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METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, it will discuss the method use for the experiment. There are few tests that need to do by following the sequence. First is to get the dehydrated and sieved palm shell kernel and followed by pyrolysised bio-solid. This test is to know the characterizations of the sample in all kinds conditions and to know the composition in the raw sample and also the chemical bonding. Lastly is the adsorption and desorption rates. This test will be conducted by calculation in order form an equation for the rates.

2.1. Materials

Seasoned kernel sample was obtained from the -- and was crushed to give particle size in the range of 0.10.5 cm [--]. The sample was dried at 100oC for 24 h prior to the experiments. The kernel contained 18.1 wt%, 59.7 wt%, 22.1 wt% of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively [--]. Elemental analysis has verified the kernel contains 47.89% carbon, 45.41% oxygen and 6.05% hydrogen[--].

2.2. Dehydrated and sieved The samples were dehydrated and sieved in four differ sizes. The first kernel was exclusively conducted over 50m in one type of grind machine. In the second, third and forth methods, kernel were sieved using sieve 0.202mm, 250m and 400m. At the end of the reaction, the samples were ran for XRF, Nitrogen adsorption, TGA, FTIR and SEM to investigate the chemical bonding and composition of the unknown compound present in the sieve sample but in the absence of any chemicals.

2.3. Pyrolysis experimental procedure

The pyrolysis experiments were conducted in a semi-batch stainless steel reactor using the pretreated kernel (30 g). The experimental system was initially purged with inert nitrogen for approximately 18 min. The reactor was externally heated by an electrical furnace at a fixed temperature of 550 oC, which was monitored by a thermocouple.

2.4. Characterization of bio-solid The functional groups of bio-solids were analyzed by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer. The absorption frequency spectra were recorded and plotted. The standard IR-spectra of organic compounds were used to identify the functional groups of the bio-solid. The chemical compositions of the bio-oil were analyzed using (SEM), and the compounds were determined using (XRF) detector and Nitrogen Adsorption. The yield of kernel conversion and product yield of solid and liquid oils obtained in the pyrolysis reaction were calculated on weight basis according to equation.

2.5. Adsorption and Desorption rates The kernels were determined by using Ideal gas equilibrium equation for adsorption and desorption rates. The pyrolysised, calcined pyrolysised and reduced pyrolysised kernel were compared with standard commercial material so that the equation is the indicator for the both rates.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


HYDROPHILIC(C6H50H+H2O) EFB (FESH,DEHYDRATED,SIEVE 250M,REDUCED) HYDROPHOBIC(METHTL ESTER+H2O)

WET IMPREGNATION(BIO OIL+ C6H50H+H2O,DRIED 24HR,100OC)

WET IMPREGNATION(BIO OIL+ METHTL ESTER+H2O DRIED 24HR,100OC)

0.5712 0.565 0.560 0.555 0.550 0.545 0.540 0.535 0.530 A 0.525 0.520 0.515 0.510 0.505 0.500 0.495
2317.28 2374.67 3722.37 2918.71

efb impregnation

3444.23

1052.12

1639.13

3850.28

1239.89 1399.13

1544.39 670.15

2080.88 851.07 531.30 412.44

0.4884 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm -1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 370.0

CO2 UPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

CO2 UPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

CO2 DEUPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

CO2 DEUPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

REDUCTION(H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100 C)
1.590 1.58

EFB (PYROLYSIS,SIEVE 250M) CO2 UPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)


1117.59

efb pyrolysis reduc tion


1.56 1.54 1.52 1.50 1.48
3399.50 2920.65 2149.64 1590.03

3.21

efb pyrolysis CO2 c apture

1489.98

659.40

3.1
475.06

3.0
1187.82

3439.50 1617.14

1378.67 1099.37 933.14

2.9
556.06

1.46 1.44 A 1.42 1.40


921.82

829.95

2.8

2.7 A 2.6

2915.85

2375.48 2514.49

2050.99

2.5

2980.16 3837.36

1.38 1.36
3923.79

2.4

1.34 1.32

2.3

2.2

1.30
3770.61

1.280 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 370.0

2.09 4000.0 3600 3200 2800 2400 2000 1800 cm-1 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 370.0

The spectra contain not only the characteristic signals of carbohydrates but also those of lignin. They are O-H stretching vibration

HYDROPHILIC(C6H50H+H2O)

HYDROPHOBIC(METHTL ESTER+H2O)

WET IMPREGNATION(BIO OIL+ C6H50H+H2O)

WET IMPREGNATION(BIO OIL+ METHTL ESTER+H2O)

CO2 UPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

CO2 UPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

CO2 DEUPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)

CO2 DEUPTAKE (H2,100ML/MIN,1HR,100OC)