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University of Heidelberg

Diploma thesis in Physics submitted by Adrian Stanislaw Kaminski born in Opole, Poland. Year of Submission: 2007

Analysis of Imprints on Light Curves from Kerr Black Holes due to Time-dependent Accreting Structures

This diploma thesis has been carried out by Adrian Kaminski at the Landessternwarte K¨nigstuhl o under the supervision of Prof. Dr. Max Camenzind

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Dazu wird. welche aufgrund von Akkretionsprozessen das kompakte a Objekt umkreisen. a Solche Strukturen werden durch Regionen erh¨hter Dichte und Emission. wie sie in Spektren von Objekten entdeckt wurden. that determines the detected intensity distribution generated by radiation. the radiative transfer from the source to the observer is modelled by a backwards ray-tracing method. Abstract (deutsch) Die hier vorliegende Arbeit besch¨ftigt sich mit der Strahlungverfolgung in der Kerr a Geometrie. which — emitted in the vicinity of the object investigated — travels along photon trajectories to the observer. which due accretion processes are orbiting the compact objects. der u Strahlungstransport von der Quelle zum Beobachter hin mittels einer r¨ckw¨rts u a gerichteten Strhlungsverfolgung simuliert. konzentriert u o sich diese Arbeit haupts¨chlich auf zeitabh¨ngige emittierende Strukturen und ihre a a Auswirkungen auf zeitliche Intensit¨tsverteilungen. wie schon bei fr¨heren Abhandlungen zu diesem Thema. Diese Methode bestimmt die gemessene Intensit¨tsverteilung.Abstract (english) This thesis deals with ray-tracing on the Kerr geometry. welche durch die Strahlung hervorgerufen wird. As in earlier approaches to this issue. den so genano nten Hot Spots repr¨sentiert. die nach ihrer Emission a in der unmittelbaren Umgebung des betrachteten Systems auf Photon Trajektorien zum Beobachter hin transportiert wird. These structures are represented by regions of enhanced density and emission (hot spots). Angeregt durch quasi-periodische Oszillationen (QPOs). . Motivated by observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in spectra of black hole candidates this work mainly focuses on time-dependent emitting structures and their imprints on intensity distributions in time. die als Kandidaten f¨r Schwarze L¨cher gelten.

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. . . . . . . .2. . . . . Power Density Spectra . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . 3. . .2. . . . . . . . . . . ix xi 1 1 4 5 5 5 8 12 19 19 20 23 41 42 61 61 68 74 77 78 83 83 90 92 105 107 111 .5. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s 2. . . . . . . . . 3. 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . Curved Spacetimes and Covariant Derivative B. Generating Power Density Spectra . . .1. . . . . . .3. . . . . . 4. . . 3. . . . . . Time-dependent Ray-Tracer Structure and Functionality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion and Outlook A. . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . Source Code . Accretion Theory and Uniﬁed Scheme 2. . . . . . . . . .2. Field Equations . . . 2.2. vii . Black Holes’ Masses and Evolution . . . . . . 2.1. Schwarzschild Metric . . . . . . . Introduction 1. . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kerr Metric . .2. . . 4.1. .2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . .2. . . Field Equations . . . . 1. . . . . . Historical Background and Motivation . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . Inﬂuence of Hot Spot Radius and Distance on Light Curves 4.1. . .1. 2. . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phenomenology of Black Holes . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .2.1. . Thesis Outline . . . . . . . . .2. .4. . . . . . Data Analysis 4. . . . . . Dynamic Simulations . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents List of Figures Notations and Conventions 1. .2. . . . Chasing Black Holes . . . . . . . . . . .3. Killing Vectors and Symmetries . . Phenomenological and Theoretical Background 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Numerical Integration of the Nullgeodesics Radiative Transfer . . . . Static Simulations . . . . . Inﬂuence of Inclination and Spin on Light Curves . 2. . 2. . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3+1 Split of Spacetime D.C. Numerical Integration Bibliography Acknowledgements 113 115 119 123 viii .

. . . . . . . 2. . . .21. .3. . . Nullgeodesics on Schwarzschild metric (far view) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7. . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . .9. . . . . 3. . . . 3 6 8 8 10 11 13 14 15 16 17 18 23 . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . spacetime diagram with light cone . . . Radial proﬁles of functions describing Kerr metric in BL coordinates a=0. . . . Fluorescence lines in AGN X-ray spectrum . . . . . . . . . . .17. . . . Line spectra for diﬀerent inclinations in the Schwarzschild case . Uniﬁed scheme of AGNs . . . . . Generic spectral proﬁle of AGN . . . . . . . . . . . . .16. . . . . . . . 78 4. . . .3. 2. . . . . . . Nullgeodesics on Schwarzschild metric (close view) . . . . . Nullgeodesics on Kerr metric (side view) . . Sagittarius A* . . . . . .20. . . 2. . . . . . . 26 29 30 34 35 36 37 38 39 43 44 54 62 4. .5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .2. .13.11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristic radii in Kerr metric . 2. . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.18. . . . . .14. . . . . . . 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Extent of the implemented accretion disc Ray-tracing illustrated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signal propagation through Schwarzschild spacetime . . . .10. . . . . . for . . . . 2. . . . . .1. Relativistic line broadening . . 2. . . . . . . . . . Nullgeodesics on Kerr metric (side view) . . Spatially resolved image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 0 and i = 30 ° . Example for simulated broadened emission lines from .4. . . . . 81 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . .15. . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 2. . Red wing of line spectra inﬂuenced by Kerr parameter a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . 2. 2.1. . .6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. Nullgeodesics on Kerr metric (side view) . . 3. . . 2. . . . orbits of stars in the near of SGR A* . . .8. . .19. . . . . 2. . .12. . 79 4. . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . Eﬀective potentials in equatorial plane in Kerr metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cygnus X-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . Class hierarchy . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . [Radial proﬁles of functions describing Kerr metric in BL coordinates a=1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power spectrum of Microquasar GRS 1915+ 105 . . . . . . . Transitions of electrons in atomic inner shells . .2. . . . . . . . . . . for . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data from measurements of Kα emission line . . . . . . Nullgeodesics on Kerr metric (perspective along rotation axis) . .22. . . Main procedure of ray-tracer . . . . . .

.3 . . . . Long time light curve for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0. . . . .11. . . . .32. . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. . . . . . .24. . . . . . . . . 4. 4. . . . . . . Dependency of variabilities in light curve on hot spot radius Rhs . . Spatially resolved image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 1 and i = 60 ° . .99) . .3) . Spatially resolved image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 1 and i = 30 ° . . . . . . . .21.3) . . . 4. . . PDS for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0. . . . . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. . . . . . . .28. 4. .12. . . . . . . . . . a = 0 . . . . . . . . 4. .30. . . . . 82 . . .7 . . . PDS for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0) . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . .18. 4.35. 4. 4. . . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. Long time light curve for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0. . . .7) . . .22.3 . .7) . . . . PDS for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0. . 4. . Long time light curve for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0. . .25. . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . .23. 4. . .4. . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spatially resolved image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 0 and i = 60 ° . . . . . . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. . . . . 4. . . . . . . . a = 0. 4. . a = 0. . . . .16.5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PDS for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0. . . . PDS for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0.8. .13. .20. . . a = 0.29. . . .17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Long time light curve for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0. . . . . . . Long time light curve for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0. 4. . . . .99) . 81 . . . . .36. . . . . Dependency of variabilities in light curves on radial coordinate r . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . 4. . 4. . . 4.5) .7 . . . . a = 0 . . . . 82 85 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 91 91 94 94 95 95 96 96 97 97 98 98 99 99 100 100 101 101 102 102 103 103 104 x . 4. Long time light curve for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0) . . . . . . . . . . . . . PDS for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0) . . . .34. . . . . . . . .27. . . . . . Dependency of variabilities in light curves on Kerr parameter a . . . 4.37. . .7) . . . . . 4. . . . . . PDS for hot spots at r1 = 8M and r2 = 6M (a = 0. . . . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. . . . . . . . . . . . . PDS for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0. .14. . .6. . . . . .7. . . . Hot spot orbiting black hole .3) . Long time light curve for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0. . 4. . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . . .7) . Long time light curve for hot spot at r = ISCO (a = 0) . . . . Light curves for varying radial distances of the hot spot. . . . . 4. Long time light curve for two hot spots (a = 0. PDS for hot spot at r = 8M (a = 0.4. . . 4. . . . . .10.15. .99) . . . . . .9. . .19. . . . 4. . .99) . a = 0. . . . . a = 0. . . . 4. .26. . . . . . . . . . . . . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. .31. . . Light curves for varying hot spot radius . . . . . 4.33.3) . . Light curves over one rotation period for varying inclinations. . .99 . 4. . . . 4. .

4) (0.6) 1 pc = 3. ν. . where Latin indices i.8 AU = 3.0856 × 10 m 1 ly = 63240 AU = 9. plus. whereas ∇µ marks the covariant derivative.1) • The gravitational radius rg as natural length scale in general relativity is deﬁned by: GM rg = 2 ≡ M (0. plus) • The partial derivative on tensors of arbitrary rank will be denoted by ∂µ . κ.4959787 × 1011 m 15 16 (0.2615 ly = 206264. Greek indices µ. 1 AU = 1.4605 × 10 m xi . cycle the numbers 0 to 3. the speed of light c and the Boltzmann constant kB are set to unity. . • The solar mass is the typical mass scale in astrophysics 1 M⊙ = 1. plus.989 × 1030 kg (0. the metric signature is (minus. The temporal coordinate is always denoted by the letter t or the number 0. . • As not stated diﬀerently. • With tensors. . j.2) c • Four vectors are denoted either in component view k ν or as bold symbol k • Tensors are denoted by their indices Tµν or by bold symbols T • Einstein’s summation convention is applied. .5) (0. meaning that summation is performed on any index repeated in a product. Galactic length scales are given in multiples of the light year (ly) or in multiples of the parsec (pc).Notations and Conventions • Usually geometrized units will be used throughout the thesis. cycle only the spatial coordinates 1 to 3. . k. The gravitational constant G.3) • The typical length scale in the solar system is the Astronomical Unit (AU). G = c = kB = 1 (0. λ.

xii .

Not even a year later. desribing the link between a mass-energy distribution and the spacetime arising from it. Two approaches should be pointed out. a framework for further examination of dark objects was created. where all known physics fails.1. Historical Background and Motivation Even though the term black hole was not used until the late 60’s [Whe1968]. the history of the concept of objects with a mass density suﬃciently high to act as a “trap” even for light is a long one. The idea of absolutely dark objects can be derived from Newtonian gravity in connection with a ﬁnite speed of light. leading to results like the generalization of the Schwarzschild solution to a spacetime for a spherically symmetric point charge called the Reissner-Nordstrøm solution [Rei1916. results in eﬀorts for alternative solutions. Now that a theoretical basis was founded. Ein1915b. 1 . On the other hand the origins for such metrics and spacetime singularities as a consequence thereof were questioned. (Even today the dislike of spacetime singularities. Introduction 1. and the Birkhoﬀ theorem [Bir1923]. Nor1918]. Since that kind of thought experiment based on light corpuscles and could not explain the gravity pull on light in the frame of the wave theory. or massive objects in general.1. the issue of compact objects and their spacetimes could be investigated further on.) Examinating the evolution of stars. On the one hand the solutions of the ﬁeld equations were examined. proving the Schwarzschild metric to be the unique spherically symmetric solution of Einstein’s ﬁeld equations. With Einstein’s formulation of the special and particularly the general theory of relativity (“SR” and “GR”) in 1905 and 1915 [Ein1905. In 1783 John Michell was the ﬁrst to propose and describe such completely dark objects. the existence of these objects was not substantive enough to become a notable ﬁeld of interest in science until the beginning of the last century. In this context an event horizon is also predicted. Ein1915a. the GR provides tools for the description of motion of any objects (fermions/bosons) in curved spacetimes and had a big impact on the scientiﬁc society. Ein1915c]. As a geometric theory. a gravitational collaps to high mass densities turned out to be indispensable for suﬃciently massive objects. Karl Schwarzschild derived and presented already the ﬁrst solution of Einstein’s ﬁeld equations. It acts as a boundary in spacetime. Nothing should be capable of overcoming the object’s gravity ﬁeld when its escape velocity equals or exceeds the speed of light. It describes the static external [Sch1916a] and internal [Sch1916b] spacetime metric of a spherically symmetric mass distribution. beyond which no event can aﬀect the outer world.

In spite of that. Led by these theoretical examinations. Roger Penrose and Stephen W. as found at the so called active galaxy nuclei (AGN). which conjectures any intrinsic singularities to be hidden from observers far away by an event horizon [Pen1969]. a metric dependent on the maximal set of black hole parameters. as observing the motion of dynamical objects in the BHC’s vicinity. particularly in the 60’s. This resulted in several models which diﬀer from each other in some of their properties. the search for BHCs was dominated by the search for bright X-ray sources. Today we know several common methods for the identiﬁcation of black hole candidates (BHCs). Lacking in any observational indications. black holes were pure theoretical subjects in these times and the question. are also strong hints for massive dark objects. Roy Patrick Kerr developed the Kerr solution in 1963. Exceeding that one. Hawking derived the singularity theorems proving the mathematical existence of singularities [Haw1969]. Being interested in astrophysically observable characteristics of black holes resulting from radiation from hot gas accreting around them. in 1939 J. He found out that. angular momentum and electric charge [New1965]. Furthermore. Today this source is known to be a X-ray binary consisting of a massive O9-B0 supergiant star and a stellar BHC of about ten solar masses (see Figure 1. and the matter collapses into a singularity. they interact with their environment and therefore indicators for dark masses are present. In the decades following. In these cases the object collapses gravitationally and as a result a neutron star can be formed. Cha1931b]. Although black holes cannot be observed directly. and spectro-relativistic such as analyzing spectra from matter in the BHC’s environment for inﬂuences from GR.1. The most prominent methods are of kinematical nature. This solution was generalized furthermore to the Kerr-Newman solution. as the presence of a cold accretion disc and a hot corona are widely accepted today. a lot of research on those extraordinary objects was performed. some fundamental features of the accretion geometry. identiﬁed as such one. 2 . In addition to that. many groups examinated the issue of accretion. bright X-ray sources and high luminosities in general. The ﬁrst BHC. due to the pressure dependence of the relativistic degenerated electrons (P ∝ ̺4/3 ). the hydrostatic equilibrium cannot be sustained for a mass exceeding the critical Chandrasekhar mass of 1. forming a black hole. if they were observable at all.1).R. including its mass. is a X-ray source observed ﬁrstly in 1971 by Tom Bolton and is called Cyg X-1 [Bol1972]. It describes a stationary and axially symmetric spacetime arising from rotating mass distributions [Ker1963]. Introduction Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar investigated the stability condition for white dwarfs as possible end conﬁgurations for sun-like stars. no stable end conﬁguration for the object is possible. BHC can reveal themselves through gravitational lensing. In the meantime more general solutions of Einstein’s ﬁeld equations were found.46 M⊙ [Cha1931a.Oppenheimer and George Michael Volkoﬀ presented a similar limiting critical mass for neutron stars [OpVo1939]. and posted the weak cosmic censorship hypothesis. was legitimate. In the context of accretion onto black holes.

1. In fact it is worth mentioning that the ﬁrst black holes were found as radio sources in the late 50’s already. 1 2 “Uhuru” is the Swahili word for “freedom”. The satellite was launched from Kenya. Historical Background and Motivation Figure 1. Cygnus X-1 is a binary consisting of a stellar black hole accreting matter from its companion the supergiant HDE 226868. Misinterpreted in the ﬁrst place. Chandra. [Kal] The ﬁrst survey of the sky for such sources was performed by Uhuru 1 . followed by prominent satellites like Einstein in 1978. the quasars 2 . known for their high luminosities. Term derives from “QUASi-stellAR radio source” and originates from detection circumstances. The distance to the star system is about 2500 pc. Today’s major satellites are the RXTE.: Cygnus X-1 in the constellation Cygnus. rank among the AGN — galaxies harbouring supermassive accreting black holes.1. The smallest known are the stellar black holes with masses between 1 and 100 M⊙ . Supermassive black holes (SMBH) with masses between 102 and 106 M⊙ rank amongst the biggest. 3 . The observations performed until today provide data from BHCs throughout a wide mass range. XMM-Newton and the Japanese Astro-E2. Identiﬁed in 1971 as a BHC. EXOSAT and Tenma in the 80’s and ROSAT in 1990.1.

Furthermore. this thesis’ primary concern is the investigation of dynamic structures in the vicinity of rotating black holes. Motivated by observations of ﬂuorescence lines emitted from the accretion disc. 4 . After that. properties of the Kerr metric and the derivation of the geodesic equations is presented. 1. The origin of the ﬂuorescence lines is discussed in the context of accretion models and the uniﬁed scheme of AGN is introduced. since ﬂux variabilities. The ray-tracer computes the radiative transfer along null geodesics on the Kerr metric from the origin to the observer and provides relativistically deformed line proﬁles and total ﬂuxes at diﬀerent times. and furthermore for testing the validity of the GR at strong gravitation ﬁelds. called quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) have been observed at many black hole systems. Furthermore accreting dynamic structures breaking the system’s axial symmetry and their eﬀect on the total ﬂux are investigated. taking into account the rendering procedure and the radiative transfer. In chapter 2 the diﬀerent kinds of black holes with regard to their evolution and the variety of detection methods are summarized. BHCs can be used as probes to the models describing black holes interacting with matter in their environment. the implementation of the problem is described in chapter 3. The results of the simulations performed are presented in chapter 4 then. For that purpose a relativistic ray-tracing method is used to simulate time-dependent intensity distributions originating from such objects. Understanding the origin of such features will contribute to the correct interpretation of the observation data and can provide a signiﬁcant approach to physics at strong gravitation ﬁelds. Introduction Current examinations concentrate on the aim of collecting data on black hole parameters (particularly mass and angular momentum) in order to provide a link between observations and theory.2. Thesis Outline As mentioned in previous section. this thesis deals with the Kerr metric having certain imprints on the observed line proﬁles.1.

Despite that. Concerning their relevance for astronomy and observation eﬀorts. leading to the outline of accretion models developed until today. That is a null hypersurface acting as a boundary separating spacetime points which can be connected to those at inﬁnity1 by a timelike path from those which cannot (see App. is presented. or the Primordial black holes proposed in cosmology.1. (2. explaining the diﬀerent AGN classes as manifestations of the inﬂuence of their orientation to the observer. Consequently the Uniﬁed Scheme of AGN.1. In general relativity the existence of an event horizon and its properties can be derived from the metric describing the spacetime resulting from the mass conﬁguration. having been formed in the early universe’s post inﬂation era.1) r r 1 events suﬃciently far away. Black Holes’ Masses and Evolution The term black hole describes a mass conﬁguration with an eﬃciently high mass density resulting in a gravitation ﬁeld that leads zo the formation of an event horizon.2. Processes in their environment providing certain possibilities of detection will also be described. Phenomenology of Black Holes Since this thesis’ subject is the simulation of black hole observations. being of certain interest in high energy physics. At ﬁrst the formation of compact objects will be outlined. 2. which gravity potential for points outside the distribution can be described by that of a point source with the total mass M . Consequently no information can escape the inner region. although the horizon can be passed the other way round. so the spacetime can be regarded as asymptotically ﬂat 5 . are not regarded here furthermore. the total energy needed by a particle with mass m to escape to inﬁnity from given r (distance to point mass) can be evaluated to: ∞ GmM F dr = E= . Black holes as the TeV black holes. as mentioned in the introduction.1. Starting with a spherically symmetric mass distribution. an abstract on objects of this kind is given in this section. the concept of a completely dark object was derived already from classical Newtonian gravity. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background 2. B). only objects with masses around the solar mass and above are described here. and the object should appear comletely dark.

: Spacetime diagram portraying a light cone and space-. The black holes of interest in astronomy are usually classiﬁed as stellar black holes. rS = Stellar black holes with masses between 1 and 100 M⊙ are present relicts of massive stars. each particle starting at distance r needs a velocity equal or above v∞ to reach inﬁnity. As this derivation already shows. the escape velocity v∞ can be extracted. the mass of the black hole is a crucial parameter. When nuclear burning comes to an 6 . from which the inﬁnity can be reached at all: 2GM .2) In order to escape the gravitational pull from the source. 2.2. During its active state of nuclear burning a star is at hydrostatic equilibrium. it should be noticed that it equals to the position of the event horizon derived there. 2 v∞ = 2GM r (2. The axes are space (x) and time (t).2). null. The gravitational pressure pointing inwards is compensated by gas pressure.1. Therefore it is primarily used to distinguish those objects. radiation pressure and by centrifugal forces. Combining this to the limiting speed of light c results in a minimum distance rS . Comparing this to the kinetic energy Ekin = 1/2 mv 2 gained by a particle while falling from inﬁnity to the given r. depending on the source’s total mass M .3) c2 Comparing that result to the Schwarzschild solution (see Sec.and timelike paths. massive black holes (MBH) or supermassive black holes (SMBH). Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Figure 2.2. (2.

a compact and bright radio source in the center of the Milky Way. there is no known mechanism. As they behave similar to black holes. leading to a white dwarf. or neutrons at higher masses. this balanced state cannot be sustained and a gravitational collaps occurs. These huge masses in tiny regions can only be explained by a SMBH. but furthermore is not favourised throughout the scientiﬁc community. Alternative models such as gravastars [Maz2001] and holostars [Pet2003]. could not be conﬁrmed by observations for a long time. which dispense with intrinsic singularities. 2. As will be described in sec. More recent observations indicate to a mass of 3.8 M⊙ [OpVo1939]. For low masses this compression. leaving a neutron star behind.46 M⊙ for white dwarfs [Cha1931a. 8 kpc away. For those reasons. the physics of active galactic nuclei require rotating black holes as stimuli in galactic centres in order to explain the various AGN manifestations as Seyfert galaxies. Cha1931b]. but should be located around 1. A very prominent representative of the SMBHs is Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). are developed. Quasars of high redshifts are supposed to possess black holes with highest masses known. during which the outer shells are blasted away. where its total mass is gathered in a singularity2 . the search for possible observable indicators favourizing one of the solutions is an important subject. Observations allow the conclusion that almost each galaxy harbours a SMBH in its centre. Massive black holes (MBH) . which due to uncertainties in the constitutive equation of matter at densities above those of core matter is not determined exactly.2. those states are limited by critical masses — the Chandrasekhar mass of 1. 7 . can be stopped by fermionic degeneracy pressure of electrons. Rotational curves from several dwarf galaxies and globular clusters hint for the possibility of a black hole in the center of these systems. Since the collapse of massive stars is usually accompanied by a supernova.3). For suﬃciently massive stars though. where the black hole evades matter from its companion. blazars and radio galaxies. quasars. However. Objects of that class are usually detected as X-ray binaries (Black Hole X-ray Binary/BHXB).6 × 106 M⊙ . resulting in high mass densities. its mass could be estimated to approximately 2.7 × 106 M⊙ within a volume with the maximal radius 45 AU [Ghez05] (see Figures 2. Supermassive black holes (SMBH) represent the CDOs with masses above 106 up to approximately 1010 M⊙ .2. which could prevent the gravitational collapse to a black hole. and the critical mass for neutron stars.2 and 2. 2 Although the existence of mathematical singularities is proved [Haw1969]. compact dark objects with masses above two solar masses are passable black hole candidates (BHOs).1. the mass of the remnants can drop below the critical masses described. Phenomenology of Black Holes end. a star near to SGR A*. being centred within a region of a radius not more than 120 AU [Sch2002].1. which objects with masses between 100 and 106 M⊙ are counted to. their existence in reality is not only not clariﬁed. From determinations of the orbit of S2. First indications for such mid-mass black holes were found with Chandra in the year 2000 [Kaa2000].

Accretion Theory and Uniﬁed Scheme Since isolated black holes could not be detected except by lensing eﬀects due to the spacetime curved by them. Due to correlations between gravitation and centrifugal forces. where matter is transported inwards.2. while angular momentum is carried away outwards. characterized by the ˙ accretion rate M .2.3. (Credit: NASA/CXC/Caltech/ M.4) Luminosities and accretion rates of accreting objects can be estimated by utilizing the Eddington luminosity LEdd LEdd = 4πGM mP ≈ 1. With an eﬃciency factor ε for the transformation of accretion. this process results in the luminosity L: ˙ L = εM . to radiation. The smaller images show closeups of regions with evidences for an X-ray echo reﬂected at gas clouds in the environment.5) 8 . Annual average positions of seven stars and best ﬁttings of their orbits are plotted here [UCLA].0 arcseconds of the Milky Way.: Orbits of stars within the central 1. gravitational energy is transformed into heat and can be disposed by radiation. During that process.Muno et al. (2. (2.0 × 1.2. 2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Figure 2. The main feature of black hole-matter systems is the accretion of matter.) Figure 2. common observation methods exploit eﬀects of the interaction of CDOs with their environment. ifalling matter forms an accretion disc in the equatorial plane.: Set of images taken with Chandra. The large picture shows a view of the Milky Way centre with SGR A* labeled.1. Especially the diﬀerent types of AGN and the radiation emitted by them throughout the whole wavelength spectrum between radio and TeV suggest a complex matter conﬁguration close to black holes.3 · 1046 erg s−1 σT M 108 M⊙ .

5) it is possible to deduce masses of accreting objects when the luminosity is known. as a slight radial drift occurs. which are characterized by the Kerr parameter a = J/M (angular momentum/mass). Phenomenology of Black Holes where M is the mass of the gravitation source. Standard Accretion Disc Since accretion is fundamental in black hole physics. where a = 1 those radii coincide. This Eddington limit can be derived from an equilibrium between radiation pressure pointing outwards and compensating the gravitation pressure [M¨2004]. is very small everywhere. The velocity ﬁeld is dominated by a proﬁle that can be approximated by Keplarian rotation. The standard accretion disc (SAD) is an analytical solution to that problem derived from hydrodynamics in 1973/74 [Sha1973. Nov1974]. as it is also in this thesis. u From eq. which means that their half thickness H in vertical direction. Therefore the SAD describes only regions above rms in the equatorial plane3 . but still the disc can be regarded as being in hydrodynamical equilibrium. r (2. 2. the spectrum obtained from SADs is called a multi color black body spectrum.7) Ωφ = 2πνφ ≈ ΩKep = √ . Only for maximal Kerr black holes. SADs satisfy eﬃcient cooling. SADs are considered to be geometrically thin. the physics of accretion discs are important when interpreting observations.6) where r is the radial coordinate. in which hydrostatic equilibrium persists. 3+a M r The nearly keplerian rotation can only sustain for radii higher than the marginally stable. meaning that heating from shear eﬀects in the disc is completely radiated away. it should be mentioned that there are features in black holes’ spectra. 3 This results in a gap between the inner edge of the disc and the event horizon. Sec. The temperature T in SADs decreases with the radius T ∝ r−3/4 and since matter at diﬀerent radii emits black body spectra with maxima at diﬀerent wavelengths.1. (2. mP the proton mass and σT the Thomson cross section. this proﬁle changes to √ M Ωφ ≈ √ (2. that cannot be explained adequately by SADs. meaning √ M (2. The orbits in the accretion disc are not purely circular. Although the SAD solution is self-consistent and used often for simulations. so the SAD reaces the event horizon.8) √ .2. 9 .3). This fact can be expressed by H ≪ 1.2. or innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) rms . r3 For rotating black holes (comp.

also called the AGN paradigm. with generally low luminosities. Due to some varying features in their spectra they can be subdivided in certain classes. 10 . RIAF and more can be found throughout the literature. u Uniﬁed Scheme for AGN As already mentioned. Approximately 90% are rated as radio-quiet. The uniﬁcation scheme for AGN (see Fig. a core dominated radio emission and weak in the optical range. u usually divided into two groups depending on their radio activity. The AGN are Figure 2. further classiﬁed as FR I. It is widely accepted that this classiﬁcation is not resulting from structural diﬀerences. the hot corona in the central region.4) sketches the environment around a black hole manifesting as an AGN.4. with a radio emission being lobe dominated. A well-organized summary of those can be found in [M¨2004]. many observations can be explained by AGNs.: This sketch shows the matter conﬁguration typical for an AGN. The most important structures regarding acretion are: the slim accretion disc in the equatorial plane ranging down to a few rg . but from the object’s orientation to the observer. The rest is called radio-loud. or FR II. which inner radii do not reach the rms . Consequently further accretion disc solutions as ADAF. 2. and the cold torus feeding the disc [M¨2004]. which quasars and Seyferts are counted to. a strong optical emission and higher luminosities at all [Fan1974].2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Observations of Seyfert galaxies for example provide indications for truncated discs.

: Typical AGN continuum spectrum extracting. [M¨2004] u The spectrum consists of contributions from diﬀerent sources: • Starburst in the galaxy contributes to the lowest photon frequencies in the spectrum. located at distances of about 104 rg from the centre.1. • The central region of the spectrum is shaped by the multi color black body spectrum from the accretion disc. From spectral energy distributions from AGNs [Elv1994] a typical radiation proﬁle can be extracted (see Fig.5. Phenomenology of Black Holes The features in the AGN spectra can now be explained by processes in the diﬀerent regions around the black hole and by the system’s inclination4 i to the obsever. Contributions from diﬀerent sources in the AGN are distinguished by color. dominates the spectrum. 2. 11 . 4 For line of sight along the symmetry axis (rotation axis) i = 0° and i = 90° for obsevers in the equatorial plane.2. Figure 2.5). • At wavelengths around 10µm the dust torus. Scattering of hard radiation in the cold (T ≈ 1000 K) dust torus is responsible for the infrared radiation.

its angular momentum. this can be explained as a geometric consequence when observing low inclined relativistic jets. which exhibit narrow and broad emission lines are explained by low inclinations. since they indicate velocities higher than speed of light. indicates for high inclinations and the torus obscuring the centre. speciﬁed by the Kerr parameter a. Observations of those jets served as a matter of excitement. but also in BHXBs and others.3. High relativistic velocities in jets are supposed to be driven by twisted magnetic ﬁelds at rotating black holes. This is where the ﬂuorescence lines. The main task is then to determine the system’s parameter space in order to gain an overview of black hole occurrences and to verify the theory. They are formed as a result from the accretion process. Another important characteristic in the observed spectra is commenly utilized to extract the parameters. • Imposed to the Compton continuum of the corona there is another contribution. Due to the presented matter conﬁguration at AGN. However. The major parameters are the black hole mass M . originate from. This results from inverse Compton scattering of soft photons at the hot coronal plasma. high luminosities. Depending on underlying models. are used for determinations of the central mass. forming a characteristic Compton continuum. crucial to this thesis.1. or reverberation mapping techniques measuring time lags between primary radiation and reﬂected radiation in broad line regions (BLR). Fluorescence lines from the accretion disc are relativistically broadened by eﬀects from GR. As broad emission lines are assumed to origin from Doppler shifts at higher velocities. as the Fe Kα. Several methods are exploited to get those information. 12 . the inclination i of the rotational axis to the observer and the ˙ accretion rate M .2. strongly hint for black holes. as observed at Seyfert II galaxies. Kinematical methods as simply tracing the keplerian orbits of objects in the gravitation ﬁeld of the source. particularly the inclination and the spin parameter can be accessed by interpreting those imprints correctly. is dominant in the X-ray range. Radiation from the hot inner regions hit the accretion disc and get reﬂected. Chasing Black Holes Supplied by an adequate concept of processes in black holes’ vicinity. An important feature of AGN physics are the relativistic jets along the rotation axis. A lack in those broad lines. indications for such objects can be searched for. At high inclinations the dust torus can obstruct the view towards the inner regions. where the hot corona is located. Jets are directed and highly collimated matter outﬂows. 2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background • The inner part of the system. the inclination to the observer is decisive for interpreting observations of these systems. which can be observed not only in AGN. they should be emitted in the inner regions of AGN. Apart from lensing eﬀects due to the curved spacetime. as obtained from AGNs. Therefore Seyfert I galaxies.

2) in the detected X-ray spectra.2. Phenomenology of Black Holes Fe Kα Fluorescence Line Fluorescence lines in the keV range can be extracted from the AGN continuum spectrum by subtracting the contribution from the corona (see Fig. the Fe Kα. sulfur (S). 2. Since they are superposed by the Compton continuum from the corona. Lines from nickel (Ni).1. 13 . Figure 2.5 in sec. The threshold value for the absorption is 7. which can be described by a characteristic power-law. magnesium (Mg) and neon (Ne) contribute to the X-ray range of the spectrum. the Fe Kα line can be extracted most easily [Rey1996]. 2. silicon (Si).: Fluorescence lines contributing to the X-ray range superposed by the coronal Compton continuum (power-law). 2. argon (Ar). 5 A signiﬁcant decay of the detected primary spectrum in the region of about 7 keV results from that and can be veriﬁed in the spectra.6.4 keV in the rest frame (see Fig. quasars and BHXBs.1 keV for neutral Fe and increases with the level of ionization.7). is generally observed at Seyferts. It originates from the transition of an electron from the L to the K shell. calcium (Ca).1. the most dominant line. chromium (Cr). emitting a photon with 6. after being lifted by photo-electric absorbtion of X-ray photons from the corona 5 . iron (Fe). Due to its dominance.

• Two eﬀects originate from the formulation of SR: 14 .2. when another electron is released as an Auger electron.: Atomic inner shell transitions.7. which should be the case for the temperatures in the accretion disc. A reason for the line contributions being relatively low. This case is more eﬃcient (66% probability for Fe) and suppresses the ﬂuorescence. The originally monochromatic emission line. and contrariwisely red-shifted when moving in the other direction. the eﬃciency ratio for the photon emitting transition is even lower. if the ﬂuorescending matter is not completely ionized. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Figure 2. Therefore the Fe Kα line is the most prominent. is now a signiﬁcant tool for the determination of the emitting matter’s state of motion and furthermore black hole parameters. The shape of the ﬂuorescence line. Obviously it can only occur. For the other elements. 2. The most important imprints on the line’s shape are (see Fig. formed by relativistic eﬀects from GR. is symmetrically broadened and exhibits a characteristic “double-horned” structure. originating from the rotating accretion disc. Absorbtion of the photon energy can result in a radiationless state transition. listed above. At least the inner K and L shells should be occupied. is another process competing with the ﬂuorescence.8): • The classical Doppler eﬀect results from radiation being blue-shifted when emitting source is moving towards the observer.

Those methods can be outlined as followed: Underlying a certain radial emission proﬁle 15 . Photon trajectories (nullgeodesics) from inner to outer regions come with an eﬀort in energy and result in the gravitational redshift.8. resulting in a relativistically broadened line proﬁle [Fab2000]. Fan1997.1.: A monochromatic emission line from an accretion disc is being formed by various eﬀects. Since the examination of the Kα line became such a convincing tool. Dab1997. Figure 2.2. many groups developed techniques in order to simulate lines as they should appear to the observer [Fab1989. • The gravitational source determines the curvature of the spacetime in its vicinity and forms the gravitational potential. Schn05]. Phenomenology of Black Holes The transverse Doppler eﬀect results in a general slight red-shift due to the source’s motion and relativistic beaming raises the blue wing of the line’s spectrum due to collimation of the radiation in the relativistic emitter’s direction of motion.

which range down to the rms . The Kerr parameter is set to a = 0. An example for simulated line proﬁles for diﬀerent inclinations. Figure 2. The inclination i turned out to be the parameter. whereas ﬁgures 2. 2. This technique is called ray-tracing and provides simulated spectra of relativistically broadened emission lines.2. This is performed by implementing the radiative transfer along the photon trajectories from the emmitter to the observer. is presented in Fig. 16 .9.9. ranging from Rin = rms to Rout = 15 rg . [Schn05]. contributions from each point on it to the spectrum are summed up. the spectra depend mainly on. taken from results of [Schn05].: Spectra of relativistically broadened emission line from an uniformly emitting disc.5 and diﬀerent inclinations i are evaluated. This is due to the fact that for increasing spin parameters the ISCO moves towards the event horizon and the gravitational redshift in these regions has a bigger impact.10a-d present example data from extractions of the Kα line. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background to the accretion disc. The Kerr parameter a primarily inﬂuences the spectrum’s red wing for accretion discs.

10. NGC 3227. [Nan1997] (b) Seyfert I. 17 .2. ASCA.4 keV in emmitter’s rest frame.: Several example data from measurements of the proﬁle of the Kα ﬂuorescence line at 6. ASCA. IC 4329A. [Nan1997] (d) Seyfert I.1. ASCA. NGC 3516. MCG-6-30-15. Phenomenology of Black Holes (a) Seyfert I. [Nan1997] (c) Seyfert I. ASCA. [Nan1997] Figure 2.

The resulting power density spectra (PDS) then exhibit peaks with characteristic amplitudes at certain frequencies (see Fig. as it is performed within this thesis (see chap.2. Another concept is often favorized to explain the variabilities described. This interaction between gyroscopes (rotating masses) is known as gravitomagnetic spin-spin interaction 6 . regions of higher emission co-rotating within the accretion disc (hot spots).11. should perform a precession (Lense-Thirring precession) due to eﬀects from GR. slightly inclined with respect to the black hole’s rotation axis. Figure 2. 2. Schn05]. Due to limits in timing resolution of the observations. 18 .11 as example). Several approaches are analyzed in order to explain and to simulate these observations. Dynamic structures. 3). Nearly periodic features.: Average power spectrum from observations of GRS 1915+ 105 with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer in the 13-27 keV energy band featuring a QPO at 40 Hz. those features are usually examined in Fourier space of time-depending light curves. where moving electrical charges produce magnetic ﬁelds. should imprint a characteristic signature to light curves and are implemented in ray-tracing applications [Bao1992. 6 The term originates from the analogy to classical electrodynamics. quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). are detected in X-ray light curves from BHXBs. The solid curve represents the best ﬁtting [Str2001]. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background QPO’s The X-ray spectra show another interesting property concerning the observed ﬂux distribution in time. Two diﬀerent classes can be distinguished due to their oscillation frequency. Accretion discs. The high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) in the kHz range and the low frequency QPOs (LFQPOs) in the Hz.

9) where gµν (x) is the coordinate depending metric tensor.1. since they are moving along geodesics. is formed due to present mass (energy) distributions and contrariwisely how it aﬀects those.13). Field Equations The metric of a general Riemann spacetime is deﬁned by the line element ds2 = gµν (x)dxµ dxν . as isometries in the solution. The concepts of GR describe. which is formed by masses. in general relativity gravitation arises from the geometric structure of the generally not ﬂat but curved spacetime. Therefore the procedure of exploiting a given system’s properties usually demands the derivation of the corresponding metric from Einstein’s ﬁeld equation (2. whereas on the lefthand side Gµν is a geometric object characterizing the gravity. yielding the relation gµν = ηαβ ∂x′α ∂x′β ∂xµ ∂xν (2. 19 .2. MTW]. the sources of gravity in a given system must be taken into account. or energy in general. 1. the ﬁeld equation and its major solutions are introduced.2. That can be thought of as a set of second-order diﬀerential equations for the metric tensor gµν . how the spacetime. Fli. solving the ﬁeld equation is a non-trivial task.2. They are summed up by the divergence-free7 and symmetric stress-energy tensor T µν .2. following the concepts presented in [Carr. Even in vacuum cases simplifying assumptions. Due to its structure and its nonlinear nature. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations In contradiction to classical formulations. As such one. some constraints to G can be posted: • In ﬂat spacetimes G vanishes. Equations of motion for particles arise directly from the metric. 2. are usually necessary. This is why coordinate transformations to a ﬂat Minkowski metric ds2 = ηµν dx′µ dx′ν are only possible locally.10) between gµν and the metric tensor η = diag(−1. In this part of the thesis.11) On the righthand side the sources are placed. 1) of the minkowski metric. resulting from the fact that in GR the graviatational ﬁeld couples to itself. (2. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations 2. Since the metric describes the spacetime curvature. which can be deﬁned by its metric. Now the ansatz for the ﬁeld equation can be stated: G∝T (2. 1. 7 This condition expresses the conservation of momentum and energy. The dependency of its components on the coordinates is a manifestation of the spacetime curvature.

2. only 1 Gµν = Rµν − gµν R 2 (2. Those can be derived from contractions of the Riemann curvature tensor by Rµν = g κλ Rκµλν and R = Rµµ = g µν Rνµ . γ(r) are functions of the radial coordinate r.16) where dΩ2 = dθ2 + sin2 θ dφ2 is the metric on a unit two-sphere. (2. with – being linear in R – being symmetric and of second rank – having a vanishing divergence ∇ · G ≡ 0 • For weak ﬁelds (gµν ≈ ηµν ) the ﬁeld equation should reduce to the Newtonian case R00 = 4π̺. r. leading to the ﬁnal Einstein ﬁeld equation Gµν = Rµν − R gµν = 8πTµν . 20 . (2. (2.14) When interested in vacuum solutions. Schwarzschild Metric The Schwarzschild solution9 describes the metric outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution. where Rµν is the Ricci tensor and R is the curvature scalar.2. the proportionality in (2.15).2. φ) and imposing spherical symmetry also for the solution. Introducing polar coordinates xµ = (t. Plugging this into (2. 8 9 Due to geometrized units. θ. More precisely the exterior Schwarzschild solution. it is necessary to exploit the Einstein ﬁeld equation for the vacuum case (2. often found in literature. Tµν is set to zero and the vacuum Einstein equation for those cases is then given by: Rµν = 0 . A contraction of this one yields R = −8πT .13). the ansatz for the metric searched for can be written as ds2 = −e2α(r) dt2 + e2β(r) dr2 + e2γ(r) r2 dΩ2 . the factor G/c4 .11) can be determined. 2 (2.13) Gµν is often referred to as the Einstein curvature tensor 8 .13) results in an alternate form Rµν = 8π Tµν − T gµν 2 . A) and the metric components. Exploiting the weak ﬁeld approximation. and α(r).12) satisﬁes those requirements. β(r). Phenomenological and Theoretical Background • It is constructed from and only from the Riemann curvature tensor R (see App.15) 2. is ignored in (2. To derive such one. It can be proved that apart from a multiplicative constant.

but this is only a matter of labeling and will not be considered. This can be achieved by comparing the derived metric to the metric around a point mass in the weak-ﬁeld limit. r (2. a critical mass density ̺crit can be approximated to ̺crit = 3M 3c6 = . Assuming a homogenous mass distribution with the density ̺ within the radius R. With the condition that rs = 2GM/c2 > R. Rθθ = 0 yields ∂r (re2α ) = 1. For some objects this metric is not applicable.17) To determine α(r) and β(r) from (2. r′ should be used here.18c) (2. a criterion for ̺ can be generated.10 (2. the factor e2γ(r) can be disposed. which can be solved to obtain e2α = 1 − c . and the metric can be denoted as ds2 = −e2α(r) dt2 + e2β(r) dr2 + r2 dΩ2 . 3 32πG3 M 2 4πrS (2.18b) (2. measured by an observer at inﬁnity.19) where c is a constant to be determined. The ﬁnal form of the Schwarzschild metric reads then: ds2 = − 1 − rS r dt2 + 1 − rs r −1 dr2 + r2 dΩ2 . called the Schwarzschild radius.18d) Rφφ = sin θ Rθθ By exploiting the relation Rtt = Rrr = 0 and rescaling the time coordinate. since the Schwarzschild radius rS would lie within the mass distribution. (2.18a) (2.2.15). General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Choosing a new radial coordinate r′ = eγ(r) r. where the gtt component satisﬁes gtt = − 1 − 2GM = c2 r S − 1 − rr . 10 Precisely instead of r. The fact that for r → ∞ the metric becomes ﬂat (gµν ≈ ηµν ) is called asymptotical ﬂatness.7 cm. The temporal coordinate t can be interpreted as the time (proper time). the result α = −β can be derived. the missing constant can be identiﬁed as c = rS .21) For the Earth for example it would mean that its mass had to be compressed to the sphere with the radius r ≈ 2. Since for r → ∞ the schwarzschild solution should reduce to the weak-ﬁeld case. where M = ̺V is the central mass. the components of the Ricci tensor must be calculated.2. 21 .20) Properties of the Schwarzschild Metric The Schwarzschild solution describes the metric outside spherically symmetric masses. The nonvanishing components are: 2 2 Rtt = e2(α−β) ∂r α + (∂r α)2 − ∂r α∂r β + ∂r α r 2 2 Rrr = −∂r α − (∂r α)2 + ∂r α∂r β + ∂r β r −2β Rθθ = e [r(∂r β − ∂r α) − 1] + 1 2 (2.

Since the metric coeﬃcients are coordinate-dependent. It separates points that are connected to inﬁnity by timelike paths from those that are not. for objects not exceeding ̺crit this exterior Schwarzschild solution needs to be expanded. the quantity dt/dr diverges. is still interesting. yields rS dt =± 1− dr r −1 . Interpreting t as the proper time of an observer far away. can be detected by investigating scalars. Singularities. originating from the choice of the coordinate system are therefore called coordinate singularities. such singularities can result from the breakdown of the coordinate system chosen. 2. This time lapse is also the reason for photons being gravitationally redshifted (blueshifted respectively). it implies that from his point of view. It is important to mention that the event horizon. The contribution from the gravitational redshift of photons measured at diﬀerent radial distances rA . arising from the metric curvature. Rµνρσ Rµνρσ . In fact. or the other way round would never reach inﬁnity when originating from there. Intrinsic singularities. For r → 0 and r → rS the metric coeﬃcients gtt respectively grr diverge. whenever one of those scalars diverges at a certain point. light rays would never reach that surface. when their frequency is measured at diﬀerent radial distances. rB can be denoted as: λB −1= z= λA gtt (rB ) gtt (rA ) 1/2 − 1. (2. derives from the coordinate choice (the temporal coordinate t particularly). and do not need to be meaningful for the spacetime geometry. two regions arise as a matter of concern. being that interesting for observers at inﬁnity.20).24) Those time lapses are illustrated in Fig. Such scalars can be the curvature (Ricci) scalar R = g µν Rµν . Phenomenological and Theoretical Background So.23) When approaching rS . When examining the metric (Eq. an adequate coordinate system can be found in this case that the singularity at r = rS vanishes (Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates). and so on. For the schwarzschild metric it can be shown that r = 0 implies such a singularity due to 48G2 M 2 Rµνρσ Rµνρσ = . B) changing from being timelike to spacelike at r = rS . A singularity of the metric’s curvature occurs. 2. The surface deﬁned by r = rS is the event horizon of the Schwarzschild metric. (2.2. described by that condition. for which θ and φ are constant and ds2 = 0. Nevertheless. This property manifests itself in the Killing vector K µ = (∂t )µ (see App.22) r6 Since the metric coeﬃcient gtt changes its sign at r = rS . the surface. or any higher-order scalars as Rµν Rµν .12. (2. constructed from the curvature tensor. for non-rotating black holes the Schwarzschild metric is applicable. Considering radial null curves. 22 . which shows the propagation of signals through spacetime when emitted at diﬀerent r.

was found in 1965 and is characterized by the maximum set of black hole’s parameters. [Carr] For objects moving along geodesics the event horizon is not a boundary and can be traversed.12. the Kerr-Newman metric [New1965].2. 2. This one is parametrized only by the central mass M and the Kerr (spin) parameter a = J/M . Therefore free falling particles. the angular momentum and electrical charges. It can be proved that the Schwarzschild metric is the unique static and spherically symmetric solution to the Einstein’s ﬁeld equation in vacuum [Bir1923]. 2.3. it is not applicable to those objects. The curvature of the Schwarzschild metric around black holes can be visualized by the geodesic ﬂux around the event horizon (see Fig.18). Due to the argument that any electric charge from the black hole should be compensated by electric currents in its vicinity. 23 . not the general Kerr-Newman metric but the Kerr solution is considered commenly.2. presented in the previous section. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Figure 2. is a spherically symmetric solution and for rotating black holes this symmetry breaks down. Kerr Metric Since the Schwarzschild solution.17. the assumption of rotating compact objects seems sensible. 2. The most general solution.: Spacetime diagram showing signals being emitted at intervals of constant proper time ∆τ1 and being detected by an observer at ﬁxed r with longer time intervals ∆τ2 . namely the mass. reach the event horizon and even the centre at ﬁnite proper times. moving along geodesic trajectories. Due to conservation of angular momentum during collapses.2.

where the line element takes the form ds2 = −α2 dt2 + ̟2 (dφ − ωdt)2 + yielding the metric coeﬃcients gµν −α2 + ω 2 ̟2 0 0 −ω̟2 0 ρ2 /∆ 0 0 = 2 0 0 ρ 0 2 2 −ω̟ 0 0 ̟ ρ2 2 dr + ρ2 dθ2 . In cartesian coordinates it can be written as [Cha1983]: ds2 = dt2 − dx2 − dy 2 − dz 2 − 2M r3 r4 + a2 z 2 dt − z 1 [r(x dx + y dy) + a(x dy − y dx)] − dz r2 + a2 r 2 (2. x3 ) and the functions Φ.27) gµν (2. the metric depends on.28) and the components of the inverse metric tensor g µν −1/α2 0 0 −ω/α2 0 ∆/ρ2 0 0 . In geometrized units a ∈ [−M. ω.2. minus) is used. x2 . the Kerr metric can be derived. which turn out to be the total energy E and the total angular momentum J. φ.26) is quite unhandy. 2. z. The Papapetrou line element applies to both.26) Since the function y depends only on x. ∆ (2.29) 11 Here. which is widely spread throughout the literature. also called Kerr parameter a. Ψ.25) Here the set of coordinates is (t. The two obvious symmetries imply the existence of two conserved quantities. as well as in Eq. r. µ2 and µ3 are only dependent of the spatial coordinates x2 and x3 . Applying the vacuum Einstein equation to the ansatz and exploiting the gauge freedom for the functions µ2 and µ3 . 24 . M ] and with M normalized to 1. the only parameters. minus. the vacuum and the non-vacuum case [Pap1966]11 ds2 = e2Φ dt2 − e2Ψ (dφ − ωdt)2 − e2µ2 (dx2 )2 − e2µ3 (dx3 )2 (2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Formulation Before introducing the Kerr metric in Boyer-Lindquist form. φ) [Boy1967]. a general formulation for axially symmetric and stationary spacetimes is presented. the Kerr solution is often denoted in the pseudo spherical Boyer-Lindquist coordinates (t. Since the formulation (2. a ∈ [−1. are as stated the mass M and the speciﬁc angular momentum.26. and a. θ. minus. y. = 2 0 0 1/ρ 0 2 2 − ω 2 /α2 −ω/α 0 0 1/̟ g µν (2. the metric signature (plus. 1].

30f) ρ = r + a cos θ ρ2 ∆ Σ 2M ra ω= Σ2 Σ ̟ = sin θ ρ Σ = (r + a ) − a ∆ sin θ α2 = They can be interpreted as follows. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations The functions α. whereas it becomes null for large r.14 and Fig. θ and the two parameters a and M : ∆ = r2 − 2M r + a2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 (2. ∆.30b) (2. • ∆ and ρ are geometric functions. • ω is called the frame-dragging frequency and. ̟ are functions of the two spatial coordinates r. 2. • As ̟ · 2π equals the circumference of cylinders with radius r and centred at the rotation axis.30e) (2. The uniqueness of the Kerr metric as a stationary axially symmetric solution of the Einstein’s ﬁeld equation in vacuum is stated by the Robinson theorem [Rob1975].2. and converges to α = 1 for r → ∞. which lies at r = M for the extreme Kerr case and at r = rS = 2M for the Schwarzschild case. which in both cases becomes null at the event horizon. • The function α is often referred to as the lapse function (see App. evoking from the rotating central mass. it vanishes for the Schwarzschild case when a = 0 and the metric becomes diagonal. being deﬁned as ω = −gtφ /gφφ . it arises from the cross term gtφ . the frame-dragging frequency ω increases when a = 0. ρ is related to the radial coordinate r by degenerating to that for θ = π/2 in the equatorial plane. due to the spheric symmetry being restored. C) describing the general relativistic time dilatation. Interesting to point out is the behaviour of the lapse function α. From ∆ = 0. primarily has an impact at small distances. ρ.30a) (2. Since the rotation of the metric is described by this function. ω.27) reduces to the Schwarzschild metric as it should. the positions of the event horizons can be derived. The proﬁles are visualized for radii above the (outer) event horizon. implying an inﬁnite redshift. it is also called cylindrical radius. Evaluating these quantities for a = 0 makes clear that the Kerr solution (2. 25 . For low radii.30d) (2. Consequently the dragging of the spacetime.30c) (2.2. That describes the asymptotical ﬂatness of the Kerr metric.13 respectively. 2. The radial proﬁles of those functions in the equatorial plane for the extreme Kerr case a = 1 and the Schwarzschild case a = 0 are illustrated in Fig.

13.: Radial proﬁles for the Boyer-Lindquist functions in the equatorial plane for the extreme Kerr case a = 1. Only radial distances above the event horizon rS are considered. Only radial distances above the (outer) event horizon are considered. 14 function values [geomtrized units] 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 a = 1 2 4 6 radius r[M] 8 10 Figure 2.2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background 14 function values [geomtrized units] 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 a = 0 2 4 6 radius r[M] 8 10 Figure 2. 26 .: Radial proﬁles for the Boyer-Lindquist functions in the equatorial plane for the Schwarzschild case a = 0.14.

32) The surface. Solving gtt = 0 gives rerg = M + M 2 − a2 cos2 θ . 13 27 . Since the outer horizon is a boundary for any information being able to reach inﬁnity. there is also an intrinsic singularity at r = a in the equatorial plane. In (2. Given the angular frequency of an observer in the Kerr metric Ω = U φ /U t13 and the condition for a globally time-like velocity ﬁeld gtt + 2Ωgtφ + Ω2 gφφ > 0.31) also implies that the absolute value of a must not exceed M . coinciding with the outer event horizon at the poles at θ = 0 and θ = π. Since those can be avoided by a transformation to an adequate coordinate system.32). resulting in spherical symmetry. In contrast to the Schwarzschild solution. this unavoidable singularity is ring-shaped. deﬁned by (2.√ namely the outer horizon √ 2 − a2 and the inner horizon12 at r − = M + M 2 − a2 .33) the upper limit Ω+ is the limit for prograde rotating observers.33) Depending on the frame-dragging frequency ω this limitations become important for small radii. whereas Ω− stands for the limit of retrograde rotation. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Properties Looking for regions. ± A divergence of metric components at rH implies singularities there. is called the ergosphere and due to its θ-dependency has an oblate structure. the condition ∆ = 0 yields ± rH = M ± + rH M 2 − a2 . with Ω± = ω ± α ̟ (2. U µ denotes the four-velocity. the angular frequency is limited to: Ω− ≤ Ω ≤ Ω+ . 12 Also called Cauchy horizon. Actually. which exhibits an intrinsic singularity at r = 0. is also called the static limit. Therefore the surface. The result in (2. deﬁned by rerg(θ) .2. (2. where the lapse function α becomes null for arbitrary values of the Kerr parameter a. =M+ M H For a = 0 the two horizons coincide at r = rS .31) It is interesting that for a = 0 there are two horizons. as the lower limit Ω− becomes positive. both horizons are independent of the poloidal coordinate θ. Evaluating that at the ergosphere leads to the conclusion that for radii lower than rerg no static14 observers can exist. Another interesting feature arises from the fact that the metric component gtt changes signs outside the event horizon. the inner horizon is not considered here furthermore. they can be considered as coordinate singularities. In analogy to the Schwarzschild metric. 14 Static in relation to the coordinate system. which would lead to the breakdown of the horizons and to a naked singularity.2. (2.

2. the minima correspond to stable circular and the maxima to unstable circular orbits. (2. it is the minimal radius. 15 Notice that for the Schwarzschild case. 2. M2 where the upper signs correspond to prograde and the lower signs to retrograde orbits. It is worth noticing that for the extreme Kerr case (a = 0) the ISCO lies at the outer event horizon. The ISCO is given by rms = M 3 + Z2 ∓ with the functions Z1 and Z2 Z1 = 1 + 1 − Z2 = 3 a2 M2 1/3 (3 − Z1 )(3 + Z1 + 2Z2 ) .36b) a2 2 + Z1 . The radii coincide for the extreme Kerr case at the event horizon rH = 1rg = 1M . The radius for those orbits depends on a and lies between the ergosphere and the marginally stable orbit rms . The marginally stable orbit rms is marked by a saddle point in the potential curve of the minimal λ ≈ 3. which are parametrized by the speciﬁc angular momentum λ. where stable rotation is possible. so stable circular orbits occur in its vicinity. In the effective potential curves (see Fig.15 (2. the metric and anything else rotates with the angular frequency of the event horizon + ΩH = ω(rH ) = a + (rH )2 + a2 .16 for the whole range of possible values of the spin parameter a.15). Phenomenological and Theoretical Background At the outer event horizon. Those characteristic radii ascribed above are visualized for the equatorial plane in Fig. Regarding movement in the equatorial plane.2. specifying the Schwarzschild case. Discussing the eﬀective potentials in Kerr metric. It is remarkable that unstable circular photon orbits exist in the Kerr metric. where α = 0.464. where frame-dragging of the metric forces anything to co-rotate with the central object is called the ergoregion.36a) (2.34) The region between the ergosphere and the outer event horizon.35) 1+ a M 1/3 + 1− a M 1/3 (2. no rotation is allowed at the event horizon. the ring singularity becomes point-like and the event horizon lies at rH = rS = 2rg = 2M . the so called marginally stable orbit or innermost stable circular orbit ISCO can be found. With a = 0. 28 .

464 corresponds to the marginally stable circular orbit rms .15.2. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Figure 2.2. [Cam1997]. The saddle point of the potential with the limiting λ = 3. The minima mark stable circular orbits. 29 .: The eﬀective potential curves are parametrized by the speciﬁc angular momentum.

2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background

8

r r r

H

ring + H

6

r r

erg

radius r[M]

ms

4

2

0 -1,0 -0,5 0,0 0,5 1,0

Kerr parameter a[M]

Figure 2.16.: The characteristic radii of the Kerr spacetime in the equatorial plane for diﬀerent values of a, where a < 0 corresponds to retrograde rotation and a > 0 for prograde rotation.

30

2.2. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Geodesics in Kerr Metric In order to examine the radiative transfer in the Kerr metric, the trajectories, along which photons are moving, need to be determined. Usually for this purpose, the geodesic equation (A.8) needs to be solved. Alternatively the equations of motion can be derived from the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism adapted to the GR. This was done by B. Carter in 1968 [Car1968] and resulted in ﬁnding the fourth conserved quantity (Carter’ constant C) and an elegant extraction of the integrals of motion. Applying the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism for geodesics parametrized by the aﬃne parameter λ on a metric, deﬁned by the metric components gµν , the Hamiltonian is given by: 1 1 ∂S ∂S H = g µν pµ pν = g µν µ ν , (2.37) 2 2 ∂x ∂x where pµ are the covariant momentum components given by the partial derivatives of the action S. Evaluating the hamiltonian for the Kerr metric, one can see that it is not explicitely dependent on the variables t and φ. Taking into account the Hamilton function dpµ ∂H =− µ, dλ ∂x (2.38)

this fact implies the two quantities pt and pφ to be conserved along the geodesic. Those can be associated to the energy E of the particle, as it is measured at inﬁnity, and its axial component of angular momentum Lz . The third conserved quantity is the particle’s rest mass, given by the norm of the four√ momentum µ = −g κσ pκ pσ . The Hamilton-Jacobi equation ∂S ∂S + H xµ , µ ∂λ ∂x =0 (2.39)

**evaluated using (2.37) yields a diﬀerential equation for the action function S: 2 Σ2 ∂S = 2 ∂λ ρ ∆ ∂S ∂t
**

2

+

4aM r ∂S ∂S ρ2 ∆ ∂t ∂φ ∂S ∂φ

2

∆ − a2 sin2 θ − 2 ρ ∆ sin2 θ

∆ − 2 ρ

∂S ∂r

2

1 − 2 ρ

∂S ∂θ

2

(2.40)

To solve this, a separation of S in all variables proves to be adequate: 1 S = µ2 λ − Et + Lz φ + Sr (r) + Sθ (θ) 2 (2.41)

Here the ﬁrst three terms are ﬁxed by the known conserved quantities ∂S/∂λ = −H = µ2 /2, pr = ∂S/∂t = −E and pφ = ∂S/∂φ = Lz . The functions Sr (r) and Sθ (θ) are functions of only r respectively θ.

31

2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Plugging this ansatz into (2.40) and arranging the terms according to their variables gives 1 µ r − (r2 + a2 )E − aLz ∆

2 2 2

+ (Lz − aE) + ∆ ∂S ∂θ

2

2

∂Sr ∂r

2

(2.42)

+

a2 µ2 + (L2 csc2 θ − a2 E 2 ) cos2 θ + z

= 0.

Obviously the upper term here depends only on r and the lower term only on θ. Consequently the both terms need to be constant independently from each other. Exploiting this fact, (2.42) can be split by imposing the constant C, which is the fourth conserved quantity: ∂Sθ ∂θ ∆ ∂Sr ∂r

2

= C − (L2 csc2 θ − a2 E 2 + a2 µ2 ) cos2 θ = Θ z

2

(2.43a) R ∆ (2.43b)

=

1 (r2 + a2 )E − aLz ∆

2

− C + (Lz − aE)2 + µ2 r2 =

**with the abbreviations P = (r2 + a2 )E − aLz ,
**

2

(2.44a)

2 2 2

Θ = C − a2 (µ2 − E 2 ) + L2 csc2 θ cos2 θ . z Applying (2.43a,b) to (2.41) gives now 1 S = µ2 λ − Et + Lz φ + 2 √ R dr + ∆ √ Θdθ .

R = P − ∆ C + (Lz − aE) + µ r

,

(2.44b) (2.44c)

(2.45)

The equations of motion for the Kerr metric can now be derived by evaluating xµ = ˙ µν p = g µν (∂S/∂xν ). Since we are interested in radiative transfer, only nullgeodesics g ν (µ2 = 0) are considered: ˙ t= r2 = ˙ 1 ρ2 ∆ (Σ2 E − 2aM rLz ) (2.46a) (2.46b) (2.46c) (2.46d)

R ρ4 Θ ˙ θ2 = 4 ρ 1 ˙ φ= 2 2aM rE + (ρ2 − 2M r)Lz csc2 θ ρ ∆

The algorithm, implemented to solve these, is presented in the next chapter. Sometimes in literature another quantity can be found in this context, namely the constant K = C + (Lz − aE)2 . With this relation the abbreviations R and Θ become:

32

46a-d) on the Kerr metric. Figures 2. At this point in spacetime the geodesics coincide. whereas the cyan structure represents the ergosphere.2. The illustrations show the inﬂuence of frame-dragging on the geodesics close to the central mass. and therefore the image’s perspective and the poloidal coordinate of the virtual observer (initial condition for geodesic tracing) need to be speciﬁed. The radial distance of the observer was set to r = 800M . the Kerr parameter a and the perspective were varied. t and φ can be neglected here.19-2.2. where the red ray serves as a reference with a precision 100 times higher than the white ray.22 visualize the null-geodesics around a central mass. The Schwarzschild case (a = 0) can be examined at the ﬁgures 2.17-2. 33 . Applying Boyer-Lindquist coordinates with the central mass in the origin and its rotation axis marking θ = 0. For the visualizations only θ. Two diﬀerent accuracies for the intagration of the geodesics are indicated by color. The yellow circle marks the event horizon. The nullgeodesics for the extreme Kerr case (a = 1) can be found at ﬁgures 2. the observer’s position is deﬁned by the radial coordinate r and the poloidal coordinate θ. Those photon trajectories are computed by numerical integration of (2. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Θ = −(aE sin θ − Lz csc θ)2 − a2 µ2 cos2 θ + K R = (r2 + a2 )E − aLz 2 − ∆K (2. where the initial conditions are ﬁxed at the position of a virtual observer far away.22.47b) To obtain a better idea of the metric. Unlike in the Schwarzschild metric.47a) (2. it is useful to take a look on the geodesic ﬂux. Due to stationarity and axial symmetry.18. the spherical symmetry is disturbed here. where the trajectories are wound up.17 and 2. which diﬀer in scale.

Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Figure 2.2.17. rH = rS = 2M .: Far view on nullgeodesics in the Schwarzschild case. 34 .

2.18.: Close view on nullgeodesics in the Schwarzschild case. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Figure 2.2. 35 .

Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Figure 2. 36 .: View on nullgeodesics in the extreme Kerr case as viewed along the axis of symmetry.19.2.

37 . The geodesics’ start point is ﬁxed by θ = 90°. General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Figure 2.2.2.: View on nullgeodesics in the extreme Kerr case as viewed from the equatorial plane.20.

: View on nullgeodesics in the extreme Kerr case as viewed from the equatorial plane. 38 .2.21. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Figure 2. The geodesics’ start point is ﬁxed by θ = 45°.

General Relativity and Solutions of Einstein’s Field Equations Figure 2.22.: View on nullgeodesics in the extreme Kerr case as viewed from the equatorial plane. 39 .2. The geodesics’ start point is ﬁxed by θ = 1°.2.

An observer.48a) (2.48b) (2. µ Such a system given.2. Phenomenological and Theoretical Background Zero Angular Momentum Observer In some cases it becomes useful to dismiss the global coordinate system and concentrate on small scales.48c) (2. The ZAMO tetrad eµ in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates is given by: ˆ 1 ω et + eφ α α √ ∆ er er = ˆ ρ 1 eθ = eθ ˆ ρ 1 eφ = eφ ˆ ̟ et = ˆ The transformation matrix for the change of basis is then: 1/α 0 0 ω/α 2 0 ∆/ρ 0 0 µ αµ = ˆ 0 0 1/ρ 0 0 0 0 1/̟ (2. has a vanishing fourmomentum component in the eφ direction (pφ = 0). orthonormal coordinate basis (tetrad). considered orbiting the central mass with the frame-dragging frequency ω. In spite of spacetimes being generally curved. on scales suﬃciently small the local metric appears ﬂat.49) 40 . Therefore it is allowed to deﬁne a locally ﬂat. the corresponding transformation matrix αν and its inverse can be used to change between the coordinate systems. In the case of the Kerr metric this can be further exploited. Consequently such an observer is called a Zero Angular Momentum Observer (ZAMO).48d) (2.

3). M¨2000]. only monochromatic radiation was considered to contribute to the spectra. the numerical integration of the geodesics (Sec. Trajectories of photons. 3. that were implemented for this purpose (Sec. a ray-tracing method is applied. 3. light curves can be obtained.1). Volume ray-tracing means that matter distributions are considered as three dimensional objects and can be intersected by the calculated geodesics. being detected by a ﬁxed observer far away. In this chapter the implementation of the dynamic ray-tracing concept. the so called hot spots (see page 54 in Sec. Fan1997. contributions from ﬂuorescence lines like the Kα can be studied. formed within the accretion disc.1).46 a-d) is performed by an adaptive Fehlberg algorithm (see Sec. Regions of higher density. when simulating the detected radiation for equal intervals during a certain period of time. 3. or reach regions of no concern. In order to achieve that. After outlining the general functionality and process sequence and discussing the classes. While resulting in higher processing times than those of planar ray-tracing applications. With those geodesics given.2 and App. will be presented.2) and the radiative transfer along them will be described (Sec. u In this thesis a further feature is analyzed. simulated spectra of monochromatic radiation from the surroundings of rotating black holes are examined in this thesis. until they either end up at the event horizon.5). 3. 41 . So. are back-traced through spacetime. The numerical integration of the ordinary diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order (2. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer As already outlined in the introduction. depending on the position of the radiating matter. 3. Before introducing the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) method. This concept is applied to the volume ray-tracing application implemented by Burkhard Zink in 2002 [Zin2002]. 3.3. That dynamic feature derives from the hot spots corotating with the accretion disc and general relativistic eﬀects inﬂuencing the spectra diﬀerently. Dab1997.4). used to generate power density spectra (Sec. the code of the application’s main objects is revealed (Sec. Similar methods were successfully used in the past to obtain simulated line proﬁles from accretion discs [Fab1989. are considered to inﬂuence the line spectra and the intensity distribution in time. Doing that. 3. performed by means of the object oriented programming language C++. the spectra can be simulated then by applying a certain matter distribution in the central mass’ environment. D). This matter contributes by radiation to the ﬂux being transported along the geodesics and being detected at the obsever in the end. this concept allows absorption being taken into account. Throughout the simulations presented in chapter 4.

those contributions get red. instances of the classes Spectrum and image are initialized. the double amount. which can be used to generate the spatially resolved images. but further matter objects (dust torus. The class Spectrum represents the simulated spectra. Being monochromatic in the emitter’s rest frame.) could be introduced here easily. namely twice the timesteps. which ﬁxes the initial conditions for the numerical integration (see below). The one half. ) is called. Varying in time. Therefore it is more reasonable to sum over each pixel on the detector’s screen. an instance of the object Matterﬁeld is initialized at ﬁrst when the class’ method PerformSimulation(. That frequency shift depends on the emitter’s position and state of motion. the computation is started by looping over each pixel in the detector frame. A further integration I(ν)dν yields the total energy detected. are evaluated for each timestep then. Summing up all intensity contributions along a geodesic results in obtaining a spectrum I(ν). Since the integration of the geodesics demands for a not negligible processing time. it sets up the application’s environment. of the spectrum class’ instances are required. called the working spectra. arising from the dynamic matter distribution along the photon trajectories. Since spectra are evaluated for all pixels independently and need to be summed up then to the time dependent total spectra. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer 3. Intesity contributions. . and the intensity contribution at each integration step is taken into account for 1 The Kerr metric only is used for this thesis. diﬀering in time. derived from the class camera. Usually the spatial resolution of detector’s being used today is not suﬃciently high to get spatially resolved pictures of the objects concerned here. Spatially resolved pictures of the environment of the central mass can be obtained by color-encoding these spectra for each pixel. A total spectrum can be simulated by doing that. storing values of the speciﬁc intensity for diﬀerent frequencies ν and provides useful operations on them. Supplied with certain parameters. that controls the described procedure is named Raytracer. for each pixel successively.h. it only needs to be performed once for each pixel on the detector’s screen.or blue-shifted due to relativistic eﬀects from GR.3. these can be used to obtain time depending light curves. Initialized with its position in spacetime. Having set up the basic conditions. the metric applied for the simulation1 and the camera’s aperture. 42 . The major class implemented. .1. whereas Image handles the data. The other half is exploited for summing up those and storing the total spectra. deﬁned in two separate parameter ﬁles parameter. Consequently each timestep demands its own instances of these. where the Schwarzschild case can be achieved by setting the Kerr parameter a to null. is used during the evaluation of spectra. The equations of motion for photons are numerically integrated here. it is inevitable to simulate detected spectra for each timestep separately. Structure and Functionality To produce time-dependent light curves.h and parhotspot. corona etc. Matterﬁeld encapsulates the matter objects considered for the simulation2 . 2 An accretion disc and hot spots were used for this thesis. After that. but the geodesic ﬂux remains static in time.

the aspired information is available. The classes of the time-depending ray- Figure 3. This hierarchy depends on the classes’ meaning and their functionality and should help to prevent confusion to the software engineer himself and any user as well.3. The resulting working spectra are then on the one hand added to the total ones. Finally. as it is generally intended in object oriented programming. which can be used for examining the line broadening.1. Usually spatially resolved color-coded time dependent pictures of the virtually observed objects are generated and can be used to obtain animations. the time depentent spectra. This main routine. the data.1. In addition to that.1. the radiation transport along the geodesic regarded is evaluated time-dependently. performed by the class method PerformSimulation(string* simname) of the class Raytracer is illustrated in Fig.3. tracer designed for the purpose of this thesis are structured due to an underlying hierarchy. Having performed that for each pixel. By that procedure. 43 . representing the total energy ﬂux.: Illustration of the main sequence performed by the class method PerformSimulation(string* simname) of the major class Raytracer. is stored and can be used to visualize time dependent light curves. By normalizing the images to the brightest contribution and by integration of the total spectra. Structure and Functionality each timestep separately. the data is prepared for output. are stored in adequate data ﬁles. and on the other hand used to generate a RGB-color representation for the given pixel.

The four components are stored as public attributes and can be accessed directly. • FourTupel(const FourVector& vector): Here the components are extracted from the Fourvector (see below) provided. are listed. • FourTupel(ﬂoat8 a0. Only public attributes of the classes Figure 3. where the components are set to null. and therefore provides only a constructor and destructor. 3 The type ﬂoat8 is a double precision ﬂoat number deﬁned in the ﬁle ntypes.: Class hierarchy of the ray-tracing application.h. FourVector stores the four components of a vector and provides basic operations on them: • FourVector(): Standard constructor. FourTupel represents a four-tuple of real numbers.4. It can be initialized by: • FourTupel(): Standard initialization. ﬂoat8 a1. ﬂoat8 a2.2 visualizes the class hierarchy of the following classes. since the private ones serve solely for inner operations. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer The classes and their methods concerning their function are described next.2. where the components are set to null. ﬂoat8 a3)3 : Initialization with deﬁned components. 44 .3. 3. Figure 3. Object is pure abstract acting as the base class for all other classes. whereas parts of the cource code will be revealed in Sec.

BoyerLindquistChart models a Boyer-Lindquist coordinate representation in the Kerr metric and is initialized with the Kerr parameter a and the central mass M 4 . • FourVector operator+(const FourVector& add): This deﬁnes the operator “+” for the class as simple addition of the components.h. Structure and Functionality • FourVector(ﬂoat8 x0. • void NormalizeTimelike(): The vector V µ is normalized by the condition V µ Vµ = η µν Vν Vµ = 1. ﬂoat8 x2. those classes should be able to check. 4 Usually the mass M will be set to 1. • void GetSafeSpot(FourTupel& result): Simply delivers a point in spacetime outside the ergosphere. the components of the vector are stored as public attributes. • bool IsZero(): Returns true if the vector’s components are null. It provides the following methods: • BoyerLindquistChart(ﬂoat8 kerr a. Chart is also an abstract class. As at the class FourTupel. ﬂoat8 x3): Initialization with deﬁned components. Furthermore it provides the method int GetIdentiﬁer(). • FourVector operator*(const ﬂoat8& smul): The multiplication of the vector with a scalar is deﬁned as the operation ”*”.3. • FourVector(const FourTupel& tupel): The components are extracted from a provided FourTupel during this initialization. where η is the Minkowski metric tensor. by which each derived class should be identiﬁed with regard to its integer identiﬁer deﬁned in the ﬁle charttypes. if such one is valid for the given chart. The region inside the horizon is considered non-valid. ﬂoat8 x1.. • bool IsValid(const FourTupel& tupel): Delivers true if the position in spacetime provided is outside the event horizon. ﬂoat8 kerr M): The constructor must be supplied with the parameters a and M .1. 45 . • ﬂoat8 GetRms(): Delivers the radial distance of the marginally stable circular orbit (ISCO) rms in the equatorial plane. so that the vector becomes light-like (the Minkowski metric is applied here). • void MakeLightlike(): The three spatial components are normalized according to the temporal. Supplied with a certain four-tuple. Derivations from that one represent a coordinate chart corresponding to a special coordinate system.

where the two fourvectors and the point in spacetime. ﬂoat8 b).h. • void CreateShiftRGB(ﬂoat8& ref. that can represent intensity. Event is an object deﬁning an event in spacetime. ColorRGB& result): This method generates a redshift-color representation of the spectral distribution in relation to a provided reference frequency (ﬂoat8& ref ). Storing a speciﬁed amount of values for a deﬁned frequency domain it models a spectral distribution. The chart. Instances are initialized by the constructor ColorRGB(ﬂoat8 r. where the chart needs to be provided. are provided by the parameters. maximum and resolution. ﬂoat8 g. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer • ﬂoat8 GetEventHorizon(): Yields the radial coordinate of the event horizon. This method 46 . ColorRGB simply stores three real numbers for the purpose of a RGB-color representation. opacity or emissivity distributions. For this purpose it provides also several useful methods: • Spectrum(): The constructor can be called without any parameters. Spectrum is an important object for the ray-tracing application in this thesis. • ﬂoat8 GetErgosphereBorder(ﬂoat8 theta): The radial coordinate of the ergosphere is delivered according to the poloidal angle provided. • int GetIdentiﬁer(): The integer identiﬁer of the charttype is returned. The initialization of this class’ instances can be achieved by: • Event(const Chart* chart): The coordinates are set to null.const FourVector& v1. where it shall be evaluated. • Event(const Chart* chart. It is represented by its coordinates on a special chart. • ﬂoat8 Evaluate g(const Event& event.const FourVector& v2): Evaluates and delivers the coordinate dependent result of v µ uµ = g µν vν uµ . PR SPECTRUM NU MAX and PR SPECTRUM RES deﬁne the domain’s minimum.3. Those parametersPR SPECTRUM NU MIN. wherein the components must be deﬁned. Public access is allowed then to those member attributes. but for a successful initialization the parameters deﬁning the domain must be provided within the parameter ﬁle parameter. The chart used is can be required by the method: Chart* GetChart(). which is used for its coordinate representation and the coordinates themself are public. const FourTupel& tupel): The coordinates are provided by an instance of the class FourTupel.

. • void GlobalBrighten(ﬂoat8 factor): The whole spectrum is multiplied by a provided factor. • ﬂoat8 GetIntensity(ﬂoat8 frequency): The value for a given frequency is delivered.1. • void MultiplySpectrum(const Spectrum& spectrum): A multiplication of spectra is performed5 . const ﬂoat8& weight): ˆ ˆ This method adds a linear weighted spectrum of the form I · w · ν.3. • void FtoI(): The spectrum is weighted by ν 3 in order to transform from the relativistic invariant radiation ﬂux F to the local intensity I = ν 3 · F . Within its method UpdateIntensity Abs(. ) the class matterﬁeld uses this method during each step of geodesic integration in order to add intensity contributions from matter objects. At the upper it needs to be a reference. . where I is a constant value weighted by w and ν denotes the frequency. . Should the given frequency be out of range. They only diﬀer in the parameter providing the spectrum to be added. • void Clear(): The spectrum is cleared. ) reasonably should only be used with instances of the same size (same frequency domain). which means that all values are set to null. speciﬁed by ﬂoat8 intensity. weighted by the factor ﬂoat8 weight. • void AddConst(const ﬂoat8& c): The constant provided is added to spectrum. • ﬂoat8 GetTotIntensity(): In order to obtain the total intensity detected 5 I(ν)dν. 47 . is added to the spectrum at the frequency provided by ﬂoat8 frequency. a summation over Note that this method as well as AddSpectrum(. ﬂoat8 intensity): Value. const ﬂoat8& weight): The provided spectrum. • bool AddDot(ﬂoat8 frequency. . the method returns false. • void CumulateOpacity(const Spectrum& tau): Opacity contributions are cumulated acoording to the algorithm presented in section 3. whereas at the lower a pointer is accepted. • void AddWeightedSpectrum(const Spectrum& spectrum. Otherwise nothing is done here. is added. • void AddWeightedConstantSpectrumLinear(const ﬂoat8& intensity. Structure and Functionality is used by the class Raytracer to generate spatially resolved images of the matter distribution. void AddSpectrum(const Spectrum* spectrum): Those methods perform a spectrum addition.3 on page 67. • void AddSpectrum(const Spectrum& spectrum). that needs to be higher than null.

which can be done since the frequency intervals are equal.h. The resulting ﬁle consists of two rows: (ν. ﬂoat8& r.I(ν)) The intensity values corresponding to diﬀerent frequencies are stored in a public STL6 -container (vector) and therefore can be accessed by any objects. uint y. ﬂoat8 g. uint sizeY): Constructor with well deﬁned image resolution given by the parameters uint sizeX and uint sizeY 7 . The type uint is simply an unsigned int deﬁned in the ﬁle ntypes. ﬂoat8& g. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer the spectrum’s values is performed. The resolution here must be provided by the parameter PR OUTPUT PIXELS within the ﬁle parameter. As an image representing object. uint y. The pixel is identiﬁed by the parameters x and y. • void CreatePlot(Image& result) const: Spectrum data is written to the provided instance of the class Image (see below). ﬂoat8 r. The resolution of the output ﬁle can be deﬁned by the scale parameter uint multiply. uint multiply=1): With a provided ﬁlename this method exports a TGA-ﬁle from the image. by which its data can be manipulated and exported: • void CreateTGA(const string& ﬁlename. • void Clear(): Image data is cleared (set to null). so that the spectrum can be plotted then. void SetPixel(uint x. this class provides methods. • uint GetSizeX(): Image resolution in x-direction is returned. whereas the color data is provided by three separated components ﬂoat8 r. uint y. • void SetPixel(uint x. 48 . ﬂoat8 g. const ColorRGB& colorRGB): The RGB-color value of a speciﬁc pixel can be set by those methods.3.h. ﬂoat8 b). ﬂoat8 b at the upper method or by an instance of the class ColorRGB at the lower. Image encapsulates the RGB-color data of an image with a certain resolution as it is deﬁned within initialization: • Image(uint sizeX. • void CreateDataFile(const string& ﬁlename): Spectrum data is exported to a data ﬁle. 6 7 Standard Template Library is a software library included in the C++ Standard Library. ﬂoat8& b): Delivers the RGB values of a speciﬁed pixel. • Image(): Constructor to use without additional parameters. • void GetPixel(uint x.

The ZAMO is not deﬁned along the axis of symmetry (θ = 0 and θ = π/2). e3 and coordinate basis vectors f0 . f2 . ZAMO is derived from the class Frame and represents a ZAMO frame (see Sec. const FourTupel& tupel). used for the coordinate representation. After the initialization. so that the brightest color component has the value 1. • ﬂoat8 GetHighestBrightness(): Delivers the brightest picture component. • Event GetEvent(): The position in spacetime of the frame is returned. only the chart for coordinate representation and the position in spacetime need to be provided for the initialization: • ZAMO(const Chart* chart. Frame is an object modelling a local ﬂat (Minkowski) frame. FourVector& result): Transformation of a vector representation from the frame basis to the coordinate basis. frame basis vectors e0 . • void TransformIntoCoordinateBasis(const FourVector& vector.2. f1 . e1 . • void Normalize(): The brightness is normalized. In order to provide coordinate transformations on objects between the frame basis and the global coordinate basis. e2 . it provides additionally the same methods as its parent class Frame. After having determined the brightest component. Furthermore a FourTupel deﬁning the event on the given chart. As a derived class. 2. following methods are available: • void TransformIntoFrameBasis(const FourVector& vector. 49 . FourVector& result): This method transforms the provided vector representation from the coordinate basis to the frame basis. Structure and Functionality • uint GetSizeY(): Image resolution in y-direction is returned.3) in the Kerr metric. Public access is allowed to the basis vectors. f3 must be provided within the initialization. As such one. • void Normalize(ﬂoat8 brightness): This method normalizes the brightness to the brightness provided by the parameter ﬂoat8 brightness. It is initialized by the constructor: • ZAMOCameraFrame(const Chart* chart. const FourTupel& tupel). this method can be used to normalize multiple images to the same value.3. it needs to be initialized with a Chart. For this purpose the orientation of er is changed relatively to that in instances of the ZAMO class.1. ZAMOCameraFrame is derived from the class ZAMO and designed to represent a frame looking towards the centre.

the output data is formatted. are generally initialized with instances of ZAMOCameraFrame. where x and y denote coordinates in the observer’s frame (screen). const FourVector& k. who the nullgeodesics are backtraced from. Finished with evaluation. deﬁning the perspective of the ray image (bool top). It controls the numerical integration of the nullgeodesics and calls methods.h. which needs to be provided with the camera’s frame. which needs to be supplied with the geodesic’s initial position (Event event). which handle the cumulation of the radiation ﬂux along them. which the image data is written 50 . ﬂoat8 aperture). where its position is also speciﬁed. ﬂoat8 max coord. ﬂoat8 aperture. ) (see below) to ﬁx the initial conditions of geodesics being traced. The parameter ﬂoat8 aperture supplies the object with the camera’s viewing angle (in degrees) in direction to the centre. By the constructor • Camera(const Frame& frame. bool top. Supplied with those. which mimic a virtual detector observing the whole scene. . where additionally a name of the simulation can be provided. • bool RayTestImage(string* simname): This method is called to generate ray images of the geodesic ﬂux. . The following methods cover all procedures.1 on page 43. The amount of geodesics that are to be plotted is speciﬁed by the parameters PR RAY IMAGE NR X and PR RAY IMAGE NR Y in the ﬁle parameter. the nullgeodesics. the observer is deﬁned entirely. 180 °] and is used by the Raytracer class’ method PerformSimulation(. and the object.3. Raytracer is the main class of the ray-tracing application in this thesis. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer Instances of the class Raytracer (see below). string* name=0). This process was already described above and is illustrated by Fig. This angle γ must lie within the range [0 °. which diﬀer in their initial momentum (direction) are integrated one after another. This is performed by calling the method: • void CreateRayImage(const Event& event. its initial four-momentum (FourVector k) and further parameters specifying the maximum coordinate r at which the tracing is stopped (ﬂoat8 max coord). 3. It is derived from the class Camera and therefore the observer is completely speciﬁed by the initialization: • Raytracer(const Frame& frame. Image* result). that have to be performed in order to obtain spectra from and/or spatially resolved pictures of the system considered: • bool PerformSimulation(string* simname): This is the main procedure executed when spectra from the source are desired. Camera is a pure abstract class modelling a generally far away observer.

Adaptive means that the step size used for integration is adjusted so that the computational error lies within a given range deﬁned in the parameter ﬁle. It speciﬁes the increment of time for consecutive evaluations. ) for each pixel in the detector’s frame. It can be extracted from the temporal coordinate x0 evaluated by integration. This separation in time allows the generation of time-dependent spectra. Spectrum* &specs. the matter’s contribution to the radiation ﬂux at a given position must be considered for diﬀerent times i separately. Geodesic acts as a parent class for further special derivations and represents general geodesics in spacetime. the image data is written to a TGA-ﬁle.2) by which the equations of motion (2. MatterField& matter. It provides an adaptive ray propagation algorithm (see Sec. but is used for planar ray-tracing. Such ray image ﬁles were introduced in the previous chapter (see Fig. const ﬂoat8& timeincr): This method is called from within the method PerformSimulation(. xµ ) is evaluated for t = timeincr · i − ∆t. Note that no absorption can be considered in the planar case8 . MatterField& matter. where ∆t is the propagation time of the photon from the detector to the position considered. which contributes to the radiation detected. const Event& basepos. Therefore the parameter ﬂoat8 timeincr is provided.17-2.22). 8 For the simulations of this thesis. const ﬂoat8& timeincr): This method has the same meaning for ray-tracing as the previous one. . Since the matter distribution around the central mass is a function of time M(t) if hot spots are considered. const Event& basepos. Finished with all geodesics. Spectrum* &specs.3. It is responsible for the geodesic evaluation and the radiation transfer as described in Sec. 2. • void Measurement(const FourVector& basedirection. KerrGeodesic is derived from the class Geodesic and is designed exclusively for nullgeodesics on the Kerr metric. The parameter PR TRACE PLANAR in the parameter ﬁle decides if planar or volume ray-tracing is to be performed. where the numerical integration is stopped. For this purpose it must be supplied with the geodesic’s initial position and momentum. where the evaluated ﬂux contributions are added to. Structure and Functionality to (Image* result). Given that. . • void Measurement planar(const FourVector& basedirection. 3.3.46 a-d) can be solved. and the spectra objects.1. which means that the accretion disc cannot be intersected by the traced geodesics and therefore acts as a boundary. 3. the matterﬁeld. only volume ray-tracing was performed 51 . at each geodesic integration step M(t.

This one is adjusted during the integration if the error turns out to be too high or to low. Therefore. Event& pos out): This method is similar to the previous one. Additionally to that. Event& pos out): Here a one step integration is performed. reference rays with higher accuracy can be visualized simultaneously. which speciﬁes the ray direction. until the boundary conditions are satisﬁed. const Event& pos in. Event pos out. where no matter is supposed to be present and consequently cannot contribute to the radiation ﬂux. but the geodesic integration is performed with a higher accuracy. namely the actual position in spacetime Event pos in and the actual four-momentum FourVector dir in. This method needs to be supplied by the ray’s initial position and fourmomentum as well as with the actual step size used. ﬂoat8& lambda. Doing that. That operation is called while generating ray images by the method RayTestImage(. that need to be deﬁned within all derived classes. MatterItem is derived from Matterobject and serves itself as a parent class for classes modelling speciﬁc matter objects. ) of the class Raytracer. const Event& pos in) can be supplied with initial conditions for the ray propagation. const Event& pos in. The main boundary is that ray propagation stops at the event horizon. Those methods are considered to specify the matter objects’ density distributions. it provides methods. FourVector& dir out. ﬂoat8& lambda. 52 . with regard to the error boundaries given for the previous method. . their state of motion and furthermore the emissivity and the opacity essential for the radiation transport. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer The initialization of this object’s instances • KerrGeodesic(const FourVector& dir in. The factor specifying it. . FourVector& dir out.3. The geodesic integration is performed within the methods: • bool Fehlberg4 5(const FourVector& dir in. for a complete integration of the nullgeodesics this method needs to be called consistently. As a pure abstract class. • bool Fehlberg4 5 lowerr(const FourVector& dir in. Matterobject acts as a base class for objects representing any mass distributions around the central mass. Fourvector dir out. the integration of geodesics is halted throughout the simulations in this thesis once the ray reaches the radial distance of the detector. The new step size and the ray’s new position and four-momentum are written to the parameters ﬂoat8 lambda. is deﬁned by the parameter PR RAY IMAGE REF PRECISION. ﬂoat8& lambda used. ﬂoat8& lambda used.

The extent of the accretion disc.2. Since the density controls the emissivity within this implementation. but also parameters specifying the disc properties as the inner and outer edge and the disc matter’s opacity.1) Ωφ (r) = 2πνφ (r) ≈ √ √ . for rin ≤ r ≤ rout is represented by this density distribution. β must be speciﬁed. It can be extracted from the angular frequency Ωφ √ M (3. Generally a homogeneous density distribution is assumed and consequently the normalized value ̺ = 1 is delivered if the position lies within the accretion disc. • ﬂoat8 GetInnerRadius(): Delivers the disc’s inner edge. Since only planar Keplerian orbits are considered. const ﬂoat8& time): Delivers the source rest frame density ̺(xµ ). u Which distribution is chosen. 3+a M r Ω−ω (3. V φ is the only non vanishing spatial coordinate. which is deﬁned by PR ACCRETIONDISK INNER RADIUS in the parameter ﬁle. The following methods are available within this class and deﬁne the disc’s appearence. the case of a slim disc is still satisﬁed. The inner edge’s minimum radial distance to the central mass is the marginally stable radius rms . FourVector& u): Delivers the four-velocity of the disc matter in the coordinate frame. With those parameters chosen. a. the density distribution can be chosen to satisfy a single (̺(r) ∝ r−α ) or a double (̺(r) ∝ r−α for r < rbreak and ̺(r) ∝ r−β else) power law as it is proposed in [Dab1997. as it is implemented. • void GetFourVelocity(const Event& event. In addition to that. whereas for the power laws the constants α.3. a radial emissivity law of the form ε(r) = const. depends on the parameter PR ACCDISC DENSITY.3. Vφ =̟ by 53 .1. is shown in Fig. • ﬂoat8 GetOuterRadius(): Delivers the disc’s outer edge deﬁned by PR ACCRETIONDISK OUTER RADIUS in the parameter ﬁle. Structure and Functionality AccDisc represents a standard accretion disc as described in section 2.1.2) α • ﬂoat8 GetDensity(const Event& pos. which depends on the position in spacetime. The initialization of instances of this class • AccDisc() must be supplied with several parameters deﬁned in the parameter ﬁle. Those parameters are ﬁrstly the Kerr metric speciﬁc parameters M . M¨2000]. 3.

9 When simulating other emissivity distributions. . For lower values of the Kerr parameter a the radial distance of the inner edge increases. The redshift factor g depends on the relation between the source’s four-velocity and the geodesic’s four-momentum at the given position and is evaluated by the method Evaluate g(. where rms = rH and therefore the disc’s inner edge touches the event horizon.3. this method is called from within the method UpdateIntensity Abs(.: The image illustrates the accretion disc for the extreme Kerr case. for example black body radiation. . This contribution is shifted in frequency by the redshift factor g and added to the spectrum provided by method parameter Spectrum result. which handles the radiation ﬂux contributions from diﬀerent matter items. HotSpot is also a class derived from MatterItem and represents regions of higher density and emission within the accretion disc. ) of the class MatterField. Spectrum& result. const Event& event): Delivers the accretion disc matter’s opacity that is speciﬁed in the parameter ﬁle and stored as a private attribute of the class. const Event& event): This method delivers the source’s rest frame emissivity. this proﬁle needs to be adjusted. . Spectrum& result. • void GetEmissivity(const ﬂoat8& g. ) of the class BoyerLindquistChart (see above). . When absorption is considered. a constant value can be delivered here if monochromatic emission is considered9 . • void GetOpacity(const ﬂoat8& g. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer Figure 3.3. Since the emission is weighted by the density distribution. 54 .

that needs to be provided. are speciﬁed in the ﬁle parameter. • ﬂoat8 Get density(): The density within the hot spots is described by a spherical symmetric Gaussian distribution. • ﬂoat8 Distance(const Event& pos. that is super-imposed to that 55 . The hot spot properties. Structure and Functionality Instances can be initialized by • HotSpot(int index). Pseudo-Cartesian coordinates are used for this evaluation. which holds also for hot spots corotating within the accretion disc. const ﬂoat8& time): The hot spots represent a density distribution. This index acts as an identiﬁer if multiple hot spots are considered. This deviation should not have a great impact for the distances d evaluated here (d < 4Rhs ). or in the ﬁle parhotspot. ﬂoat8& distance): This method evaluates and delivers the spatial distance of a given point in spacetime Event pos to the centre of the hot spot. The following methods are provided in HotSpot: • void Setomega(const ﬂoat8& r): By that method the angular frequency of the hot spot is evaluated and stored to a private attribute.3. this method delivers the same result as the corresponding one within the class AccDisc (see above).1). • ﬂoat8 GetRadius(): The radius Rhs of the hot spot is returned. so that the curvature of the spacetime is neglected. • void GetFourVelocity(const Event& event. According to Eq.h for multiple hot spots. the density and opacity count to. • ﬂoat8 GetDensity(const Event& pos. • ﬂoat8 Get r(): Delivers the hot spot’s radial distance to the centre. FourVector& u): The four-velocity for the hot spot at a given point in spacetime is delivered. the initial position. where an index parameter must be provided. which the radius.1. const ﬂoat8& time.h when only one hot spot is used. • ﬂoat8 GetOmega(): Returns the hot spot’s angular frequency. the angular frequency depends on the radial distance. the peak density ̺ in the hot spot’s centre is ˆ returned. When this method is called. • ﬂoat8 Get phi(): The hot spot’s initial azimuthal coordinate φ is returned.(3. Since the hot spots are assumed to co-rotate within the accretion disc.

Generally shearing within the accretion disc should deform the hot spots. MatterField is also a class derived from Matterobject and is the main object handling the communication of the application with all matter objects considered. Therefore. Spectrum& result. can be delivered.4 · 10−4 ̺. if the provided position lies within a region. which can be passed by any deﬁned hot spots. 56 . with a given event on spacetime. For this application. there are well deﬁned regions on the manifold. this method checks. when simulating light curves of long time periods (many rotation periods). Now.3. For distances higher than 4Rhs . • void GetEmissivity(const ﬂoat8& g. • ﬂoat8 GetOpacity(): Those two methods do not diﬀer from the corresponing ones in the class AccDisc (see above). the rest frame density ̺ = 0 is returned. The opacity for the hot spots must be speciﬁed within the parameter ﬁles. 2Rhs (3.3). weighted as described by Eq. This time consuming computation aﬀects the whole application’s performance. Note that all points within the hot spot are assumed to co-rotate with its centre. the time depending distance to the hot spot’s centre can be evaluated and the density ̺hs . This should be taken into account. then only static radiation contributions need to be considered and so evaluated only once for the speciﬁc geodesic integration step. Such arched structures were considered for ray-tracing in [Schn05]. since the contribution at this point already drops to ̺ exp(−8) ≈ 3. 10 Note that a radial dependency is super-imposed to the value of the peak density if a single or double power law for the emissivity is chosen in the parameter ﬁle. it is described by a spherical symmetric Gaussian proﬁle in local Cartesian space ̺hs = ̺ exp(− ˆ d2 2 ). ˆ ˆ The peak density is speciﬁed in the parameter ﬁles10 . matter contributions to the radiation ﬂux need to be evaluated at each considered position for each timestep separately. since the hot spots’ radius is known and only their azimuthal position changes. (3. Therefore no shearing eﬀects can be simulated and the hot spots’ form remains constant. • bool CriticalEvent(const Event& pos): This method is only implemented to decrease processing time.3) where Rhs is a speciﬁed radius and d denotes the distance to the hot spot centre. const Event& event). If that should not be the case. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer of the accretion disc. Due to that. As already described. where never contributions from those objects can impact.

if matter is present at the speciﬁc position.const FourVector& k. This method iterates over each matter object and checks if its density is unequal null at the given position and time. If this should be the case. • void AddIntensity Abs(const Event& position.1. Spectrum* result. This is reached by calling the method bool CriticalEvent for each hot spot. • bool CheckTimeDep(const Event& position): Supplied with a speciﬁc position in spacetime. 57 . Spectrum* Psi. • ﬂoat8 GetDensity(const Event& pos. 3. this method checks. Structure and Functionality It is initialized from within the methods of the simulation controlling class Raytracer by calling the constructor • MatterField(). As will be described in Sec. the upper method void AddIntensity Abs(. the contributions are determined from the redshifted rest frame emissivity at the given position and the opacity. the cumulated opacity is updated in order to be taken into account at further geodesic integration steps. ) is called supplied with the matter item concerned.3. already cumulated along the backtraced geodesic. const ﬂoat8& time. . const ﬂoat8& time): The rest frame density at a given position and time is returned. . const uint& specnumber): This method actually adds radiation ﬂux contributions at given position and time to the spectra provided. if the rest frame density is static there. After adding them to the provided time depending spectra. const Event& position. ﬂoat8& stepsize. • void UpdateIntensity Abs(MatterItem* item. There radiation from it is handled as described. Here the matter objects like an accretion disc and hot spots are set up and stored internally. and how it contributes to the radiation ﬂux. The following methods handle the access to the matter objects: • int GetSpotNumber(): Delivers the number of hot spots that were set up for the simulation.3. const FourVector& k.Spectrum* Psi. ﬂoat8 stepsize.const ﬂoat8& rho. const uint& specnumber): At each integration step of the nullgeodesics it has to be determined. Spectrum* result. It is evaluated by summing up density contributions from all existing matter objects separately.

0 = volume. . (0 ≤ a ≤ 1). Spectrum* result. • void AddIntensity planar(const Event& position. They are called instead of the upper if no absorption is considered. • ﬂoat8 GetMaximalR(): This method delivers the maximum radial distance from the centre. • PR SPACETIME M: The central mass M . const ﬂoat8& time.h and parhotspot. . const uint& specnumber): When planar ray-tracing is performed. const FourVector& k. 0 = no. const Event& position. Possible values are: 1 = planar. const ﬂoat8& time. const uint& specnumber).) Parameters deﬁning the virtual observer (detector): • PR CAMERA T: Detector’s initial temporal coordinate. Obviously no absorption is considered in that case. • PR CAMERA R: Detector’s radial distance. • void AddIntensity(const Event& position. ) and void AddIntensity(. the essential parameters for the ray-tracing application are stored in the parameter ﬁles parameter. Spectrum* result.3. . (Generally set to 1. ﬂoat8& stepsize. • PR ABSORPTION: Deﬁnes if absorption is to be considered. • PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS: Integer deﬁning the number of timesteps evaluated. const FourVector& k. ﬂoat8 stepsize. Those parameters are listed and described here. • PR SPACETIME A: The Kerr parameter a. Possible values are: 1 = yes. . 58 . ) are combined within this method. Consequently it delivers either the outer edge of the accretion disc or the radial coordinate of the hot spot being farthest. const FourVector& k. where any matter can be found. ) and void AddIntensity Abs respectively.h. const ﬂoat8& rho. const uint& specnumber): Those two methods correspond to the methods void UpdateIntensity Abs(. As already mentioned. the procedures of the methods void UpdateIntensity(. Spectrum* result. . • PR NUMBER OF PERIODS: Deﬁnes the time span for the time depending ray-tracing in units of the rotation period T = 2π/ω of the hot spot with the lowest radial coordinate r. Global application parameters are: • PR TRACE PLANAR: Deﬁnes if planar or volume ray-tracing is to be performed. . The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer • void UpdateIntensity(MatterItem* item.

• PR SPECTRUM NU MAX: Maximum spectrum frequency. • PR RAY IMAGE MAX R: Scale for the images. Parameters concerning the spatially resolved images of the scene: • PR IMAGES: Deﬁnes if images are to be created. 0 = no. • PR RAY IMAGE NR X: Number of rays to be shown (in screen’s x-direction). Parameters concerning the integration of the geodesics (ray propagation): • PR RAY MAX STEPS: Maximum number of intergration steps per geodesic. Parameters concerning the simulated spectra: • PR SPECTRUM NU MIN: Minimum spectrum frequency. The highest radial coordinate to be plotted. 0 = no. 59 . 0 = no. 1 = yes. 1 = along axis. • PR SPECTRUM PLOT: Deﬁnes if spectra should be plotted additionally. which deﬁnes the color representation. • PR RAY IMAGE VIEW TOP: Deﬁnes the perspective of the ray image relative to rotation axis. • PR RAY IMAGE REF PRECISION: Accuracy factor for reference rays. that is out of spectrum’s range. 1 = yes. (number of geodesics = (PR OUTPUT PIXELS)2 ) • PR REFERENCE FREQ: The reference frequency for the method void CreateShiftRGB(.3. Consequently this parameter deﬁnes the number of pixels and so geodesics that are backtraced. This parameter deﬁnes the inclination to the system observed. . ray image is generated but no spectra are simulated. ). • PR CAMERA PHI: Detector’s azimuthal coordinate.1. . • PR RAY IMAGE NR Y: Number of rays to be shown (in screen’s y-direction). Structure and Functionality • PR CAMERA THETA: Detector’s poloidal coordinate. 0 = perpendicular to axis. • PR OUTPUT PIXELS: Deﬁnes the image resolution in both directions. Parameters concerning ray images: • PR GENERATE RAY IMAGE: If set to 1. 1 = yes. • PR CAMERA APERTURE: Dector’s aperture. • PR SPECTRUM RES: Spectral resolution. • PR SPECTRUM ERRORLINE: Deﬁnes if error message should be showed when a contribution is to be added to a frequency.

• PR ACCRETIONDISK OUTER RADIUS: Disc’s outer edge. • PR RAY MED ERROR MAX: Maximum error boundary for regions within 6M < r < 200M . If set to null. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer • PR RAY STOP AT CAMERA RADIUS: If set to 1. one or multiple hot spots are considered. • PR ACCDISC ALPHA D: Constant to be deﬁned when double power law is chosen for the radial emissivity proﬁle. • PR RAY FAR ERROR MIN: Minimum error boundary for regions within r > 200M . 60 . the accretion disc is considered. • PR ACCDISC BETA D: Constant to be deﬁned when double power law is chosen for the radial emissivity proﬁle. • PR RAY LOG TRACED STEPS: Number of integration steps is shown on screen. • PR RAY FAR ERROR MAX: Maximum error boundary for regions within r > 6M . • PR RAY NEAR ERROR MAX: Maximum error boundary for regions within r < 6M . ray propagation is stopped. Parameters concerning accretion disc: • PR ACCRETIONDISK USE: If set to 1. 3 = double power law. Possible values: 1 = constant. the ISCO is used. • PR ACCDISC ALPHA S: Constant to be deﬁned when single power law is chosen for the radial emissivity proﬁle. • PR RAY MED ERROR MIN: Minimum error boundary for regions within 6M < r < 200M . • PR RAY NEAR ERROR MIN: Minimum error boundary for regions within r < 6M . Parameters concerning hot spots: • PR HOTSPOT USE: If set to 1. 2 = single power law. • PR ACCRETIONDISK OPACITY: Opacity constant. • PR ACCDISC R BREAK: Breaking radius to deﬁne for double power law. when radial coordinate reaches the radial distance of the detector. • PR ACCDISC DENSITY: Deﬁnes the radial emissivity proﬁle for the disc matter.3. • PR ACCRETIONDISK INNER RADIUS: Disc’s inner edge.

the geodesic equations (2. Taking the square root of (2.c) yields r = sgn(k r ) ˙ ˙ θ = R ρ2 √ Θ sgn(k θ ) ρ2 √ .Zink. . so that their initial directions are evenly arranged within the solid angle deﬁned by the aperture angle γ. Radiative Transfer For generating spectra of objects on the Kerr metric. the ordinary diﬀerential equations of ﬁrst order for the variables t(λ). Consequently the signs of Θ and R are checked after each integration step and in the case that they should change. (3. φ(λ). r(λ). Since the ray-tracing is performed backwards. • PR HOTSPOT R: Default radial coordinate. 11 The parameter λ parametrizes the curve in R4 . ˆ • PR HOTSPOT OPACITY: Opacity contant When multiple hot spot are considered. the approach to the rendering equation follows the derivation presented in [Zin2002].4) (3. some modiﬁcations need to be applied. this turning point is taken into account by changing the sign of k r or k θ respectively. Numerical Integration of the Nullgeodesics In order to obtain the nullgeodesics. For the numerical integration the Fehlberg algorithm described in appendix D is used.3. Numerical Integration of the Nullgeodesics • PR HOTSPOT NUMBER: Deﬁnes the number of hot spots. • PR HOTSPOT RADIUS: Default hot spot radius Rhs . 3. 3. As mentioned in the last section. Since the algorithm used for the ray-tracer in this thesis is adapted from the volume ray-tracing application developed by B.2. relativistic radiative transfer along the nullgeodesics must be examined. which coincide at the detector’s position in spacetime. need to be solved synchronously11 .46a-d). θ(λ). the screen pixels are assigned to nullgeodesics diﬀering in initial momentum.h.3. • PR HOTSPOT PHI: Default initial azimuthal coordinate. • PR HOTSPOT DENS: Peak density ̺. the step integration is performed by the method Fehlberg4 5 of the class KerrGeodesic.5) ˙ where the signs of k r = r and k θ = θ are carried along and change if the corresponding ˙ quantity R(λ) or Θ(λ) feature a root within a step interval. With a given screen resolution.2. the initial conditions are ﬁxed by the detector’s position and aperture. then the corresponding hot spot parameters must be deﬁned in the ﬁle parhotspot. 61 . Since the equations for r and θ are given in quadratic form.46b.

The camera’s screen with the sufrace area A is assumed to be an array of N × N pixels of the partial areas AXY . the screen should have to be treated as a sphere section.4. but in reality for small 62 . By the means of that relation.3. which acts as an initial boundary for the ray propagation. 3. (3. ν3 (3. and sources along them. this source term needs to be evaluated for each photon trajectory reaching the detector’s position in spacetime. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer The starting point when studying covariant radiation transport is to ﬁnd an adequate quantity representing the radiation ﬂux along the geodesics. The phase space density of particle number F turns out to fulﬁl those requirements. The backtracing method applied for this purpose is illustrated in Fig. In a local rest frame and for photons (p0 = ν) it can be associated to the speciﬁc intensity Iν by F = n ν 2 dνdΩ = Iν .6) where n denotes the photon number density. The general relativistic Boltzmann equation σ · dF = dF dλ . Figure 3.7) where σ generates a godesic ﬂow ﬁeld on the given manifold. Consequently to be exact. the speciﬁc intensity as detected in the camera frame can be evaluated from the relativistic invariant transport quantity F . where the nullgeodesics are supposed to coincide and backtraced from. describes the change of F while being transported along geodesics. Therefore to obtain the total F .4. since the classical speciﬁc intensity Iν is not a local scalar.: The principle of backwards ray-tracing is illustrated here. The only non-vanishing term here derives from sources along the geodesics. It is positioned curtly in front of the position. The ﬁgure shows the camera’s position. the geodesics (on generally curved spacetime). where the contributions to the relativistic invariant transport quantity F originate from.

k(λ)) dλ dλ . the are measures ||AXY || are pixel independent. ΩXY ) . ΩXY ) ¯ F C (ν. F (x))n(x) ν 1 = ρ(x)ǫν ds 4πν 3 = (3. and for a regular angular distance for the pixels. src (3. k. assumed in the center of the pixel areas AXY .8) ∝ ¯ where with suitable ΩXY . Deﬁning the length element ds = ||k||. k(λ)) with the boundary conditions xα (λC ) = xα and kα (λC ) = (νC . (3.3. k(λ). To obtain F C for a given pixel.10) abs representing emission and absorption processes. J is called the invariant emissivity and is a function of the spacetime event. k. the direction of emission and of the incoming F . 63 . Ω)dΩ A N −1 N −1 X=0 Y =0 N −1 N −1 X=0 Y =0 ¯ ||AXY || F C (ν. (3. Therefore the diﬀerent AXY can be treated uniformally.3. where k denotes the spatial components of k and exploiting k µ kµ = 0. Such a screen discretization leads to the following expression of the total F C .11) em where n(x(λ)) is the rest frame number density of the source ﬁeld. Radiative Transfer apertures γ it can be approximated by a ﬂat screen representation with a regular grid. the mirrored unit vector −Ω is used here. ΩXY ) = λC λ0 dF (x(λ).total = = F C (ν. rest C If scattering is neglected. where C implies the camera position: F C. −νC Ω) in the camera frame12 . The part containing the emission can be described by dF dλ = J (x(λ).12) 12 Since the photons are viewed as incoming. the source term can be split up into two fractions dF dλ = src dF dλ + em dF dλ (3. F (x(λ))) · n(x(λ)) . we need to integrate over sources along the corresponding geodesic: ¯ F C (ν.11) can be expressed by classical quantities by integrating over a step dλ and transforming into the emitter’s rest frame: dF 1 dIν = J(x.9) In this equation λ parametrizes the photon trajectory (x(λ). the equation (3. F (x))n(x)dλ ν3 ds = J(x.

F ) = the transport equation can be expressed by dF = Ξ(˜ . The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer For the last step. the classical radiation transport equation dIν /ds = ρǫν /4π − ρκν Iν was inserted. F (x)) = 1 ρ(x) ǫν 4πν 2 n(x) (3.15) where κν denotes the classical opacity. ΩXY ) = λC n(x(λ)) J(x(λ). equation (3. k. the full dependencies of quantities are not denoted any further.13) In analogy to this procedure. The invariant opacity K can be deﬁned by: dF dλ = −K (x(λ).16) Given that. rest frame emissivity ǫν ): J(x.10) can be examined.20) Due to readability.3. ν (3.13 ω ω d˜ ω 13 J(λ. k(λ))F (x(λ). k)n(x) 3 ν ν 1 = − 3 ρ(x)κν Iν ds . k(λ)) · n(x(λ)) · F (x(λ). k) = ν ρ(x) κν . k(λ). (3. k(λ)) . F (x(λ))) λ0 (3. k(λ)) dλ .17) − K(x(λ). Like in the emission case. the absorption term in (3. K can now be described by its classical analogon: J(x.18) and the eﬀective source function Ξ by Ξ(λ.9) takes the following form: ¯ F C (ν. F ) − F (˜ ) . 64 . k)n(x)F (x. F ) K(λ) (3. n(x) (3. k)dλ ν3 Iν ds = −K(x. Introducing the covariant optical depth ω by ˜ λ1 ω= ˜ λ0 n(λ)K(λ)dλ (3. Consequently the invariant emissivity can be expressed by classical quantities (rest frame density ρ.14) abs Integration over dλ and transformation into the absorber’s local rest frame gives: dF = 1 dIν = −K(x.19) (3.

The integral is split into small steps λi ∈ [λ0 . In order to be used within the ray-tracing application. (3. n) with λ0 = 0 and λn = λC .22) S = Ξ(˜ . ω an integration of J over ω can be performed: ˜ ω ˜ J (˜ ) = J (˜ = 0) + ω ω To obtain this.23) can be expressed by the quantity F : ω F (˜ ) = F (0)e−˜ + ω 0 ω ˜ ω ω e(˜ −˜ ) Ξ(˜ )d˜ . F ) · e− R λC λ n(λ′ )K(λ′ )dλ′ dλ . This procedure yields: n−1 ¯ F C (ν. the equation (3.21) (3. ΩXY ) = λC λ0 n(λ)J(λ.18) and (3. 0 S(˜ )d˜ . ω ω ′ (3. 2. F )e . (3.26) This is now the rendering equation for the transport of F along the nullgeodesics. (3.29) 65 .19). . Radiative Transfer After deﬁning the quantities J and S J = F (˜ )eω ω ˜ ω ˜ (3.28) n(λ)K(λ)dλ .3.25) takes the form: ¯ F C (ν.25) When resubstituting ω and Ξ by the means of (3. ω ω (3. the integral (3. λC ].23) ˜ = eω Ξ = S (3. 1. F ) · e− R λi+1 λ n(λ′ )K(λ′ )dλ′ dλ . F ) · e− R λC λ n(λ′ )K(λ′ )dλ′ dλ . it needs to be discretized. . the derivative dJ dF ˜ = eω F + d˜ ω d˜ ω was used. i = (0. ΩXY ) = where the exponent could be split up by the means of the covariant step absorption coeﬃcients ψi given by ψi = e − R λi+1 λi j=i+1 ψj λi+1 λi n(λ)J(λ. .3. ΩXY ) = i=0 λi+1 λi n(λ)J(λ.27) This can be transformed to n−1 i=0 n−1 ¯ F C (ν.24) Exploiting the deﬁnition of J . (3. . and taking the boundary ˜ F (0) = 0 into account.

31) and expressing the covariant quantities J and K by the classical ones (ρ. i 2 4 1 λi+1 + λi ¯ = λi + ∆λi where λ′′ ≈ i 2 2 (3. 2 66 . once to the base and once to the exponent.30) is satisﬁed. 1 1 (3. it is assumed that the quantites ρ. ΩXY ) = ψj ∆λi 4π i=0 j=i+1 1 1 1 · ρ(λi + ∆λi ) 2 ǫνi (λi + ∆λi ) 2 2 νi 1 1 1 (3. ¯ ′′ ¯ ′′ (3.34) · e− 2 ∆λi ρ(λi + 2 ∆λi ) νi κνi (λi + 2 ∆λi ) .32) The discretization is now performed explicitly with the assumptions λi+1 + λi 1 ¯ λi ≈ = λi + ∆λi . λi+1 ]. i The same principle can be utilized on the covariant step absorbtion coeﬃcients. λi+1 ] they can be described by: i ψi = e − R λi+1 λi j=i+1 ¯ ¯′ ¯′ ¯ ¯ ψj (λi+1 − λi )n(λi )J(λi . 2 2 ¯ λi+1 + λi 3 ¯ λ′ ≈ = λi + ∆λi . ¯ which states that there exists a suitable λi ∈ [λi . ΩXY ) = ¯ ¯ ¯ for an adequate λi ∈ [λi . ¯ So for a suitable λ′′ ∈ [λi . κν are equal at 3 (λi + 1 ∆λi ) and (λi + 4 ∆λi ).28). ǫν .33b) ∆λi = λi+1 − λi (3. That relation is applied twice to (3. ǫν and κν ) leads to the discretized general relativistic volume ray-tracing equation: n−1 n−1 1 ¯ F C (ν. F )e−(λi+1 −λi )n(λi )K(λi ) (3. λi+1 ] so that λi+1 λi ¯ f (λ)dλ = (λi+1 − λi )f (λi ) (3.33a) (3. λi+1 ] and λ′ ∈ [λi . which yields n−1 i=0 n−1 ¯ F C (ν.35) In order to decrease evaluations.33c) Plugging those preparations into (3.31) n(λ)K(λ)dλ = e−(λi+1 −λi )n(λi )K(λi ) . with ψi = e−∆λi ρ(λi + 2 ∆λi ) νi κνi (λi + 2 ∆λi ) . The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer This expression can further be transformed by the use of the mean value theorem.3.

3.3. Radiative Transfer The ray-tracing algorithm is implemented in the methods UpdateIntensity Abs(. . . ) and UpdateIntensity(. . . ) of the class MatterField, whereas the second one does not take absorption into account. The invariant spectral distribution F and the cumulated n−1 absorption Ψ = j=i+1 ψj are being transported along the photon trajectories obtained by the stepwise numerical integration. 0 Starting with the pixel geodesics at the camera, normalized by kC = νC = 1 in the camera rest frame, two arrays F [ν] and Ψ[ν] are ﬁlled at each integration step14 . So at each position λ with the actual stepsize ∆λ the following procedure needs to be consistently performed: • The local density ρ(λ), emissivity ǫ(λ) and opacity κ(λ) are determined. Generally the emissivity and opacity are functions of the frequency ν, but considering monochromatic emission and a frequency independent opacity, κ(ν) can be handled as a constant and ǫ(ν) as a distribution with a speciﬁc value (set to 1 due to simplicity) at νi = gi νC , where gi is the local red-shift factor and ν the frequency as measured in the camera’s frame (normalized to 1)15 . • The array τ [ν] is set up temporarily by evaluating for each ν: τ [ν] = ∆λ ρ(λ) g ν κ(λ). For the monochromatic case the array τ [ν] reduces to only one contribution at ν = g −1 yielding τν = ∆λ ρ(λ) κ(λ). • The array F [ν] is increased by the source contribution S[ν] = Ψ[ν] ∆λ ρ(λ) ǫ(λ)[ν] exp(−τ [ν]/2)/(gν)2 . For monochromatic sources this reduces to S[ν] = Ψ[g −1 ] ∆λ ρ(λ) exp(−τ [ν]/2). • The transported opacity is cumulated by Ψn ew[ν] = Ψ[ν] · exp(−τ [ν]). • The next evaluation point x(λ′ ) and step size ∆λ′ are generated by integration of the geodesic equations. This routine is performed until a termination condition is satisﬁed. Usually this is the case, when backtraced geodesics reach the event horizon or leave the region of interest. In the end the intensity Iν as measured at the camera is obtained by I[ν] = F [ν] ν 3 .

14 15

The arrays are represented by instances of the class Spectrum. The red-shift factor is evaluated by the method Evaluate g(. . . ) of the class BoyerLindquistChart (see at page 46).

67

3. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer

3.4. Source Code

Since the structure of the time depending volume ray-tracer and the procedures, which are performed during the evaluations, already were described in the previous sections, only the C++ source code of the main methods controlling the sequence of the application are presented here. Within the main routine an instance of the class Raytracer is initialized and during that supplied with the most important parameters, namely the metric specifying Kerr parameter a and the central mass M and additionally the camera’s position in spacetime. In order to perform time dependent volume ray tracing, its method PerformSimulation(. . . ) (see page 50) is called. The following code is executed then: Listing 3.1: Source code of Raytracer::PerformSimulation(. . . )

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

bool R a y t r a c e r : : P e r f o r m S i m u l a t i o n ( s t r i n g ∗ simname ) { M a t t e r F i e l d matter ; // d i s c and h o t s p o t s a r e i n i t i a l i z e d h e r e

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23 24 25 26

27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

// w o r k i n g s p e c t r a a r e i n i t i a l i z e d Spectrum ∗ s p e c t i m e=new Spectrum [ PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ] ; // c h e c k a l l o c a t i o n i f ( ! s p e c t i m e ) { return 0 ; } // t o t a l s p e c t r a a r e i n i t i a l i z e d Spectrum ∗ s p e c t o t=new Spectrum [ PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ] ; // c h e c k a l l o c a t i o n i f ( ! s p e c t o t ) { return 0 ; } #i f (PR IMAGES) //The Images where c o l o r d a t a i s w r i t t e n t o Image ∗ images=new Image [ PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ] ; i f ( ! images ) { return 0 ; } // c h e c k a l l o c a t i o n #endif f l o a t 8 timeincrement ; // v a r i a b l e s t o r i n g time i n c r e m e n t f l o a t 8 omega max = 0 ; // v a r i a b l e f o r a n g u l a r f r e q u e n c y o f n e a r e s t h o t spot f o r ( i n t k = 0 ; k<PR HOTSPOT NUMBER ; k++) { i f ( ( matter . m a t t e r i t e m s [ k ] )−>GetOmega ( )>omega max ) omega max=( matter . m a t t e r i t e m s [ k ] )−>GetOmega ( ) ; // omega max i s determined } // s e t t i n g t i m e i n c r e m e n t (# P e r i o d s ∗2 PI /( omega max∗ # t i m e s t e p s ) ) i f ( omega max !=0) { t i m e i n c r e m e n t =2∗PI ∗PR NUMBER OF PERIODS/ ( omega max ∗ ( f l o a t 8 ) PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS) ; } else { timeincrement =1.0;} // i f no h o t s p o t s p r e s e n t #i f (PR IMAGES) ColorRGB c o l o r ( 0 . 0 , 0 . 0 , 0 . 0 ) ; // v a r i a b l e f o r s t o r i n g RGB a t a −d #endif f l o a t 8 r e f f r e q=PR REFERENCE FREQ ; // r e f e r e n c e f r e q u e n c y ( u s u a l l y 1 ) // r e n d e r i n g f o r each p i x e l : // C o o r d i n a t e s o f t a r g e t p i x e l on p r o j e c t i o n p l a n e f l o a t 8 ty , t z ; // d e p e n d i n g on t h e a p e r t u r e ( v i e w i n g a n g l e ) t h o s e a r e t h e maximal y , z ( a t x =1) f l o a t 8 max ty = tan ( mAperture / 3 6 0 . 0 ∗ PI ) ;

37

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3.4. Source Code

38

39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51

f l o a t 8 max tz = max ty ; // when r e s o l u t i o n i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s t h e same // View d i r e c t i o n i n frame b a s i s FourVector v i e w f ; // View d i r e c t i o n i n c o o r d i n a t e b a s i s FourVector v i e w c ; // Get t h e b a s e e v e n t const Event e v e n t = mFrame . GetEvent ( ) ; f o r ( u i n t y=0;y<PR OUTPUT PIXELS ; y++) // l i n e s ( y ) { f o r ( u i n t x=0;x<PR OUTPUT PIXELS ; x++) // rows ( x ) { // Transform p i x e l c o o r d i n a t e on p l a n e i n t o ( x , y , z )−s p a c e ty = max ty ∗ ( 1 . 0 − 2 . 0 ∗ ( f l o a t 8 ) x / ( f l o a t 8 ) (PR OUTPUT PIXELS −1) ) ; t z = max tz ∗ ( 1 . 0 − 2 . 0 ∗ ( f l o a t 8 ) y / ( f l o a t 8 ) (PR OUTPUT PIXELS −1) ) ; v i e w f = FourVector (1.0 , −1.0 , − ty ,− t z ) ; v i e w f . M a k e L i g h t l i k e ( ) ; // i n i t i a l momentum s e t // Transform i n t o l o c a l c o o r d i n a t e b a s i s mFrame . T r a n s f o r m I n t o C o o r d i n a t e B a s i s ( v i e w f , v i e w c ) ; cout<<” Rendering L i n e ”<<y+1<<” Row ”<<x+1<<” . . . . . . ” <<100∗(( f l o a t 8 ) ( y∗PR OUTPUT PIXELS+x ) / ( f l o a t 8 ) (PR OUTPUT PIXELS∗ PR OUTPUT PIXELS) )<<”% f i n i s h e d . ”<<e n d l ; // i n t e g r a t i o n+r a d i a t i o n t r a n s f e r i s done h e r e : #i f ( ! PR TRACE PLANAR) Measurement ( v i e w c , event , s p e c t i m e , matter , t i m e i n c r e m e n t ); #endif #i f (PR TRACE PLANAR) Measurement planar ( v i e w c , event , s p e c t i m e , matter , timeincrement ) ; #endif // s p e c t r a f o r a l l t i m e s t e p s f o r g i v e n p i x e l f i n i s h e d f o r ( i n t j = 0 ; j <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ; j ++) { // s p e c t r a a r e added t o t o t a l s p e c t r u m s . ( s p e c t o t+j )−>AddSpectrum ( ∗ ( s p e c t i m e+j ) ) ; #i f (PR IMAGES) // e v a l u a t i o n o f c o l o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and s t o r i n g t o image ( s p e c t i m e+j )−>CreateShiftRGB ( r e f f r e q , c o l o r ) ; ( images+j )−>S e t P i x e l ( x +1 , y +1 , c o l o r ) ; #endif } } } #i f ( PR IMAGES) // images need t o be n o r m a l i z e d t o h i g h e s t i n t e n s i t y c o n t r i b u t i o n f l o a t 8 h i g h e s t b r i g h t n e s s = 0 . 0 ; // v a r i a b l e f o r b r i g h t e s t component f l o a t 8 brightness check =0.0; cout<<” P e r f o r m i n g image n o r m a l i z a t i o n . ”<<e n d l ; f o r ( i n t i =0; i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ; i ++) {

52

53 54 55 56 57 58

59 60 61

62 63 64

65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86

69

3. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer

87 88

b r i g h t n e s s c h e c k =( images+i )−>G e t H i g h e s t B r i g h t n e s s ( ) ; i f ( b r i g h t n e s s c h e c k > h i g h e s t b r i g h t n e s s ) { h i g h e s t b r i g h t n e s s= brightness check ;} } f o r ( i n t i =0; i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ; i ++) ( images+i )−>N o r m a liz e ( h i g h e s t b r i g h t n e s s ) ; highest value #endif s t r i n g i n t d i s t r i b u t i o n n a m e =∗simname+” i n t t o t . dat ” ; s t r i n g tga name ; s t r i n g spec name ; f l o a t 8 I t [ PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ] ; f l o a t 8 I mean = 0 . 0 ; f l o a t 8 I max = 0 . 0 ; ofstream i n t t o t ( int distribution name . c s t r () ) ; // images and t o t a l s p e c t r a f o r each t i m e s t e p f i n i s h e d // c r e a t e I m a g e P l o t s , spectrum d a t a f i l e s and // t i m e d e p e n d e n t i n t e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n d a t a f i l e s f o r ( i n t i =0; i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ; i ++) { o s t r i n g s t r e a m temp ; i f ( i <10) temp<<” 0 ”<<i ; e l s e i f ( i >9) temp << i ; tga name=∗simname+temp . s t r ( )+” . t g a ” ; spec name=∗simname+temp . s t r ( )+” . dat ” ; #i f (PR IMAGES) <<” i s w r i t t e n . ”<< cout<<” Image ”<<i +1<<” o f ”<<PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS endl ; // image d a t a w r i t t e n t o TGA f i l e − ( images+i )−>CreateTGA ( tga name , ( u i n t ) ( 8 0 0 /PR OUTPUT PIXELS) ) ; #endif ( s p e c t o t+i )−>C r e a t e D a t a F i l e ( spec name ) ; // spectrum d a t a i s w r i t t e n i f (PR SPECTRUM PLOT==1){ // spectrum i s p l o t t e d i f s e t i n ” parameter . h” spec name=∗simname+temp . s t r ( )+” s p e c . t g a ” ; Image s p e c P l o t ( 8 0 0 , 8 0 0 ) ; ( s p e c t o t+i )−>C r e a t e P l o t ( s p e c P l o t ) ; s p e c P l o t . CreateTGA ( spec name , 1 ) ; } I t [ i ]=( s p e c t o t+i )−>G e t T o t I n t e n s i t y ( ) ; i f ( I t [ i ]> I max ) { I max=I t [ i ] ; } I mean+=I t [ i ] ; // w r i t i n g d a t a f o r l i g h t c u r v e s i n t t o t <<t i m e i n c r e m e n t ∗ ( f l o a t 8 ) i <<” ”<< I t [ i ]<< e n d l ; } // some s t a t i s t i c s f l o a t 8 rms ; float8 variance ; float8 std deviation ; f l o a t 8 var = 0 . 0 ; I mean=I mean / ( ( f l o a t 8 )PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS) ; f o r ( i n t i =0; i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ; i ++)

89 90 91

// n o r m a l i z i n g t o

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139

70

3.4. Source Code

140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159

{ var+=( I t [ i ]− I mean ) ∗ ( I t [ i ]− I mean ) ; } v a r i a n c e=var / ( ( f l o a t 8 )PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS) ; s t d d e v i a t i o n=s q r t ( v a r i a n c e ) ; rms=s q r t ( I mean ∗ I mean+s t d d e v i a t i o n ∗ s t d d e v i a t i o n ) ; inttot . close () ; // c l e a n i n g um delete [ ] s p e c t i m e ; delete [ ] s p e c t o t ; #i f (PR IMAGES) delete [ ] images ; #endif // p r e p a r i n g and w r i t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f i l e s t r i n g t e x t =∗simname+” . t x t ” ; o f s t r e a m par ( t e x t . c s t r ( ) ) ; i f (PR TRACE PLANAR) par<<” P l a n a r Ray−T r a c i n g p er f o r m ed . ”<<e n d l ; else { i f (PR ABSORPTION) { par<<”Volume Ray−T r a c i n g p er f o r m ed c o n s i d e r i n g a b s o r p t i o n . ”<<e n d l ; } e l s e { par<<”Volume Ray−T r a c i n g p er f o r m ed w i t h o u t c o n s i d e r i n g a b s o r p t i o n . ”<<e n d l ; } } par<<” Kerr parameter a=”<<PR SPACETIME A<<e n d l ; par<<” Black Hole mass M =”<<PR SPACETIME M<<e n d l ; par<<”Camera p o s i t i o n s : ”<<e n d l ; par<<” r : ”<<PR CAMERA R <<e n d l ; <<e n d l ; par<<” t h e t a : ”<<PR CAMERA THETA par<<” p h i : ”<<PR CAMERA PHI<<e n d l ; <<e n d l ; par<<” a p e r t u r e : ”<<PR CAMERA APERTURE par<<e n d l ; par<<”Ray−M o d u l a t i o n s : rms=”<<rms<<e n d l ; par<<”Mean Flux=”<<I mean<<e n d l ; par<<” H i g h e s t Amplitude =”<<I max<<e n d l ; par<<”The s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n=”<<s t d d e v i a t i o n <<e n d l ; par<<” H i g h e s t Modulation i s : ” < <100.0∗( I max−I mean ) / I mean<<”% o f mean f l u x . ( = ” < <100.0∗( I max−I mean ) /rms<<”% rms and ”<<(I max−I mean ) / s t d d e v i a t i o n <<” t i m e s t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n . ) ”<<e n d l ; par<<e n d l ; i f (PR ACCRETIONDISK USE) { par<<” A c c r e t i o n d i s c : ”<<e n d l ; par<<” I n n e r r a d i u s : ”<<matter . d i s c −>GetInnerRadius ( )<<e n d l ; par<<” Outer r a d i u s : ”<<matter . d i s c −>GetOuterRadius ( )<<e n d l ; par<<” D e n s i t y : ”<<PR ACCDISC DENSITY<<e n d l ; par<<” Opacity : ”<<PR ACCRETIONDISK OPACITY<<e n d l ; par<<e n d l ; } else { par<<” no A c c r e t i o n d i s c used ”<<e n d l ; par<<e n d l ; } par<<”Number o f Hot S p o t s : ”<<PR HOTSPOT NUMBER <<e n d l ; f o r ( i n t j = 0 ; j <PR HOTSPOT NUMBER ; j ++) { par<<” hot s p o t ”<<j+1<<” : ”<<e n d l ;

160

161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173

174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191

71

c l o s e ( ) . par<<e n d l . m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−>GetRadius ( )<<e n d l . Spectrum ∗ P s i . i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS . return true . par<<”−−> nu=Omega/ ( 2 Pi ) = ”<<matter . <<e n d l . } par<<e n d l .2: Source code of Raytracer::Measurement(. m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−>GetOmega ( ) / ( 2 ∗ PI ) <<e n d l . This method controls the sequence of the stepwise integration and the cumulation of the relativistic invariant transport quantity F and the cumulated opacity Ψ along the geodesics: Listing 3. : ”<<PR SPECTRUM NU MIN<<e n d l . The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 par<<” Radius = ”<<matter . m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−> G e t d e n s i t y ( )<<e n d l . m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−> G e t r ( )<<e n d l . b a s e p o s ) . . par<<” C i r c u l a r f r e q u e n c y Omega= ”<<matter . ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 void R a y t r a c e r : : Measurement ( const FourVector & b a s e d i r e c t i o n . par<<e n d l . m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−> G e t d e n s i t y ( ) ∗100. 72 . <<e n d l . par<<” Spectrums : ”<<e n d l . const Event& basepos . i ++) { ( s p e c s+i )−>C l e a r ( ) . const f l o a t 8 & t i m e i n c r ) { // w o r k i n g s p e c t r a a r e c l e a r e d f o r ( i n t i = 0 . } // t h e o b j e c t r e p r e s e n t i n g g e o d e s i c i s i n i t i a l i z e d K e r r G e o d e s i c ray ( b a s e d i r e c t i o n . } // f i n i s h e d As mentioned before. par<<” r a t s t a r t = ”<<matter .3. After setting up the initial conditions for the integration of the geodesic equations. par<<” O v e r b r i g h t n e s s : ”<<matter . par<<” p h i a t s t a r t = ”<<matter . M a t t e r F i e l d & matter . : ”<<PR SPECTRUM NU MAX par<<” r e s o l u t i o n : ”<<PR SPECTRUM RES<<e n d l . . par<<” r e f e r e n c e f r e q . <<e n d l . par<<” l o w e s t f r e q . : ”<<PR REFERENCE FREQ par . Spectrum ∗ & s p e c s . This pixel iteration begins in code line 46. the method Measurement(. . . m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−> G e t p h i ( )<<e n d l . par<<” h i g h e s t f r e q . ) (see page 51) of the same instance is called in line 61.0<< ”%”<<e n d l . par<<e n d l . par<<” d e n s i t y peak = ”<<matter . the nullgeodesics are traced for each pixel on the screen separately. m a t t e r i t e m s [ j ]−>GetOmega ( ) <<e n d l . par<<”Number o f t i m e s t e p s : ”<<PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS par<<”Number o f o b s e r v e d p e r i o d s : ”<<PR NUMBER OF PERIODS<<e n d l . i f (PR ABSORPTION==1){ // c u m u l a t e d o p a c i t y f o r each t i m e s t e p P s i = new Spectrum [ PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS ] .

( t i m e i n c r ∗ ( f l o a t 8 ) i −f a b s ( n e w p o s i t i o n . ( s p e c s+i ) . FourVector a c t d i r e c t i o n=b a s e d i r e c t i o n . mTupel . ( t i m e i n c r ∗ ( f l o a t 8 ) i −f a b s ( n e w p o s i t i o n . n e w d i r e c t i o n . ( P s i+i ) . n e w p o s i t i o n ) ) {break . Psi . − s t e p s i z e u s e d . PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS) . Event n e w p o s i t i o n=b a s e p o s . while ( stepnumber<=PR RAY MAX STEPS) { // c h e c k i n g f o r t e r m i n a t i o n c o n d i t i o n s i f ( ( PR RAY STOP AT CAMERA RADIUS==1) && ( a c t p o s i t i o n . // v a r i a b l e f o r s t o r i n g a c t u a l s t e p s i z e u i n t stepnumber =0.4. mTupel . − s t e p s i z e u s e d . i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS . CheckTimeDep ( n e w p o s i t i o n ) ) { i f (PR ABSORPTION==0) // no a b s o r p t i o n matter .0. mTupel . // e v a l u a t e w i t h o u t a b s o r b t i o n } else { f o r ( i n t i = 0 . 1 ) . else // w i t h a b s o r p t i o n matter . FourVector n e w d i r e c t i o n . f o r ( i n t j =0. A d d I n t e n s i t y A b s ( n e w p o s i t i o n . 0 . s p e c s . A d d I n t e n s i t y ( n e w p o s i t i o n . 1 ) .3. } else { // e v a l u a t e f o r a l l t i m e s t e p s s e p p a r a t e l y i f (PR ABSORPTION==0) { f o r ( i n t i = 0 . − s t e p s i z e u s e d . f l o a t 8 s t e p s i z e = −0.1. n e w d i r e c t i o n . a c t p o s i t i o n . n e w d i r e c t i o n . i ++) matter . j ++) { ( P s i+j )−>AddConst ( o p a c i t y c o n s t ) . A d d I n t e n s i t y A b s ( n e w p o s i t i o n . Source Code 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 f l o a t 8 opacityconst =1. Event a c t p o s i t i o n=b a s e p o s . 0 . PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS) . n e w d i r e c t i o n . s p e c s . A d d I n t e n s i t y ( n e w p o s i t i o n . } // d e t e r m i n e s o u r c e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o F // i f s t a t i c t r a c i n g i s p e r f o r m e d −> e v a l u a t i o n i s same f o r a l l timesteps i f ( ! matter . i <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS . − s t e p s i z e u s e d . j <PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS . n e w d i r e c t i o n . a0 ) ) . F e h l b e r g 4 5 ( a c t d i r e c t i o n . // i n i t i a l s t e p s i z e ( used f o r p r o p a g a t i o n ) f l o a t 8 s t e p s i z e u s e d . i ++) matter . ( s p e c s+i ) . } i f ( ! ray . s t e p s i z e u s e d . s t e p s i z e . // w i t h a b s o r b t i o n } } 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 73 . a1> PR CAMERA R) ) {break . } // S e t i n i t i a l l y t o 1 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 } // I n t e g r a t e and e v a l u a t e r e n d e r i n g e q u a t i o n f o r a l l t i m e s a t each integration step Spectrum a c t s p e c t r u m . a0 ) ) .

variabilities in light curves obtained from observations are usually analyzed in the frequency space. arising from this procedure. . f o r ( i n t k = 0 .3.3. are well suited to examine the periodic structure of the signal distribution in time. The power density spectra. The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 // u p d a t e o f i n i t i a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r n e x t i n t e g r a t i o n s t e p a c t p o s i t i o n=n e w p o s i t i o n . Therefore the time depending signal is decomposed to a sum of periodic oscillations with speciﬁc frequencies ω and amplitudes.5. as obtained from the ray-tracing application. } i f (PR ABSORPTION==1) // c l e a n i n g up delete [ ] P s i . in order to simulate such power density spectra. This can be achieved by applying a discrete Fourier transform to the ﬁnite-domain discretized light curves. N −1). T (3.38) where ∆ω = 2π/T and N ∆t = T . a c t d i r e c t i o n=n e w d i r e c t i o n . //F−>I } 3. the discrete fourier transform can be obtained by ˆ I(n∆ω) = N −1 m=0 I(m∆t) exp(−2πi mn ). N = S(m∆t) exp(−2πi (3.37) By the means of the trapezoidal rule this integral can be discretized and approximated. So given the discretized light curve I(n∆t) with n = (0. . Consequently. the time depending intensity distributions I(t). stepnumber=stepnumber +1. T ]. . Power Density Spectra As mentioned in Sec.39) 74 . with the period T is given by S(t) = with the Fourier coeﬃcients cn = 1 T T ∞ n=−∞ cn exp(2πi nt ) T (3. N (3. . Generally the Fourier series of a time depending signal S(t). 2.1. This procedure yields the corresponding discrete Fourier transform F (n∆ω) = N −1 m=0 N −1 m=0 S(m∆t) exp(−i n ∆ω m∆t) mn ). k<PR NUMBER TIMESTEPS . 1.36) S(t) exp(−2πi 0 nt ). deﬁned in the domain t ∈ [0. must be transformed to frequency space. k++) ( s p e c s+k )−>F t o I ( ) .

S(t)) and the number N of timesteps. double t m in=t . // d e t e r m i n i n g t h e time i n t e r v a l T=t max−t m i n o f s t r e a m r e s u l t a t ( ” d f t r e s u l t . n++){ i f s t r e a m i n t e n s ( name ) .0) . supplied with a data ﬁle of the format (t.m++){ i n t e n s >>t>>i n t e n s t . } i f ( t>t max ) { t max=t . double t .0. i n t N=p u n k t a n z a h l . which. 0 . determines the measuring interval T = tmax − tmin . and the highest accessible angular frequency is ωmax = ((N/2) − 1)∆ω. 0 ∗ PI ∗m∗n ) /N) ) . g =(0. // g e t t i n g t h e i n t e n s i t y I n g=g+i n t e n s t ∗ p o l a r ( 1 .0 . S(ω)). The representative in frequency space of a pure real signal in the time space is hermitian. } 75 . performs the evaluations and stores the results to a ﬁle of the format ˆ (ω. double t max=t . } } datei . cout<<”DFT e v a l u a t e s s t e p ”<<n+1<<” o f ”<<N<<e n d l . close () . // e v a l u a t i o n } // w r i t i n g d a t a t o f i l e i f ( n<(N/ 2 ) ) { r e s u l t a t <<n∗ deltaomega<<” ”<<abs ( g )<<e n d l . f o r ( i n t n=0. ˆ ˆ meaning IN −n = I n . dat ” ) . 0 . d a t e i .3. The transform is being performed by the function void dft(. 0 ) .m <N. This procedure is performed by: Listing 3. only frequencies lower than the Nyquist frequency ωny = ωs /2 = N ∆ω/2 can be reconstructed. d a t e i >>t>>i n t e n s t . . . f o r ( i n t m=0. while ( ! d a t e i . complex<double> g ( 0 . Power Density Spectra From this equation one could suppose that it should be possible now to obtain N indeˆ pendent coeﬃcients In . where ∆ω is the resolution in frequency space and T the time interval on which the signal is given. i n t p u n k t a n z a h l ) { ifstream datei . since I(n∆t) ∈ R for all n. a resolution ∆ω = 2π/T is obtained. The discrete Fourier transform is implemented in a separate application. i f ( t<t m in ) { t m in=t . Unfortunately this is not the case. Consequently transforming the given light curves I(n∆t) by a DFT to the frequency space.n<N. 0 . − ( ( 2 .3: Implementation of the DFT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 void d f t ( char ∗ name . // number o f g i v e n t i m e s t e p s double deltaomega =(2. double i n t e n s t . with a sampling angular frequency ωs = 2πN/T = N ∆ω. open ( name ) . ). As the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem states.0∗ PI ) / ( t max−t m in ) . e o f ( ) ) { d a t e i >>t>>i n t e n s t .5.

} 43 44 45 76 . cout<<” Nyquist−f r e q u e n c y i s ”<<deltaomega ∗ (N/ 2 )<<e n d l . cout<<” H i g h e s t d e t e r m i n e d f r e q u e n c y i s ”<<deltaomega ∗ ( (N/ 2 ) −1)<<e n d l . } resultat . The Time-dependent Ray-Tracer 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 e l s e i f ( n==(N/ 2 ) ) {} e l s e i f ( n>(N/ 2 ) ) { // v a l u e s f o r omega>n y q u i s t f r e q u e n c y a r e s h i f t e d t o n e g a t i v e frequencies r e s u l t a t <<(n−N) ∗ deltaomega<<” ”<<abs ( g )<<e n d l . close () . cout<<” deltaOmega i s ”<<deltaomega<<” = 2∗ PI / ( ”<<t max<<”−”<<t min<<” ) ”<<e n d l . } intens . close () .3.

Before turning to the data obtained. 000 geodesics to be propagated. Finally the instances of the class Spectrum. need to be speciﬁed. For that purpose partially opaque accretion discs were mimicked by setting the opacity in the emitter’s rest frame to κ = 1. The camera was positioned at the radius rc = 1800M and the aperture was chosen to be γ = 2. and for r > 200M the boundaries were given by [r/106 . which was continuously set to the value M = 1. let us take a look on some global parameters. 000 within the range given by νmin = 0. Data Analysis In this chapter the results obtained from diﬀerent kind of simulations performed with the time depending volume ray-tracing application are presented. the following boundaries turned out to approximate the nullgeodesics suﬃciently accurate in the scopes of interest: For regions speciﬁed by r < 6M the local error was approved to be d ∈ [3 · 10−6 . for 6M ≤ r ≤ 200M the interval [3 · 10−5 . The accretion disc was generally assumed to extend from the marginal stable orbit to the radius r = 30M . The camera’s screen resolution was set to 400 in both directions.4. r/105 ]. 3 · 10−4 ] was applied. With the size of the accretion disc those set ups provide an adequate view on the given scene. which are speciﬁed in the application’s parameter ﬁle. Thus it is positioned at ν = 1. and a constant radial proﬁle of the emissivity was used. The imprints on light curves from the hot spots co-rotating within the accretion disc are examined thereafter in Sec. The metric. Comparing the evaluated geodesics to those computed with a higher accuracy. this spectral range is suitable. the ray-tracing is performed on. which during the evaluations store the frequency dependent intensity contributions. As the spectra of the broadened lines will show. Consequently due to time constraints a higher resolution was rejected. 77 .0001 and νmax = 3 was chosen. was applied to all simulations.2. considering absorption. which control the step size at each integration step were deﬁned diversely for three diﬀerent regions. is exactly deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a and the central mass M . The error boundaries for the adaptive ray propagation. set to 1500. and that were kept constant throughout all evaluations. which results in 160. 3 · 10−5 ].1. 4. this parameter essentially aﬀects the processing time. Volume ray-tracing. Note that the frequency is given in relation to the rest frame frequency of the radiation emitted. 4. The same was done for the hot spot matter. Espacially in connection with the evaluation of multiple timesteps and the number of maximum integration steps. A spectral resolution of 2. For testing purpose static simulations were performed and are presented in Sec.

Static Simulations In order to test the implemented methods. Obviously the inclination has a great impact on the form of the generated line proﬁle.: Line broadening of a monochromatic emission line at rest frame frequency ν = 1. 78 . In addition to that.4.3).5 frequency / Figure 4. which simulates the Schwarzschild case.1. a double-horned structure can be observed.5 1. For this purpose two series of simulations are presented here. The ﬁgure 4. which can be obtained by deﬁning the Kerr parameter to a = 0. obtained by setting a = 1 is being represented by the second series. Diﬀerent inclinations are represented by color. 2. With the inclination increasing. Schwarzschild metric (a = 0) is applied. Data Analysis 4.1. This actually provides an opportunity to review some relativistic eﬀects on the line proﬁle from an originally monochromatic source (compare to Sec. the blue wing of the proﬁle is raised by relativistic beaming (radiation is collimated in emitter’s direction of motion).001 o i = 30 o [arbitrary units] i = 60 4000 o i = 90 3000 relative intensity 2000 1000 0 0. static simulations were performed. Spectra from accretion discs.1. To the ﬁrst series the Kerr parameter a = 0 was applied.0 1. The maximum Kerr case. This derives from the Doppler eﬀect due to the velocity of the emission sources having a non vanishing component in direction (opposite direction respectively) to the observer. ranging down to the ISCO. are obtained for diﬀerent inclanation angles i.1 shows the line broadening of a single emission line for diﬀerent inclanations and for the Schwarzschild case. o 5000 i = 0. For evanescent inclinations (top view) the line is dispersed and shifted to lower frequencies due to the gravitational redshift.

0 frequency / Figure 4. at which the lapse function α decreases. a = 0 a = 1 1000 relative frequency [arbitrary units] 100 10 0.1.: Logarithmic plotting of relative intensity of a single line emission at ν = 1 for the inclination i = 30 °. when a = 1 is applied. 79 . the Kerr parameter turns out to have only small inﬂuence on the line broadening.4. Solely the red wing is noticeably inﬂuenced by the Kerr parameter a. This results from the fact that for increasing Kerr parameter the accretion disc ranges down to lower radial coordinates. As ﬁgure 4. only the red wing is extended to lower frequencies.2.5 1. Static Simulations Comparing the line proﬁles of the Schwarzschild case to those of the maximum Kerr case (a = 1). and consequently the radiation originating from those regions experiences a higher red-shift from the general relativistic time dilatation.2 visualizes.

19). Consequently the form of the horizon is mirrored by the inner edge of those secondary images [Zin2002]. and cannot be generated by planar tracing when ray propagation is stopped in the equatorial plane. 80 . A further feature. 2. i = 60 ° applying the Schwarzschild case as well as the maximum Kerr case. as the line spectra already had shown. nicely show the accretion disc’s inner edge at rin = rms = 6M . The images.3-4. Data Analysis The spatially resolved scene is displayed by the ﬁgures 4. 1 This pixel color-encoding is performed by the method void CreateShiftRGB(. that derives from the volume character of the ray-tracing application. Those images approve.6 for the two inclinations i = 30 °. This is due to the frame dragging forming the curvature and consequently the nullgeodesic ﬂow (compare to Fig. ) of the class Spectrum. Additionally the relative intensity is implied by brightness1 . representing the Schwarzschild case. The local red-shift is color-coded so that red means red-shift and blue color implies a blue-shift.4. A close look to the inner region of the images reveals a slight shift (to the right) when comparing the two cases a = 0 and a = 1. It results from lensing eﬀects. . as near the horizon nullgeodesics are being “back-curved” to the observer’s direction. . that for higher inlinations the Doppler eﬀect has a remarkable impact. Consequently the regions moving in direction of the observer are blue-shifted. is the manifestation of a secondary structure in the direct vicinity of the event horizon.

: Spatially resolved. Figure 4. color-coded image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 1 and i = 30 °. 81 .1.4. The red-shift is color-coded and the brightness is weighted by the relative intensity contribution.4.: Spatially resolved image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 0 and i = 30 °. Static Simulations Figure 4.3.

6. color-coded image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 0 and i = 60 °. Figure 4.4. 82 .5.: Spatially resolved. color-coded image of accretion disc around black hole for a = 1 and i = 60 °.: Spatially resolved. Data Analysis Figure 4.

Dynamic Simulations 4. and the steady background radiation from the accretion disc generate time depending light curves of frequency-integrated total intensity. Consequently with varying the Kerr parameter a. Those variabilities in time are examined in this part. being bended towards the camera. the peaks reach higher in relation to the mean intensity. lensing eﬀects cause a magniﬁcation of the emission region. Consequently the peaks in the light curves become sharper for higher inclinations. the inclination was varied. the angular frequency of the spot changes. This results from light. Intensity contributions originating from those regions of higher rest frame density. Increasing this one. The hot spot image is spread into an arc. All speciﬁcations of the angular fequency will be given in geometrized units.4.14.5 times higher than as it would be.5M and it exhibits an overbrightness of 150%. as descriped in the previous chapter. When it is located on the far side of the central mass. the angular frequency in SI units can be obtained by dividing the quantity given in geometrized units by the factor 4.2. Its radius is speciﬁed to Rhs = 0. 4. the time depending total intensities were normalized to their mean values. Also worth mentioning is the inﬂuence of the spin parameter a.2.7 shows a hot spot orbiting at the radial coordinate r = 7M . and additionally to that.9 × 10−6 M/M⊙ . were placed within the accretion disc. The series nicely illustrates eﬀects of gravitational lensing on the hot spot form. Since the variability in the detected intensity derives from relativistic beaming as the hot spot moves towards the observer. The gravitational lensing must also be taken into account when analyzing time dependent light curves. In order to generate these results.2. Figure 4.8-4. if the hot spot was not present. and in order to compare the results. usually at the radial coordinate of the ISCO. Inﬂuence of Inclination and Spin on Light Curves For the simulations a hot spot. whereas for i ≈ 0 no appreciable dependency in time is noticeable. Animations.1. which depend on the angular phase of the hot spots. with a deﬁned central mass. Actually. this inﬂuence becomes more and more signiﬁcant with increasing inclinations. However this is only true for inclinations below a speciﬁc 83 . The point of maximum blue-shift due to the Doppler eﬀect occurs before the spot’s moving direction turns directly to the observer. was applied. the variabilities generally become stronger. collimated in emitter’s moving direction. The diagrams reveal a clear dependency on the inclination. Dynamic Simulations Throughout this section of the thesis hot spots. The scene was observed over one rotation period T . This means that the rest frame density at the centre of the hot spot is 1. the hot spot was placed at the ISCO for diﬀerent values of the spin parameter a. where M = 1. At suﬃciently high inclinations the spot is even “deformed” to an Einstein ring. Light curves of a hot spot orbiting a black hole are presented by ﬁgures 4. obtained from the generated pictures also reveal a virtual acceleration of the hot spot at those regions.

no decrease in the intensity can be observed and the light curves appear more symmetric.99 peaks of all inclanations get damped. contribute to the variabilities detected. due to the circumstance that for those the peak in the intensity occurs at times when the hot spot is positioned on the black hole’s far side anyway. Data Analysis value. nullgeodesics. where the ISCO is located at such distances. This occurs at times when the hot spot is moving away from the observer and consequently the radiation experiences a red-shift. Furthermore a shift in time can be noticed between the peak at maximum inclination to those at lower viewing angles. This explains the general increase of the variabilities at medium inclinations. are orbiting the central mass repeatedly with slightly increasing radial coordinate r before they are able to escape to inﬁnity. originating from small distances to the horizon. as the gravitational red-shift becomes more eﬀective at small hot spot distances to the event horizon. and the peak in the detected intensity moves to earlier times. there should be a background contribution to the relativistic beaming that impacts for all spot’s angular phases. the opposite applies to the light curves of the highest inclination possible i = 90 °.19 on page 36 clearly shows. When the spin parameter is increased. the ISCO and consequently the hot spot’s radial distance decrease to lower r. The absence of this feature at high Kerr parameters again can be explained by extreme frame dragging in the vicinity of the event horizon. for hot spots at low distances to the centre. Due to that. 84 . This does not apply to the cases of maximum inclination. when the hot spot is still located behind the black hole. it should be noticed that mainly for low values of a the peak in intensity is followed by a noticeable decline. that are visible due to the curvature of the spacetime. As the diagrams show. In those cases the inner region of the scene is obscured by the disc itself and mainly the opposite regions.4. Analyzing the light curves. In the near maximum Kerr case a = 0. The velocities therefore become higher and result in the amplﬁcation of the relativistic beaming. As the ﬁgure 2. Furthermore at lower radial distances the geodesic bending by the spacetime curvature is more eﬀective. Consequently at high values of a.

85 .5M orbiting a black hole with a = 0. (b) Hot spot at t = 1/20 T0 . Dynamic Simulations (a) Hot spot at t = 0. (d) Hot spot at t = 3/20 T0 . The rest frame density of the spot is speciﬁed to ̺ = 1.5 and the inclination i = 60 ° is applied. (f) Hot spot at t = 5/20 T0 . (c) Hot spot at t = 2/20 T0 . Figure 4. ˆ T0 denotes the hot spot’s rotation period.7. (e) Hot spot at t = 4/20 T0 .7 at the radial distance r = 7M .2.4.: A series of a hot spot with the radius Rhs = 0.

0001 1.0035 o i = 0.0 time t/T Figure 4. 86 .4. The intensities are normalized to their mean values.0002 mean total intensity I/I 1.4 0.0005 1.2 0.8 1. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color.6 0. 1.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0. Data Analysis 1.0003 i = 30 o i = 60 1.6 0.9998 0.4 0.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0.001 1.0 time t/T Figure 4.0015 1.0020 total intensity I/I 1.0 0.0030 o i = 30 o i = 60 1.0025 o i = 90 mean 1.2 0. The intensities are normalized to their mean values. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color.0010 1.9.0000 0.9995 0.8 1.8.0 0.0004 o i = 0.001 o 1.9999 0.0000 0.

0030 i = 0.2 0. The intensities are normalized to their mean values.0 time t/T Figure 4.6 0.0003 mean total intensity I/I 1.11.0005 1.10.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0.0 0.0025 o i = 60 o i = 90 1. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color.9999 0.0005 i = 0. 87 . Dynamic Simulations o 1.0015 1.0 time t/T Figure 4.8 1.9998 0.3.4 0.001 o i = 30 1.0020 mean total intensity I/I 1.0010 1.0002 1.2 0.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0.4.001 o i = 30 1.0001 1.2.0000 0.0000 0.0 0. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color.0004 o i = 60 1.9995 0.8 1.6 0. The intensities are normalized to their mean values. o 1.4 0.3.

: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0.12.0 time t/T Figure 4.7.6 0.8 1.4 0.6 0.001 o i = 30 o i = 60 1.0 0.0000 0.0002 1.0005 1.4 0. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color.0 0.0015 1.4.0000 0.0020 mean o i = 90 total intensity I/I 1.2 0.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0. Data Analysis o i = 0.0025 o i = 30 o i = 60 1. 88 .9998 0.2 0.7. 1.8 1.0 time t/T Figure 4. The intensities are normalized to their mean values.0006 mean total intensity I/I 1.0004 1. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color. The intensities are normalized to their mean values.13.0010 1.001 1.0008 o i = 0.

The intensities are normalized to their mean values.0005 o i = 30 o i = 60 1.0003 total intensity I/I 1. and diﬀerent inclinations are implied by color.0006 o i = 0.2.4.8 1.99.0002 1.9999 0.0 time t/T Figure 4.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the ISCO deﬁned by the Kerr parameter a = 0.0000 0.0 0.2 0.0004 o i = 90 mean 1.001 1.4 0. 89 .14. Dynamic Simulations 1.0001 1.6 0.9998 0.

16 visualize the light curves obtained while the radius Rhs and the radial distance to the mass centre were varied. since the time is given in units of the rotation period T . As expected. In spite of that. compared to each other. the angular phases of the hot spots do not coincide.4. A moderate inclination of i = 60 ° was chosen. 90 . Inﬂuence of Hot Spot Radius and Distance on Light Curves In order to examine how the light curves are aﬀected by the hot spot’s radius and radial distance. Figures 4. but solely the size of the peaks is aﬀected. This is due to the applied Keppler rotation and therefore increasing velocities at lower r. consequently this time lag leads to the spots appearing at diﬀerent azimuthal angles at the ﬁrst timestep evaluated. This results from the fact that the propagation time of light from positions at diﬀerent radial coordinates to the observer is unequal. whereas a was set to a = 0. the major eﬀect from diﬀering distances r can be extracted. This is why. and also increases at lower radial distances r. where the light curves for diﬀerent distances are presented.15 and 4. When now for the diﬀerent simulations the initial azimuthal position of the spots is set to the same value.2. the light curves are shifted in time2 . 2 Naturally the angular frequencies diﬀer for the diﬀerent radial coordinates.2. Note that in Fig. 4.7.15. Data Analysis 4. the Kerr parameter and the inclination were kept constant for the simulations presented next. It is higher for increasing radii. they do not reveal any speciﬁc inﬂuences on the curves’ form. This does not need to be taken into account.

8 1.0002 1.002 1.0 time t/T Figure 4. and diﬀerent hot spot 91 radii are implied by color.8M = 1.16.006 hs hs hs R hs total intensity I/I 1.9999 0.4. Dynamic Simulations 1.004 mean hs = 0.15.6 0. .4 0.2.7.0006 r = 1.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at diﬀerent radial distances.: Frequency-integrated light curves of a hot spot orbiting at the distance r = 6M .0000 0.8 1.0 0.0004 r = 15M mean 1. The angular phases of the spots.5M 1. implied by color. The inclination is i = 60 ° and the Kerr parameter is a = 0.5M = 0.3M = 0.7.4 0.998 0.0 0. The inclination is i = 60 ° and the Kerr parameter is a = 0.0001 1.2 0.0 time t/T Figure 4. which the curves are obtained from.2 0.0005 6M r = 10M r = 12M 1.6 0. do not coincide. The intensities are normalized to their mean values. R R R R 1.0003 total intensity I/I 1. The intensities are normalized to their mean values.0M = 1.000 0.9998 0.

is outlined. This value is important when transforming the light curves to the frequency space. not considered by the application. At low inclinations the variabilities are very faint. Due to this fact the light curves for this part were generated by evaluating the integrated total intensity over a moderate number of rotation periods.3. This is why variabilities. 2. and was set to N = 40. Generating Power Density Spectra As the qualitative results from the last section show.1. should obscure the inner region and generally should be considered when simulating observations at low viewing angles. Another aspect. The highest accessible frequency ωmax in the generated PDS is speciﬁed by (compare to Sec.5) ωmax = N − 1 ∆ω . could provide an approach to the investigation of the systems’ parameters.17-4.5.4.1) where ω0 = 2π/T0 denotes the hot spot’s angular frequency.5T0 was usually applied when not stated diﬀerently. The diagrams 4. Due to shearing in the accretion disc. and high inclinations were discarded because a present dust torus. as assumed in theory but not implemented to the ray-tracer application of this thesis. 3. the way how it should be possible to simulate such PDSs. since it deﬁnes the resolution in frequency to ∆ω = 2π∆ν = 2π ω0 = . Unfortunately with current observational capabilities it is not possible to get a strong enough X-ray signal over individual periods in order to be able to diﬀerentiate between such light curves. The non-sinusoidal shape of the light curves results in declining power in the higher harmonic frequencies at nω0 (n ∈ N). Despite that.2. light curves. 92 . 3.3). must be taken into account. the hot spots exhibit a ﬁnite life time. 2 (4. except for the near maximum Kerr case. the QPOs. the PDS reveal power contributions up to n = 4. The “observation” time T = 4. T 4. the regions of higher emission should be deformed into an arc-like structure and dissolve thereafter.32 show the light curves with varying Kerr parameter and hot spot distance to the centre and the corresponding power density spectra obtained by the method introduced in Sec. In this section. only medium inclinations were applied. and what kind of conclusions about the system should be able to be derived from them. in the spectra are usually examined in the frequency space (see Sec. Due to what the light curves have tought us so far.2) where N is the number of evaluated timesteps. In the course of time.5 (4. obtained from observations of black hole systems. Data Analysis 4. For this purpose simulations over multiple rotation periods of hot spots were performed.

33.2.5 times the rotation period of the inner hot spot. Particularly the contributions for n = 2 are clearly distinguishable at ω ≈ 0. from suﬃciently resolved power density spectra it is possible to obtain the circular frequencies of high emission regions orbiting Kerr black holes. Since the ray-tracing application does not consider any intensity contributions from matter located below the ISCO.36 once again visualize the already discussed dependency of the X-ray variabilities on the radial coordinate r. r2 = 6M . 4.095 and ω ≈ 0. when analyzing QPOs. The ﬁgures 4. ˆ The highest modulation in the light curves Imod = (Imax − Imean )/Imean was therefore evaluated in units of the root mean square rms of the intensity distributions in time for diﬀerent values of the concerning parameters. 3 The ﬁt was performed by the scientiﬁc graphing and analysis software OriginPro 7. the Kerr parameter a of a rotating black hole can be estimated from the highest base frequency found in the PDS.14. only the outer hemisphere of the hot spots. the radius Rhs(ISCO) was multiplied by a factor of 2.35). The spots were situated at the radial coordinates r1 = 8M . Dynamic Simulations A χ2 -Lorentzian ﬁt of the form f (ω) = aof f set + A HWHM π (ω − ω0 )2 + HWHM2 (4. and 60 time steps were evaluated over 6. 4. As the method shows. Therefore to compare the contribution from such high emission regions at the ISCO to those at higher radial distances. This aspect gains in importance. an adjustment in the hot spot radii Rhs had to be performed. Such a light curve for two hot spots is presented by Fig.3) was applied to the base peaks in order to reversely verify the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 3 . is taken into account. the hot spot’s radius Rhs and the spin parameter a.4.35-4. centered at rms . deriving from multiple hot spots orbiting the compact object. The corresponding PDS reveals power at both angular frequencies and their higher harmonics. In order to compare the variabilities at diﬀerent orbit radii (Fig.5 SR0 developed by the OriginLab Corporation. Considering the assumption that the minimum radial coordinate of hot spots within the accretion disc equals the marginally stable orbit (ISCO). 93 .

0002 1.04419. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .0000 0.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 0. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 0.00 0.25 = 0.05 0.0004 a = 0 o i = 60 -3 = 13. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.05 0.0101 = 0.15 0. where DoF denotes the degrees of freedom.5M orbiting at r = 8M .18. 0.15 0.20x10 1.0001 1.10 0. 94 .: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.17.4.22 × 10−3 .10 0.0003 mean total intensity I/I 1.00 0.20 frequency Figure 4.20 c = 0.0455 ±0. Data Analysis 1.9999 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.0008 0.191 max Fit result: amplitude (arbitrary units) 0.

04362.18 0.08 0.16 0.9999 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.02 0. 95 . The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 1.20 0.02 0.20 frequency Figure 4.06 0.10 0.0001 1.20.72 × 10−3 .0002 1.189 0.: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.08 0.00 0.4.14 Fit result: = 0.0003 mean total intensity I/I 1.2.5M orbiting at r = 8M .19.12 0.00 0.3 o i = 60 -3 = 12.0444 ±0.10 0. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .12 0. Dynamic Simulations 1. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.4x10 1.04 0.16 0.14 0.06 0.18 0.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 0.0011 amplitude (arbitrary units) c 0.22 max = 0.24 = 0.0099 0.0000 0.0004 a = 0.04 0. 0.

10 0.21.: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.08 0.02 0.0001 1.12 0.0002 1.06 0.08 0.5M orbiting at r = 8M .0437 ±0.0098 0.04287. 0.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 0. 96 .0001 amplitude (arbitrary units) 0.14 0. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.7 o i = 60 -3 = 12.06 0.9999 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.04 0.20 max = 0.02 0.69 × 10−3 .20 frequency Figure 4.00 0.4.22 = 0.12 0.1x10 1.18 Fit result: = 0.14 0.186 0.0000 0.16 0.22.0004 a = 0.00 0. Data Analysis 1.16 c 0.10 0. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .0003 mean total intensity I/I 1. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 1.18 0.04 0.

0436 ±0.20 max = 0. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .0000 0. 97 .10 0.00 0. = 0.99 o i = 60 1. Dynamic Simulations 1.20 frequency Figure 4.5M orbiting at r = 8M .: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.4x10 mean total intensity I/I 1.9999 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.16 0.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 0.2.18 0.23.06 0.14 0.0097 0.04234.4.0001 1.10 0.0006 amplitude (arbitrary units) c 0.15 0.183 Fit result: = 0. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 0.05 0.04 0.00 0.73 × 10−3 . The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.0004 a = 0.0003 -3 = 11.08 0.0002 1.24.12 0.02 0.

9995 0.0010 1.26.8 0.10 0. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .00 0. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 5.6 = 0.0005 1.0703 ±0.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 1M orbiting at r = ISCO.26 × 10−2 .4 0.4.41x10 1.15 0.0000 0. Data Analysis 1.2 1. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.6 0. 1.: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.0020 i = 60 -2 = 8.0014 amplitude (arbitrary units) c 1.2 0.25.0 0.9990 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.295 max 1.25 0.0025 a = 0 o 1. 98 .0155 = 0.30 frequency Figure 4.05 0.0015 total intensity I/I mean 1.4 Fit result: = 0.0 0.06804.20 0.

0015 1.2 0.0 0.69 × 10−2 .4 c = 0.0014 1.05 0.08765.6 0.: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve. Dynamic Simulations 1.20 0.0010 1.380 1.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 1M orbiting at r = ISCO.2.0 0.9990 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.0000 0.27.28.0035 a = 0. 1. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 7.4.0030 o i = 60 1.0005 1.0025 -2 = 9.3 1.30 0.89x10 total intensity I/I mean 1.00 0.0903 ±0. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.40 frequency Figure 4.15 0. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .2 1.4 0.6 max Fit result: amplitude (arbitrary units) 1.9995 0.35 0.10 0.8 = 0.0020 1.0120 = 0. 99 .25 0.8 0.

2.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 1M orbiting at r = ISCO.1472 ±0. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 1.0328 = 0.623 max 2. Data Analysis 1.0 0.7 o i = 60 1. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .7 frequency Figure 4.: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.4.004 a = 0.47x10 mean total intensity I/I 1.6 0.5 = 0.1439. 100 .001 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.0031 amplitude (arbitrary units) c 1.4 0.003 -2 = 12.5 1. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.5 0.000 0.999 0 1 2 3 4 time t/T 0 Figure 4.30.1 0.29.86 × 10−1 .002 1.0 Fit result: = 0.

6 max = 1.2 0.33 × 10−1 .: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.0020 -2 = 9.31.0010 1.9995 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.8 1. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 0.4.0025 a = 0.2.6 frequency Figure 4.4 0.8 = 0.9990 0 1 2 3 0 4 time t/T Figure 4.578 Fit result: amplitude (arbitrary units) 1.20x10 1.0 1. The angular frequency is ω0 = 0.0831 1.: Light curve of hot spot with radius Rhs = 1M orbiting at r = ISCO.3644.6 0.3758 ±0. A Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peak to reversely obtain the hot spot’s angular frequency ω0 .99 o i = 60 1.8 0.0060 1.0015 mean total intensity I/I 1.2 1.0005 1.2 1.4 1. 101 . Dynamic Simulations 1.2 0.0000 0.4 c = 0. 1.32.4 0.0 0.

0006 -2 = 2.00 0.5 max = 0.0019 c2 0.0432 and ω2 = 0.1 0.5M orbiting at r1 = 8M and r2 = 6M .0035 = 0. A multi-peak Lorentzian ﬁt is applied to the base peaks to reversely obtain the hot spots’ angular frequencies. Data Analysis 1.5 o i = 60 1.30 frequency Figure 4.4 c1 = 0.9996 0 1 2 3 4 0( min) 5 6 7 time t/T Figure 4.2 0.33.20 0.34.0658.0103 0.0000 0.15 0.19 × 10−3 .22x10 mean 1.: Light curve of two hot spots with radius Rhs = 0. = 0.0004 total intensity I/I 1. 102 .9998 0.3 0.25 0.2986 Fit result: amplitude (arbitrary units) 0.0459 ±0.0 0.0008 a = 0.05 0. The ﬁt was performed with χ2 /DoF = 1.4.0664 ±0.: Power density spectrum obtained from upper light curve.10 0. The corresponding angular frequencies are ω1 = 0.0002 1.

35. 103 .2.25 0.7 = 0.05 0. Dynamic Simulations 0.0 1.: This diagram shows the highest modulations (in units of 100×rms) in light curves with diﬀerent hot spot radial coordinate.: Highest modulations in light curves against the hot spot radius Rhs .4 0.1 0. 0.2 0.4 0.30 Highest Modulation [rms x 100] 0.4 1.2 1.2 0.0 0.6 Hot Spot Radius R hs / M Figure 4.15 0.7 o = 60 0.3 0.4.6 0.35 a i = 0.10 0.36.8 1.20 0.5 0.8 a 0.6 hs 0.7 o i r = 60 = 6M Highest Modulation [rms x 100] 0.00 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 radial distance r/M Figure 4.

Data Analysis 0.2 0.6 0.30 hs Highest Modulation [rms x 100] i = 30 o 0. Relativistic beaming is then more eﬀective due to higher velocities and the variabilities are ampliﬁed.0 Kerr parameter a Figure 4.0M = ISCO o r 0.15 0. the gravitational red-shift damps the modulations.0 0. 104 .20 0.35 R hs =1.: Highest modulations in light curves at diﬀerent values of spin parameter a. For a ≈ 1. The spots were located at the ISCO.37.8 1.05 0.10 0.4 0.25 i = 60 0. which moves towards the event horizon when a is increased.4.

Variabilities in those. Advancing from this point. in order to simulate the system more accurately. The hot spots’ life time and them being deformed by shearing could be taken into account. as the mass and its speciﬁc angular momentum. which derive from location depending relativistic eﬀects on the hot spot radiation. were analyzed regarding their dependency on the Kerr parameter. Conclusion and Outlook The major purpose of this thesis was to examine the inﬂuences of dynamic high emission regions within accretion discs around rotating black holes on light curves obtained from observations of such systems. but also of observation parameters like the viewing angle towards the observed system. that need to be interpreted in respect of parameters concerning the black hole itself. as assumed to be present in the black hole environment. the present time depending application provides qualitative results and a concept for the examination of rotating black holes. the inclination. At least the HFQPOs can be explained by dynamic structures similar to those as implemented for this thesis.5. The obtained results reveal and verify clear correlations between the concerned quantities and therefore provide means to extract black hole properties from observations. frequency-integrated intensity distributions in time could be generated. Matter objects like a hot corona and a dust torus. 105 .Zink. This is motivated by detected quasi periodic oscillations in the X-ray ﬂux from compact objects. Despite those possible extensions in future. Furthermore radiative transfer of non-monochromatic sources and a realistic radial emissivity proﬁle would be interesting issues worth analyzing. The study of this issue was achieved by a time depending ray-tracing application. developed by B. Dynamic high emission regions were implemented by spherically symmetric hot spots co-rotating within the accretion disc. The general relativistic volume ray-tracer. was expanded to handle in time resolved radiative transfer along nullgeodesics on the Kerr metric. it would be interesting to further adjust the ray-tracer at hand to physical models. could be implemented. the hot spot size and radial distance to the mass centre. By applying monochromatic emission from the accreting matter.

5. Conclusion and Outlook 106 .

For this purpose an additional term.1) deﬁnes the metric of the N -dimensional Riemann space. = 107 . . objects at same locations need to be compared. arising from a parallel shift (along a geodesic) of the quantity being regarded must be taken into account. since the quantities transform diﬀerently at diﬀerent locations in space.1 The coordinate diﬀerentials are also transformed by the transformation matrix: i dx′i = αk (x)dxk . 1 The line element remains form invariant under general coordinate transformations x′i x′i (x1 . .k=1 2 gik (x1 . Due to that it can then be locally described by a ﬂat metric. denoted by their co. • The tensor is symmetric gik = gki . xN )dxi dxk = gik (x)dxi dxk (A. gik transp m ′ ′ forms to gpm by gik = αi αk gpm . Therefore. . Important properties of the metric tensor gik are: • Its components are diﬀerentiable. . . • The determinant is not vanishing (det(gik ) = 0) and therefore an inverse matrix k can be deﬁned by gip g pk = δi . Curved Spacetimes and Covariant Derivative The Riemann space The line element N ds = i. . . Tensors. Covariant Derivative Resulting from the transformation matrix’ components being coordinate depenent. the total diﬀerential of a vector (tensor) ﬁeld is not trivial. .A.and contravariant indices. transform by components as the coordinate diﬀerentials. where α is the coordinate dependent transformai tion matrix αk (x) = ∂x′i /∂xk . in order to construct the diﬀerential. implying the possibility to approximate the metric locally by a quadratic form with constant coeﬃcients. • Since the metric tensor’s components are generally coordinate dependent. xN ).

It can be denoted as: ρ Rσµν = ∂µ Γρ − ∂ν Γρ + Γρ Γλ − Γρ Γλ (A.3) For scalars the covariant derivative reduces to the partial. paths of shortest distance between two points in space.6) ν dλ With an alternative deﬁnition for geodesics. The general expression for the covariant derivative for tensors of arbitrary rank can be noted as: ∇σ T µ1 µ2 ···µk 1 ν2 ···νl = ∂σ T µ1 µ2 ···µk 1 ν2 ···νl ν ν − + Γµ1 T λµ2 ···µk ν1 ν2 ···νl + Γµ2 T µ1 λ···µk ν1 ν2 ···νl + · · · σλ σλ Γλ 1 T µ1 µ2 ···µk 2 ···νl σν λν − Γλ 2 T µ1 µ2 ···µk 1 λ···νl σν ν (A.5) νσ µσ µλ νσ νλ µσ Geodesics Given a curve xµ (λ).4) − ··· Riemann Curvature Tensor The Riemann curvature tensor R provides a local description of the space’s curvature at each point. 108 . since that contribution is included by the term with the connection coeﬃcients Γν . As a linear transformation on a vector.A.2) ∇ µ V ν = ∂ µ V ν + Γν V λ µλ This operation now is coordinate independent. the geodesic equation can be derived. namely that a geodesic is a path. a covariant derivative of vector ﬁelds on curved spacetimes can be constructed: (A. Those coeﬃcients are often referred to as µλ Christoﬀel symbols and are described by the components of the metric tensor: 1 Γσ = g σρ (∂µ gνρ + ∂ν gρµ − ∂ρ gµν ) µν 2 (A. Curved Spacetimes and Covariant Derivative Following that concept. along which its tangent vector is parallel transported. it can be regarded as a description of its transformation by parallel transport along an inﬁnitesimal loop. parametrized by λ. parallel transport of a tensor T along that path can be deﬁned as the requirement that the covariant derivative of T along the path vanishes: dxσ ∇σ T µ1 µ2 ···µk 1 λ···νl = 0 (A.

8) ρσ 2 dλ dλ dλ called the geodesic equation.8) can be expressed by terms of pµ : pλ ∇λ pµ = 0 (A.9) where U µ denotes the four-velocity.With the tangent vector dxµ /dλ to the path xµ . it can be normalized such that dxµ /dλ equals the momentum four-vector: pµ = For timelike paths the four-momentum is pµ = mU µ = m dxµ .10) dxµ .11) 2 Related to the proper time τ by τ → λ = aτ + b with some constants a.7) dλ dλ or as dxρ dxσ d2 xµ + Γµ = 0. (A. b. dλ (A. dτ (A. When λ is an appropriate aﬃne2 parameter along a null geodesic. 109 . The geodesic equation (A. the condition for it being parallel transported can be written as dxµ dxµ ∇µ =0 (A.

A. Curved Spacetimes and Covariant Derivative 110 .

that surface is called Killing horizon of χµ . Then the translation along this coordinate xσ∗ → xσ∗ +aσ∗ is considered λ dp as a symmetry. Each Killing vector satisfying (B. asymptotically ﬂat spacetimes each event horizon is a Killing horizon for some Killing vector ﬁeld χµ . the Killing equation ∇µ Kν + ∇ν Kµ = 0 (B. 2 Null here means light-like.2) describing the symmetric transformation.11) can be expanded to dpµ 1 m = (∂µ gνλ )pλ pν .B. If a Killing vector ﬁeld χµ is null along a null2 hypersurface Σ. From the constancy of pσ∗ = Kν pν . under which the geometry of the manifold is invariant. (B. but can be developed analogously for null geodesics with aﬃne parameter λ. • For stationary but not static spacetimes the event horizon is axially symmetric and a Killing horizon for the linear combination χµ = K µ + Ω0 Rµ . This argument only holds for timelike paths. when the metric coeﬃcients gµν are independent of a certain coordinate xσ∗ . the geodesic equation dτ (A. if the gµν are independent of xσ∗ . Those isometries can be described by the formalism of Killing ﬁelds. Killing Vectors and Symmetries Isometries of a given metric describing a manifold M can be understood as transformations. Using the relation pλ ∂λ pµ = m dx ∂λ pµ = m dτµ 1 .3) implies the existence of a conserved quantity when moved along geodesics. is called a killing vector. The vector µ K µ = (∂σ∗ )µ = δσ∗ . Such a symmetry is present. • In those spacetimes which are static. where Rµ is the rotational Killing vector ﬁeld Rµ = (∂φ )µ . which is equivalent to the statement that its directional derivative along the geodesic vanishes pµ ∇µ (Kν pν ) = 0. (B. 1 111 . and: • In stationary.3) can be derived. There is a relation between event horizons in spacetimes and certain Killing vector ﬁelds. maps M → M.1) dτ 2 From this it can be deduced that with gµν being independent of xσ∗ the correspnding momentum component pσ∗ is a conserved quantity of motion. such a vector ﬁeld is that one representing time translations at inﬁnity K µ = (∂t )µ .

Killing Vectors and Symmetries 112 .B.

which are normal to these. describing the time lapse between the proper time τ at the surface regarded and the time t at inﬁnity. 2. The metric for this situation reads then ds2 = −α2 dt2 + hik (dxi + β i dt)(dxk + β k dt) . k = 1. are called shift functions. and the β i = dxi /dt.C. The hik denote the metrics of the hypersurfaces with t = const. 3.1) where i. 113 . α = dτ /dt is called then the lapse function. 3+1 Split of Spacetime The four-dimensional spacetime can be decomposed into three-dimensional pure spatial hypersurfaces with t = const. (C.

C. 3+1 Split of Spacetime 114 .

2) it is helpful to discretize the problem and by means of that to approximate the solution by evaluating a speciﬁc number of points (xk . y(xk ).1) to compute the next value at xk + h. yk . speciﬁed by (D.3) (D. In general.1) where h = xk+1 − xk is the step size. algorithms propagating the function f from the initial boundary on step by step are called one-step integrators and can be described by the calculation rule yk+1 = yk + hΦ(xk . In order to estimate the accuracy of such methods. (D. . 1. 2. def (D.3). yk+1 .D. The algorithms. usually an error is introduced due to the discretization. y(xk+1 ). . can be furthermore classiﬁed by the one-step integration order p ∈ R. .) . (D.6) 115 . By decreasing the number of evaluations of f . This method is described by the computation rule yk+1 = yk + hf (xk . Numerical Integration In order to solve an ordinary diﬀerential equation of the form y ′ (x) = f (x. (D. which is deﬁned if the following inequality is satisﬁed by the corresponding local discretization error maxk |dk | ≤ D = const · hp+1 = O(hp+1 ) . yk ). y(x)) with a given boundary y(x0 ) = y0 .4) with the exactly integrated value y(xk+1 ). (k = 0. h) . (D. the local discretization error dk at xk can be deﬁned by dk+1 = y(xk+1 ) − y(xk ) − hΦ(xk . which uses the slope at xk that can be evaluatd directly from (D.5) The most simple representation of such one-step integrators is the Euler method. h) . yk ) .

y(x))dx (D. Now the parametrs ai . yj ) (D. that can be used to evaluate (D. called predictors yi . this can be achieved with a tolerable amount of eﬀort. yk + h j=1 bij kj ) .10a) (D.7) leads to an approximation ansatz for the so called Runge-Kutta integrators. xk+1 ] and the integration weight factors ci .10b) yk+1 = yk + h i ci ki .7) is discretized arbitrarily. A well working method for adjusting this parameter is to approximate the local error dk+1 of the used algorithm by an integrator of higher order p. ∗ So the main task is to ﬁnd approximations for y(ξi ).D. y(ξi )) are not known. This principle is consequently called a predictor-corrector method. yi ) = f (ξi . The evaluated local error can be used then to adjust the step size for each integration step. (D.9b) with a1 = 0. The integral (D. Since the values f (ξi . Numerical Integration Runge-Kutta algorithms Rewriting (D. Finding an adequate step size h for the integration algorithm is very essential.8). 116 . y(ξi )) (D. yielding yk+1 = yk + h i ci f (ξi . If both algorithms base on evaluation of the same ki .8) with the sampling points ξ ∈ [xk . ∗ From parametrizing ξi and the predictors yi by ξi = xk + ai h i−1 ∗ yi = y k + j=1 ∗ hbij f (ξj . the equation is not directly solvable.9a) (D.1) in its integral form xk+1 y(xk+1 ) = y(xk ) + xk f (x. Algorithms exploiting such a dynamic control are called adaptive. bij and the integration weights ci need to be speciﬁed. This can be ∗ achieved by demanding the predictors yi to be exact for the speciﬁc diﬀerential equation ′ = 1 and by special demands to the order p of the algorithm (for demonstrations see y [Sch1997]). This is called embedding an algorithm of lower into one of higher order. an algorithm for the evaluation of the yk+1 can be derived: i−1 ∗ ki = f (ξi .

yk − hk1 + hk2 − hk3 + hk4 . As described above.11b) (D. yk + hk1 − hk2 + hk3 . 3 12 4 3 69 243 135 = f xk + h. 4 128 128 64 27 27 16 17 = f xk + h. which is a Runge-Kutta integrator of the order p = 4 using four evaluations of the function f to determine yk+1 .11e) (D.11f) . yk + hk1 + hk2 . It is embedded in an algorithm of the order p = 5 using six evaluations of f . With the step size h. 9 9 1 1 1 = f xk + h. the computation rule of this method is given by [Sch1997. (D. yk + hk1 .11c) (D. the higher-order integrator is used to approximate the local error. yk + 6 432 16 16 27 144 h ≈ (−2k1 + 9k3 − 64k4 − 15k5 + 72k6 ) .11h) 117 . yk ) . Zin2002]: k1 = f (xk . k2 = f k3 k4 k5 yk+1 k6 dk+1 2 2 xk + h.11d) (D.5) [Zin2002].The adaptive Fehlberg algorithm The algorithm for the integration of the nullgeodesics in this thesis is the adaptive Fehlberg(4.11a) (D. 300 (D. = yk + h 9 20 45 12 65 5 13 4 5 5 hk1 − hk2 + hk3 + hk4 + hk5 = f xk + h. 12 4 5 5 9 16 1 1 k1 + k3 + k4 + k5 .11g) (D.

D. Numerical Integration 118 .

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UB-Pr¨fungslernereien und vieles mehr. die u mich diese tolle Zeit in Heidelberg niemals werden vergessen lassen. das gemeinsame Aufgaben Rechnen. und dass es wichtig ist. Dr.Acknowledgements • Zu aller erst m¨chte ich mich bei Prof. lange Diskussionen. sich f¨r seine Ziele einzusetzen. sich nicht u von m¨glichen Misserfolgen einsch¨chtern zu lassen. Die lustigen Grillabende. 123 . mich mit diesem Thema zu besch¨ftigen. o a • Weiterhin danke ich Dr. a u • Der gr¨ßte Dank geb¨hrt meinen Eltern. das zweite Gutachten f¨r diese Arbeit zu erstellen. dass o u er mir die M¨glichkeit gegeben hat. dass sie es verstand. die mich immer unterst¨tzt haben und o u u mir das Studium der Physik erm¨glicht haben. a • Zu guter Letzt will ich noch einen Dank an die Studienkollegen loswerden. . o Sie haben mich in allen meinen Vorhaben best¨rkt und mich gelehrt. o u • Meiner Freundin Sabrina m¨chte ich f¨r Ihr uneingeschr¨nktes Vertauen in meine o u a F¨higkeiten danken. das sind alles Dinge. die mich seit dem ersten Semester bis heute in Heidelberg begleitet haben. dass er sich noch so kurzfristig u dazu bereit erkl¨rt hat. mit meinen in letzter Zeit a u h¨uﬁgen Launen umzugehen. . abendliche Altstadttouren. dass es immer a lohnenswert ist. und daf¨r. Max Camenzind daf¨r bedanken. Christian Fendt daf¨r.

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. .... .... dass ich diese Arbeit selbstst¨ndig verfasst und keine anderen als die a angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel benutzt habe. . .. den . ..Erkl¨rung a Ich versichere. .. . .. .. .... ..... ...... . . .... . .. Heidelberg. .. . . .

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Diploma thesis in Physics. Year of Submission: 2007
Faculty of Physics and Astronomy
University of Heidelberg

Diploma thesis in Physics. Year of Submission: 2007

Faculty of Physics and Astronomy

University of Heidelberg

Faculty of Physics and Astronomy

University of Heidelberg

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