Textile Composites

Composite Properties
Major effects

Ing. Blanka Tomková, Ph.D.

Department of Textile Materials

Ph. electrical etc. Geometry and distribution of components including pores Volume fraction of components Properties of interface (adhesion) interaction of components Ing. Department of Textile Materials 2 .D. Textile Composites Effects influencing composite properties Properties of components mechanical.3. Blanka Tomková. thermal.

Department of Textile Materials 3 . Blanka Tomková.D.3. Ph. Textile Composites Properties of components Ing.

D. Textile Composites Selected properties of main fibrous reinforcements Ing. Ph. Blanka Tomková. Department of Textile Materials 4 .3.

Ph.3.D. Department of Textile Materials 5 . Blanka Tomková. Textile Composites Selected properties of main matrices Most useful composition of components Highest efficiency of SYNERGIC EFFECT Ing.

D. Ph. Blanka Tomková. Textile Composites Ing.3. Department of Textile Materials 6 .

Textile Composites The shape of dispersed component It is chosen due to the function of component Composite reinforcement short fibres made from low cost materials technology similar to standard plastic technologies the load is transfered between fibres and matrix through fibres surfaces through fibres ends continuous fibres highest reinforcing effect the load is transferred mainly through the fibres – clip effect tensile strength of fibres is influenced by their length longer fibres – lower tensile strength strength is also influenced by moisture and temperature Ing.D. Blanka Tomková.3. Ph. Department of Textile Materials 7 .

Blanka Tomková. Ph.same concentration ● orientation of particles ● topology of particles ● interaction of particles Ing. Textile Composites Geometry of one continuous phase system Geometry characteristics size and distribution of particles shape of particles System characteristics concentration (volume fraction of particles) concentration distribution of particles (range of phases mixture) Different concentration distributions .D.3. Department of Textile Materials 8 .

Department of Textile Materials 9 . various formation Simple cubic 52 % Body-centered cubic 60 % Face-centered cubic 74 % Random formation of spheres volume ratio ⇒ 60 – 63 % Random formation of spheres with various diameters volume ratio ⇒ 85 – 90 % Ing.D. Blanka Tomková.3. Textile Composites Geometry limits for component volume fractions Example: Volume fraction of spheres . Ph.the same diameter.

3. Textile Composites Properties of fiber-matrix interface Ing. Department of Textile Materials 10 . Blanka Tomková.D. Ph.

Textile Composites Fiber-Matrix interface Nano-sized boundary between fibres and matrix interface boundary between any two phases drop change of chemical and physical properties result of two surfaces interaction. Blanka Tomková. that depends on the surface structure and properties of both phases the structure and properties of interface differ from both phases Ing.D. Ph. Department of Textile Materials 11 .3.

D. tight. Ph.g. Department of Textile Materials 12 . no defects Real interface complicated chemical and physical structure Important influence on composite properties e. Blanka Tomková. Textile Composites Each system possess specific interface Ideal interface infinitely thin. fracture toughness corrosive behaviour Ing.3.

Department of Textile Materials 13 .3. Blanka Tomková. Ph.D. Textile Composites In composites are important The structure of interface what it is made from and how? Physical properties of interface mechanical great difference between mechanical properties of fibres and matrices the tension is transferred from matrix to fibres through the interface other important properties elektrical optical thermal Ing.

Department of Textile Materials 14 .3.D. Textile Composites Impact of joining components on interface properties Various layers different properties no chemical bonds. Ph. Blanka Tomková. no physical joining no tensile strength of composite in-plane modulus depends on the specimen clamping All layers tightly fixed in jaw CLIP EFFECT all layer carry tension Strength and stiffness of composite fibres are bonded by matrix Ing.

Ph.D. Blanka Tomková. Department of Textile Materials 15 . brittle Character of joining between fibres and matrix atomic distribution chemical properties of fibres conformation and chemical properties of matrices Strength of joinings is affected by ADHESION Ing.3. Textile Composites Composites with weak interface lower strength and stiffness more flexible Composites with strong interface high strength and stiffness hard.

3. Blanka Tomková. Ph. Textile Composites Mechanisms of adhesion Five main mechanisms joining between fibres and matrices they work either separately or in conjunction Adsorption and wetting Interdiffusion Electrostatic attraction Chemical bond Mechanical adhesion Ing. Department of Textile Materials 16 .D.

contact points only θ = 180° no wetting Improvement of wetting cleaning and smoothing of surface Ing.contact angle γSG = γSL + γLG. Ph. Department of Textile Materials 17 . Blanka Tomková.3. rough surfaces also roughnesses in microscopic scale contamination by oxides. dust particles etc.cosθ θ = 0° spontaneous wetting Wetting of real surface: Two electrically neutral. hard.D. Textile Composites Adsorption and wetting Adsorption Adsorption is the accumulation of atoms or molecules on the surface of material This process creates a film of the adsorbate (the molecules or atoms being accumulated) on the adsorbent's surface Wetting θ .

Blanka Tomková. Ph.D. Textile Composites Interdiffusion strength of joining is influenced by number of diffusive molecules conformation of molecules molecular movement entanglements Electrostatic attraction two oppositely charged surfaces interaction of acid and base oppositely charged ions positively charged groups on molecular ends are attracted by anions rised from polymer orientation strength of interface depends on charge density it is not wet-stable Ing. Department of Textile Materials 18 .3.

Ph. Department of Textile Materials 19 .D. Blanka Tomková.3. Textile Composites Chemical bond chemical groups on fiber surface + compatible chemical group of matrix Mechanical adhesion Two surfaces are just mechanically stucked high shear strength depends on size of irregularities Ing.

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