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LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES FOR SUCCESSFUL CHANGE MANAGEMENT

Study Report

Prepared by: Milan Pagon, Emanuel Banutai, Uro Bizjak University of Maribor, Slovenia

June 2008

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION..3 1.1 Competencies in General.....3 1.2 Leadership Competencies....3 1.3 Competency Model...5 2. THE EMPIRICAL PART OF THE STUDY.11 2.1 Sample..11 2.2 Questionnaire......13 2.3 Results......16 2.4 Conclusion...27 3. REFERENCES.29 4. APPENDICES...30

LEADERSHIP COMPETENCIES FOR SUCCESSFUL CHANGE MANAGEMENT


1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Competencies in General A competence in general can be understood as the ability of an individual to activate, use and connect the acquired knowledge in the complex, diverse and unpredictable situations (Perrenoud, 1997, in Svetlik, 2005). Gruban (2003) defines competencies as the ability to use knowledge and other capabilities, necessary for successful and efficient accomplishment of an appointed task, transaction of work, goal realization, or performance of a certain role in the business process. Competencies encompass knowledge, expertise, skills, personal and behavioral characteristics, beliefs, motives, values, etc. They are behavioral records of the roles, which people perform in the work processes. To avoid terminological confusion, Ellstrm (1997; cited in Virtanen, 2000) distinguishes a competence from a qualification. He considers competence as an attribute of an employee referring to a kind of human capital or a human resource that can be transformed into productivity while qualification is understood as requirements of a certain class of work tasks (a job). 1.2 Leadership Competencies Changes in organizations are more and more common. They appear at faster pace and employees are expected to be even more adaptable. Leaders play an important role in setting an example for all those values, behaviors and considerations expected from employees. Leaders have to achieve that changes in an organization are accepted and implemented in a way resulting not only in better job performance but also in general understanding and satisfaction of all. Therefore, it is reasonable to set the expectations of key employees what they should achieve and how they should behave in order to implement successful changes. In other words, which are the important leadership competencies for successful change management?

It is necessary to distinguish between leadership competencies in profit organizations and public (as well as not-for-profit) organizations. Nature of activity, context, orientation of work and the budget, to name only a few areas, cause certain distinctions in leadership competencies between these two groups. There is a lack of studies comparing leadership factors and skills relevant to profit, public, and not-for-profit organizations. According to Bennis (1987; cited in Thach et al., 2007), there are a few leadership competencies that have been proven time and again as mandatory for effective leadership. These include the competency clusters of vision and goal-setting, interpersonal skills, self-knowledge and technical competence regarding the specifics of the business in which the leader works. In addition, commonly referenced competencies include: integrity/honesty, communication, technical competence, diversity consciousness, developing others, results-orientation, change management, interpersonal skills, problem-solving, decision making, political savvy, strategic/visionary thinking, customer focus, business skills, team leadership, influence skills, conflict management, more recently emotional intelligence, social and environmental responsibility, depending on the culture of the organization even humor and innovation (Trinka, 2004; cited in Thach et al., 2007; Spencer and Spencer, 1993; Employers Organization, 2004; Guggenheimer and Szule, 1998; Breckenridge Consulting Group, 2004; OPM, 1992; Laszlo, 2003; Goleman, McKee and Boyatzis, 2002; Thompson, 1985). There appear to be minor differences in the not-for-profit and profit leadership competency models. Not-for-profit organizations tend to center around new competencies such as governance effectiveness, boardroom contribution, and service to community (Chait, Ryan and Taylor, 2004; cited in Thach et al., 2007). On the other hand, profit organizations tend to emphasize financial responsibility and accountability more than non-profit organizations. Public administration organizations tend to emphasize political savvy more, as well as physical health/endurance and building coalitions (Horey and Fallesen, 2003, cited in Thach et al., 2007; OPM, 1992). Despite diverse definitions and different understanding, competencies can be understood as cognitive, functional and social abilities and skills, including all individual resources one can use for performing diverse tasks in various areas, gaining required knowledge and achieving good results. Every competency is based on a combination of mutually linked cognitive and practical skills, knowledge, motivation, orientation values, beliefs, emotions, and other social and 4

behavioral components, applicable as a whole in an efficient activity (OECD, 2002; cited in Svetlik, 2005). 1.3 Competency Model A competency model was developed for this study (Figure 1), based on a comprehensive literature review. The model starts with the antecedents of competency development. 1.3.1 Antecedents of Competencies Development

An antecedent is here understood as a precondition for a leaders individual competency development. One of the purposes of this study is to find out to what extent a particular antecedent is actually associated with a particular leadership competency. Literature review identified various antecedents. However, our model includes the following antecedents: Primary socialization, Work introduction, Consulting, Characteristic of the environment, and Work experience (Svetlik, 2005; Medve, 2006). Secondary socialization (education, friends) (Cugmas, 1991), Mentoring, coaching, and on-the-job training (Allio, 2005; Kim, 2007), Workshops, individual coaching sessions (Rappe and Zwick, 2007). 1.3.2 Leadership Competencies

In addition, other included antecedents are:

Definition, understanding, and implementation of competencies for selected employees (the leaders in this case) are known as a competency model. This model has to be harmonized with a core philosophy of organization (its vision, mission, values, and goals).

Figure 1 - Competency Model Virtanen (2000) explored the generic features of public managers. He presented a model of five competence areas: task competence, professional competence in substantive policy filed, professional competence in administration, political competence and ethical competence (see Table 1). Furthermore, he uttered that much of previous research on managerial competence saw management as a generic profession and the differences between private and public sector were not directly addressed. Task and professional competence are in many ways the same for both sectors, but important differences exist in the areas of political and ethical competencies. In addition, the author argues that the organizational values in the public sector have been in transition, as the traditional values of public service in the Western democracies have been questioned by the imperatives of the new public management (NPM), emerging over the past twenty years.

In our model, we adopted a view of Medve (2006), who claims that competencies are a conglomerate, consisting of three dimensions: cognitive, functional, and personal/social competencies. Table 1 The competence areas of public managers
Criterion of competence Task competence Performance Professional competence In subject area Development of the policy object In administration Development of policy execution Political competence Legitimacy Ethical competence Justification Contingencies of public service Given goals and means Use of instruments Known selection of means, implicit goals Formation of instruments out of resources Specification of the policy goal Allocation of the resources Creation and authorization of the goal Creation and detachment of resources for the goal Acceptability of the goal Acceptability of the resources and their instrumentalisation Competence area Value area Motivation Instrumental competence Abilities

Control of the policy object

Know-how of the policy object

Control of the policy program

Know-how of cooperation

Ideology, interests

Possession of power

Morality

Argumentation

Source: Virtanen (2000) 1.3.2.1 Cognitive competencies Educational environment in an early age has tremendous impact on cognitive competencies development. Systematic knowledge generates cognitive competencies, including those concepts of spontaneous experiences at the implicit level of knowledge (Medve, 2006). This dimension of competencies includes control of general principles, laws, theories and concepts. Particularly significant cognitive competencies include: Divergent thinking, Critical thinking, Creativity, Problem solving, Strategic thinking, 7

Analytical skills, and Numerical abilities (Svetlik, 2005; Medve, 2006). 1.3.2.2 Functional competencies

Methodological knowledge generates functional competencies (Medve, 2006). These competencies are qualifications and skills that an individual needs for every day problem solving or to perform a concrete activity. Particularly significant functional competencies include: Language and communication skills, Technological skills (IT, media etc.), Multicultural competencies (knowledge of a general and other cultures, foreign languages, etc.), Learning abilities and personal development, Career planning skills, Managerial skills, and Decision skills (Svetlik, 2005; Medve, 2006). International environment skills, and Globalization skills (Manning, 2003; May, 1997; Jokinen, 2005; Suutari, 2002; Harris, 2001). 1.3.2.3 Personal and social competencies The third dimension consists of competencies, which enable an individual to establish and maintain relationship with others: Self-direction, Interpersonal skills, Teamwork skills, Compassion, Integrity, Mobilizing skills, Personal and social values, and Ethical dimensions (Svetlik, 2005; Medve, 2006). 8

In addition, other functional competencies are:

Additional competencies include: Character, creativity and compassion (Allio, 2005). 1.3.3 The Outcome Successful Change Management

Successful change management is an important element of this study, as it represents a criterion for an individual competency assessment. Therefore, basic elements of change management have to be taken into consideration: How do organizations react to environmental changes and how they try to impact the environment How risky are the changes (the role of resilience and firmness) Change as a condition for basic capability planning in order to achieve success in the future Guided and unguided, planned and unplanned change of organization a course and the extent of changes The meaning of right timing, when to start the change And last but not least, resistance to change and managing it.

Change in an organization can be very different. Lorenzi and Riley (2000) identify four types of changes, with the definite possibility of overlap among them: Operational changes, affecting the way the ongoing operations of the business are conducted Strategic changes, that occur in the strategic business direction Cultural changes, which affect the basic organizational philosophies by which the business is conducted Political changes, occurring in staffing primarily for political reasons of various types.

According to the OECD (2007), change management in public administration over the past three decades has been influenced by NPM ideas and techniques resulting in a cultural revolution in the public service (Table 2).

Table 2 Cultural transformation in government


Traditional Values Instruments of Reform New Cultural Values

Citizens empowerment End of lifelong career Policy dialogue Normalization of employment condition Delegation of authority Performance-oriented focus Subtle leadership

Accountability Openness Transparency Efficiency Effectiveness Authority through leadership Managerial culture

Hierarchies of control Conformity

Impersonality of work Authority through position Command-control paradigm

Source: OECD (2007)

Managing change from traditional values to new cultural values, as defined in Table 2, enables us to examine and assess successfulness of change management in a particular public administration institution. Outcome indicators, included in our model, are: Productivity, Relationship quality, Number of conflicts, Level of cooperation, Organizational culture and climate, Organizational learning curve, Goal attainment, Change implementation, Employee satisfaction, Motivation, Adaptability, Customer satisfaction, and Superior agencys satisfaction. 10

THE EMPIRICAL PART OF THE STUDY

This part of the report describes the research conducted to test the competency model described above. 2.1 Sample 284 public administration managers completed an on-line survey. Those 284 participants were from the following countries (including the European Commission): Country European Commission Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland No. 2 9 4 32 17 3 2 2 3 6 8 7 23 14 % 0.70 3.17 1.41 11.27 5.99 1.06 0.70 0.70 1.06 2.11 2.82 2.46 8.10 4.93 Country Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom No. 3 20 6 6 14 2 16 16 0 15 12 3 36 3 % 1.06 7.04 2.11 2.11 4.93 0.70 5.63 5.63 0 5.28 4.23 1.06 12.68 1.06

Among the participants, there were 153 (54%) males and 130 (46%) females and one person did not provide an answer to that question.

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The mean age of the participants was 46.2 years. Sample included 41 (14.5%) people with a doctoral degree, 138 (49%) had a master's degree, 95 (33.7%) had a university degree, 8 (2.8%) participants had a high school degree or less, and 2 participants did not answer this question.

172 (61.2%) participants reported being in the rank of middle management, while 109 (38.8%) indicated the rank of top management, and 3 people did not indicate their rank.

The mean amount of work experience of the participants was 21.4 years, while the mean amount of work experience in PA was 16.5 years, and the mean amount of work experience at the current PA institution was 10 years. The mean amount of work experience in the current position was 3.6 years.

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2.2 Questionnaire Based on the model described in the introduction, we developed a questionnaire. We used several existing scales (The Big Five Factors of personality, Locus of Control, Terminal Values). In addition, based on the reviewed literature, we created scales for measuring the factors of training and environment, individual traits, competencies and successful change management. There were the following sections and scales included in the questionnaire: Demographics: o Gender o Age o Country o Education o Job Title o Rank o Work Experience o Work Experience in Public Administration (PA) o Work Experience at the Current PA Institution o Work Experience in the Current Position Questions regarding: o Training o Mentoring o Coaching o Consulting o On-the-Job Training o Characteristics of the Environment Locus of Control: o Internality, Powerful Others, and Chance Scales (Levenson, 1981) Values: o Terminal Values from The Value Survey (Rokeach, 1967) Personal Characteristics / Traits: o Sample items Ambitious, Broadminded, Courageous, Responsible, Ethical...

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Personality: o The Big Five Factors of Personality (the Mini IPIP Scales - Donnellan, Oswald, Baird, & Lucas, 2006); Factors Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Neuroticism, and Intellect / Imagination (or Openness to Experience)

Questions regarding: o Cognitive Competencies o Functional Competencies o Personal / Social Competencies

Questions regarding the Indicators of Successful Change Management in a PA Institution, based on the OECDs framework, described earlier.

The questionnaire is included in the Appendix A. We performed factor analyses for the scales measuring competencies, successful change management, and individual characteristics. Seven factors emerged when we performed factor analysis for the competency scale. We named them (shown with sample items): People skills (I am very sensitive to others needs and assumptions; I am very good in bringing out the best in people, etc.) Understanding, innovating and changing the organization (I have a talent for changing our PA institutions vision into reality; I thoroughly understand the need, goals, demands, and problems of our PA institutions constituents and clients, etc.) Emotional intelligence and self-control (I have great ability to understand and manage my emotions; I am able to integrate my emotions in my decision making, etc.) Planning and decision making (I always verify my assumptions before making a decision; When I face a problem, I take enough time to think before I attempt to solve it, etc.) Numbers and logic (I am very good at making complex decisions; I have a good sense for and understanding of numbers, etc.) Multicultural skills (I feel confident conducting a meeting in a foreign language; I participate effectively in multicultural teams, etc.)

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Learning and using new technologies (I am a quick learner; I am well versed in using a personal computer, etc.).

We grouped them according to our model: Cognitive Competencies o Understanding, innovating and changing the organization o Numbers and logic Functional Competencies o Planning and decision making o Multicultural skills o Learning and using new technologies Personal / Social Competencies o People skills o Emotional intelligence and self-control When we factor analyzed the successful change management items, we got three factors, which we named: Traditional values (Our PA institution relies heavily upon a strict hierarchy of control; In our PA institution, we value uniformity; personality should be kept out, etc.) Fear and resistance to change (Change led by our PA institution produces uncertainty and distrust due to lack of information; There is a high level of conflict within our PA institution, etc.) New cultural values (All important issues in our PA institution are openly discussed and shared with the public; Leadership of our PA institution is successful in transforming organizational culture, etc.). Only two factors emerged from the scale for the individual characteristics items. We named them: Personal traits (Ambitious; Broadminded, Capable, etc.) Gregarious traits (Forgiving, Loving, Cheerful, Obedient, etc.)

The results of all factor analyses are included in the Appendix B. 15

2.3 Results Table 3 shows the means and standard deviations for the variables included in our study. The answers to individual questions are shown in the Appendix C. TABLE 3 Descriptive statisticsa
Items Training Internality Powerful others Chance Personal traits Gregarious traits Extraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness Planning and decision making People skills Understanding, innovating, and changing the organization Emotional intelligence and self-control Multicultural skills Numbers and logic Learning and using new technologies Traditional values Fear and resistance to change New values a n = 284 Mean (scale 1-7) 4.14 5.26 3.41 3.33 5.82 5.31 4.01 5.19 5.00 3.86 5.00 5.15 5.16 5.31 5.38 4.71 4.90 5.49 4.30 3.44 4.54 Std. dev. 0.90 0.64 0.84 0.82 0.59 0.76 1.05 0.89 0.91 1.01 0.95 0.74 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.95 0.94 0.81 1.02 1.10 0.95

Gender, education, and rank comparisons Analysis of variance revealed statistically significant gender differences, where females on average reported more extraversion and agreeableness, and males on average reported higher values for the numbers and logic items. There were no other statistically significant differences between females and males (Table 4).

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Dependent variable: Gender

TABLE 4 Results of ANOVA Analysisa


Total Males SD 1.05 0.89 0.94 Mean 3.85 5.08 5.02 SD 0.96 0.89 0.87 Females Mean 4.19 5.34 4.73 SD 1.11 0.88 1.01 F 7.05** 5.76* 6.27*

Variables: Extraversion Agreeableness Numbers and logic a n = 284

Mean 4.01 5.19 4.90


*

p < .05 ** p < .01

Statistically significant differences also appeared for the education, where those with doctoral degree valued an exciting life higher than did those with university degree. Participants with masters degree valued happiness higher than did those with doctoral degree. Significant differences occurred also with pleasure, which people with doctoral degree assessed as less important than did people with masters and university degrees. People with doctoral degree reported higher values for personal traits than did those with high school degree or less. Significant differences also appeared for multicultural skills, where people with doctoral degree reported having more of them than did those with university and high school degree. We also found that people with masters degree reported having more multicultural skills than did people with high school degree (Table 5). TABLE 5 Results of ANOVA Analysisa
Doctoral Degree (1) Mean 10.36 9.00 5.03 5.99 5.17
**

Dependent variable: Education

Total Variables An exciting life Happiness Pleasure Personal traits Multicultural skills a n = 284 Mea n 8.32 SD

Masters Degree (2) Mean 8.43 11.21 7.16 5.84 4.76 SD 5.37 4.51 4.89 0.68 0.93

University Degree (3) Mean 7.24 10.43 7.74 5.77 4.55 SD 4.99 4.65 3.85 0.46 0.93

SD 4.84 4.40 3.41 0.42 0.86 p < .001

High School Degree or less (4) Mean SD 8.13 11.88 7.25 5.34 3.77 7.12 4.45 3.28 0.81 0.83

Stat. signif. diff. F 3.27 * 2.66 * 3.62 * 2.85 * 7.10 ** 1-3 1-2 1-3, 1-2 1-4 1-3, 1-4, 2-4

5.3 1 10.6 4.5 5 8 7.03 4.4 0 5.82 0.5 9 4.71 0.9 5 * p < .05

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We also performed analysis of variance for differences between the ranks. Statistically significant differences were found for training, where top managers reported higher values than did middle managers. Top managers valued a sense of accomplishment more, while middle managers valued a world of peace more. Top managers on average reported higher values for people skills, understanding, innovating, and changing the organization, emotional intelligence and selfcontrol, numbers and logic, and new cultural values, but also reported lower values for fear and resistance than did their middle management counterparts (Table 6). TABLE 6 Results of ANOVA Analysisa
Total Variables: Training A sense of accomplishment A world of peace People skills Understanding, innovating, and changing the organization Emotional intelligence and self control Numbers and logic Fear and resistance to change New values
a

Dependent variable: Rank

Mean 4.14 9.52 10.35 5.16 5.31 5.38 4.90 3.44 4.54
**

SD 0.90 4.87 5.41 0.72 0.71 0.70 0.94 1.10 0.95

Middle management Mean SD 4.06 0.88 8.96 4.80 10.87 5.29 5.06 0.79 5.21 0.77 5.33 4.78 3.59 4.34
***

Top management Mean SD 4.29 0.92 10.30 4.88 9.69 5.51 5.32 0.57 5.49 0.57 5.48 5.09 3.19 4.86 0.63 0.88 0.98 0.75

F 3.90* 4.95* 3.14* 7.56** 9.46** 2.85* 6.76** 8.49** 17.52** *

0.73 0.96 1.14 1.01

n = 284

p < .05

p < .01

p < .001

Differences among countries In this analysis, we first excluded all the countries with fewer than six respondents. We then performed analysis of variance for all the variables included in our study, with country as a classificatory variable. The analysis revealed that statistically significant differences among the countries existed for the following variables: Regulation of legal environment (F=2.43; p=.002) Belief in the powerful others (F=1.69; p=.05) Belief in chance (F=4.17; p<.0001) Valuing an exciting life (F=1.57; p=.08) marginally significant differences Valuing equality (F=1.65; p=.06) marginally significant differences Valuing family security (F=1.95; p=.02) 18

Valuing freedom (F=1.63; p=.06) marginally significant differences Valuing inner harmony (F=1.80; p=.03) Valuing mature love (F=1.58; p=.08) marginally significant differences Valuing salvation (F=4.04; p<.0001) Extraversion (F=1.54; p=.09) marginally significant differences Neuroticism (F=3.23; p<.0001) Openness to experience (F=3.65; p<.0001) Planning and decision making skills (F=1.89; p=.02) Multicultural skills (F=1.74; p=.04) Numerical and logical skills (F=2.31; p=.004) Skills for learning and using new technologies (F=2.02; p=.01) Traditional values (F=2.79; p=.0004) Fear and resistance to change (F=1.63; p=.06) marginally significant differences New cultural values (F=3.90; p<.0001)

While we did not perform one-on-one comparisons for individual countries, the above analysis demonstrated that differences among the observed countries actually exist for a large number of studied variables. Of a particular importance is a finding that significant differences exist among the countries regarding our outcome variables, namely traditional values, fear and resistance to change, and new cultural values. Correlations between competencies Even though the factor analysis revealed seven distinct factors within the competency scale, a further correlation analysis revealed that all of those competencies were statistically significantly correlated, meaning that if a person has one set of competencies more developed, he or she has other competencies more developed, as well (Table 7). TABLE 7 Correlationsa
Variables 1. Planning and decision making 2. People skills 3. Understanding, innovating, and changing the organization 4. Emotional intelligence and self-control 5. Multicultural skills 6. Numbers and logic 7. Learning and using new technologies a * n = 284 p < .001 1 .49* .54* .53* .39* .53* .30* 2 3 4 5 6

.78* .78* .55* .48* .47* .71* .46* .51* .43* .53* .50* .41*

.33* .48*

.40*

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Stepwise regression analyses First, we performed a stepwise regression analysis for those characteristics of the PA institutions associated with the traditional values. The analysis revealed that among all independent variables, planning and decision making had the greatest influence on the presence of traditional values, followed by chance, gregarious traits, multicultural skills (negative influence), inner harmony, work experience in PA (negative influence), powerful others, and gender (Table 8). TABLE 8 Results of Stepwise Regression Analysisa (Dependent variable Traditional values)
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Variable entered R2 .2123 .0843 .0366 .0306 .0228 .0188 .0177 .0100 R2 .2123 .2965 .3331 .3637 .3865 .4053 .4230 .4330 F 39.88 17.60 8.01 6.97 5.35 4.52 4.35 2.49 p < .0001 < .0001 .0053 .0092 .0222 .0351 .0387 .1168

Planning and decision making Chance Gregarious traits Multicultural skills (-) Inner harmony Total amount of work experience in PA (-) Powerful others Gender (-) a n = 284

In other words, people with higher competencies for planning and decision making, who believe in chance and powerful others, who have more gregarious traits and value inner harmony more, who are of male gender and poses less multicultural skills, and who have less work experience in PA, are more likely to be found in PA institutions which were judged to be more traditional. We then performed a stepwise regression analysis for characteristics of PA institutions associated with the new cultural values. The analysis revealed that training had the greatest influence on presence of the new cultural values, followed by emotional intelligence and self control, rank in the PA, sense of accomplishment, world of peace, highly regulated legal environment (negative influence), gregarious traits, planning and decision-making (negative influence), and numbers and logic (Table 9).

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TABLE 9 Results of Stepwise Regression Analysisa (Dependent variable New values)


Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Variable entered R2 .2938 .0926 .0512 .0304 .0322 .0118 .0095 .0139 .0109 R2 .2938 .3865 .4377 .4681 .5003 .5121 .5216 .5355 .5464 F 56.59 20.38 12.21 7.59 8.51 3.17 2.58 3.86 3.08 p < .0001 < .0001 .0006 .0067 .0042 .0773 .1105 .0515 .0815

Training Emotional intelligence and self-control Rank in PA A sense of accomplishment A world of peace Highly regulated legal environment (-) Gregarious traits Planning and decision making (-) Numbers and logic a n = 284

This means that the participants, who have more training, who are more emotionally intelligent and have a higher rank in PA, who value a sense of accomplishment and the world of peace more, who work in a less regulated legal environment and have more gregarious traits, who have less competencies for planning and decision making, but more for numbers and logic, are more likely to be found in organizations with the new cultural values. Finally, we conducted a stepwise regression analysis for characteristics of PA institutions associated with fear and resistance to change. Analysis revealed that among all independent variables, chance had the greatest influence on the estimated presence of fear and resistance. Chance was followed by sense of accomplishment (negative influence), rank in PA (negative influence), highly regulated legal environment, salvation, extraversion, social recognition (negative influence), emotional intelligence and self-control (negative influence), planning and decision-making, self-respect, training (negative influence), and increasing competition from the private sector (Table 10).

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TABLE 10 Results of Stepwise Regression Analysisa (Dependent variable Fear and resistance to change)
Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Variable entered R2 .1041 .0737 .0265 .0217 .0157 .0160 .0168 .0151 .0253 .0121 .0114 .0153 R2 .1041 .1778 .2043 .2260 .2603 .2763 .2931 .3082 .3278 .3399 .3513 .3666 F 17.31 13.27 4.89 4.10 3.06 3.16 3.38 3.08 5.31 2.58 2.44 3.32 p < .0001 .0004 .0285 .0447 .0823 .0777 .0679 .0812 .0227 .1107 .1203 .0705

Chance A sense of accomplishment (-) Rank in PA (-) Highly regulated legal environment Salvation Extraversion Social recognition (-) Emotional intelligence and self-control (-) Planning and decision making Self-respect Training (-) Competition from the private sector a n = 284

This tells us that the participants who believe that events depend on chance, who do not value a sense of accomplishment and social recognition, who have lower rank in PA, who work in a highly regulated legal environment, who value salvation and self-respect more, who are more extraverted, who have lower emotional intelligence and more competencies for planning and decision making, who have less training, and who experience greater competition from the private sector, are more likely to work in PA institutions with higher levels of fear and resistance to change. While the findings of the stepwise regression analyses are interesting, they are less clear, as they represent an unstructured mixture of different variables. To introduce some more conceptual clarity, we performed several hierarchical regression analyses, where the researcher determines the order in which groups of variables are entered in a model. Hierarchical regression analyses Table 11 shows the results of hierarchical regression analysis for dependent variable Traditional values.

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TABLE 11 Results of Hierarchical Regression Analysisa


Dependent variable: Traditional values

Functional competencies Planning and decision making Multicultural skills Learning and using new technologies Personal / Social competencies Cognitive competencies Understanding, innovating, and changing the organization Numbers and logic Training Training Terminal values (only significant shown) A sense of accomplishment A world of beauty Equality Individual traits Personal traits Gregarious traits Locus of control Internality Powerful others Chance The Big 5 Factors of Personality (only sig. shown) Agreeableness Demographics Environment
a

R2 =.25 = .55**** = -.24** = .07 R2 = .26 R2 = .27 = -.22* = .01 R2 = .27 = -.04 R2 = .36 =-.25** = -.17* = -.17* R2 = .40 = -.11 = .34** R2 = .47 = .06 = .20** = .14* R2 = .49 = .19* R2 = .51 R2 = .52

R2 = .25

F = 16.20****

R2 = .01 R2 = .01

F = 0.68 F = 1.41

R2 = .001 R2 = .09

F = 0.23 F = 1.06

R2 = .04 R2 = .07

F = 3.44**

F = 5.54***

R2 = .02

F = 0.89

n = 284

p < .15

**

p < .05

***

p < .01

R2 = F = 0.60 .02 R2 = F = 1.04 .01 **** p < .001

As can be seen from Table 11, personal / social competencies, training, demographics, and characteristics of the environment did not significantly explain any variance in the dependent variable traditional values. On the other hand, this variance was significantly explained by planning and decision making skills, multicultural skills (negative influence), understanding, innovating, and changing the organization (negative influence), as well as the importance of the following values: a sense of accomplishment, a world of beauty, and equality (all these values had a negative influence). Furthermore, the variance was also significantly explained by

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gregarious traits, a belief that life is determined by chance and powerful others, as well as agreeableness. Taken together, these variables explain more than half (52%) of variance in traditional values. Table 12 shows the results of hierarchical regression analysis for dependent variable Fear and resistance to change. TABLE 12 Results of Hierarchical Regression Analysisa
Dependent variable: Fear and resistance to change

Functional competencies Planning and decision making Multicultural skills Learning and using new technologies Personal / Social competencies People skills Emotional intelligence and self control Cognitive competencies Understanding, innovating, and changing the organization Numbers and logic Training Training Terminal values (only significant shown) A sense of accomplishment

R2 =.05 = .23** = -.19* = .02 R2 = .08 = .08 = -.26* R2 = .11 = -.29**

R2 = .05

F = 2.58*

R2 = .03 R2 = .03

F = 2.26* F = 2.24*

= -.04 R2 = .12 = -.14** R2 = .27 =.32*** Individual traits R2 = .27 Locus of control R2 = .33 Internality = -.00 Powerful others = .08 Chance = .21** The Big 5 Factors of Personality (only sign. shown) R2 = .36 Extraversion = .19** Demographics R2 = .38 Environment R2 = .42 Highly regulated legal environment = .23** Increasing competition from the private sector = .11 a * ** *** n = 284 p < .15 p < .05 p < .01

R2 = .01 R2 = .15 R2 = .001 R2 = .06

F = 2.96* F = 1.47* F = 0.40 F = 3.39**

R2 = .03 R2 = .02 R2 = .04

F = 1.10 F = 0.50 F = 3.12**

****

p < .001

As can be seen from Table 12, individual traits and demographics did not significantly explain any variance in the dependent variable fear and resistance to change. On the other hand, this variance was significantly explained by planning and decision making skills, multicultural skills (negative influence), emotional intelligence and self-control (negative influence), understanding, innovating, and changing the organization (negative influence), training (negative influence), a

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sense of accomplishment (negative influence), a belief in the importance of chance, extraversion, and highly regulated legal environment. Taken together, these variables were able to explain 42 percent of variance in fear and resistance to change. Table 13 shows the results of hierarchical regression analysis for dependent variable New cultural values. TABLE 13 Results of Hierarchical Regression Analysisa
Dependent variable: New cultural values

Functional competencies R2 =.10 R2 = .10 Planning and decision making = .09 Multicultural skills = .23** Learning and using new technologies = .06 R2 = .12 Personal / Social competencies R2 = .22 People skills = .35** Emotional intelligence and self control = .17 Cognitive competencies R2 = .25 R2 = .03 Understanding, innovating, and changing the organization = .22* Numbers and logic = .16* R2 = .17 Training R2 = .42 Training = .44**** Terminal values (only significant shown) R2 = .54 R2 = .12 A sense of accomplishment = .26** A world of peace = .17* R2 = .01 Individual traits R2 = .55 2 R2 = .001 Locus of control R = .55 2 R2 = .007 The Big 5 Factors of Personality R = .56 2 Demographics (only significant shown) R = .61 R2 = .05 Rank in PA = .18** R = .002 Environment R2 = .61 a * ** *** **** n = 284 p < .15 p < .05 p < .01 p < .001

F = 5.11***

F = 10.04**** F = 2.71* F = 37.24**** F = 1.74**

F = 0.89 F = 0.38 F = 0.31 F = 1.42 F = 0.82

As can be seen from Table 13, individual traits, locus of control, personality, and characteristics of the environment did not significantly explain any variance in the dependent variable new cultural values. At the same time, this variance was significantly explained by multicultural skills, people skills, understanding, innovating, and changing the organization, numbers and logic, training, the importance of a sense of accomplishment and a world of peace, as well as the rank in PA. Taken together, these variables explained 61 percent of variance in new cultural values.

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Correlation analysis for the outcome variables Finally, we investigated the correlations among the outcome variables, namely traditional values, fear and resistance to change, and new cultural values (Table 14). TABLE 14 Correlations among the Outcome Variablesa
Variables 1. Traditional values 2. Fear and resistance to change 3. New values a * ** n = 284 p < .05 p < .001 1 .32** -.16* 2

-.60**

As expected, there is a significant negative correlation between traditional and new cultural values. The more the traditional values are present, the less the new cultural values exist in a certain PA institution, and vice versa. A significant positive correlation exists between traditional values and fear and resistance to change. The more the traditional values exist in a certain PA institution, the more fear and resistance to change exist in this institution, and vice versa. And finally, a significant negative correlation exists between new cultural values and fear and resistance to change. The more the new cultural values exist in a PA institution, the less fear and resistance to change exist in this institution, and vice versa. This correlation is the strongest among all three.

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2.4 Conclusion The results indicate the following: Traditional values and new cultural values coexist in PA institutions; they are negatively correlated. Traditional values are positively correlated with fear and resistance to change; new cultural values are negatively correlated with fear and resistance to change. Traditional values are positively associated with planning and decision-making skills, beliefs in powerful others and chance, agreeableness and gregarious traits. They are negatively associated with multicultural skills, understanding, innovating and changing the organization, as well as with appreciation of a sense of accomplishment, world of beauty, and equality. Fear and resistance to change are positively associated with planning and decision-making skills, beliefs in chance, as well as with extraversion and highly regulated environment. They are negatively associated with multicultural skills, emotional intelligence and self-control, understanding, innovating and changing the organization, training, as well with appreciation of a sense of accomplishment. New cultural values are positively associated with multicultural and people skills, understanding, innovating and changing the organization, numbers and logic skills, rank in PA, as well as with appreciation of a sense of accomplishment and world of peace, but above allwith training. The results stress the importance of the following competencies: Multicultural skills Understanding, innovating and changing the organization Emotional intelligence and self-control People skills.

Planning and decision-making skills were associated with traditional values and with fear and resistance to change.

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The results also stress the importance of the locus of control, especially the beliefs in powerful others and chance (and their association with traditional values and fear and resistance to change). One of the very important findings was that training has positive effects above and beyond its impact upon the competencies. It is important to note, however, that when we talk about individual variables, such as training, one should interpret them in terms of the individual items constituing a particular variable. For example, when we emphasize the importance of training, we are actually emphasizing the importance of all the items within this variable, namely: Initial on-the-job training Formal training in all aspects of work position Availability of a formal personal coach Initial formal mentorship Initial informal mentorship Formal management training Availability of services of a consulting agency Formal training in teamwork Attending conferences, seminars, workshops, etc. Availability of funds for daily operations Availability of funds for development and innovation Money invested in research Strong work ethics in the institution.

All the variables included in this study should be understood and interpreted in this way. These results emphasize the significance of implementing new cultural values into the PA institutions. They indicate that replacing the old values with the new values in PA institutions can be achieved by proper training, mentoring and on-the-job training, emotional intelligence and self-control, a proper mind-set of managers (especially the internal locus of control and appreciation of a sense of accomplishment), multicultural skills, and competencies for numbers and logic.

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REFERENCES

Allio, R. J. (2005). Leadership development: teaching versus learning. Management Decision, Vol. 43, No. 7/8, pp. 1071-1077. Cugmas, Z. (1991). Vpliv izobraevalnega okolja na otrokovo samovrednotenje in razumevanje kognitivne kompetence. Sodoba pedagogika, Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 287-309. Ljubljana: Zveza drutev pedagokih delavcev Slovenije. Donnellan, M.B., Oswald, F.L., Baird, B.M., & Lucas, R.E. (2006). The mini-IPIP scales: Tiny-yeteffective measures of the Big Five factors of personality. Psychological Assessment, 18, 192-203. Gruban, B. (2003). Kompetence: moda, ki traja e tiri desetletja. Finance, 168/1596, str. 19. Harris, P. R. (2001). Ensuring European leadership in the global marketplace. European Business Review, Vol. 13, No. 6, pp. 336-345. Jokinen, T. (2005). Global leadership competencies: a review and discussion. Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 199-216. Kim, S. (2007). Learning goal orientation, formal mentoring, and leadership competence in HRD A conceptual model. Journal of European Industrial Trainig, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 181-194. Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. M. Lefcourt (Ed.). Research with the locus of control construct, Vol. 1, pp. 15-63. New York: Academic Press. Lorenzi, N. M., Riley, R. T. (2000). Managing Change An Overview. Journal or the American Medical Informatics Association, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 116-124. Manning, T. T. (2003). Leadership Across Cultures: Attachment Style Influences. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 20-30. May, A. S. (1997). Think globaly act locally! Competences for global management. Career Development International, Vol. 2, Iss. 6, pp. 308-311. Medve, Z. (2006). Informativni in formativni nivo v kurikularnem nartovanju. Vzgoja in izobraevanje, Let. 37, t. 1, pp. 19-21. OECD (2007). Understanding change in government. Working material. Paris: OECD. Rappe, C., Zwick, T. (2007). Developing leadership competence of production unit managers. Journal Management Development, Vol. 26, No. 4, pp. 312-330. Rokeach, M.R. (1967). Value Survey. Sunnyvale, Ca: Halgren Tests. Suutari, V. (2002). Global leader development: an emerging research agenda. Career Development International, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 218-233. Svetlik, I. (2005). O kompetencah. V: Pezdirc, M. S. (ur.). Kompetence v kadrovski praksi, pp. 12-27. Ljubljana: GV izobraevanje. Thach, E., Thompson, K. J. (2007). Trading places Examining leadership competencies between forprofit vs. Public and non-profit leaders. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 356-375. Virtanen, T. (2000). Changing competences of public managers: tensions in commitment. The International Journal of Public Sector Management, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 333-341.

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4. APPENDICES A The Questionnaire B The Results of Factor Analyses C A Summary of the Responses

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Appendix A

The Questionnaire

1. Thank you for taking your time to complete this survey on leadership competencies regarding the change management in the EU. This survey is being carried out by the Ministry of Public Administration of Slovenia, during the Slovenian Presidency of the EU. As you will see, the majority of questions are asking about you personally: your skills, your traits, your abilities, etc. We could not avoid that, as competencies are individual phenomena. To protect your privacy, there is no need to disclose your name. All data collected by this survey will be treated anonymously and confidentially. The data is collected solely for the purpose of scientific research and the results will only be shown in a summary form. Therefore, nobody will be able to identify neither your identity nor your responses. In other words, nobody will ever know what your individual answers were. The results of this research will increase our understanding of leadership competencies, their antecedents, as well as their role in the successful management of change in the European Public Administration. The survey takes about 45-60 minutes to complete. We understand that you are all pressed for time, and we sincerely appreciate your time investment in filling-out this survey.

2. First, we would like you to answer a few questions about yourself.


What is your gender? j k l m n Male j k l m n Female How old are you? Your age in years: Country where you live: (Select your country from the drop-down menu.)

What is the highest educational degree that you have achieved? (Select only one answer.) j k l m n Doctoral Degree j k l m n Master's Degree j k l m n University Degree (Diploma, B.A., B.Sc., etc.) j k l m n High School Degree or less What is your job title?

What is your rank (level) in Public Administration (PA)? (Select one answer.) j k l m n Middle management j k l m n Top management What is a total amount of your work experience? Please calculate the time in months: What is a total amount of your work experience in Public Administration? Please calculate the time in months: What is a total amount of your work experience at the current PA institution (Ministry, Secretariat, Agency, etc.)? Please calculate the time in months: How long have you been in your current position? Please calculate the time in months:

3.
Below you will find several statements. Please indicate to what extent you agree with each of them. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree As I started to work in my current position, I received appropriate on-the-job training. I was formally trained in all aspects of work in my current position. I have a formal personal coach available in my current position. As I started to work in my current position, I had a formal mentor appointed by the PA institution. As I started to work in my current position, I had an informal mentor. During my career, I received formal management training. I may use services of a consulting agency when I think that is necessary. During my career, I received formal training in teamwork. I keep my knowledge and skills current by regularly attending seminars, workshops, and conferences. I work in a highly regulated legal environment. In our PA institution, funds for current daily operations are readily available. In our PA institution, funds for development and innovation are readily available. Our PA institution invests a lot of money in research. People in our PA institution have a strong work ethics. In our work, the PA institution is facing an increasing competition from the private sector. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

4.
Below you will find several statements. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOU. Do not answer how you think things should be but rather how they actually are. Neither Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree Whether or not I get to be a leader depends mostly on my ability. To a great extent my life is controlled by accidental happenings. I feel like what happens in my life is mostly determined by powerful people. Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on how good a driver I am. When I make plans, I am almost certain to make them work. Often there is no chance of protecting my personal interests from bad luck happenings. When I get what I want, it is usually because I am lucky. Although I might have a good ability, I will not be given leadership responsibility without appealing to those in positions of power. How many friends I have depends on how nice a person I am. I have often found that what is going to happen will happen. My life is chiefly controlled by powerful others. Whether or not I get into a car accident is mostly a matter of luck. People like myself have very little chance of protecting our personal interests when they conflict with those of strong pressure groups. It is not always wise for me to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune. Getting what I want requires pleasing those people above me. Whether or not I get to be a leader depends on whether I am lucky enough to be in the right place at the right time. If important people were to decide they did not like me, I probably would not make many friends. I can pretty much determine what will happen in my life. I am usually able to protect my personal interests. Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on the other driver. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Slightly DisagreeSlightly nor Agree j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Agree Agree Strongly Agree

When I get what I want, it is usually because I worked hard for it. In order to have my plans work, I make sure that they fit in with the desires of people who have power over me. My life is determined by my own actions. It is chiefly a matter of fate whether or not I have a few friends or many friends.

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n

5.
Below there are 18 values listed in alphabetical order. Your task is to arrange them in order of their importance to YOU, as guiding principles in YOUR life. Study the list carefully and write number 18 next to the value which is the most important for you. Then pick out the value which is the least important for you and write number 1 next to it. Then pick out the second most important value for you and write number 17 next to it. Next, pick out the second least important value for you and assign number 2 to it. Then do the same for each of the remaining values. A comfortable life (a prosperous life) An exciting life (a stimulating, active life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world of peace (free of war and conflict) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Mature love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) National security (protection from attack) Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) Salvation (saved, eternal life) Self-respect (self-esteem) Social recognition (respect, admiration) True friendship (close companionship) Wisdom (a mature understanding of life)

6.
Below you will find a list of characteristics. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each characteristic is true for YOU. Do not answer how you think you SHOULD BE but rather how you ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree Ambitious (hard-working, aspiring) Broadminded (open-minded) Capable (competent, effective) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, creative) Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient) Intellectual (intelligent, reflective) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving (affectionate, tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful) Polite (courteous, well-mannered) Responsible (dependable, reliable) Self-controlled (restrained, self-disciplined) Passionate (feeling very strongly about a subject or person) Compassionate (empathizing with others) Ethical (adhering to moral standards) j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Slightly DisagreeSlightly nor Agree j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Agree Agree Strongly Agree

7.
Below you will find several statements. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOU. Do not answer how you think you SHOULD BE but rather how you ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Disagree Disagree Disagree I am the life of a party. Sympathize with others feelings. Get chores done right away. Have frequent mood swings. Have a vivid imagination Don't talk a lot. Am not interested in other people's problems. Often forget to put things back in their proper place. Am relaxed most of the time. Am not interested in abstract ideas. Talk to a lot of different people at parties. Feel others emotions. Like order. Get upset easily. Have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. Keep in the background. Am not really interested in others. Make a mess of things. Seldom feel blue. Do not have good imagination. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Slightly DisagreeSlightly nor Agree j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n Agree Agree Strongly Agree

8.
In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree When I face a problem, I look at it from all possible angles before I attempt to solve it. When I face a problem, I take enough time to think before I attempt to solve it. When I face a problem, I brainstorm to generate a large number of alternatives for solving it. When I face a problem, I consider all theoretical and practical implications of each of the possible solutions. I try to break down complex problems to several smaller more manageable problems. I always verify my assumptions before making a decision. When I face a problem, I study what has been written about it and if a similar problem has been solved before. When I face a problem, I work on identifying the causes before I try to solve it. In solving a problem, I calculate the potential loss or risk for the PA institution. I see each problem as an opportunity for learning, improvement, and development. I am very innovative in approaching and solving problems. When things go well, I always ask myself how I could make them better. I can do complex calculations by heart (without using a calculator). I have a good sense for and understanding of numbers. I am very good at making complex decisions. In solving a problem, I employ a systematic set of steps to reach a solution. I am very successful in evaluating performance and strategic options. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

9.
In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of legal regulation in my line of work. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and principles. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of Human Resource Management. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of accounting principles and practice. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the EU issues in my line of work. I am well versed in using a personal computer. I extensively use the Internet in doing my work. I make use of video/audio conferencing in doing my work. I feel confident conducting a meeting in a foreign language. I extensively use multimedia in making presentations. I posses good personal communication skills. I feel confident working with and/or supervising people from other cultures. I posses a thorough understanding of cultural differences within EU. I am a quick learner. I learn from my experience (I seldom make the same mistake twice). I successfully plan my personal and professional development. I am very efficient in acquiring new knowledge and skills. I have a talent for turning organizational liabilities into assets. I have an ability to promote our PA institutions vision with enthusiastic passion. I have a talent for changing our PA institutions vision into reality. I have a talent for persuading others within the PA institution to join and help in fulfilling our vision. I have valuable skills and abilities not often found in public administration. I am persistent in attempting to solve a problem until I succeed. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

I am successful in conserving organizational resources while solving problems.

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

j k l m n

10.
In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree I have great tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty. I have a talent for selecting and retaining the right people for our PA institution. I am very successful in motivating my employees and colleagues for excellence. I am very skillful negotiator. I participate effectively in multicultural teams. I have a genuine respect for other countries. I have great ability to understand and manage myself. I have great ability to maintain confidence and objectivity under difficult circumstances. I tend to be proactive. I am willing to take personal risks for the benefit of our PA institution. I am a very optimistic person. I have great ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods. I am able to see the big picture beyond a particular problem or situation. I am very sensitive to others needs and assumptions. I have genuine concern for others. I am very successful in managing conflicts. I posses great expertise in building and leading teams. I have great skills for teamwork and collaboration. I have great listening skills. I have great persuasiveness and ability to influence. I have great ability for building bonds and finding a common ground with all kinds of people. I am very good in managing first impressions. I am an agent of change in our PA institution. I am able to express myself with a distinctive and compelling voice. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

11.
In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree I am very good in bringing out the best in people. I have great ability to attract and develop talent. I am very good in building and maintaining networks. I am very good in building partnerships and alliances. I am very good in creating a sense of community within the public administration. I am very good in recognizing the key constituencies and decision makers. I have a thorough understanding of key organizational processes, systems, procedures, and methods. I have a thorough understanding of training needs within our PA institution. I have a thorough understanding of strategic roles of different units within our PA institution. I thoroughly understand the need, goals, demands, and problems of our PA institutions constituents and clients. I am very good in recognizing the skills of others. I am very good in creating safe, positive environment for change. I have great ability to understand and manage my emotions. I have great ability to understand and manage other peoples emotions. I have no problems expressing my emotions at work. I am very good at controlling my impulses. I am very good at managing stress in myself. I am very good at managing stress in others. I have very high self-esteem. I am able to integrate my emotions in my decision making. I have very high degree of integrity (my actions never deviate from my beliefs). I have a strong will to do good. I encourage diversity of approaches in carrying out our PA institutions tasks. I invent new approaches to resolving challenges in our PA institution. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

12.
All PA institutions, to a larger or smaller extent, undergo a process of change and transformation. Below you will find several statements regarding this process and its outcomes. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOUR PA Institution. Do not answer how you think things SHOULD BE but rather how they ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree Our PA institution relies heavily upon a strict hierarchy of control. Conformity to the existing ways of doing things is highly valued in our PA institution. In our PA institution, we value uniformity; personality should be kept out. In our PA institution, authority is mainly derived from ones formal position. In our PA institution, authority is mainly derived from ones expert knowledge. A dominant approach to managing our PA institution falls under the command control paradigm. In our PA institution, very high value and importance is placed on each employees accountability. All important issues in our PA institution are openly discussed and shared with the public. Anything we do in our PA institution is done very transparently. Effectiveness is a very important performance-rating criterion in our PA institution. Senior ranking officials in our PA institution are judged by the employees based on their leadership abilities. There is a strong managerial culture in our PA institution; people and resources are planned, organized, led, and controlled according to the principles of management theory. In our PA institution, we believe in citizens empowerment; we encourage citizens to be involved in all aspects of our PA institutions work. In our PA institution, we believe in a lifelong career in public administration; employees should enter the PA institution at the lowest level and spend their entire career within public administration. The major criterion for promotion within our PA institution is successful performance in the current position. The major criterion for promotion within our PA institution is fulfillment of requirements for the desired position. In developing policies in our PA institution, we engage in dialogue with various constituencies and stakeholders. Normalization of employment conditions has high priority j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

in our PA institution. Our PA institution is decentralized; higher ranking officials delegate their authority to lower levels. Our PA institution is very performance-oriented. Our PA institution has subtle leadership; our leaders lead without being overpowering and overbearing. Our PA institution enjoys strong support of all stakeholders (politicians, financial groups, public servants, civil society, etc.). j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

13.
All PA institutions, to a larger or smaller extent, undergo a process of change and transformation. Below you will find several statements regarding this process and its outcomes. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOUR PA institution. Do not answer how you think things SHOULD BE but rather how they ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly DisagreeSlightly Strongly Disagree Agree Disagree Disagree nor Agree Agree Agree In our PA institution, peoples mindsets, culture, and attitudes are well adapted to a new environment that public administration is facing in our country. In general, citizens are very satisfied with our PA institution and its performance. Our PA institution has a strong, trusted, and committed leadership. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in obtaining peoples commitment through persuasion, negotiation, and influencing their values and culture. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in transforming organizational culture. Changes in our PA institution are coherent with the broader socio-economic reform policies. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in providing information which allows stakeholders to understand the necessity of change its rationale and the ways of achieving it. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in generating the necessary structures for capacitybuilding. Among the employees in our PA institution, there are high levels of fear and uncertainty associated with change. The resistance to change in our PA Institution is high, because change has not been clearly explained by leaders and managers. Change led by our PA institution produces confusion and generates opposition due to lack of coherence of the reform and consistency with other reform initiatives. Change led by our PA institution produces uncertainty and distrust due to lack of information. The medias perceptions of the reform initiatives of our PA institution are very positive. The level of productivity in our PA institution is very high. There is a high quality of relationships among all ranks in our PA institution. There is a high level of conflict within our PA institution. There is a high level of cooperation among all units and individuals in our PA institution. j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

Organizational climate in our PA institution is very positive. There is a steep learning curve in our PA institution; we learn from our mistakes and successes. Our PA institution is very successful in achieving its goals. Our PA institutions leadership is very successful in managing change. Employees in our PA institution have a very high level of job satisfaction. Employees in our PA institution are highly motivated. Employees in our PA institution are very adaptable. The supervisory institution, to which our PA institution reports to, is very satisfied with our work, performance, and outcomes.

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n j k l m n

14. Thank You for participating in this survey!

Appendix B

The Results of Factor Analyses

Results of Factor Analysis for Competencies


Items
People skills Understanding, innovating, changing the organization Emotional intelligence and self control Planning and decision making Numbers and logic Multicultural skills Learning and using new technologies

I see each problem as an opportunity for learning, improvement, and development. I am very innovative in approaching and solving problems. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of Human Resource Management. I posses good personal communication skills. I have a talent for turning organizational liabilities into assets. I have a talent for persuading others within the PA institution to join and help in fulfilling our vision. I have great tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty. I have a talent for selecting and retaining the right people for our PA institution. I am very successful in motivating my employees and colleagues for excellence. I am very skillful negotiator. I am a very optimistic person. I am very sensitive to others needs and assumptions. I have genuine concern for others. I am very successful in managing conflicts. I posses great expertise in building and leading teams. I have great skills for teamwork and collaboration. I have great listening skills. I have great persuasiveness and ability to influence. I have great ability for building bonds and finding a common ground with all kinds of people. I am very good in managing first impressions. I am very good in bringing out the best in people. I have great ability to attract and develop talent.

0.38 0.51 0.42 0.45 0.40 0.51

0.24 0.42 0.59 0.44 0.50 0.58 0.60 0.48 0.62 0.65 0.44 0.42 0.65

0.38 0.60 0.58

I am very good in building and maintaining networks. I am very good in building partnerships and alliances. I am very good in creating a sense of community within the public administration. I am very good in creating safe, positive environment for change. I have great ability to understand and manage other peoples emotions. I have no problems expressing my emotions at work. I am very good at managing stress in others. In solving a problem, I calculate the potential loss or risk for the PA institution. I am very successful in evaluating performance and strategic options. I have an ability to promote our PA institutions vision with enthusiastic passion. I have a talent for changing our PA institutions vision into reality. I am successful in conserving organizational resources while solving problems. I tend to be proactive. I am willing to take personal risks for the benefit of our PA institution. I am able to see the big picture beyond a particular problem or situation. I am an agent of change in our PA institution. I am able to express myself with a distinctive and compelling voice. I have a thorough understanding of key organizational processes, systems, procedures, and methods. I have a thorough understanding of training needs within our PA institution. I have a thorough understanding of strategic roles of different units within our PA institution. I thoroughly understand the need, goals, demands, and problems of our PA institutions constituents and clients. I am very good in recognizing the skills of others. I encourage diversity of approaches in carrying out our PA institutions tasks. I invent new approaches to resolving challenges in our PA institution. I learn from my experience (I seldom make the same mistake twice). I am persistent in attempting to solve a problem until I succeed.

0.58 0.57 0.62 0.54 0.64 0.52 0.69 0.44 0.36 0.56 0.63 0.41 0.41 0.61 0.54 0.58 0.47 0.38

0.49 0.62

0.54

0.44 0.55 0.57 0.45 0.53

I have a genuine respect for other countries. I have great ability to understand and manage myself. I have great ability to understand and manage my emotions. I am very good at controlling my impulses. I am very good at managing stress in myself. I have very high self-esteem. I am able to integrate my emotions in my decision making. I have very high degree of integrity (my actions never deviate from my beliefs). I have a strong will to do good. When I face a problem, I look at it from all possible angles before I attempt to solve it. When I face a problem, I take enough time to think before I attempt to solve it. When I face a problem, I brainstorm to generate a large number of alternatives for solving it. When I face a problem, I consider all theoretical and practical implications of each of the possible solutions. I try to break down complex problems to several smaller more manageable problems. I always verify my assumptions before making a decision. When I face a problem, I study what has been written about it and if a similar problem has been solved before. When I face a problem, I work on identifying the causes before I try to solve it. When things go well, I always ask myself how I could make them better. I successfully plan my personal and professional development. I can do complex calculations by heart (without using a calculator). I have a good sense for and understanding of numbers. I am very good at making complex decisions. In solving a problem, I employ a systematic set of steps to reach a solution. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of legal regulation in my line of

0.44 0.53 0.61 0.60 0.51 0.48 0.32 0.61 0.34 0.65

0.60 0.52

0.60

0.63

0.65 0.54

0.55 0.40 0.38 0.58 0.63 0.50 0.51 0.40

work. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of financial concepts and principles. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of accounting principles and practice. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the EU issues in my line of work. I make use of video/audio conferencing in doing my work. I feel confident conducting a meeting in a foreign language. I feel confident working with and/or supervising people from other cultures. I posses a thorough understanding of cultural differences within EU. I have valuable skills and abilities not often found in public administration. I participate effectively in multicultural teams. I am well versed in using a personal computer. I extensively use the Internet in doing my work. I am a quick learner. I am very efficient in acquiring new knowledge and skills. I extensively use multimedia in making presentations. n = 284 0.38 0.74 0.51 0.52 0.39 0.55 0.66 0.59 0.44 0.45 0.53 0.58 0.60 0.70

Results of Factor Analysis for Successful change management


Items
Traditional values Fear and resistance to change New values

Our PA institution relies heavily upon a strict hierarchy of control. Conformity to the existing ways of doing things is highly valued in our PA institution. In our PA institution, we value uniformity; personality should be kept out. In our PA institution, authority is mainly derived from ones formal position. A dominant approach to managing our PA institution falls under the command control paradigm. In our PA institution, we believe in a lifelong career in public administration; employees should enter the PA institution at the lowest level and spend their entire career within public administration. Among the employees in our PA institution, there are high levels of fear and uncertainty associated with change. The resistance to change in our PA Institution is high, because change has not been clearly explained by leaders and managers. Change led by our PA institution produces confusion and generates opposition due to lack of coherence of the reform and consistency with other reform initiatives. Change led by our PA institution produces uncertainty and distrust due to lack of information. There is a high level of conflict within our PA institution. In our PA institution, authority is mainly derived from ones expert knowledge. In our PA institution, very high value and importance is placed on each employees accountability. All important issues in our PA institution are openly discussed and shared with the public. Anything we do in our PA institution is done very transparently. Effectiveness is a very important performance-rating criterion in our PA institution. Senior ranking officials in our PA institution are judged by the employees based on their leadership abilities. There is a strong managerial culture in our PA institution; people and resources are planned, organized, led, and controlled according to the principles of management theory. In our PA institution, we believe in citizens empowerment; we encourage citizens to be involved in all aspects of our PA institutions work. The major criterion for promotion within our PA institution is successful performance in the current position. The major criterion for promotion within our PA institution is fulfillment of requirements for the desired position. In developing policies in our PA institution, we engage in dialogue with various

0.73 0.63

0.59 0.71 0.72

0.62

0.57

0.73

0.72

0.62

0.56 0.48 0.65

0.66

0.63 0.72 0.68

0.66

0.63

0.65

0.59

0.58

constituencies and stakeholders. Normalization of employment conditions has high priority in our PA institution. Our PA institution is decentralized; higher ranking officials delegate their authority to lower levels. Our PA institution is very performance-oriented Our PA institution has subtle leadership; our leaders lead without being overpowering and overbearing. Our PA institution enjoys strong support of all stakeholders politicians, financial groups, public servants, civil society, etc.). In our PA institution, peoples mindsets, culture, and attitudes are well adapted to a new environment that public administration is facing in our country. In general, citizens are very satisfied with our PA institution and its performance. Our PA institution has a strong, trusted, and committed leadership. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in obtaining peoples commitment through persuasion, negotiation, and influencing their values and culture. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in transforming organizational culture. Changes in our PA institution are coherent with the broader socioeconomic reform policies. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in providing information which allows stakeholders to understand the necessity of change its rationale and the ways of achieving it. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in generating the necessary structures for capacitybuilding. The medias perceptions of the reform initiatives of our PA institution are very positive. The level of productivity in our PA institution is very high. There is a high quality of relationships among all ranks in our PA institution. There is a high level of cooperation among all units and individuals in our PA institution. Organizational climate in our PA institution is very positive. There is a steep learning curve in our PA institution; we learn from our mistakes and successes. Our PA institution is very successful in achieving its goals. Our PA institutions leadership is very successful in managing change. Employees in our PA institution have a very high level of job satisfaction. Employees in our PA institution are highly motivated. Employees in our PA institution are very adaptable. The supervisory institution, to which our PA institution reports to, is very satisfied with our work, performance, and outcomes. n=284 0.68 0.64 0.59 0.60 0.51 0.56 0.66 0.59 0.66 0.68 0.59 0.45 0.67 0.70 0.62 0.49 0.51 0.66 0.64 0.68 0.54 0.70 0.56 0.50 0.63

Results of Factor Analysis for Individual traits

Items Ambitious Broadminded Capable Clean Courageous Honest Independent Intellectual Logical Responsible Self-controlled Ethical Cheerful Forgiving Helpful Imaginative Loving Obedient Polite Passionate Compassionate
n=284

Personal traits 0.52 0.61 0.74 0.44 0.56 0.55 0.65 0.62 0.66 0.67 0.43 0.46

Gregarious traits

0.44 0.68 0.66 0.50 0.72 0.58 0.54 0.65 0.76

Appendix C

A Summary of the Responses

Whatisyourgender?

n=183
How old are you? Response Average 46,13167

Answer Options Your age in years:

Response Total 12963

answered question skipped question

Response Count 281 281 3

Whatisthehighesteducationaldegreethatyouhaveachieved?

n=282

Whatisyourrank(level)inPublicAdministration(PA)?

n=281
What is a total amount of your work experience? Response Average 22,34

Answer Options Please calculate the time in years:

Response Total 6321

answered question skipped question

Response Count 283 283 1

What is a total amount of your work experience in Public Administration? Response Average 18,15 Response Count 283 283 1

Answer Options Please calculate the time in years:

Response Total 5137,8

answered question skipped question

What is a total amount of your work experience at the current PA institution (Ministry, Secretariat, Agency, etc.)? Answer Options Please calculate the time in years: Response Average 11,23 Response Total 3177,9 Response Count 283 283 1

answered question skipped question

How long have you been in your current position? Response Average 3,53 Response Count 284 284 0

Answer Options Please calculate the time in years:

Response Total 1003,2

answered question skipped question

Below you will find several statements. Please indicate to what extent you agree with each of them. Neither Disagree nor Agree 29 37 31 23 33 14 37 14 16 22 46 50 54 29 45

Answer Options As I started to work in my current position, I received appropriate onthe-job training. I was formally trained in all aspects of work in my current position. I have a formal personal coach available in my current position. As I started to work in my current position, I had a formal mentor appointed by the PA institution. As I started to work in my current position, I had an informal mentor. During my career, I received formal management training. I may use services of a consulting agency when I think that is necessary. During my career, I received formal training in teamwork. I keep my knowledge and skills current by regularly attending seminars, workshops, and conferences. I work in a highly regulated legal environment. In our PA institution, funds for current daily operations are readily available. In our PA institution, funds for development and innovation are readily available. Our PA institution invests a lot of money in research. People in our PA institution have a strong work ethics. In our work, the PA institution is facing an increasing competition from the private sector.

Strongly Disagree 37 31 86 95 50 9 24 12 4 1 11 12 41 1 41

Disagree 61 62 101 100 69 34 51 39 6 7 21 46 70 11 79

Slightly Disagree 24 32 17 21 25 21 25 17 16 16 25 38 43 12 28

Slightly Agree 48 58 19 12 47 51 38 58 60 53 55 54 37 60 35

Agree 74 48 19 20 45 106 93 109 130 125 105 71 30 123 39

Strongly Agree 11 16 5 7 14 47 16 35 52 59 17 11 7 44 15

Rating Average 3,90 3,83 2,54 2,44 3,53 5,02 4,26 4,88 5,54 5,58 4,77 4,22 3,33 5,43 3,46

Response Count 284 284 278 278 283 282 284 284 284 283 280 282 282 280 282 284 0

answered question skipped question


Below you will find several statements. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOU. Do not answer how you think things should be but rather how they actually are. Strongly Disagree 2 26 36 Slightly Disagree 10 53 51 Neither Disagree nor Agree 22 39 30 Slightly Agree 60 29 29 Strongly Agree 22 0 2 Rating Average 5,47 2,84 2,84 Response Count 275 277 276

Answer Options Whether or not I get to be a leader depends mostly on my ability. To a great extent my life is controlled by accidental happenings. I feel like what happens in my life is mostly determined by powerful people.

Disagree 6 120 113

Agree 153 10 15

Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on how good a driver I am. When I make plans, I am almost certain to make them work. Often there is no chance of protecting my personal interests from bad luck happenings. When I get what I want, it is usually because I am lucky. Although I might have a good ability, I will not be given leadership responsibility without appealing to those in positions of power. How many friends I have depends on how nice a person I am. I have often found that what is going to happen will happen. My life is chiefly controlled by powerful others. Whether or not I get into a car accident is mostly a matter of luck. People like myself have very little chance of protecting our personal interests when they conflict with those of strong pressure groups. It is not always wise for me to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune. Getting what I want requires pleasing those people above me. Whether or not I get to be a leader depends on whether I am lucky enough to be in the right place at the right time. If important people were to decide they did not like me, I probably would not make many friends. I can pretty much determine what will happen in my life. I am usually able to protect my personal interests. Whether or not I get into a car accident depends mostly on the other driver. When I get what I want, it is usually because I worked hard for it. In order to have my plans work, I make sure that they fit in with the desires of people who have power over me. My life is determined by my own actions. It is chiefly a matter of fate whether or not I have a few friends or many friends.

6 1 15 20 15 6 5 40 24 15 21 14 12 50 3 2 9 2 10 2 52

22 3 88 113 54 28 33 121 81 64 86 69 56 110 16 3 57 2 41 7 115

25 4 58 54 36 22 36 45 54 55 62 55 34 31 27 9 55 7 37 4 38

49 24 63 39 52 31 80 30 61 53 37 49 41 45 43 38 72 14 54 21 42

68 73 27 38 55 67 67 26 39 57 55 66 79 23 88 66 50 51 74 63 16

101 154 22 13 55 102 47 13 14 26 16 20 44 16 95 137 31 143 56 151 11

6 19 1 2 6 20 10 2 3 6 0 4 10 0 7 20 3 58 7 30 2

4,73 5,53 3,25 3,03 3,98 4,85 4,27 2,74 3,23 3,63 3,24 3,58 4,05 2,74 4,83 5,38 3,73 5,78 4,21 5,55 2,62

277 278 274 279 273 276 278 277 276 276 277 277 276 275 279 275 277 277 279 278 276 281 3

answered question skipped question

Below there are 18 values listed in alphabetical order. Your task is to arrange them in order of their importance to YOU, as guiding principles in YOUR life. Study the list carefully and write number 18 next to the value which is the most important for you. Then pick out the value which is the least important for you and write number 1 next to it. Then pick out the second most important value for you and write number 17 next to it. Next, pick out the second least important value for you and assign number 2 to it. Then do the same for each of the remaining values.

Answer Options A comfortable life (a prosperous life) An exciting life (a stimulating, active life) A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution) A world of peace (free of war and conflict) A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts) Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all) Family security (taking care of loved ones) Freedom (independence, free choice) Happiness (contentedness) Inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict) Mature love (sexual and spiritual intimacy) National security (protection from attack) Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life) Salvation (saved, eternal life) Self-respect (self-esteem) Social recognition (respect, admiration) True friendship (close companionship) Wisdom (a mature understanding of life)

Response Average 8,65 8,34 9,57 10,32 6,86 8,32 13,65 11,84 10,63 11,23 8,79 8,20 7,07 5,97 11,58 8,50 10,80 10,70

Response Total 2370 2284 2622 2827 1880 2279 3740 3244 2913 3076 2408 2247 1936 1637 3172 2329 2959 2931

Response Count 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 274 10

answered question skipped question


Below you will find a list of characteristics. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each characteristic is true for YOU. Do not answer how you think you SHOULD BE but rather how you ACTUALLY ARE. Strongly Disagree 3 1 Slightly Disagree 6 2 Neither Disagree nor Agree 13 2 Slightly Agree 52 40 Strongly Agree 58 64 Rating Average 5,79 6,03 Response Count 278 277

Answer Options Ambitious (hard-working, aspiring) Broadminded (open-minded)

Disagree 1 0

Agree 145 168

Capable (competent, effective) Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful) Clean (neat, tidy) Courageous (standing up for your beliefs) Forgiving (willing to pardon others) Helpful (working for the welfare of others) Honest (sincere, truthful) Imaginative (daring, creative) Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient) Intellectual (intelligent, reflective) Logical (consistent, rational) Loving (affectionate, tender) Obedient (dutiful, respectful) Polite (courteous, well-mannered) Responsible (dependable, reliable) Self-controlled (restrained, self-disciplined) Passionate (feeling very strongly about a subject or person) Compassionate (empathizing with others) Ethical (adhering to moral standards)

1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 2

1 6 3 1 4 2 0 3 0 0 0 7 8 0 1 4 12 7 1

1 19 11 10 17 6 3 15 15 3 5 16 25 8 0 22 33 20 2

1 26 24 17 30 16 8 32 18 14 18 29 40 24 7 26 36 42 18

33 80 59 59 75 54 44 75 65 51 60 89 86 66 30 77 87 86 45

183 115 131 144 121 152 141 119 126 160 145 107 92 138 148 100 79 100 138

58 29 48 46 26 45 80 31 51 48 48 28 25 37 89 46 27 19 71

6,04 5,32 5,61 5,69 5,31 5,74 6,02 5,37 5,64 5,84 5,75 5,26 5,09 5,61 6,13 5,38 4,94 5,10 5,89

278 276 277 278 276 276 277 277 276 277 277 278 277 274 276 276 277 276 277 278 6

answered question skipped question


Below you will find several statements. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOU. Do not answer how you think you SHOULD BE but rather how you ACTUALLY ARE. Strongly Disagree 23 2 2 15 1 Slightly Disagree 41 15 28 49 33 Neither Disagree nor Agree 84 39 62 49 49 Slightly Agree 40 95 71 53 78 Strongly Agree 6 10 14 5 17 Rating Average 3,53 5,12 4,78 3,57 4,85 Response Count 277 275 264 273 270

Answer Options I am the life of a party. Sympathize with others feelings. Get chores done right away. Have frequent mood swings. Have a vivid imagination

Disagree 61 6 12 74 12

Agree 22 108 75 28 80

Don't talk a lot. Am not interested in other people's problems. Often forget to put things back in their proper place. Am relaxed most of the time. Am not interested in abstract ideas. Talk to a lot of different people at parties. Feel others emotions. Like order. Get upset easily. Have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. Keep in the background. Am not really interested in others. Make a mess of things. Seldom feel blue. Do not have good imagination.

14 23 27 17 19 6 2 5 16 27 11 37 66 4 41

57 119 94 72 95 46 13 22 76 116 68 130 121 46 135

49 74 48 61 49 59 18 29 54 40 48 58 30 45 50

34 19 28 32 39 38 37 37 36 39 59 30 28 73 24

59 32 46 45 34 52 88 55 58 28 49 13 15 36 21

53 7 29 44 35 65 109 100 30 25 39 7 14 58 5

8 3 3 6 5 9 8 29 6 1 2 1 0 8 0

3,94 2,82 3,26 3,62 3,36 4,15 5,02 4,92 3,57 3,01 3,70 2,55 2,44 4,10 2,51

274 277 275 277 276 275 275 277 276 276 276 276 274 270 276 278 6

answered question skipped question


In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Rating Response Disagree Answer Options Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Average Count nor Agree When I face a problem, I look at it from all possible angles before I 1 6 18 18 91 118 23 5,32 275 attempt to solve it. When I face a problem, I take enough time to think before I attempt 1 11 32 33 83 100 14 4,98 274 to solve it. When I face a problem, I brainstorm to generate a large number of 1 5 29 23 84 117 16 5,18 275 alternatives for solving it. When I face a problem, I consider all theoretical and practical 2 13 25 33 83 105 14 5,01 275 implications of each of the possible solutions. I try to break down complex problems to several smaller more 2 8 19 23 80 125 17 5,24 274 manageable problems. I always verify my assumptions before making a decision. 2 10 34 28 77 110 13 5,01 274 When I face a problem, I study what has been written about it and if 2 7 23 25 73 119 27 5,26 276

a similar problem has been solved before. When I face a problem, I work on identifying the causes before I try to solve it. In solving a problem, I calculate the potential loss or risk for the PA institution. I see each problem as an opportunity for learning, improvement, and development. I am very innovative in approaching and solving problems. When things go well, I always ask myself how I could make them better. I can do complex calculations by heart (without using a calculator). I have a good sense for and understanding of numbers. I am very good at making complex decisions. In solving a problem, I employ a systematic set of steps to reach a solution. I am very successful in evaluating performance and strategic options. 1 3 1 1 3 15 5 1 1 1 5 6 3 6 12 65 17 8 10 8 12 7 16 23 27 40 23 20 26 15 18 34 22 42 38 34 34 48 32 45 85 60 75 100 86 62 61 75 84 85 134 138 119 82 93 47 108 100 104 106 20 27 38 19 16 10 28 23 18 16 5,41 5,41 5,47 5,04 4,95 3,89 5,05 5,11 5,08 5,13 275 275 274 273 275 273 276 275 275 276 276 8

answered question skipped question


In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Rating Response Disagree Answer Options Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Average Count nor Agree I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of legal regulation in 1 4 10 11 49 139 60 5,77 274 my line of work. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of financial concepts 3 29 37 28 84 74 19 4,68 274 and principles. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of Human Resource 1 5 21 34 49 121 42 5,40 273 Management. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of accounting 9 30 21 42 71 83 15 4,64 271 principles and practice. I have a thorough knowledge and understanding of the EU issues in 5 16 20 33 69 101 29 5,07 273 my line of work. I am well versed in using a personal computer. 1 4 15 10 43 140 61 5,75 274 I extensively use the Internet in doing my work. I make use of video/audio conferencing in doing my work. 2 23 10 88 11 36 12 40 45 48 124 31 69 6 5,70 3,44 273 272

I feel confident conducting a meeting in a foreign language. I extensively use multimedia in making presentations. I posses good personal communication skills. I feel confident working with and/or supervising people from other cultures. I posses a thorough understanding of cultural differences within EU. I am a quick learner. I learn from my experience (I seldom make the same mistake twice). I successfully plan my personal and professional development. I am very efficient in acquiring new knowledge and skills. I have a talent for turning organizational liabilities into assets. I have an ability to promote our PA institutions vision with enthusiastic passion. I have a talent for changing our PA institutions vision into reality. I have a talent for persuading others within the PA institution to join and help in fulfilling our vision. I have valuable skills and abilities not often found in public administration. I am persistent in attempting to solve a problem until I succeed. I am successful in conserving organizational resources while solving problems.

11 5 1 2 2 1 3 1 1 1 3 3 2 5 1 1

33 25 3 5 17 0 2 10 0 7 8 13 4 18 1 0

40 22 7 18 27 6 7 15 7 22 20 16 11 15 10 4

26 30 15 56 42 17 12 49 24 74 40 58 43 59 24 48

49 67 64 60 87 75 64 76 94 78 71 85 98 72 61 94

83 92 136 111 80 145 151 106 121 82 108 82 98 76 126 112

32 31 44 20 17 31 35 15 24 11 23 16 18 28 47 9

4,63 4,94 5,67 5,13 4,85 5,63 5,65 5,08 5,47 4,86 5,14 4,90 5,18 4,89 5,63 5,26

274 272 270 272 272 275 274 272 271 275 273 273 274 273 270 268 275 9

answered question skipped question


In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Rating Response Disagree Answer Options Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Average Count nor Agree I have great tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty. 7 40 38 30 82 59 9 4,33 265 I have a talent for selecting and retaining the right people for our PA 2 3 10 50 83 101 21 5,21 270 institution. I am very successful in motivating my employees and colleagues for 1 1 9 37 80 122 20 5,37 270 excellence. I am very skillful negotiator. 3 10 18 39 82 91 25 5,09 268 I participate effectively in multicultural teams. 3 16 12 63 67 88 20 4,93 269

I have a genuine respect for other countries. I have great ability to understand and manage myself. I have great ability to maintain confidence and objectivity under difficult circumstances. I tend to be proactive. I am willing to take personal risks for the benefit of our PA institution. I am a very optimistic person. I have great ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods. I am able to see the big picture beyond a particular problem or situation. I am very sensitive to others needs and assumptions. I have genuine concern for others. I am very successful in managing conflicts. I posses great expertise in building and leading teams. I have great skills for teamwork and collaboration. I have great listening skills. I have great persuasiveness and ability to influence. I have great ability for building bonds and finding a common ground with all kinds of people. I am very good in managing first impressions. I am an agent of change in our PA institution. I am able to express myself with a distinctive and compelling voice.

2 1 1 3 6 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1

1 3 2 8 12 13 6 4 5 2 6 6 0 5 4 6 8 9 5

2 10 4 13 19 15 20 5 22 14 24 25 11 10 10 17 14 23 19

28 27 23 35 40 23 59 21 34 32 36 42 15 25 31 29 50 55 29

47 69 80 63 83 81 91 61 86 86 91 86 81 83 102 90 83 69 77

132 120 134 121 91 104 78 136 111 106 99 91 131 116 101 102 96 86 107

57 40 24 26 16 32 10 42 12 25 11 17 30 30 18 25 19 24 29

5,75 5,52 5,53 5,28 4,94 5,25 4,91 5,64 5,14 5,31 5,04 5,04 5,54 5,41 5,26 5,25 5,10 4,98 5,30

269 270 268 269 267 270 265 270 271 267 269 268 270 270 267 270 271 269 267 270 14

answered question skipped question


In this section, you will be asked to indicate to what extent you posses certain knowledge, skills, abilities, and characteristics. It is very important that you asses yourself HONESTLY and as ACCURATELY as possible. Keep in mind that this survey is anonymous, so do NOT answer more favorably or the way you would like to be, but rather the way YOU ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Rating Response Disagree Answer Options Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Average Count nor Agree I am very good in bringing out the best in people. 1 2 11 40 102 100 13 5,20 269 I have great ability to attract and develop talent. I am very good in building and maintaining networks. 1 2 4 7 16 30 52 37 107 84 81 91 9 18 5,00 5,00 270 269

I am very good in building partnerships and alliances. I am very good in creating a sense of community within the public administration. I am very good in recognizing the key constituencies and decision makers. I have a thorough understanding of key organizational processes, systems, procedures, and methods. I have a thorough understanding of training needs within our PA institution. I have a thorough understanding of strategic roles of different units within our PA institution. I thoroughly understand the need, goals, demands, and problems of our PA institutions constituents and clients. I am very good in recognizing the skills of others. I am very good in creating safe, positive environment for change. I have great ability to understand and manage my emotions. I have great ability to understand and manage other peoples emotions. I have no problems expressing my emotions at work. I am very good at controlling my impulses. I am very good at managing stress in myself. I am very good at managing stress in others. I have very high self-esteem. I am able to integrate my emotions in my decision making. I have very high degree of integrity (my actions never deviate from my beliefs). I have a strong will to do good. I encourage diversity of approaches in carrying out our PA institutions tasks. I invent new approaches to resolving challenges in our PA institution.

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3

2 5 0 0 4 2 1 1 0 4 8 17 6 14 5 4 10 3 1 3 3

21 13 10 7 7 9 8 6 12 21 23 30 30 28 24 18 20 8 3 8 19

23 43 36 19 31 24 30 21 50 30 39 38 36 38 58 48 52 25 8 57 45

111 79 83 62 74 58 54 73 90 99 111 82 90 87 98 71 86 61 34 74 92

96 108 119 140 125 139 149 141 107 97 79 91 89 88 74 97 89 122 154 103 98

15 19 19 41 26 36 26 25 9 17 9 11 18 14 10 28 11 48 69 21 10

5,19 5,22 5,36 5,69 5,43 5,59 5,55 5,56 5,17 5,16 4,94 4,85 5,03 4,91 4,89 5,18 4,94 5,61 6,00 5,22 5,05

269 268 268 270 268 269 269 268 269 269 270 270 270 270 270 268 269 268 270 267 270 270 14

answered question skipped question

All PA institutions, to a larger or smaller extent, undergo a process of change and transformation. Below you will find several statements regarding this process and its outcomes. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOUR PA Institution. Do not answer how you think things SHOULD BE but rather how they ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Rating Response Disagree Answer Options Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Average Count nor Agree Our PA institution relies heavily upon a strict hierarchy of control. 4 20 36 26 68 90 19 4,83 263 Conformity to the existing ways of doing things is highly valued in our 2 20 38 52 80 65 2 4,51 259 PA institution. In our PA institution, we value uniformity; personality should be kept 16 72 52 46 45 28 2 3,48 261 out. In our PA institution, authority is mainly derived from ones formal 1 24 37 47 62 79 15 4,67 265 position. In our PA institution, authority is mainly derived from ones expert 3 35 46 43 74 54 8 4,31 263 knowledge. A dominant approach to managing our PA institution falls under the 6 33 28 68 68 50 6 4,29 259 command control paradigm. In our PA institution, very high value and importance is placed on 3 15 31 44 72 91 8 4,79 264 each employees accountability. All important issues in our PA institution are openly discussed and 10 48 42 44 70 42 7 4,03 263 shared with the public. Anything we do in our PA institution is done very transparently. 7 31 42 27 76 67 14 4,48 264 Effectiveness is a very important performance-rating criterion in our 5 19 22 32 63 # 14 4,94 263 PA institution. Senior ranking officials in our PA institution are judged by the 19 42 26 52 56 61 5 4,10 261 employees based on their leadership abilities. There is a strong managerial culture in our PA institution; people and resources are planned, organized, led, and controlled according to the 10 33 51 36 69 59 3 4,19 261 principles of management theory. In our PA institution, we believe in citizens empowerment; we encourage citizens to be involved in all aspects of our PA institutions 7 22 39 55 71 57 12 4,44 263 work. In our PA institution, we believe in a lifelong career in public administration; employees should enter the PA institution at the 17 53 35 47 49 45 16 3,98 262 lowest level and spend their entire career within public administration. The major criterion for promotion within our PA institution is 8 20 30 33 69 92 10 4,72 262 successful performance in the current position. The major criterion for promotion within our PA institution is 7 15 28 38 64 99 9 4,81 260 fulfillment of requirements for the desired position. In developing policies in our PA institution, we engage in dialogue 1 17 22 39 80 91 12 4,91 262 with various constituencies and stakeholders. Normalization of employment conditions has high priority in our PA 2 19 21 69 65 76 9 4,69 261 institution. Our PA institution is decentralized; higher ranking officials delegate 11 46 49 26 56 69 4 4,12 261 their authority to lower levels.

Our PA institution is very performance-oriented. Our PA institution has subtle leadership; our leaders lead without being overpowering and overbearing. Our PA institution enjoys strong support of all stakeholders (politicians, financial groups, public servants, civil society, etc.).

6 6 5

23 32 22

31 38 41

33 61 60

76 55 63

85 64 64

10 4 7

4,69 4,29 4,43

264 260 262 268 16

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All PA institutions, to a larger or smaller extent, undergo a process of change and transformation. Below you will find several statements regarding this process and its outcomes. Please indicate to what extent you agree or disagree that each statement is true for YOUR PA institution. Do not answer how you think things SHOULD BE but rather how they ACTUALLY ARE. Neither Strongly Slightly Slightly Strongly Rating Response Disagree Answer Options Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Average Count nor Agree In our PA institution, peoples mindsets, culture, and attitudes are well adapted to a new environment that public administration is facing in 2 13 36 59 83 64 5 4,60 262 our country. In general, citizens are very satisfied with our PA institution and its 9 21 33 60 66 69 6 4,45 264 performance. Our PA institution has a strong, trusted, and committed leadership. 7 9 32 42 70 91 11 4,82 262 Leadership of our PA institution is successful in obtaining peoples commitment through persuasion, negotiation, and influencing their 7 19 31 55 85 60 4 4,49 261 values and culture. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in transforming 5 24 32 58 81 59 4 4,44 263 organizational culture. Changes in our PA institution are coherent with the broader socio3 15 17 47 77 95 7 4,89 261 economic reform policies. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in providing information which allows stakeholders to understand the necessity of change its 6 23 21 66 74 65 4 4,51 259 rationale and the ways of achieving it. Leadership of our PA institution is successful in generating the 3 20 33 69 76 59 2 4,45 262 necessary structures for capacity-building. Among the employees in our PA institution, there are high levels of 12 70 57 45 40 33 4 3,56 261 fear and uncertainty associated with change. The resistance to change in our PA Institution is high, because 14 55 64 48 47 31 3 3,63 262 change has not been clearly explained by leaders and managers. Change led by our PA institution produces confusion and generates opposition due to lack of coherence of the reform and consistency 10 69 50 68 42 19 3 3,51 261 with other reform initiatives. Change led by our PA institution produces uncertainty and distrust 10 68 56 57 43 20 6 3,53 260 due to lack of information.

The medias perceptions of the reform initiatives of our PA institution are very positive. The level of productivity in our PA institution is very high. There is a high quality of relationships among all ranks in our PA institution. There is a high level of conflict within our PA institution. There is a high level of cooperation among all units and individuals in our PA institution. Organizational climate in our PA institution is very positive. There is a steep learning curve in our PA institution; we learn from our mistakes and successes. Our PA institution is very successful in achieving its goals. Our PA institutions leadership is very successful in managing change. Employees in our PA institution have a very high level of job satisfaction. Employees in our PA institution are highly motivated. Employees in our PA institution are very adaptable. The supervisory institution, to which our PA institution reports to, is very satisfied with our work, performance, and outcomes.

9 3 4 19 4 3 4 4 5 4 7 3 3

30 22 21 110 21 25 16 8 29 31 26 15 5

35 25 31 54 43 37 31 17 36 26 35 44 16

85 38 38 36 32 34 49 37 43 47 33 47 66

57 64 89 29 75 81 93 89 75 84 85 70 70

45 96 77 10 81 78 66 98 69 70 68 76 90

2 15 4 4 6 6 3 9 5 1 9 7 11

4,12 4,85 4,64 2,97 4,60 4,60 4,61 5,02 4,45 4,48 4,53 4,61 4,95

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