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Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Travel has existed since the beginning of time when primitive mans set out, often traversing great distances, in search of game which provided the food and clothing necessary for survival. The phenomenon of tourism has received worldwide recognition and is growing by leaps and bounds. It has emerged as one of the world’s largest industry with latent vast growth potential. Being an important facet of socio-economic development, it has become one of the crucial concerns of not only the nations but also the international community as a whole.
The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.
In 2007, there were over 903 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2006. Tourism is vital for many countries such as U.A.E, Egypt, Greece, Thailand and many island nations such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, and Seychelles due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis, accommodation such as hotels and entertainment venues, and other hospitality industry services such as resorts.
Tourism is defined as the process, activities and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2006) Tourism is a multi-faceted phenomenon that involves movement to and stay in destinations outside the normal place of residence.
Kaushik K. (H-1331)
Tourism Paining & Development 1.2 History of Tourism
Environmental Impacts of Tourism
The earliest forms of leisure tourism can be traced as far back as the Babylonian and Egyptian empires. A museum of “historic antiquities” was open to the public in the sixth century BC in Babylon, while the Egyptians held many religious festivals attracting not only the devout, but many who came to see the famous buildings and works of art in the cities. The local towns accommodated tourists by providing services such as: vendors of food and drink, guides, hawkers of souvenirs, touts and prostitutes. From around the same date, Greek tourists travelled to visit the sites of healing gods. Because the independent city-states of ancient Greece had no central authority to order the construction of roads, most of these tourists travelled by water, hence seaports prospered.
The lands of the Mediterranean Sea produced a remarkable evolution in travel. People travel for trade, commerce, religious purposes, festivals, medical treatment, or education developed at an early date.
Before the sixteenth century, those who sought to travel had three modes in which to do so. They could walk, ride a horse or they could be carried, either on a little or on a carrier’s wagon. The development of the sprung coach was a huge advance for those who regularly travelled, and by the mid 1600’s, coaches were operating regularly in Britain. In the eighteenth century the introduction of turnpike roads, which provided improved surfaces for which tolls would be charged. The later introduction of the metal, leaf spring suspension also added to comfort. Travel also requires accommodation, and at that time, it was basic. To accommodate the new demand for travel inns was provided. They provided fresh horses, and lodgings were available for rent to visitors when they arrived at their destination.
From the early seventeenth century, a new form of tourism developed as a direct outcome of the freedom and quest for learning heralded by the Renaissance. Young men who wanted positions at court were encouraged to travel to the Continent to finish their education.
Kaushik K. (H-1331)
Tourism Paining & Development
Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Others soon adopted this practice in the upper echelons of society, and it soon became customary for the education of a gentleman to be completed by a “Grand tour” of major cultural centers of Europe, accompanied by a tutor and often-lasting three years or more. The appeal soon became social, and leisure seeking young men travelled, predominantly to France and Italy, to enjoy the rival cultures and social life of cities such as Paris, Venice, or Florence. By the end of the eighteenth century, the custom had become institutionalized for the gentry. (White, 2006)
The word tourism was used by 1811 and tourist by 1840. In 1936 the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as someone travelling abroad for at least twenty-four hours. Its successor, the United Nations amended this definition in 1945 by including a maximum stay of six months.
Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – Data as collected by UNWTO, 2007
It is clear that tourism is a major force in the economy of the world, an activity of global importance and significance. It is also a sector that has the capacity to impact negatively upon host environments and cultures, the raw materials of many tourism products. As a result increased prominence has been given to tourism in the United Nation’s World summits such as the 1992 ‘Rio Earth Summit’ and the ‘World Summit on Sustainable Development’ in Johannesburg in 2002. Kaushik K. (H-1331) -4-
Tourism Paining & Development 1.2.1 Manila Declaration
Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Manila Declaration was held at Manila, Philippines, from 27 September to 10 October 1980, convened by the World Tourism Organization with the participation of 107 delegations of States and 91 delegations of observers, in order to clarify the real nature of tourism in all its aspects and the role tourism is bound to play in a dynamic and vastly changing world, as well as to consider the responsibility of States for the development and enhancement of tourism in present-day societies as more than a purely economic activity of nations and peoples.
1.3 Global Tourism
Internationally tourism occupies a very important place in the economies of several countries. Governments all over the world are competing with each other in selling tourism. It is the world’s largest industry which is forecasted to grow at a 4 percent per year till 2010. However as per the WTTC’s vision the estimated growth rate over the coming decade has been put at 4.6 percent per annum.
Tourism, the fastest growing sector of the global trade, accounts for 10.7% of Global Gross domestic Product (GDP), 12.8 % of Global Exports, 8.2 % of Global Employment and 9.4 % Global investment. The global market trends in tourism are changing due to the change in the living standards, free time for leisure, advancement in transportation and development of information technology etc. (Fazil, and Ashraf, 2006)
Tourism is the world's largest industry, with annual revenue of almost $500 billion. And it is growing fast, with airline arrivals expected to double by 2010. Leisure is estimated to account for 75 per cent of all international travel. The World Tourism Organization (WTO) estimated there were nearly 900 million international tourist arrivals in 2007 from 846 million in 2006, an increase of about 6 per cent. This represents nearly 52 million more arrivals than in 2006 and they are expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2020.
Kaushik K. (H-1331)
Tourism Paining & Development
Environmental Impacts of Tourism
Domestic tourism (people going on holiday in their own country) is generally thought to be 4-5 times greater than international arrivals. The international tourism receipts totaled US $ 733 Billion in 2006.
Globally, tourism accounts for roughly 35 per cent of exports of services and over 8 per cent of exports of goods (WTO). Tourism is said to be the world’s largest employer. In 2001, the International Labor Organization (ILO) estimated that globally over 207 million jobs were directly or indirectly employed in tourism. In the UK alone, 10 per cent of total employment is in the tourism sector. According to the latest research by the industry’s World Travel and Tourism Council released in 2008, world travel and tourism is expected to generate close to US $ 8 trillion in 2008, rising approximately US $ 15 trillion over the next 10 years. The long term forecasts by WTTC also point to a steady phase of growth for world travel and tourism between 2009 and 2018 with an average growth rate of 4.4 per cent per annum, supporting 297 million jobs and 10.5 per cent of global GDP by 2018.
For almost 83 per cent of countries in the world, tourism is one of the top five sources of foreign exchange. The Caribbean countries derive half their GDP from tourism (World Resources Institute). The Benidorm's tourism industry accounts for 1 per cent of Spain's GDP.
The significance of tourism has been recognized in both developed and developing countries. This can be seen in the establishment of sophisticated and well resourced government departments of tourism, widespread encouragement and sponsorship of tourist developments, and proliferation of small businesses and multinational corporations contributing to and deriving benefits from tourism industry. Tourism has indeed stimulated employment, investment and entrepreneurial activity, modified land use and economic structure and made a positive contribution to the balance of payments in many countries throughout the world.
Kaushik K. (H-1331)
829 international tourists in 1950. terrain. C. risk management. It has a potential of five million’. India’s potential has been acknowledged by many writers and travelers.’ – – As an area of study. (H-1331) -7- . the Bali bombing and SARS clearly demonstrate the sector’s ability to regroup and place emphasis on a new vocabulary including words such as safety.3.3 million visitors in a year fir this greatest show in earth. history and people make it a country with immense resource potential. 1. India has been no exception.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Tourism has been remarkable in its resistance to adverse economic and political conditions. However the year 2003 again saw an increase and figures recorded were 2. The potential of tourism in India can be judged from the following quote by Allan Bainet of British Airways: ‘1. and recovery. In response to those issues it is important at the outset to provide an organizing framework for the study of tourism. From a mere 16. The resources are so vast that India is often referred as country of all seasons and reasons.6 million in the year 2000. geography.4 Tourism System ‘A tourist is someone who travels to see something different. and then complains when things are not the same.1 Indian Perspective With the phenomenon of tourism growing worldwide. tourism is still relatively young and this creates a range of issues to be dealt with. 1. as far as tourism is concerned. Thereafter there was a slight recession and the figures dropped down to 2. (1994) Kaushik K. does not make any sense.38 million during the year 2002. Events such as 9/11. India’s size. crisis. security. the figure grew up to 2.75 million. Holloway.
1990 The Traveler Generating Region represents the part in the tourism system from where people travel to another region of their choice. 1. Kaushik K. Transit Route Region 3. Traveler Generating Region 2.4. All these three components are organized in such a way within the system that they are interdependent and must occur in a sequential manner for tourism to take place. In essence it is the generating market for tourism and act as a push force to stimulate and motivate travel. (H-1331) -8- . Tourist Destination Region Source . makes reservations and ultimately departs. politics and economies.Leiper.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The author would like to adopt Leiper’s Model which neatly takes into account many of the tourism issues and a range of external environments such as society.1 Leiper’s model Leiper’s model arranges tourism as a system with three components. The three basic elements are: 1. It is from here that the searches for information.
The major advantages of the Leiper’s Model are that its general applicability and simplicity which provide a useful ‘way of thinking’ about tourism. It is the place where the ultimate impact of tourism is felt.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The Transit Route Region represents not only the short period of travel to reach the destination. It has the ability to incorporate the interdisciplinary approaches to tourism to tourism because it is not rooted in any particular subject and or discipline but instead provides a framework within which disciplinary approaches can be located. Tourism is a beneficiary of the irreversible process of globalization and indeed is an accelerating factor for this process. Tourism is today one of the most internationalized sectors of the world economy. It ts in essence the pull force and attracts tourists towards its territory. from a local resort to the international industry. where they choose to visit. The model is infinitely flexible and allows the incorporation of different forms of tourism. resulting in increased productivity and prosperity in a great many countries. The model could be used at any level or scale of generalization. but also the intermediate places. The Tourist Destination Region is the ultimate place for where a tourist is headed.5 Growth of Tourism Tourism is one of the world economy’s growth sectors. There is always an interval in the trip when the traveler feels they have no yet arrived. (H-1331) -9- . All the planning and management strategies are implemented here and it is the place where most noticeable and dramatic consequences of the system occur. The trend to a division of labor on a worldwide basis has been particularly favorable to tourism. 1. The model demonstrates the highly important principle of tourism studies that all the elements of tourism are related and interact. Kaushik K. Despite crisis-induced slumps the long term growth trend appears to be stable. which may be visited en-route.
10 - . the export income generated by international tourism ranks fourth.1 International Tourist Arrivals From 1950 to 2007. the top 15 destinations absorbed 98% of all international tourist arrivals. after fuels. Between 1995 and 2007 growth averaged over 4% a year. (2005) Since the world is becoming a global village. chemicals and automotive products. While. adding considerably to the potential for further growth and at the same time bringing about greater competition between tourism countries. in 1970 the proportion was 75% and this fell to 57% in 2007. international tourist arrivals grew from 25 million to 903 million. For many developing countries.5. Tourism has become one of the major international trade categories. Today.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The world tourism market has been extended a lot. reflecting the emergence of new destinations. in spite of the stagnation between 2001 and 2003 due to terrorism. (H-1331) . turning modern tourism into a key driver for socioeconomic progress. more and more destinations have opened up and invested in tourism development. The overall export income generated by these arrivals (international tourism receipts and passengers transport) grew at a similar pace. exceeding US$ 1 trillion in 2007. many of them in developing countries. it makes the tourists are travelling across the globe. SARS and the economic downturn. it is one of the main income sources and the number one export category. or almost US$ 3 billion a day. (Keller. Kaushik K. Over the past six decades. 1. outgrowing the world economy. in 1950. creating much needed employment and opportunities for development. tourism has experienced continued growth and diversification to become one of the largest and fastest growing economic sectors in the world. Over time.
11 - . By 2010 international arrivals are expected to reach 1 billion. visitor expenditure on accommodation. is an important pillar of their economies. Kaushik K. shopping. food and drink. The revolution in the international tourist arrivals across the continents is illustrated as follows: Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – Data as collected by UNWTO. 2008 1.5. Nearly 80 countries earned more than US$ 1 million from international tourism in 2007. local transport.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism For the whole of 2008. creating much needed employment and opportunities for development. entertainment. (H-1331) . etc. and 1.2 World Tourism Receipts For many destinations.6 billion by 2020. due to the uncertainties posed by the global economy affecting consumer confidence and constraining disposable income. a softening of growth is anticipated.
international tourism receipts increased by US$ 114 billion. The performance of the Americas was a significant improvement over the previous year’s 2% growth. receipts from international tourism count as exports and cover transactions generated by same-day as well as overnight visitors. growth in international tourism receipts reached 5. North Africa and Central and Eastern Europe (all three at +9%). which are reported in a separate category. In absolute terms.1%) and added to a series of four consecutive years of substantial growth. largely as a result of a stagnation in arrivals. the Caribbean. the euro. Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – Data as collected by UNWTO. i. In terms of sub regions. adjusted for exchange rate fluctuations and inflation. For destination countries. However. With this increase. Kaushik K. but only by 34 billion in Euros due to the devaluation of the US dollar against several world currencies and. Only one subregion. In real terms. followed by Central America.4%). 2008 The relative growth in real terms was particularly strong in Asia and the Pacific (+11%) – at double the world average – in Africa (+8%) and in the Americas (+6%).12 - .Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism UNWTO estimates that worldwide receipts from international tourism reached US$ 856 billion (625 billion Euros) in 2007. international tourism revenues maintained the momentum of 2006 (+5.e. (H-1331) .6%. in particular. the strongest increases came from South-East Asia (+13%) and North-East Asia (+12%). these do not include receipts from international passenger transport contracted from companies outside the travelers’ countries of residence. ‘International Passenger Transport’. did not increase its receipts in 2007 (-0.
almost US$ 3 billion a day is earned by international tourism. corresponding in 2007 to US$ 165 billion against US$ 143 billion in 2006. Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – Data as collected by UNWTO.3 UNWTO’s Tourism 2020 Vision Tourism 2020 Vision is the World Tourism Organization’s long-term forecast and assessment of the development of tourism up to the first 20 years of the new millennium. the export value of international passenger transport in recent years is estimated at around 16% of the combined receipts from international tourism and passenger transport. This takes total receipts from international tourism.13 - . Kaushik K. with 1995 as base year and forecasts for 2010 and 2020.5. 2008 1. (H-1331) . including international passenger transport. to over US$ 1 trillion in 2007.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The availability of comparable international data is limited. An essential outcome of the Tourism 2020 Vision are quantitative forecasts covering a 25 years period. In other words.
The underlying structural trends of the forecast are believed not to have significantly changed. Experience shows that in the short-term. periods of faster growth (1995.1%. Source: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) – Data as collected by UNWTO. South Asia. 2004 to 2007) alternate with periods of slow growth (2001 to 2003). UNWTO maintains its long-term forecast for the moment.2% between 1995 and 2007.2 billion will be intraregional and 378 million will be long-haul travelers. compared to the world average of 4. And. 2000. the Middle East and South Asia. 2007 UNWTO’s Tourism 2020 Vision forecasts that international arrivals are expected to reach nearly 1.14 - . (H-1331) . East Asia and the Pacific (397 million) and Americas (282 million). followed by Africa. East Asia and the Pacific. 1996. 1. Of these worldwide arrivals in 2020. Kaushik K.6 billion by the year 2020. the Middle East and Africa are forecasted to record growth at rates of over 5% per year.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Although the evolution of tourism in the last years has been irregular. The total tourist arrivals by region shows that by 2020 the top three receiving regions will be Europe (717 million tourists). the actual pace of growth is in reality in line with the Tourism 2020 Vision forecast as international tourist arrivals show an average growth of 4.
this suggests that local elected officials. Kaushik K. are anticipated to show lower than average growth rates. 2001) Tourism is of major economic and social significance. The despite the great volume increase in the global tourism. (H-1331) . Having broad community involvement and embracing different perspectives during planning helps identify and resolve concerns that would otherwise create problems later. tourism has been one of the fastest growing economic activities globally and it has proven to be resilient to political violence and natural disasters. 2008) International tourism is a major foreign exchange earner and a principal export for many low income countries as well as for developed ones. Europe and Americas. although there will be a decline from 60% in 1995 to 46% in 2020. It is the most important export industry and earner of foreign exchange in many countries. With a world growth rate of 5 percent per annum. 2. it is essential to identify the possible impacts. (Tourism Highlights Report. Europe will maintain the highest share of world arrivals. 2001) Tourism development may result in many and complex impacts. it is important to realize that the increasing growth of tourism worldwide will have positive as well as negative impacts on the environment. More than 720 million tourists spend $ 480 billion (US) annually in places outside their own countries.15 - . First. (Kreag. the tourism industry. Planning can help create an industry that enhances a community with minimal costs and disruptions in other aspects of community life. (Kreag.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The more mature regions.1 Impacts of Tourism A goal of developing the tourism industry in a community is maximizing selected positive impacts while minimizing potential negative impacts. rebounding quite rapidly once these have passed. and community residents need to work cooperatively and carefully to plan for its growth and development. 2004) this is one of the largest items in world’s foreign trade. (WTO. Tourism researchers have identified a large number of impacts.
public transportation. sewer. increasing opportunities for shopping and adding healthy competitiveness. and non-traditional transportation. Greater demand for goods. additional opportunities are created for investment. Tourism encourages new elements to join the retail mix. Additional jobs.2 Economic Impacts Tourism increases employment opportunities. Some tourism-related businesses are volatile and high-risk ventures that are unsustainable. New jobs generate more income tax revenues. fuel. Similarly. airports. land. development. (H-1331) . etc. Tourism businesses may claim land that could have higher.Tourism Paining & Development The impacts of tourism can be categorized as follows: Environmental Impacts of Tourism 2. medical. additional taxes may also be needed to pay for them. and fuel taxes. It often increases a community's tax revenues. The community may have to generate funds to maintain roads and transportation systems that have become more heavily used. As tourism grows. (Kreag.) is required. power. Lodging and sales taxes most notably increase but additional tax revenues include air travel and other transportation taxes.value or other uses. Additionally. 2001) Kaushik K.16 - . non-local owners and corporations may export profits out of the community. if additional infrastructure (water. ranging from low-wage entry-level to high-paying professional positions in management and technical fields. services. business taxes. and housing may increase prices that in turn will increase the cost of living. Tourism encourages improvements in transport infrastructure resulting in upgraded roads. generate income and raise standards of living. and infrastructure spending.
Influxes of tourists bring diverse values to the community and influence behaviors and family life. Increased tourism can push a community to adopt a different moral conduct such as improved understanding between sexes or increased illicit drug use.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Source: Kreag. political upheaval. disease outbreak. 2001 2. Interactions between residents and tourists can impact creative expression by providing new opportunities or by stifling individuality with new restrictions. energy shortages. as impacts can either become assets or detriments to communities.17 - . a chemical spill. Kaushik K. terrorism.3 Social and Cultural Impacts The social and cultural ramifications of tourism warrant careful consideration. (H-1331) . Individuals and the collective community might try to please tourists or adopt tourist behaviors. Safety and health facilities and staffing tend to increase at the same time safety problems such as crime and accidents increase. or even widespread negative publicity could shut down tourism abruptly but sometimes can attract curious visitors. Calamities such as natural disasters.
areas with festivals involving alcohol. (Cooper. 2005) Kaushik K. Illegal activities tend to increase in the relaxed atmosphere of tourist areas.18 - . recreational opportunities. However. and services. and Wanhill. is the most fundamental ingredient of the tourism product. 2001) Source: Source: Kreag. Gilbert. too. Increased underage drinking can become a problem especially in beach communities. 2001 2.4 Environmental Impacts 2. as soon as the environmental activity takes place.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Tourism can improve the quality of life in an area by increasing the number of attractions.1 Tourism and the Environment The environment whether it is natural or artificial. Development of tourist facilities in prime locations may cause locals to be or feel excluded from those resources. Tourism can come to a community with a dark social and cultural side. (Kreag. Fyall. (H-1331) . the environment changes inevitably. either to facilitate tourism or through the tourism process. and ski villages. Flethcher.4.
the environment is taking centre stage in tourism development. It also has the power to destroy. 2006) It is not possible to develop tourism without incurring environmental impacts. Fyall. (Cooper. carrying capacity. Profitability of tourism depends on maintaining the attractiveness of the destination people want to see and experience. cause housing problems. Tourism is now the world’s largest industry. nature tourism.19 - . 2005) Kaushik K. to manage tourism development in order to minimize the negative impact while encouraging the positive impacts. (Goeldner and Ritchie. to preserve culture and history. The environment is the core of the tourism product. it can destroy vegetation. sustainable development. and Wanhill. pollute beaches. If tourism is not properly planned and implemented. Tourism has the power to enhance the environment. The problem is how to do this. the enterprise will have to make the environment a priority.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism As tourism moves further into the twenty-first century. Tourism is not only a powerful economic force but not environment in the future projects that are economically feasible but not environmentally desirable will remain unbuilt. to set sustainable use limits and to protect the natural attractions. to provide funds for conservation. It is being recognized that tourism must preserve the environment and natural attractions so that sites will be truly sustainable. Concepts such as ecotourism. and alternative tourism have been proposed. with correct planning. Gilbert. and ignore the needs and structure of the host community. litter trekking areas. create overcrowding. (H-1331) . but it is possible. Flethcher.
the Amboselli National Park and the Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya). protected. Fjord Land National Park (New Zealand) x x x x The protection of reefs and beaches. selected natural environments are preserved. x x Establishment of management of regulatory and certification bodies to manage tourism-environment issues. Colo I Suva (Fiji). the Great Barrier Reef (Australia). mountains.20 - .4. the direct environmental impacts associated with tourism include: x The preservation/restoration of the ancient monuments. the Taj Mahal. Development and use of new and appropriate technologies that minimize the impact of tourism activities on the environment and the extended conservation of natural resources. such as Great Wall of China. sites and historic buildings. and great scenic beauty attract tourists and new residents (in-migrants) who seek emotional and spiritual connections with nature. the Stonehenge and Warwick Castle. the Pyramids. Las Canadas (Tenerife). The contribution of Nature heritage tourism to the conservation of natural areas and biodiversity. The promotion and use of Environmental Management Systems. Areas with high-value natural resources. the Pitiier National Park (Venezula). unique flora and fauna. Grad Anse (Grenada) The maintenance of forests such as the New Forest (UK). environmental impact assessment and similar environment management tools. Kaushik K. and kept from further ecological decline.2 Positive Environmental Impacts Environmental Impacts of Tourism On the positive side. waterfalls. such as Yellowstone Park (USA). like oceans. (H-1331) . Because these people value nature. x The creation of national parks and wildlife parks.Tourism Paining & Development 2. Lands that could be developed can generate income by accommodating the recreational activities of visitors. lakes.
such as the impact of 33 million tourists a year on the city of New York.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Tourist income often makes it possible to preserve and restore historic buildings and monuments. 2004 tsunami on the tourists themselves. http://www. restaurants. one that is based on hotels. 2001) The physical deterioration of both natural and built environments can have serious consequences. It often puts a strain on water resources. or the potential to impact fragile environments negatively. natural habitat loss. Date accessed – 19/01/09. and Wanhill.) Kaushik K. instead of factories. air and noise levels are disturbed with any such modification in the environment. and by pollution from aircraft. or the impact of the December 26. Uncontrolled conventional tourism poses potential threats to many natural areas around the world. (Cooper. shops and attractions. (Kreag. increased pollution. Gilbert. It can put enormous pressure on an area and lead to impacts such as soil erosion.4. including ballast water discharge. Fyall.html. Improvements in the area’s appearance through cleanup or repairs and the addition of public art such as murals. (Anon. (Undated) Environmental Impacts of Tourism.gdrc. The environment can be affected negatively by cruise ship pollution in many ways.org/uem/eco-tour/envi/one. (H-1331) . increased pressure on endangered species and heightened vulnerability to forest fires. Tourism is generally considered a "clean" industry.21 - . and it can force local populations to compete for the use of critical resources. water fountains.3 Negative Environmental Impacts Negative impacts from tourism occur when the level of visitor use is greater than the environment’s ability to cope with this use within the acceptable limits of change. 2005) Attracting a high volume of tourists can have negative impacts. discharges into the sea. Flethcher. 2. and monuments (part of making a community ready for tourism) benefit visitors and residents alike. The qualities of water.
many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. Wastage of Water resources Tourist-related development can also have significant cumulative impacts on water quality and the aesthetics of host communities. For instance. The destruction or loss of flora and fauna can happen when desirable plants and animals are collected for sale or the land is trampled. visual pollution may occur from billboard proliferation.Tourism Paining & Development Overuse/Improper Use of Natural Resource Environmental Impacts of Tourism Natural resource attractions can be jeopardized through improper uses or overuse. golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. and especially fresh water. Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. fossil fuels. Land degradation Important land resources include minerals. hot water. etc. swimming pools. natural landscape and open space can be lost. Depletion of Local Resource Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy. especially for prime locations like beachfronts.22 - . As tourism develops. special views. as well as generating a greater volume of waste water. is one of the most critical natural resources. Golf Tourism has also been contributing to create a negative impact on the environment. demand for land increases. Because of the seasonal character of the industry. Providing tourist services can alter the landscape's appearance. Kaushik K. wetland and wildlife. Water. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies. forests. (H-1331) .). fertile soil. The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels. Without forethought. food. Increased construction of tourism and recreational facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating. and mountains.
mangroves. Deforestation Forests often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing. and cultural or historical artifacts from an area. Tourists or the businesses that cater to them often remove plants. 2001) Kaushik K. For example. In the Philippines and the Maldives.and area already suffering the effects of deforestation can use four to five kilograms of wood a day. and monuments. Threat to Wild-Life Travelers can also inadvertently introduce non-indigenous species. (Kreag. Furthermore. coral.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Direct impact on natural resources. leading to erosion and destruction of habitats. animals. historic sites.23 - . as can increases in the trade of animals and plants. Marina development Development of marinas and breakwaters can cause changes in currents and coastlines. in the provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision. (H-1331) . extraction of building materials such as sand affects coral reefs. Coastal wetlands are often drained and filled due to lack of more suitable sites for construction of tourism facilities and infrastructure. Construction of ski resort accommodation and facilities frequently requires clearing forested land. rocks. one trekking tourist in Nepal . and the use of building materials. Uncontrolled visitation or overuse by visitors can degrade landscapes. These activities can cause severe disturbance and erosion of the local ecosystem. A constant stream of visitors and domestic pets may disrupt wildlife by disturbing their breeding cycles and altering natural behaviors. both renewable and nonrenewable. fossils. even destruction in the long term. and hinterland forests. dynamiting and mining of coral for resort building materials has damaged fragile coral reefs and depleted the fisheries that sustain local people and attract tourists.
scenic areas. species loss. and roadsides. habitat destruction. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the developed world. The additional demand on water and energy supplies may also require further infrastructure development. cruise ships in the Caribbean are estimated to produce more than 70.Tourism Paining & Development Climate Change Environmental Impacts of Tourism The tourism industry is a contributor to issues such as climate change. pollution and waste. oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. (H-1331) . Large developments also have the potential to generate significant quantities of waste that may lead to pollution and degradation of ecosystems if inadequately managed. For example. Today some cruise lines are actively working to reduce waste-related impacts. in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities. trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste. show leadership and take firm action to initiate change and manage its impacts (Worboys. Some trails in the Peruvian Andes and in Nepal frequently visited by tourists have been nicknamed "Coca-Cola trail" and "Toilet paper trail". Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage.g. The construction of major tourism infrastructure (e. Kaushik K.24 - .rivers. waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment . hotels and marinas) can impact local environments and encourage a greater influx of visitors than would otherwise visit the area. In mountain areas. water availability. It has been slow to respond to these issues. Solid waste and littering In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions. Infrastructure Development Tourism impacts on the environment occur in different ways. Lockwood & De Lacy.000 tons of waste each year. 2005).
like mangroves and coral reefs. In the Mediterranean region for example.25 - . and concentrated recreational and charter fishing in sensitive marine habitats. At the same time. the Balearic Islands and Sicily. Examples of inappropriate location impacts include coastal camping and activities like sand boarding and four-wheel driving in fragile dunes. Kaushik K. resorts with high water use in arid environments. Additionally. coasts are under very high population pressure due to rapid urbanization processes. 2001 While environmental impact can be addressed through good design and best practice. (Anon. 2007) 3. tourism is the first economic activity for islands like Cyprus. coastal areas are those which are most visited by tourists and in many coastal areas tourism presents the most important economic activity.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Source: Source: Kreag. impacts caused by inappropriate location of tourism activities will be difficult to address.1 Costal Tourism Coastal areas are transitional areas between the land and sea characterized by a very high biodiversity and they include some of the richest and most fragile ecosystems on earth. (H-1331) . among all different parts of the planet. Malta. More than half of today’s world population lives in coastal areas (within 60 km from the sea) and this number is on the rise.
Reefs have also suffered indirectly from sediment from inland deforestation and removal of coastal mangroves.26 - . Coral reefs have developed all over the world. haphazard coastal development. and development of tourism infrastructure in general. and urban runoff.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Forecast studies carried out by WTO estimate that international tourist arrivals to the Mediterranean coast will amount to 270 millions in 2010 and to 346 millions in 2020 (in 2000 around 200 million foreign visitors per year). They expand near the surface along coasts where the sea water temperature is above 20 °C. reefs have been damaged directly through harmful practices such as coral mining. coral reefs are under assault from a multitude of sources. from industrial pollution. or overfishing. Depending on their location. as well as indirect impacts from resort development and operation. fishing with dynamite. Around the world. in the two tropical zones and in the three oceans. fertilizers. Impacts from tourism activities include both direct physical impacts (such as diver damage and anchor damage). Kaushik K. and from nutrient pollution contributed by sewage. or even careless pleasure diving by tourists. (H-1331) .
marinas. (H-1331) . but they are also compounded by other impacts that are not easily distinguished from those of tourism. On the contrary. ports. conch. This does not mean that we must disregard the impacts of tourism activities.2 Impact of Tourism on Coral Reefs Environmental Impacts of Tourism Tourism has both direct and indirect impacts on coral reefs.3 Tourism activities affecting the costal areas Activities with Direct Impacts Snorkeling Actual and/or Potential Impacts Physical Damage (breakage.27 - . boat groundings Fishing Contribute to over-exploitation of reef fish stocks. construction and operation of tourism infrastructure as a whole (resorts.Tourism Paining & Development 3. Tourism-related impacts on coral reefs are significant. Complete with local fishers Collecting (shells. contributing to over-exploitation and competing with local fishers. Kaushik K. 3. airports. etc. Indirect impacts relate to the development.). even if there is no 100% proof that a certain impact is directly related to a tourist activity. lesions). diving and boating can cause direct physical damage to reefs. the tourism sector and government agencies involved in tourism development must try to eliminate or reduce those impacts that can be controlled. Kicking up Sediment Scuba Diving Motor Boating and Yachting Physical Damage (breakage lesions) Physical Damage from anchoring. Lobsters. coral) Threatening local survival of rare species. Snorkeling. and fishing and collecting can contribute to over-exploitation of reef species and threaten local survival of endangered species.
grouper. conch) Demand for marine curiosities Exploitation of rare/ endangered/ vulnerable species such as shells. from Litter inappropriate (especially Plastics) Seafood Consumption Over-exploitation of high-priced resource species (snapper.Tourism Paining & Development Activities with Indirect Impacts Resort Development and construction Sewage Resort Operation Disposal. black coral. (H-1331) . Irrigation Solid Waste Disposal Leaching of toxic waste substances disposal. spiny lobster.28 - . turtles Construction of artificial beaches and Increased beach replenishment Airport construction or extension sedimentation (from sand removal or from beach instability) Increased sedimentation from dredging and infilling Marina construction Marina operation Increased sedimentation from dredging Pollution from inappropriate disposal of oils and paint residues Pollution from fueling Motor boating and yachting Nutrient enrichment from sewage disposal Pollution from fueling Cruise ships Nutrient enrichment from illegal sewage disposal Litter from illegal or accidental solid waste disposal Kaushik K. Environmental Impacts of Tourism Actual and/or Potential Impacts Increased sedimentation Fertilizer Nutrient Enrichment run off.
The Caribbean islands are classified as one of the conservation international’s biodiversity hotspots because they support exceptionally diverse ecosystems. The region comprises of more than 7. Tourism earnings account for approximately 25% of the region’s Gross Domestic Product.000 islands. In 1999. and to the north of South America. The Caribbean.Tourism Paining & Development 3. Kaushik K. reefs and cays. The region is located southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and North America. The hotspots contain dozens of highly threatened species. generally form island arcs that delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea. the benefits of the tourism industry continue to increase faster than all other regions in terms of revenue and employment. the Caribbean attracted 3. The tourism sector in the Caribbean has assumed prominence as a result of consistent stagnation in the traditional economic sectors. to mammals and reptiles. islets. its islands.1% of the tourist arrivals in the world. as a single destination usually ranks sixth in terms of tourist receipts.4 The Caribbean Islands Environmental Impacts of Tourism The Caribbean is a region consisting of the Caribbean Sea.29 - . (H-1331) . ranging from birds. In the Caribbean region. and the surrounding coasts. called the West Indies. These islands.
onecaribbean. (H-1331) .4.org/ Kaushik K.30 - .Tourism Paining & Development 3.1 Tourism Growth in Caribbean Environmental Impacts of Tourism International and Caribbean Tourist Receipts: 1980-2004 (US $ Billions) Source: http://www.
Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism International and Caribbean Tourist Arrivals 1970-2004 (Millions) Source: http://www.31 - .onecaribbean. (H-1331) .org/ Kaushik K.
reincarnated and developed in response to tourists’ interests. Tourism has also benefited farmers. and both government and Industry will have to overcome a number of challenges to ensure sustainable long-term growth. The common languages that European and North American tourists can speak in the Caribbean are English. For e. the Industry’s potential is a long way from being fully tapped. 3. and fruit to feed the large number of visitors. Strengthening communities Sustainable Coastal Tourism can add to the vitality of communities in many ways. Tourism as a force for peace Travelling brings people into contact with each other. fishermen. However. French. Dutch. where they have been the primary participants and spectators. eggs. Caribbean islands now depend on tourism for their economy. and merchants because they must grow and supply more fish. During the last decade alone. there has been a significant effect on the reef ecosystem surrounding the beautiful islands.4. vegetables. The Caribbean is fairly free of disease. pests and European and North American visitors can speak their own language. (H-1331) . As sustainable tourism has an educational element it can foster understanding between people and cultures and provide cultural exchange between guests and hosts. or Spanish.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The importance of travel & tourism to the Caribbean is indisputable. poultry. Kaushik K. meat.g.32 - . events and festivals of the local communities.2 Positive impact of tourism on the Caribbean Many Caribbean islands offer a diversity of landscapes in a small area. Often these are refreshed. tolerance and understanding and to reduce prejudices and promote the sense of global brotherhood. often being referred to as “the engine of their growth”. This increases the chances for people to develop mutual sympathy.
as well as improve their jobs and earnings prospects through tourism-related professional training and development of business and organizational skills. Revitalization of culture and traditions Sustainable Tourism can also improve the preservation and transmission of cultural and historical traditions. a healthy community with low crime rate. (H-1331) . Encouragement social involvement and pride In some situations. More broadly. Foreign exchange earnings Tourism expenditures. It can stimulate a feeling of pride in local and national heritage and interest in its conservation. the involvement of local communities in sustainable tourism development and operation seems to be an important condition for the sustainable use and conservation of the biodiversity. Contributing to the conservation and sustainable management of natural resources can bring usually the chance to protect local heritage or to revitalize native cultures.33 - . Local people can also increase their influence on tourism development. tourism also helps to raise local awareness concerning the financial value of natural and cultural sites.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The jobs created by tourism can act as a very important motivation to reduce emigration from rural areas. Tourism is a main source of foreign exchange earnings for at least 38 % of all countries (World Tourism Organization). Kaushik K. Benefits for the tourists of Sustainable Tourism The benefits of sustainable tourism for visitors are plenty: they can enjoy unspoiled nature and landscapes. thriving and authentic local culture and traditions. the export and import of related goods and services generate income to the host economy. for instance by regenerating traditional arts and crafts. environmental quality of goods or services (clean air and water).
The positive side of informal or unreported employment is that the money is returned to the local economy and has a great multiplier effect as it is spent over and over again. (H-1331) . roads. taxes on sales or rental of recreation equipment and license fees for activities such as hunting and fishing can provide governments with the funds needed to manage natural resources.34 - .Tourism Paining & Development Employment generation Environmental Impacts of Tourism The rapid expansion of international tourism has led to significant employment creation. restaurants. conducted tour operators. Stimulation of infrastructure investment Tourism can influence the local government to improve the infrastructure by creating better water and sewage systems. telephone and public transport networks. for e. User fees. As environment is a basic component of the tourism industry’s assets. Tourism represents around 7 % of the world’s employees (World Tourism Organisation). Part of the tourism income comes from informal employment. such as street vendors and informal guides.g. All this can improve the standard of living for residents as well as facilitate tourism. income taxes. Kaushik K. taxis. souvenir sales and indirectly through the supply of goods and services needed by tourism-related businesses. electricity. tourism revenues are often used to measure the economic value of protected areas. Some governments collect money in more far-reaching and indirect ways that are not linked to specific parks or conservation areas. Contribution to local economies Tourism can be a significant or even an essential part of the local economy. Tourism can generate jobs directly through hotels. The World Travel and Tourism Council has estimated that tourism generates an indirect contribution equal to 100 % of direct tourism expenditures. Revenue from park-entrance fees and similar sources can be allocated specifically to pay for the protection and management of environmentally sensitive areas. Direct financial contributions to nature protection Tourism can contribute directly to the conservation of sensitive areas and habitats.
Additionally. two-thirds of the hotel rooms in the region are foreign owned. Tourism development has brought an inflation of food and land prices. The real economic benefits of tourism to a country are from what is left over after deducting the amount which stays or returns overseas. making it out of reach for many locals. Kaushik K. and other tourist facilities commonly sell for more than the current local price. A pressure group formed in Barbados known as the ‘Windows of the Sea’. A lot of the profit goes to foreign investment and foreign control of the Caribbean’s tourism industry since. Tourism requires larger capital because of the infrastructure that is necessary. Much of the profit from tourism leaves the region. One island in particular is taking action. or the construction of many hotels. The collection of samples is causing an insignificant effect on the ecosystem of the reef.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism 3. Numerous historians and cultural anthropologists have complied theories that address this particular impact and its effects on the indigenous culture of the Caribbean. local people can no longer afford to live along their own coastline due to the inflation that is being experienced. Species and Habitat Loss The anchors of motorboats and yachts also cause direct harm to the reef as it destroys the corals and habitats of the species in the ecosystem. land for the construction of hotels. As a thriving economic source. marinas. its ability to connect other nations and globalize the islands also remains to have an influential impact. and the tour companies who arrange visitor’s activities are often foreign owned. this is Barbados. Specifically. it remains an important factor for the growth of the Caribbean. but has served to be a negative impact according to some proponents.35 - . (H-1331) . On many of the Caribbean islands. The tourism industry has also functioned to negatively impact the indigenous Caribbean culture.4.3 Negative Impacts of Tourism on the Caribbean Tourism contributes less to the long-term economy than expected. This brings the inflation for the price of land.
The nutrients that ocean wildlife doesn’t need to survive are often passed into the water as sediment is overturned or eroded into the sea. and large-scale physical alterations to land. and run off. facility operations. access and transport systems (especially dirt roads and some ferry activities).Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism The fish may be abundant and the reef may cover miles but the collection of the indigenous species without the intention of returning them to the sea is just the tip of the iceberg. but they also derive from poor design. Carrying capacity and infrastructure With the augmented tourist inflow.36 - . inattention. Scenic landscapes and other natural attractions provide the basis for tourism in the Caribbean and their value in the region to the tourism industry must be fully appreciated. The Caribbean is especially susceptible to heavy sediment pulses because of the probability of heavy rains. (Jackson. the resort development or construction is needed to be accommodated. 1996) Kaushik K. Upland tourism facilities. 1990 as cited by UNEP. Waste Collection As more and more people are visiting the place to witness the beauty of the islands. (H-1331) . contribute to sediment loads from rivers and other upland surface run off conditions. Such an activity is incurable as this may lead to the danger of extinction of some rare or endangered species. from construction. the more waste is accumulates in the island. There are a lot of proper waste disposal areas or units around the island. Change in Sediment Loads Tourism in the coastal zone contributes to increases in sediment loads for both back bay and shore areas. to protect the flora and fauna. which are not the direct focus of this report. Visual Impacts Visual impacts have a high esthetic component which can be culturally biased. The increase in sedimentation in the reefs closer to the shoreline has been seen and forces the corals and other species to move farther from the shore.
Sediments stirred up by sea traffic. and dive magazines print them. and whale sharks by touching or otherwise disturbing them. Impacts result from: x x x x x x x The construction and operation of docks. Unhooking sea horses from where they are tethered so they can be photographed free-floating. (H-1331) . and The irritation caused by loud and boisterous parties on harbor and coastal day-trip boats and barges.Tourism Paining & Development Near Coastal Waters and Fringing Reefs Environmental Impacts of Tourism The outer limits of these near coastal and fringing reef areas is a broad band. Besides feeding. In the case of feeding otherwise shy sharks. The direct introduction of toxics and other pollutants from anti-fouling paints. The visual impact of anchorages. sea turtles. Photographers often perpetuate this ruse by distributing photos of chummed-up fish populations as a natural event. breakwaters and other physical structures. in which dive operators create the illusion of lots of fish by actively feeding or chumming. Human Impact Humans impact the most on any environment. possibly out to 20-fathom depths. The displacement of fishers and other traditional water users. for fun or photos.37 - . Kaushik K. ship operations and waste discharges.. other concerns are: x x x Harassing manatees. anchoring and diving insults. New divers are truly the ones being baited as they are simply remain quietly in one place for a few minutes. A sport diver that impacting the Caribbean is the "Happy Fish Syndrome". Most offshore islets and cays which are an entire topic for protection unto them are in this area. Scaring puffer fish so they puff up. wharves. New current and wave regimes created by other changes. piers. piers and ports. groins. the practice also creates a relationship between human and food the predator may remember the next time he spots a diver out zipping about.
These algae provide corals with most of their food and oxygen. corals will not be able to protect the shore as effectively and wave energy could increase in strength.Tourism Paining & Development Climate Change Environmental Impacts of Tourism Increasing Tourism in coastal areas has led to change in temperatures.38 - . corals will be deeper. As a result. as well as in the occurrence of mass coral bleaching incidents. Bleaching occurs when coral polyps. but as the length and severity of the stress increase so does coral mortality. Following are few issues which occur due to climate change in coastal areas with increasing tourism: x Coral Bleaching: Corals are extremely sensitive to temperature changes. x Slower coral growth: Sea level is expected to increase at an alarming rate over the next few years.The coral reef crisis is almost certainly the result of complex and synergistic interactions among local-scale human-imposed stresses and global-scale climatic stresses. which may be linked to global warming. The major climate change factor that is becoming increasingly important for coral reefs is rising ocean temperatures. receive less sunlight and grow more slowly. secondly. Corals can recover after short periods of bleaching. When the algae are expelled. Kaushik K. The increasing recreational activities has led to the increased stress on coral reefs referred as the coral reef crisis . which have been implicated in constant stress and spreading of diseases. The vertical growth rate of coral is likely to be slower than the increase. smaller reefs will produce smaller amounts of reef sediment which builds and supports island land-bases. expel the symbiotic algae that live within coral tissues. firstly. The combined effect of deeper reefs and slower growth will cause two problems for coastal areas. Increased water temperatures. x Physical Damage to Coral Reefs: Increased coral mortality is expected as storm events and cyclones become more frequent and intense. Coral reef growth may not be able to keep pace with these destructive events. This may lead to loss in valuable habitats and ecosystems which supports a lot of natural life. Coral bleaching events and subsequent reef mortality are expected to become more frequent as sea temperature increases. the coral appears white or bleached. (H-1331) . stressed by heat or ultraviolet radiation. can cause mass coral bleaching.
2002) in order to achieve sustainability the needs and hopes of the local communities need to be considered. 4. Protect wildlife and habitats and do not purchase products made from endangered plants or animals. tough a necessary condition.1 Responsible Tourism Everyone has a role to play creating responsible travel and tourism. These climatic changes could become the proverbial straw that breaks the camels back for reefs facing stresses such as poor water quality. This will achieve a balance between development and sustainability which is a strategic goal that requires moderation. Respect cultural resources. Help preserve natural environments. you will earn respect and be more readily welcomed by local people. 2. Governments. The future survival of the Caribbean region seems to be largely dependent on the development of a sustainable tourism industry. but as a guest you can support this in many ways to make a difference: 1. 4. 2002 as cited by Jayawerdana.39 - . control and co-ordination. business and communities must do all they can. Kaushik K. The sexual exploitation of children is a crime punishable in the destination or at the offender’s home country. (H-1331) . hierological and cultural heritage. destructive fishing and tourism impacts. Respect human rights. is not sufficient for the sustainability of tourism (Jayawerdana. Be tolerant and respect diversity – observe social and cultural traditions and practices. 3.Tourism Paining & Development x Environmental Impacts of Tourism Coral Mortality: Rising sea temperatures and sea levels and increasing frequency of storms will increase coral mortality and seriously endanger coral reefs. Activities should be conducted with respect for the artistic. especially those already under stress. Exploitation in any form conflicts with the fundamental aims at tourism. The preservation of the environment. Open your mind to other cultures and traditions – it will transform your experience.
Learn as much as possible about your destination and take time to understand the customs. 6.’ (World Tourism Organization) Sustainable development implies ‘meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (World Commission on Environment and Development. protected species and products or substances that are dangerous or prohibited by national regulations. 1996 as cited by Jayawerdana. (H-1331) . to create a competitive force. ensure acceptance of the local population. Refrain from all trafficking in illicit drugs. Familiarize yourself with the laws so that you do not commit any act considered criminal by the law of the country visited. essential ecological processes. medical care) can be fulfilled before you decide to travel this destination. 2002) Kaushik K. (Holder. social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity. Undated) 4.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism 5. Inform yourself about the destination’s current health situation and access to emergency and consular services prior to departure and be assured that your health and personal security will not be compromised. 7. promote effectively.40 - . 8. Avoid behaviour that could offend the local population. ensure profitability.2 Sustainable tourism ‘Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic. accessibility. and biological diversity and life support systems. 1987) The sustainability of the tourism industry depends largely on the region’s ability to maintain product quality. (WTO. ensure safety. provide air access. Your trip can contribute to economic and social development. antiques. norms and traditions. Purchase local handicrafts and products to support the local economy using the principles of fair trade. arms. Make sure that your specific requirements (diet.
While tourism provides visitors with unique experiences. the private sector. Green Globe 21. and eco-systems. social. social systems.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism In order to achieve sustainable tourism. undertakes collaborative environmental activities within the hotel and tourism sector. mutual tolerance and for learning about the legitimate differences between peoples and cultures and their diversity. When practiced with an open mind. Sustainable tourism is also seen as essential to the development of SIDS and other areas that are environmentally sensitive. there must be synergy among economic systems. Sustainable tourism involves the use of the natural. This can be achieved by raising performance standards through a systematic approach to managing operations e. This can be accomplished through partnerships involving the government. promotes the effective management of natural resources and provides access to expertise in sustainable tourism practices.41 - .2. Blue Flag and QTC. 4. The CAST Performance and Leadership Program (PLP) provides a roadmap to improved performance. and local communities. it is an irreplaceable factor of self education. Travel and tourism should be planned and practiced as a means of individual and collective fulfillment. a non-profit organization chartered in 1997. cultural.2. Sustainable tourism involves a more holistic and comprehensive approach to development than the traditional economic development models. (H-1331) . it should at the same time provide locals with an improved quality of life. and financial resources for national development on an equitable and selfsustaining basis. Kaushik K.g.1 Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism (CAST) The Caribbean Alliance for Sustainable Tourism (CAST).2 CAST's Strategic Focus: The main aim of CAST is to promote and develop Sustainable Tourism Standards & Certification. 4. assisting hotel and tourism operators in the Caribbean region achieve the goals of Agenda 21 for sustainable development. EMS & certification e.g.
42 - . Preserving the integrity & vibrancy of communities. with 19 specific areas of action recommended to governments and private operators towards sustainability in tourism. awards. Educating for a sustainable future. there is increasing awareness of the importance of sustainable forms of tourism. Furthermore in 1996. Fund raising: targeted fund raising for research and education. (H-1331) . adopted by the General Assembly at its nineteenth special session in 1997. The World Tourism Organization jointly with the tourism private sector issued an Agenda 21 for the Travel and Tourism Industry. manuals & videos. e. Recognition is a start and progress is under way. Environmentalism is now a major international and national force with the development of the green movement and other concerned groups. meetings & conferences etc. Friends of CAST Since the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. Protection of the environment has been embraced by the tourism industry. Kaushik K. 5. included sustainable tourism as one of its sectoral themes. newsletters. Advocacy: pleading the cause of responsible tourism development within the Caribbean with a focus on: x x x x Maintaining quality tourism destinations & attractions. Although tourism is one of the world largest industries. was not the subject of a chapter in Agenda 21. CAST website.1 Current tourism industry practices It’s fortunate that a concern for the environment has become a major trend that is still gathering momentum. guides. the Program for the further implementation of Agenda 21.g.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Moreover by promoting Industry Successes and Lessons Learned: Via publications.
In Hawaii. This strategy is being used in the Galapagos Islands.2. held in Rio de Janeiro.1 Agenda 21 On 14 June. where the number of ships allowed to cruise this remote archipelago is limited.Tourism Paining & Development 5. new laws and regulations have been enacted to preserve the Hawaiian rainforest and to protect native species. The coral reefs around the islands and the marine life that depend on them for survival are also protected.2 Regulatory measures Environmental Impacts of Tourism Regulatory measures help offset negative impacts. 5. and only designated islands can be visited. Such limits can also reduce the negative impacts on resources. added further impetus to a debate that was growing stale and a new maxim emerged where ‘Only whatever can be sustained by nature and society in the long term is permissible’. This new impetus was given the title Agenda 21 to reflect the fact that it was a policy statement aimed at taking the world into the 21st Century. Limits should be established after an in-depth analysis of the maximum sustainable visitor capacity. Hawaii now has become an international centre for research on ecological systems .and the promotion and preservation of the islands' tourism industry was the main motivation for these actions. (H-1331) . for instance. Agenda 21 gained its significance as it represented the first occasion when a comprehensive program of environmental actions was agreed to be adopted by 182 governments. controls on the number of tourist activities and movement of visitors within protected areas can limit impacts on the ecosystem and help maintain the integrity and vitality of the site.43 - . It is one of the first concrete sectoral programs of action arising from the increasing cooperation between the tourism industry and inter-governmental agencies Kaushik K. The Agenda 21 were not solely environmental because they include aspects such as human development as readdressing of the imbalance between rich and poor nations. ensuring visitors have little impact on the sensitive environment and animal habitats. the United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development. 1992.
as well as liquid and solid waste. the main international industry association. A Green Seal Certification Mark on a product means that it has gone through a stringent process to show that it has less impact on the environment and human health.4 Green Seal Green Seal is a non profit. but also because they promote positive behavioural changes in both tourists and employees. they can lead to improved economic efficiency and increased profitability. aimed to raise the level of environmental awareness and to provide a low-cost practical means for improving the environmental performance of the industry. Such initiatives are particularly important not only because they can lead to significant reductions of water and energy consumption. Kaushik K.2 Green Globe Environmental Impacts of Tourism The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). it will require efforts by all the players in the tourism arena. 5. for both travel and tourism companies and tourism destinations. third party certifier and standard development body in United States. led by a council of leading international hotel chains. that it works as well as in any other class. starting with the tourists themselves. The seal means that the product has passed the tests. In addition. which is one of the main consumers of resources and sources of waste.2.Green Globe.International Hotel Environment Initiative Another innovative global programme is the International Hotel Environment Initiative (IHEI). and it has been evaluated without bias or conflict of interests.2.2.3 Individual tourist responsibilities: If ecologically sustainable tourism is to become a reality.44 - . 5.Tourism Paining & Development 5. (H-1331) . 5. has developed an environmental management programme .3 IHEI . aimed to promote environmental management in the hotel industry.
1 Code of Ethics for Tourists A high-quality tourism experience depends on the conservation of our natural resources. The understanding and promotion of the ethical values common to humanity. philosophical and moral beliefs. tastes and expectations.45 - . 3. the education and training imparted to professionals contribute to a hospitable welcome. Tourism activities should be conducted in harmony with the attributes and traditions of the host regions and countries and in respect for their laws. (H-1331) . and local professionals. guidelines and ‘ten commandments’.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Tourists have responsibilities and must be educated as to their obligations and responsibilities to contribute to socially and environmentally responsible tourism. 5. 4. with an attitude of tolerance and respect for the diversity of religious. on the other. they are a start in the process of educating the tourists. Kaushik K. Tourists are encouraged to consider the following guidelines: 1. are both the foundation and the consequence of responsible tourism. stakeholders in tourism development and tourists themselves should observe the social and cultural traditions and practices of all peoples. Tourism must first be brought into the process as clients (guests) for the tourist destination and second as persons coresponsible for maintaining the destination. on the one hand. Again. for tourist behavior have been developed. including those of minorities and indigenous peoples and to recognize their worth. The host communities. 2. should acquaint themselves with and respect the tourists who visit them and find out about their lifestyles.3. they must pay particular attention to the safety of foreign tourists owing to the particular vulnerability they may have. the protection of our environment and the preservation of our cultural heritage. practices and customs. It is the task of the public authorities to provide protection for tourists and visitors and their belongings. The Canadian tourism industry has developed and adopted a Code of Ethics and Practices to achieve these objectives. Several codes of ethics.
org/code_ethics/eng/1. as well as the willful destruction of tourism facilities or of elements of cultural or natural heritage should be severely condemned and punished in accordance with their respective national laws.htm) Formulation of Codes and Ethics is not the only solution. assaults. antiques. (http://www. the next step should be to spread awareness of the codes and to educate them to follow the important guidelines so they will become responsible travelers. 5. prevention. or likely to damage the local environment. 2006) Kaushik K. insurance and assistance consistent with their needs. Tourists and visitors have the responsibility to acquaint themselves. 6. with the characteristics of the countries they are preparing to visit. kidnappings or threats against tourists or workers in the tourism industry.world-tourism. protected species and products and substances that are dangerous or prohibited by national regulations. (Goeldner and Ritchie. any attacks. (H-1331) .Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism They should facilitate the introduction of specific means of information. even before their departure. security. When travelling. arms.46 - . they must be aware of the health and security risks inherent in any travel outside their usual environment and behave in such a way as to minimize those risks. tourists and visitors should not commit any criminal act or any act considered criminal by the laws of the country visited and abstain from any conduct felt to be offensive or injurious by the local populations. they should refrain from all trafficking in illicit drugs.
for maximizing economic benefits and thus increasing the living standards of host communities and countries. At the same time. as at present only about one tenth of the world population travels internationally. it is bound to have negative environmental and socio-cultural impact on those communities. Tourism is expected to resume its rapid growth in the future because of improved living standards. the falling real cost of travel. (H-1331) . ‘Responsible Tourism has emerged as the latest trend and one of the most successful tools towards sustainable development. rising incomes and amounts of free time. The major challenge for the international community is. through accreditation bodies such as the WTO and the Sustainable Tourism Stewardship Council. Greater effort should also be made to promote codes. There is an urgent need to develop policies and measures that are not only theoretically sound but also practically feasible.Tourism Paining & Development Conclusion Environmental Impacts of Tourism Tourism will grow. Kaushik K. This growth can be harnessed not only for the enjoyment of tourists themselves but. development and management can be crucial to minimizing the impact. sustainable tourism runs the risk of remaining irrelevant and inert as a feasible policy option for the real world of tourism development. Without the development of effective means of translating ideals into action. not only to minimize the negative impact of tourism but also to ensure that the economic benefits of tourism can contribute to environmental protection and the sustainable use of natural resources. whose involvement in tourism planning. sometimes rapidly. Our main task is not to limit growth but to manage growth in away that is appropriate to the tourists. standards and best practices in sustainable tourism across the globe. therefore. the destination environment and the host population.47 - . Sustainable tourism is the answer to all the above mentioned issues as it helps in preserving the natural heritage of a region by having low impacts on natural and local environmental resources as well as continues to be the major source of income and employment for the host communities. more importantly. and improved transportation around the world.
But one cannot be relying on one end. The tourists needs to be educated about the new practices such as Green Globe. The pillars of responsible tourism are therefore the same as those of sustainable tourism environmental integrity. that of sustainable development. Green Seal. If the tourism is sustainably developed. The government regulation needs to be supported by the host communities and also the tourist visiting places so that the purpose is rightfully solved. The various councils controlling tourism development has been actively recognizing sustainable development as the need of the hour. conferences have taken place to develop tourism further but in a sustainable manner.Tourism Paining & Development Environmental Impacts of Tourism Destinations and tourism operations are endorsing and following responsible tourism as a pathway towards preserving their natural beauty and inheritance. Green Tourism. Responsible tourism and sustainable tourism have an identical goal.48 - . Starting from Rio Summit in 1992 to Johannesburg. Kaushik K. social justice and economic development. (H-1331) . The initiative has to be two way. EcoLabeling and many more which has one common aim of preserving environment while promoting tourism. the objective of creating world a better place for people to live in and to visit.
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