March | April 2012 Feature title: Exploration of fresh water prawn feed industry of Bangladesh

International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2012 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry



Exploration of the fresh water prawn feed industry of Bangladesh
by Ayaz Hasan Chisty 1, Prabal Barua 2 * and Jewel Das 3


angladesh is endowed with vast water areas in the form of ponds, dighis, lakes, streams and rivers, coastal areas, natural depressions and estuaries covering an area of 4.56 million ha (DoF, 2011), etc where fish can be cultured profitably.

table: the terms and condition of the survey study is as follows:

1.explore different types of prawn feed available in the market: a. local made by local small industry or by household b. Imported c. Distribution system through retailer/ wholesaler 2.Categorize the feed based on quality

expectation /results
-Possible to know the types of feed used in the prawn farming areas -Possible to know the name and product of company -Find out the brand name of feed -Possible to know the ingredients used -Know the supply system for better profit margins adequate quality grade of prawn feed will be available in the market Possible to identify the quality grade feed available in the market enlistment of quality grade feed as per grade Possible to know the feed market share and to compliances on rules and regulations Whether feed is easily intake &digestion Know the capacity and selling price economics of feed can be assed Ingredients can be known Price and nutritive value can be assed

Fisheries are diverse with fish and shrimp in the fresh and marine waters of Bangladesh that play a major role in nutrition, employment and foreign exchange earnings with about 12 million people are associated with the fisheries sector. Around 400,000ha of ponds/ditches and more than 900,000 households are involved in aquaculture (ADB, 2005). Varieties of cultural, socio-economical and institutional settings together with the diversified set of aquatic species and farming practices has given a multidimensional identity in the sector of aquaculture. The rapid growth in aquaculture production has made the sector important to Bangladesh. Crustacean, the most prominent product from aquaculture in international trade has been the major force behind increased shrimp/prawn trading. Since the late 1980s, farmed prawn has tended to act as a stabilising factor for this industry.

feeding started in the country in late 1990s when semi-intensive shrimp farming of brackish water started in the southeastern part of the coastal area and in the beginning of last decade in fresh water, when Thai catfish farming started getting popular. Before that a few farms used rice bran and oil cakes mash from in aquaculture. Supplemental feeds in pellet form for semiintensive Peneaus monodon farming were mostly imported and a joint venture company started producing several thousand tonnes annually in the country. However, semi-intensive Peneaus monodon farming started and vanished like bubbles, aquaculture feed imports ceased to exist and the joint venture company switched over to producing low-cost aquaculture feeds for fishes. Since than pellets became familiar and several companies and private farm owners are now producing pellets for fish and shrimp in the way they like. Most of the pellets produced as feed contains more junks than nutritionally required proportional ingredients. Improper feeds provided to a terrestrial animal may cause harm to it or the animal can deny consuming and provider has an option to change or modify to make it palatable. In case of aquaculture once feed (sinking) is provided, it is difficult to know that percentage of feed being consumed by target animal.

The impact of poorer quality feeds
To make things worse uneaten feed/ particles partly used as fertiliser in aquatic ecosystem and pollute the water body rapidly, if water exchange is not practiced (Tacon, 1996). In Bangladesh aquaculture most ponds are rain fed and hardly has any scope of water exchange. Therefore, cost effective quality feed is a must for aquaculture. Bad quality feed translated into poorer production performance, pollutes water bodies, degrade eco-system and environment and may lead to out break of disease in aquaculture farms (Barua et al, 2011). It is very much difficult to find out the time when formulated feed was introduced in aqua farms of Bangladesh, but it is well known that during the introduction of semi intensive method supplementary feed was introduced. Especially in shrimp farms located in Cox’s Bazaar used fishmeal, rice bran and different types of oil cakes as supplementary feed. Local farmer started to use this mixture in 1987-1988. The Meghna Farm of Cox’s bazar first used the pelleted feed in 1989. Saudi Bangla Fishfeed Ltd, first manufactured pelleted feed in 1990. In 2001, Bangladesh Integrated Fishery and Poultry Limited” first introduced floating feed which is very costly. know the market share of the existing companies a. Production capacity b. Process of manufacturing (pellet/powder) c. economics of different type of feed used in industries and their efficiencies d. Information on ingredients used in feed companies e. Comparative studies on the price and nutritive value between local and commercial made f. Formulation of low cost feed used locally 4. to assess the implication on the production

Growth dependency will be known Cost benefit analysis will be determined Choice of alternate feed will be known Possible to detect nitro furan and other hazards substances contaminated in the feed Identify the % of different types of ingredients used in the feed Can be used as a growth tools Quality can be assured

Feeding fish thought to be unnecessary
Feeding fish or any other aquatic domesticated aquatic organisms was considered unnecessary in this part of the world. Most people thought that even farmed aquatic organisms were unnatural. These beliefs was due to ignorance and partly to the fact that fish and shrimp grow beyond our eyesight. Introduction of pellet types supplemental

5.Identification of hazards ingredients harmful antibiotics and other banned/ harmful substances 6. Collection of primary and secondary data from the different sources on a. Market share b. ratio of ingredients c. application of dosages of feed d. Storing system 7. Prepare a final report on feed with a well defined toC

Information on complete study on feed market will be available

According to research report and various surveys it was found that there are 100 feedmills in Bangladesh that produce aquaculture feed and poultry feed together. It is clear that there is no specific study emphasising sustainability/ feasibility of feedbased aquaculture, especially in Bangladesh. In fact, the production of aqua-feeds has been widely recognised as one of the fastest expanding agricultural industries in the world, with annual growth rates in excess of 30 percent per year (Tacon, 1996). On the basis of different categories of species, 25 percent of total aqua-feed production was for shrimp and prawn. The efforts have been placed on the use of by-products from the much larger and faster-growing terrestrial agricultural production sector, including: 1) terrestrial animal by-product meals resulting from the processing (i.e. rendering) of
March-april 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 31

non-food grade livestock by-products; 2) plant oilseed and grain legume meals; 3) cereal by-product meals; and 4) miscellaneous protein sources such as single-cell proteins, leaf protein concentrates, invertebrate meals, etc. However, the eventual success of these potential feed resources as fishmeal replacement in aquafeeds will depend upon the further development and use of improved

30 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | March-april 2012



table 1: list of different feed mills and their capacity and nature of feed Sl. no. name and address Production capacity (ton/ Hour) 20 10 20 10 10 5 5 5 3.5 5 14 10 5 3 5 10 13 40 20 5 10 7 5 13 30 10 5 50 15 8 10 5 5 15 5 5 10 3 10 9 5 10 10 15 Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn (?) Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish &Shrimp/prawn Purpose

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 17 9 27 12 40 16 8 36 11 14 13 33 4 3 37 22 32 29 31 20 38 6

aCI Feeds, Vadra Ghat, Shiraj Gonj aftab feeds ltd., rupgonj, narayangonj aIt Feeds ltd., Shopipur, gazipur alea Feeds, Bagher Bazar, Gazipur aman Feeds, Ullah Para, Shiraj gonj Bay agro Feeds, Shopipur, Gazipur Biswas Feeds, Kashimpur, Gazipur Bismillah feed Mills,attaki, Fakirhat, Khulna Bismillah feed Mills, nonadanga, Chanderhat, Mollarhat, Khulna BnS Feeds, Shitakundu, chittagaog BraC Feeds, Sreepur, Gazipur CP Feeds, Hemayetpur, shavar, Dhaka excel feed, trishal, Mymenshingh Fakirhat Feed mills ltd., fakirhat, Bagerhat Jamuna Feeds ltd., Padmabil, Bashundia, Jessore Jayson agreovet (Jassofeed), vabanipur, Memberbari, Gazipur Jessore Feed ltd., Bashundia, Jessore Kazi Feeds, daudkandi, Comilla lion Feeds, Chandana, Gazipur lucky Feeds, Kaliakoir,Gazipur M.M aga Feeds, Baizid Bostami road, Chittagong Spectra Hexa Feed Mills ltd., Paturia, Manikgon Mono Feeds, Chalkpara, Mawna, Gazipur national Feeds, memberbari, Gazipur new hope Feeds, sreepur, Gazipur niribili Feeds ltd., BISIC C/a, Cox’s Bazar north Khulna Fish Feeds, Koia, Khulna nourish Feeds, Hobirbari, Valuka, Mymensingh Paragon feeds, Vabanipur, Gazipur Pocha Feeds, Baliakandi, Kishoregaoj Provita Feeds, Shitakundu, Chittagaog Quality Feeds, Bagher Bazar, Gazipur Quality feeds, Bogra Unit, Bogra Saudi Bangla Fish Feeds, Valuka, Mymensingh SGS Feeds, Mahendra nagar, lalmonirhat Shah amanat Feed, Bogra Shushama feeds, Churkhai, Mymensingh SMS Feeds, Sreepur, Gazipur Sunny Feeds, Valuka, Mymensingh Supreme Feeds, Kashimpur, Gazipur tamim agro Feeds, Bogra teer Feed, rupganj, narayangonj United Feed, Meghna Ghat, narayangonj Usha Feed, Shavar, Dhaka

Poultry, Finfish & shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & shrimp/prawn Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish Poultry, Finfish & Shrimp/prawn

techniques in feed processing/manufacture (Riaz, 1997) and feed formulation, including the increased use of specific feed additives such as feeding stimulants, free amino acids, feed enzymes, probiotics and immune-enhancers (Hardy and Dong, 1997). Feed is the major cost variable in shrimp aquaculture representing up to 60 percent of total costs (Sarac et al, 1993). Feed costs constitute 40-60 percent of operational costs in production of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (D’ Abramo and Sheen, 1991). Initial efforts to reduce feed costs for aquaculture species often include replacement of expensive animal protein with plant protein meals, which are generally less expensive (Tidwell et al., 1993), or elimination of excess vitamin and mineral premixes from the diet (Triño et al., 1992). Therefore, efforts should be made whenever possible to increased usage of locally available feed ingredient sources so as to reduce the current dependence of imported sources (Rabobank, 1995; Best, 1996). The local production of farm-made aquafeeds by small-scale farmers plays an important role in that it facilitates the use of locally available feed ingredient sources and agricultural by-products that would otherwise not be used (New, 1996). However, inclusion of different food ingredients, additives, growth promoters and other supplements might accumulate some health hazardous materials in to the muscle of the prawn that might cause the rejection of exported prawn from different importer countries. Facing the fact, this reality is prevailing now a day in this sector that makes a great setback to the economy of Bangladesh. However, this survey project had been carried out to get base line information on different prawn feed industries and enterprisers and market situations. This study used both primary and secondary data to achieve its objectives. Primary data were collected from the fish farmers, fish entrepreneurs (those provided pond and capital but were not directly related), feed manufacturers, feed dealers and feed retailers. The survey collected information on cost, return, price, catch and feed composition of fish culture. On the other hand, secondary data comprised time series information on

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table 2: name of Brand feed by formulated feed industry



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March-april 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 33


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table 5: Arodo BVBA • Prawn feed production and market share of different feed • Andritz industries name of the company Production/yr (Mt)
A Clondalkin Company

FeedFeed quality & Biofuel BV • Kay Jay Chill Rolls Pvt Ltd comMost of the 29/02/2012 14:12:31


the other hand, aqua farmers formulated feed with few ingredients near their farming site by known as on-farm feed. In rainy season or any rainy day on-farm feed cannot produce. Locally ingredients are used for feed formulation. This feed may be needed to transfer or not. Large scale feed industry or aquaculture feed processing technology is a new concept in Bangladesh. Feed produced for commercial purposes

in the industry are called large-scale feed. In the feedmill, feed produced by large and scientific machine and maintain highly standard for quality of feed. Generally floating feed and sinking feed formulated by feed mills are considered as large scale feed industry. Floating feed formulation is very new phenomenon in Bangladesh. By supplying floating feed into the farmers can observe the fish feeding and may be able to detect diseases or other problems. Other advantages of the floating feed table 3: list of different ingredients used for prawn feed formulation include higher digestSl. name of the ingredients origin ibility due to the heat no. applied during manufacture, better water 1 Binder Imported (China, USa others) stability and no loss 2 De-fatted rice bran Imported (India) of pellets in bottom mud. 3 Defatted soybean meal Imported (India) It’s primarily dis4 Fishmeal local/imported (India) advantages are higher 5 limestone/ Di-calcium Imported (India) cost possible loss of phosphate certain nutrients dur6 Maize local/imported (India) ing processing and 7 Meat and bone meal Imported (australia, Croatia, increased bulk. Sinking norway, Ukraine, Belgium, feeds produce from etc.) 1990 when Saudi- 8 Mustard oil cake local/imported (India) Bangla fish feed 9 rape seed meal Imported (India) industry established in Mymensingh district 10 rice polishing local which the first is feed 11 Sesame oil cake local industry in Bangladesh. 12 Shark oil local After establishing this 13 Soybean oil locally purchased industry it has great 14 table salt local revolution in aquaculture fish feed sector in 15 Wheat flour local Bangladesh. According to the table 4: Proximate composition of Prawn feed newspaper, research types of Feed size Moisture ash Protein Fat report it was found feed and shape that there are 100 feedmills are available nursery Granular 11.0% 16% 30% 5% in Bangladesh that are Starter Crumble 11.0% 16% 17% 5% produced aquaculture feed and poultry feed Grower Pellet , 11.0% 17% 25% 4% 1.8mm in together. Information of all Finisher Pellet, 11.0% 17% 30% 4% the fish feed industries .2mm
34 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | March-april 2012

pany use one, five and 20kg pack for nursery FLEXIBLE PACKAGING feed and 25kg pack north Khulna Fish Feed 50 0.076357 John Staniar & Co. for grower and finJessore Feed ltd 200 0.305427 isher prawn feed. Level measurement Fakirhat Feed Mills ltd. 500 0.763569 Nutritional inforBismillah Feed Mills is a market 20,000 30.54274 CB Packaging mation labeled on leader of multi-walled paper Saudi Bangla Fish Feed ltd 500 0.763569 each pack/bag is the sacks. With over 50 years of protein, lipid, fiber and Spectra Hexa Feeds ltd. 500 0.763569 experience, we offer solutions moisture percentages. Sunny Feed ltd. of industries, 5,000 7.635686 for a wide range • Millson Engineering Limited However, in some Quality Feed ltd. 7,000 10.68996 including animal feeds, pet cases energy level of • Muench-Edelstahl GmbH food, seeds,ltd. powder, niribili Feeds milk 3,000 4.581412 the feed is also menflour and root crops. 500 aman Feed Mill 0.763569 and enterprises of Jessore, Khulna, Bagerhat, tioned without any Silos For more information, please call CP Feed 1,200 1.832565 Satkhira, Narail was collected by visiting the clarification (gross, Tim Stallard: +44 (0) 7805 092067 industries and enterprises through a set of digestible or metaboliother 27,032 41.28081 questionnaires and that of out side these areas gible) and no FCR for total 65,482 100 were collected by visiting the office of the prawn is mentioned. Yingchun Group Process control respective industry and from other sources. Yet the actual nutrient content of "Food Education the respective feed Types of prawn feed Mill Design & Installation • Converteam UK Ltd Campaign" to be determined on the market • Datastor Systems Ltd before drawing any It has been observed from the survey that Hosted by • KSE Protech BV conclusion is better as all most all of these feed industries manu• RED-BERG s.r.l. Directorate General of Livestock personal interview of facture feed for poultry, around 27 percent Tel: +86 546 8313068 and Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture, Republic of Indonesia Email: some of the manufacof these industries produce feed for prawn turer reveals that the using the same machine and only one indusBuhler AG nutritional information try (Specta Hexa) use separate machine for Official Regional Publication CH – 9240 labeled on the pack is prawn feed preparation (see Table 1). Uzwil, Switzerland Equipment assumption basis on for sale Most of the industries produce sinking Intake and Inline measurement of T: +41 71 955 11 11 moisture, protein, temperature, rather determination. 11:20 type compact pellet and crumble. Only 71 955 66 11 one F: +41 structure, ash, fat, fibre, starch and Shangdong_class.indd 1 29/03/2011 Supporting Publications colour. Recipe management and However, from the industry (Mega Feed) produced both sinking E: Condex (UK) Ltd traceability records. label it was noted that and floating types (for fin fish) although sinking prawn nursery feed pellets are required for prawn feeding. ® contains 35-42 perThe production capacity of the feed induscent protein whereas try varies from three to 40 tonnes/ hour and For maximum control and efficiency call: grower and finisher the machineries used for feed manufacturing 01473 829188 contain 24-28 percent are imported from China, Class ad_GFMT10.indd 1 Taiwan, Thailand, Buhler 11/12/2009 09:07 protein. No crumble Germany and India and locally made. unit observed in most of the industries rather In most of the cases it has been observed However, it has been observed that some that most of the industries do not use differof the industries appoint technical personnel they produce crumble by breaking the pellet ent tools from a single country of origin. Only in fisheries background as their employee who followed by sieving through a desired meshed Recruitment one prawn/shrimp feed has been reported to give support service to the prawn farmers and sieve. Hence, it could be assumed that in some import from India (CP Feed). dealers. • AGRI-Associates These prawn feed industries use either sinA huge number of feeds (more than 35) cases the protein level of the nursery feed • Agribusiness Recruiters gle brand name of their products or different were used for fish in the study area and the would not be higher as it is declared ( see trade names of their products (see Table 2) farmers followed no standard doses to apply Table 4) HANDLING TECHNIQUES depending on their market strategy. them. From the overall survey of prawn However, all these feed industries include feed formulation, it is clear that in terms of Market “Turner” Flaking Rolls share of the 30 ins complete with drive. almost same ingredients in their manufactured quantity used, rice bran appeared to be the existing companies Large flaking roller by feed (see Table 3). largest feed item followed by rice polish, rice Prawn farming areas are gradually increas“Damman & Croes” Most of these feed industries appoint one and mussel meal, soybean meal, wheat floor, ing day by day as the invasion of saline water • TekPro Ltd Belgium or more dealer (wholesaler) in each district maize etc. in the shrimp farming two x 30kw areas is opposed by complete with • Wallace & Associates Inc. for their marketing from which the sub dealIt has also been observed that there are the marginal local farmers. diameter motors,rollers 24 ins It is assumed that • Younglove Construction LLC ers (retailers) purchase the feed for the local some enterprises that only manufacture feed approximately 50,000ha of coastal and inland x50 ins wide very heavy duty Organised by sale. It has also been observed that some feed locally using hauler machine (22hp, China) area is used for prawn farming. For more information industries (Saudi-Bangla, CP) go for contact and only get the making cost. In this case, the Hence, considering 212kg prawn proTel: 01453 826016 farming through their agents. prawn farmers directly bring different ingredi- duction per acre the total prawn producPT. NAPINDO MEDIA ASHATAMA Some feed industries in greater Khulna use ents to the enterprise and mix different feed tion is more than 26,000 tonnes per year. Jl. Kelapa Sawit XIV Blok M1 No.10, Billy & Moon, dealer, sub dealer and direct sale from the ingredients in varied ratios prior to making If we consider the average FCR is 2.5 Pondok Kelapa Jakarta 13450, Indonesia Tel: (62-21) 8644756/85 | Fax: (62-21) 8650963 mill gate for their marketing (viz. Bismillah and the feed. However, the composition of these then right now the prawn feed requireE-mail: CL_Handling_techniques.indd 1 22/09/2011 13:54 Fakirhat feedmills). is not clear. ment is more than 65,482tonnes/year.

Grinder Screens

Market Share (%)


Grain Silo Manufacturing

Analysis & Control










March-april 2012 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 35





About the authors
by Ayaz Hasan Chisty 1, Prabal Barua 2 * and Jewel Das 3 1Fisheries and Marine Resource Technology Discipline, Khulna University, Khulna, Bangladesh 2Fisheries and Aquaculture Division, Department of Zoology, University of Calcutta, Kolkata-700019, West Bengal, India 3Business Development Program (Prawn), Winrock International, Dhaka

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Policy Implication
On the basis of the above requirements and availability estimates, except rice polish, the entire local feed items required imports to run culture fisheries in the country. As culture fisheries capture more and more areas under its operation, it is going to become an import dependent practice if the feed situation prevails without any measures to address it. As culture fisheries are an important source of income and employment, they have

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36 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | March-april 2012

Although by scientific culture the production can be easily increased by many fold and there is a great potentiality of prawn feed market in Bangladesh. Different feed industries produce approximately 38,000 tonnes prawn feed per year. Hence, the rest of the requirement (more than 27,000 tonnes) is met by homemade feed or feed ingredients. From a personal interview it has also been known that some prawn farmers use poultry feed as a substitution of prawn feed (see Table 5). From the survey it was found that Bismillah Feed Mills occupies the major share (>30%) in prawn feed market (see Table 4) followed by Quality Feed Ltd. Sunny Feed Ltd. and Niribili Feeds Ltd. (10.69%, 7.64% and 4.58% respectively). Price of prawn feed of these leading companies varied from 25-40Tk/kg. It has been observed that the feed market of particular industry is not same in greater Khulna region. As for example, the prawn farmers of Fakirhat and Bagerhat areas prefer the feed of Bismillah feed mills; Sunny feed mills and Fakirhat feed mills as the other companies. On the other hand, Khulna, Satkhira, Jessore and Naril districts’ farmers do not have particular choice on any feed but have been observed to use Spectra Hexa, Quality, Saudi-Bangla, Sunny and Niribili feed more frequently than the others.. Marketing channel is very important for feedmill operations. The success of feed mill depends on proper marketing channel. It is the first priority of feed mill operation. After establishing an agent and than distributor or dealer appointment are the first steps of feed mill before going to the production; because they are important for reaching the farmers, by taking the production of feedmills.

Identification of hazards ingredients harmful antibiotics and other banned/ harmful
The use of food additives, anti-fungal and mold inhibitors and antibiotics is a common phenomenon in all the feed industries. However, as per their information, no banned item is used in the feed. In most of the cases, the companies do not disclose the combination of the feed ingredients and other additives and medicines that are used in feed due to their business secrecy. Yet the use of Oxi-tetracycline and Flavomycine has been known from personal interview. All companies deny the usage of chloramphenicle and nitro furan and their derivatives and medicine. However, form the assessment of the Department of Quality Control, Department of Fisheries in 2008, the existence of Chloramphenicle and nitro furan have been reported in almost all of the prawn feed in some certain batch of production. Considering the information of the companies, it is assumed that these banned chemicals could be incorporated from the ingredients that are used for feed formulation especially for the imported ingredients viz. meat and bonemeal and fishmeal as there is no report of testing of the ingredients for these prohibited antibiotics at the port or quarantine.

a significant livelihood impact on the economy of Bangladesh. Therefore, proper policy and other measures are suggested, to be taken by both the government organisations and NGOs to improve the local fish feed situation of the country. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS), Department of Fisheries (DoF) and other concerning organisations should record feed and other fisheries related data regularly. The government and NGOs should come forward to establish local feedmills to cater to the feed requirement of the growing and promising fish culture industry. Intensive research programs should be undertaken immediately by both GOs and NGOs for quality innovation. Farmers and users should be trained so that they can use the feed and other inputs more efficiently. Capital should be supplied to the farmers who suffer from a lack of sufficient capital to use or purchase feeds from the market in a timely fashion. A monitoring system should be developed to check the adulteration of fish feed in the country. A subsidy/duty reduction package can be launched for impor ted feed ingredients so that supplementary fish culture can be sustained with lower costs of production. ■

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