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Welding lab report

INTRODUCTION:
Shielded metal arc-welding (SMAW) is one of the oldest, simple stand most versatile joining processes. Nearly half of all industrial and maintenance welding currently is performed by this process. The Stick welding power source provides constant current (CC) and may be either alternating current (AC) or direct current ( DC ) , d e p e n d i n g o n t h e e l e c t r o d e b e i n g u s e d . Th e b e s t w e l d i n g characteristics are usually obtained using DC power sources. The electrode coating deoxidizes the weld area provides a shielding gas to protect it from oxygen in the environment.

Advantages and limitations of arc welding:


Advantages.
Ability to weld in all positions Easy in welding in many different metals & alloys Ability to weld thin & very thick metals Low cost and low maintenance equipment Good arc visibility Fairly tolerant of different environment

Limitations.
High potential for weld contamination Frequent interruptions due to electrode length Need to remove spatter, smoke & slag Poor choice for aluminum and bronze Electrode requires special care to prevent moisture pickup

Objectives:
The objective is for the students to experience and do the arc welding works on the tee-joint of mild steel plates at the horizontal position using the right welding techniques.

To use the skill to do the welding, used the knowledge and understanding of the theories, and also techniques discussed within the topics into the practical application. To analyze the outcome from the practical task that has been doing and writes the report. become familiar with basic welding operations perform basic calculations for fusion welding processes perform basic welding operations

Equipment and materials: Gloves: they protect hands from spark and flying
metals and also hot metal during the process of welding and after.

Head shield: provides facial protection from


flying metals and intense light from arc .

Steal brush : wire brush is used for


cleaning rust and removing paint .

Chipping hammer: this is used clean surface


and creative better conductive area for the arc .

Workspace clamp:

Complete the electric circuit from power supply, through the electrode across the arc through the work piece and back to the power supply and should be firmly attached to work piece.

Welding machine: Two types of supply:


Alternating current (AC) welder Direct current (DC) welder a. Wider variety of electrode available b. Better for welding thin metals c. DC straight polarity (DC-EP) has electrode negative and work piece d. Positive produce high electrode melting rate

METHODOLOGY:
Firstly, make sure to wear protective clothing and Then ground the work piece by clamping to the table. Suitable electrode was selected and inserted it in the electrode holder. After that, the proper welding was setting that range from 90-130 AMP. For this task we have to select three different type of amperage in order to compare the outcome. I have selects 90A for low, 110A for ideal and 130A for high current. After choosing the desire welding setting, then turn on the welder. Be careful not to touch the electrode to the work piece or worktable until ready to stricken arc. Then, strike an arc with long scratching motion of the electrode across the work piece. Finally of the weld, quickly lift the electrode away from the work piece. The electrode was dropped from the holder and put down the electrode holder. Wearing clear shield on the welding helmet, chip away the slag on the weld bead. After completed all the above process, make sure to tidy up your worktable

Result:

The figure above is my result after I finished my work on performing SMA welding. By using high current, the electrode melt faster and molten puddle will be excessively large and irregular. It will also leave a groove in the base metal along both sides of the weld and therefore undercut will occur.

Effects of high current


Spatter occurs in large drops alongside the weld Bead is too wide, too thin and undercut at edges. Flux melts too rapidly, runs off the top of the weld If the current is too low, there is not enough heat to melt the base metal and molten pool will be too small

Discussion:
As a result, a welded joint may develop various discontinuities. Welding discontinuities also can be cause by an inadequate or careless application of proper welding or by poor operator training. The major discontinuities that affect weld quality are described here

Porosity Gases released during melting of the weld area, but trapped during solidification Chemical reactions during welding Contaminants. Porosity can be reduced by: o Proper selection of electrodes and filler metals. o Improved welding techniques, such as preheating the weld area or increasing the rate of heat input. o Proper cleaning and the prevention of contaminants from entering the weld zone. o Reduced welding speed allows time for gas to escape.

Slag Inclusions:
Slag inclusions are compounds such as oxides, fluxes and electrode coating materials that are trapped in the weld zone. Welding conditions are important as well as with t h e c o n t r o l o f w e l d i n g p r o c e s s parameters; the molten slag will float to the surface of the molten weld metal and thus will not become entrapped.

Slag inclusions can be prevented by the following practices


Cleaning the weld-bead surface by means of wire brush (hand or power) or a chipper before the next layer is deposited Providing sufficient shielding gas.