space was established at a round the first millennium BCE in the archipelagos of Tonga and Samoa, later after the arrival of Early Eastern Lapita peoples, between 1100 BCE and 1000BCE, of four to five centuries later the Polynesian ancestor hood’s culture was born. This culture, the Hawaiian culture, even though invading bloodlines have entered into the lone island, remains strong to this date with; chants; songs; artwork keeping the culture alive. In other words, the whole of Hawaii is an art form because of its unique blend of many culture united under the belief system of brotherhood and kinship, despite blood. Yet, before the artwork is to be studied and noted one should always know the background and hidden agenda of the artwork, “for a painting is worth a thousand words,” and not necessarily would any of those words used to describe the art work to be true and “on-the-dot” correct, or “on-the-money,” thus a complete understanding of the culture should be put into mind, as some artworks can be quite ambiguous and vague, as how artworks should be. The history has been mentioned as well as the geography, as they both give an idea on theme and material used—nature. Sadly, this information alone is not adequately good enough to discuss the artwork, as some of the art created focuses around worship and sometimes
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 4 offerings, this of course evident because of two key points; the island of Hawaii was a society that was centered around the chief; and it had a belief system that involved many gods and goddesses. The later being of most crucial importance, as wherever a society was raised under the principle of many divine beings the art work would then be divided into two categories or more. An excerpt off the story of the origin, that of Hawaii and their gods and goddesses, was found and placed without any changes to keep the magic between the lines.
“In the beginning in Hawaiian mythology, Po was a vast, empty land, a dark abyss where only one life form dwelled. This was the spirit of Keawe. A single light shown through the darkness of Po-a flame holding the energy of creation. In this chaotic vortex, Keawe evolved order. He opened his great calabash and flung the lid into the air. As it unfolded, it became the huge canopy of blue sky. From his calabash, Keawe drew an orange disk, hanging it from the sky to become the sun. Next Keawe manifested himself as Na Wahine, a female divinity considered his daughter. In addition, he became Kane, his own son, also known as Eli or Eli-Eli, who was the male generative force of creation. In the Kumulipo, the best known of the Hawaiian creation chants, the feats of Eli-Eli are detailed in rhythmic litany. Na Wahine and Kane mated spiritually to produce a royal family, who became additional primary gods worshipped by the Hawaiian people. In ancient chants and rituals, three sons: Ku, Lono, and Kanaloa, along with Kane are the four major Hawaiian gods. Keawe made Kane the ruler of natural phenomena, such as the earth, stones, fresh water. Most importantly, Ku as Kukailimoku was god of war, but he also reigned over woodlands and crops, and in various forms was worshipped by craftsmen. Bird catchers and feather workers appealed to Kuhuluhulumanu, fishermen to Ku'ula, sorcerers to Kukoae, for example. Kanaloa was responsible for the southern Pacific Ocean and as such was god of seamen and lord of fishermen. Lono, as lord of the sun and of wisdom, caused the earth to grow green. As a god of medicine, he had a particular interest in keeping herbs and medicinal plants flourishing. Lono was the god who presided over the makahiki season when war ceased and taxes were paid to the ali'i.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 5
Kane and Na Wahine also had daughters. Among them, Laka was the goddess of hula; Hina was the mother of Maui who pulled the Hawaiian Islands from the ocean; and Kapo was the goddess of the South Pacific and was largely worshipped on Maui. Among the major divinities was the goddess Papa, queen of nature, and the man she married, called Wakea. In legend, Papa and Wakea's first child was born deformed like a taro root. From the child's grave, the first taro plant grew to furnish sustenance to the rest of the human race, which had its origins in this first couple. The twelfth deity was Milu, lord of the spirit world and lord of Ka-pa'a-he'o, where souls who had departed their sleeping or unconscious mortal body might end up if they were not pardoned by their 'aumakua (personal gods) during their wanderings. One of several entrances to the barren, arid land of Milu was thought to be through a pit situated in the mouth of Waipi'o Valley on the Big Island.”
As it is plainly noted from this excerpt from the article entitled “In the Beginning: Hawaiian gods,” by Betty Fullard-Leo. The role of these gods and deities can be seen as each one had a purpose and a role, thus worshiping which god, and why, would depend of profession. For example, farmers tended to worship Lono, because of the god being considered a benign god, because of the insurance of abundant crops from the generous god. Great chiefs would build a luakini (sacrificial) heiau for the war god, Kukailimoku that would require a human life to be sacrificed. Thus, a list can be found;
“Major Deities • Kane - the creator • Ku - the architect and maker of war • Lono - god of peace and prosperity, wind and rain • Kanaloa - god of the ocean.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 6 Gods in the Realm of Death (Po) • Akea - first Hawaiian king who founded a kingdom in the afterlife. • Milu - suceeded Akea. • Manua - supreme soverign of Po, the spirits of chiefs and priests live within him.
Celestial Deities • Kaonohiokala, dead chiefs are brought to him in the eyeball of the sun • Kuahairo, Kaonohiokala's messenger • Olopue, a god on Maui who brought the dead chiefs to Kaonohiokala.
Pele - Goddess of the Volcano • Pele had five brothers and eight sisters who did her bidding, among them: • Kamooalii - King Moho, the god of steam. • Keuakepo - god of rain of fire. • Hiiakawawahilani - the cloud holder. • Keoahikamakaua - the child of war.
Gods and Goddesses of the Natural World • Laamaomao - god of winds, lives on Molokai. • Hinakuluiau - goddess of rain. • Mooaleo - a gnome who lives on Lanai. • Kuula - god of fishermen - his wife is Hina. • Ukanipo - the shark god of Hawaii. • Moaalii - the shark god of Molokai and Oahu. • Apukohai - shark god of Kauai.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 7 • Haulili - god of speech. • Koleamoku - god of the art of healing - patron of the kahunas. • Lakakane - god of the hula. • Mokualii - god of canoe makers. • Ulaulekeahi - god of distillers.
Gods and Goddesses of Arts and Professions • Kalaipahoa - goddess who harms trees. • Kuahana - god who kills men. • Lie - goddess of the mountains. • Kiha - a goddess of Maui. • Uli - god of sorcerers. • Hiaka - a mountain god on Kauai. • Ouli - god who could kill people if prayed to. • Mahulu - names of gods in Lono's temples. • Puea - a god worshipped in darkness. • Kaluannuunohonionio - a god of a temple's sacrificial house.” One would think that these gods, goddesses, deities would have perished because of the Christian missionaries that landed in 1820, thus many temples (heiau) were destroyed and their idols were pulled down, but stone images were left untouched because of the fear, from some commoners, that neglecting the stone images that represented the different gods would be the cause of unnatural disasters to come. This resulted in their burial and deterioration. The gods in this case should have been left nameless and forgotten, but because of; Mele (song) Oli (chant) and Hula (dance). These gods were kept alive
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 8 alongside the story of their creation that made them famous and notorious to the people of Hawaii. As said earlier the type of materials used to make the art would revolve around natural materials, such as; wood, stone, and plant. These many resources would result, of course, into different types of art work, but what shall be concentrated will be the aspect of an artwork that is known to be used directly with the religion but also coincide with other artworks in its many forms; Sculptures.
The Hawaiian word for sculpting is Ku’ikepa, which literal meaning is “pound and slash.” This word is a reflection of Hawaiian thought that is so evident to the portrait of “nothing is what it seems.” The literal meaning to the word used by the Aloha people is to “[create] a likeness of knowledge and experience.” The knowledge mentioned in this definition is that of which is described in; Mele (song) and Oli (chant), and experience that of which has been passed down from generation to generation. The sculptures are quite similar to those produced in other Polynesian islands, but Hawaiian sculpture still hold the essence that gives there sculpture its own identity, and recognition amongst the whole collection of the “many island” community. In order to understand the process the significance of the sculptures two words are to be introduced and noted; Tiki (ki’i) and Akua. Tiki is known in many parts of the world, not only in Polynesia. It is defined as representational images, and tends to be sculpted out of wood, while Akua is the spirit. These two coincide to bring the strong symbolical meaning of the statue to life, for once the tiki is made and sculpted, and then the akua is tied to the figure, and thus animating and activating the piece of wood into a symbol of worship. This combination of the two, tiki and akua, are done
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 9 through prayers and rituals. These rituals and prayers can also help deactivate the sculpture and turn it into an ordinary piece of wood. It can also be deactivated through; failure to perform, and by neglect, but on certain occasions there can be exceptions. Such an exception would be if the item was able to absorb “mana,” super natural force, through a special individual because of long connection by possession and use. Even if the item had no akua to begin with, it would still be an object with great power. Examples of such great power because of possession and use may be the following;
“SHIPWRECK BEACH PETROGLYPHS Shipwreck Bay (East Lanai)
The Birdmen and Night Marchers of Lanai Little stick figures about 12 inches tall, with strange, birdlike heads, decorate the rocks on the lonely and windswept shores of Shipwreck Beach graveyard for many vessels. Their meaning is a mystery lost in time. On the dark nights of the moon, ghosts of ancient warriors have been seen and heard along the shoreline road, and sounds of wailing and babies crying haunt many areas of the coast.”
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 10
“KUKANILOKO BIRTHSTONES Wahiawa (Central Oahu)
Birthplace of Chiefs The sacred birthing stone of Hawaiian royalty. A large, brown lava rock with a sculptured area that supported the mother in a semi-sitting position while she gave birth. Often women who come to this site experience birthing pains identifying with the mothers of the past.”
Serge Kahili King in his article, “Pound and Slash; The Tradition of Hawaiian Sculpture,” mentioned that an agreement to classify the unique sculptures, a unified agreement, was difficult, thus the best thing was to help distinguish between three types of uses for the sculptures; Religious sculptures; Magical sculptures; and Secular sculptures. Religious sculpture would be easily defined by those images that surrounded the heiau (the temple). Sadly, around 150 genuine pre-missionary pieces exist. These pieces are known for their matchless distinctiveness of; terrifying or awesome images with very elaborate head gear and grimacing mouths. This style of sculpting of the images in this fashion is known as “kona style” which was made famous Kamehameha the Great. The reason such a style was used to plant in awe and terror to give more respect and influence of the priests
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 11 (kahuna). Yet, at the same time these fearful figures had clear messages to be projected to the people and worshipers; the outstanding headdress adorned by the statues was a symbol of spiritual power, this of course differed from meaning from one statue to another depending on representation. Whilst the open mouth and tongue would show the power of a spoken work in chant or prayer offered to the spiritual being. Finally, the exposed teeth helped symbolize the treacherous nature of the power.
Ku: "Rising upright" God of war and power and the Sunrise. In ancient Hawaiian religion, KU was a god, architect and maker of war, masculinity, certain types of healing, crafts and other cultural practices, such as; good fishing; good crops, also for a long life, family and national prosperity for a whole.
In the esoteric tradition KU represented the subconscious. Usually one would find the hair standing on end, but because of short hair on top and long stretch towards the heels it is said that this symbolizes memory thinking, which is based on direct body experience.
Lono: In ancient Hawaiian religion, LONO was a god of peace, sports, agriculture. Associated with clouds, yet dwells in the water. He tends to be honored at the annual Makahiki celebrations during which time, war is Kapu (forbidden).
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 12 In the esoteric tradition LONO represented the conscious mind. In Hawaiian culture, hair is a symbol of thought. Unlike Ku the hair here is piled on the top symbolizing imagination and abstract thinking.
Kanaloa: In ancient Hawaiian religion, KANALOA was a god of the God, was looked upon with tends to be associated with sickness. ocean. The squid distrust as he troubles and
Kanaloa, god of the squid, Here is your sick man......
In the esoteric tradition KANALOA represented a state of total confidence, or what in modern terms could be called "inner authority." The hair here is piled up high on the head symbolizing the grouping of imagination and memory, or the combination of body, mind and spirit.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 13 Though the sculptures followed the same style, yet they were represented in many ways to the point variety is noted within the heiau itself; from awesome; terrifying; benign to the abstract. This is because Hawaiian religion was not a “monolithic structure,” as explained in the religious context earlier, thus having its own principle and faith resulting in its many form of art work.
Another type of sculpture of worship and religious value is a sculpture known as akua ka’ai. Ka’ai is the Hawaiian word that stands for “belt, sash and to bind.” The reason the statue is called so is because of the nature of it for personal worship. These statues tend to be in different sizes, because they would be fit to a pole, or would be carved into a pole, between the heights of five inches to six feet, and because they are associated with ka’ai, this could also simply put the tapa, or kapa, cloth in use. Tikis wrapped in the Hawaiian cloth would also be called akua ka’ai, as ka’ai in this context would be known as “protective spirit.” How these statues were used was by carrying them around until a certain area of worship, protection or support would come into view, and then these statues would be stuck in the ground, as they would have a pointed end. Bigger ones would be left at home, as they would be tiresome to carry around.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 14 Magical sculptures tend to be free standing closely human figures, as far as it is believed that pre-missionary Hawaiians would sculpt humanoid figures, and not those of animal or plant forms, with or without hair attached. These statues can be male-oriented or genderless in their appearance, some female tikis can be found in this group of statues. These statues are known for their well known Polynesian “power posture,” in which the statue would e head held high, knees loosened, and arms held at the each side curved. Sometimes some hair, bits of clothing would be used to decorate the statue. Such images were said to be used in practices such as voodoo and black magic, also they were used to counter these spells and used for healing. Like the religious tikis, these magical tikis too needed akua in order for it to be activated and put to use, but the akua in this case would have to be a spirit of an ancestor with the right power needed to be used.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 15 The Aumakua image is known as a magical statue because of the fact it holds an opening at the top in the head were some pairings or clippings such as nails or hair of a victim or a patient could be kept to either heal or harm the person. Another thing to help distinguish a magical statue from a religious one would be the Ki'i Ka-lai Po-ha-ku, or otherwise known as Hawaiian petroglyphs. The priest would utilize the stone carvings through the use of these symbols.
Mana (power) imparted to the sick in order to help restore vitality and energy.
Pi'o (reflect), or center, on positive thoughts and feelings for wellness.
Po'ai (surrounded in love) encircled with the embracing warmth of sincere emotions.
Pu'u-mana (branching knot) represents each of us in the web of life and interconnected to the One and All.
Secular sculptures are the third and final group identified by King. These sculptures are for non-religious use and the fact they are more tied to objects of every
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 16 day interaction, thus creating highly artistic works of art, yet functional as well. Religious and magical tikis tend to hold the grave and solemn appearance of the sculpting community in Hawaii but are balanced with the humor created from their secular sculpture.
Ceremonial Food Bowl This food bowl is a perfect replica to that owned by King Kahekili of Maui. The figures here represent the conquered chiefs and chiefesses. It is said that the original was decorated with the teeth of those who had fallen by the king.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 17
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii Photo by B. Patnoi
The figures shown here on this ceremonial drum are said to be that of human figures put to shame, through the use of the definition and odd position. These figures maybe that of conquered chiefs of chiefess who have been conquered over. There are seven humanoid figures and six base heads all expressed in the exaggerated form of muscular definition that lack on the upper body, but is quite evident in the lower part.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 18
Peabody Essex Museum, E5304. Photo by Jeffrey Dykes
The necklace is made from human hair and sperm whale ivory. What is significant of this piece of jewelry is the fact it holds no human figure, but that of hook, which is still called an idol. Chiefs had the rights to wear such adornments. It is unsure whether the word idol was derived from either the fact the figure was made of sperm whale ivory, or for the fact it had the shape of the hook.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 19
The Australian Museum, Sydney, cat. no. H151. Photo courtesy of the Australian Museum
These turtles are known famously amongst the Atooi (Kauai) women as they tend to wear it in the fashion of rings or bracelet, without the addition of beads, but rather fastened and tied to the finger, made either in wood or ivory, with the eyes being inlaid with tortoise shell.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 20
Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, cat. no. 1304. Photo by Seth Joel
The beauty and terrifying fact of this exquisite bracelet is the material used; thin turtle shell, bone and dog teeth. The heads are used as a decorative element; with the composition of the eyes inlaid and face turned outwards. Every four bone plates hold a pair of human faces spaced beautifully with the use of turtle shell.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 21
Peabody Essex Museum, Salam, MA, cat. no. E25416. Photos by Mark Sexton
The material used in the making of this pendant has been identified with sperm whale ivory, not much can be said on this pendant and its history is a mystery. The necklace is made by 166 beads, 165 white and 1 blue, 83 on each side. As it is evident one arm is missing, yet it is bent in the most peculiar angle; raised above the head, palms facing front, with the fingers of the present hand are individually expressed as triangular points. It can also be noted that the eyes are filled with wood identified as either tropical or subtropical. Finally, features strongly defined through the use of curved lines.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 22 The position of the figure at a strange angle is much of an anonymous predicament—the squatting position; head leading, body following, and knees bent. What also strikes this figure odd is the hole that lies in the back of the pendant.
Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Massachusetts, cat. no. E25416 Photo by Jeffrey Dykes
Not much is known about it, but maybe like other magical statues this could have been used as a healing tool, by placing hair clipping or nail pairings of the patient in the necklace. If the pendant was to be detached from the necklace it would become a free standing figure; yet more evidence of its possibility to be a magical statue. These breath taking statues were all carved out of the physical ancient technology of the Pre-missionary Hawaiian culture that was based on the blue stone. The so called blue stone is none other than another word for very dense crystallized basalt. This tool was highly polished with an extremely sharp edge strong enough to cut through stone and bone, while the other end was fixed to a handle. Cutting stone
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 23 of course is a difficult task, it is said the ancient Hawaiians found a way to soften the stone to make their job easier—Kukui nut oil. This oil was used to soften the stone in order to aid the basalt cut through and give the figures their basic shape.
After the arrival of the Protestant missionaries to the Island of Hawaii in 1820, many statues and heiau were destroyed. Some of those that survived were left untouched and forgotten. Statues left to sleep buried below forgotten by time and by the people that once worshiped them so. Yet, not all of them were destroyed some survived but through the hands of foreigners who came before the missionary arrived on the island in the form of Captain Cook and his crew who took some of the artifacts with them to show their homeland what mystery and great things existed in Hawaii, such as; the pendants; amulets; turtle rings; and many others. After the deactivation of the Protestant missionaries because of the Foreign Board’s support, 1845-1863, many artworks during this period were received under the titles and tags of “from the Sandwich Islands,” thus failing to mark island, place and people of origin. Another turn of event was when the forgotten statues began to resurface at around the time of 1885, with the resurfacing of one stone god. The story was that of strange events, as the man who felt a strange power was commanded to give instructions to his siblings and son; the son was told to catch three fishes; the brother
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 24 to climb for coconuts; the sister to chew some awa. Then the man pointed to site where all three were asked to dig in, a statue appeared. The man placed coconuts around the neck, gave the fish as an offering, and poured the awa over the mouth. After he had preformed his deeds he told the three young people the name of the idol —Kane, and then after which he predicted his death. After three days he died. The statue stands to this very day in Bishop Museum in O’ahu. The statue stands there as a reminder of the power and the still existing mana that once were given by them to their worshipers. The story and history of their glory and golden age may not have been completely forgotten, but lie on silent tongue with their menacing sneer, daring those to mock the once hidden gods and goddesses. Pele to this very day still stands in her volcano ready to remind the people of the Aloha state, that she is forever active and at watch, even though the statues of her kin lay sleep and at rest—Mana remains.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 25 Bibliography
———. “Genealogy and disrespect: A study of symbolism in Hawaiian images.” Res 3, Spring 1982. ———. Eleven Gods Assembled: An Exhibition of Hawaiian Wooden Images. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. April 6-June 10, 1979. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1979. Andover Newton Theological School. Unpublished manuscript material.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 26 Australian Museum Trust. “Pieces of Paradise.” Australian Natural History, Supplement No. 1, Sydney: 1988. Basalt Adze. (2002). Retrieved November 1, 2005, from
http://www.sergeking.com/HAM/basadze.html Beaglehole, J.C. The Journals of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery: The Voyage of the Resolution and Discovery 1776-1780. Cambridge: University Press, 1967. Buck, Peter H. (Te Rangi Hiroa). Arts and Crafts of Hawaii. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 45, Honolulu, 1957. Cerimonial Food Bowl. (2002). Retrieved November 1, 2005, from
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Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 27 Force, Maryanne, and Roland W. Force. Art and Artifacts of the 18th Century: Objects in the Leverian Museum as painted by Sarah Stone. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1968. Gathercole, Peter, Adrienne L. Kaeppler, and Douglas Newton. The Art of the Pacific Islands. Washington: National Gallery of Art, 1979. Hatcher, E. P. (1999). Art as Culture: An Introductory to the Anthropology of Art. London: Bergin and Garvey. Hawaii. (1992). In Young Student: Learning Library (10, pages). Connecticut: Newfield Publications. Hawaiian Gods. (2003). Retrieved November 6, 2005, from
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Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 28 Kaeppler, Adrienne L. “Artificial Curiosities”: Being an Exposition of Native Manufactures Collected on the Three Pacific Voyages of Captain James Cook, R.R. Bishop Museum Special Publication 65. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1978. Kaeppler, Adrienne L., Christian Kaufmann, and Douglas Newton. Oceanic Art. New York: Harry Abrams, 1997. Kanaloa. (2002). Retrieved November 1, 2005, from
http://www.sergeking.com/HAM/kanaloa.html King, S. K. (1989). Pound and Slash: The tradition of Hawaiian Sculpture. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from http://www.sergeking.com/HAM/sculpt.html Kirch, P.V. (2001). Hawaiki, Ancestoral Polynesia : An Essay in Historical Anthropology. New York: Cambridge University Press. Ku. (2002). Retrieved November 1, 2005, from
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http://www.sergeking.com/HAM/lono.html Malo, David. Hawaiian Antiquities (Moolelo Hawaii). Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum. Special Publication 2, 2nd edition, 1951. Metropolitan Museum of Art, catalog records. Ray, Dorothy Jean. Aleut and Eskimo Art: Tradition and Innovation in South Alaska. Seattle: University of Washington.
Sculptures the Forgotten Art- 29 Rose, Roger. The Royal Isles. Bishop Museum Special Publication 67, Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press, 1980. Sotheby & Co. London. February 6, 1961. Lot 129. Thrum, Thos. G. Hawaiian Folk Tales. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1907. Waiapoholio (n.d.). Ki’I Ka-lai Po-ha-ku: Hawaiian Petroglyphs. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from http://www.sergeking.com/HAM/kiikalai.html
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