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Christ¶s words to Pilate: ³I have come to bear witness to the Truth.´ Buddha: ³Truth is Life.´ The main Vedantic scriptures, the Upanishads have a constant emphasis on the Truth. As though there really is one saving, eternal, universal Truth of being that will enlighten and free us forever! Is there? You shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free « Buddha believed it. Vedanta believes it. Let¶s analyze this saying: Knowledge of the truth will make us free. Obviously we are not free now. That means we do not have knowledge of the Truth. What do we have? Knowledge of untruth. It is untruth that is the foundation of our lives. And in that untruth is our bondage, our lack of freedom. For surely we are not free, we are in bondage to so many things. This is assumed by Christ, by St. Paul, by Buddha, by the scriptures of India. Therefore it behooves us to find our way out of this bondage of untruth by knowing the truth. Realization of the truth, says Christ, will make us free. Which means that the state we are in now is an illusion, a false state because if we can move from one state producing bondage to another which produces freedom, then obviously it is ignorance of the truth of what we are, of what the truth is that constitutes our bondage. Hence our lack of freedom is illusory, like a dream. In a dream we are in bondage, feel we are, feel the fears, the terrors, the compulsions. . . . It is upon waking that we know the truth and it is the knowledge alone that frees us. We do not have to go anywhere. We merely turn from ignorance, which is the dream-consciousness, to knowledge of our condition, which is the consciousness of truth, to come into the true state, our true state. The Upanishads say that ignorance is the original sin. Remove the ignorance and the sun of knowledge shines forth on a condition that was always there²as our true freedom from dream-fears was always there during our dream-bondage. We have merely to wake up to know the truth. Our sins, then, are merely the result of ignorance. When we are no longer ignorant, when we know the truth, we shall no longer sin « no longer hate, lust, rage, grasp, fight, and all the rest. Those things being the result merely of not knowing what and who we are!
the Great. divine life. Truth being God in another mode. Christ told Pilate. immortal life. in one and all! . TRUTH IS LIFE. Vedanta says this false self that is death according to Buddha. the Universal Self individualized in me. That means. the Truth. What is death. which is the false ego-self that presently dominates my life and personality. It is the Truth that saves « not a man. then? Self. When I have passed beyond ignorance I will not manifest the self. in you. which is above all men. Namely. Christ came to bear witness to the highest principle « namely.________________________ YOU SHALL KNOW THE TRUTH AND THE TRUTH SHALL MAKE YOU FREE! I come to bear witness to the Truth. That. Christ doesn¶t say: I will make you free. then. That is. is merely the result of our ignorance of what our true self really is. the Divine. spiritual life. You shall know the Truth²that will make you free. says Buddha. or is sprung from ignorance²ignorance of who I am and what I am. if it were possible. he said²self is death. Truth is Life « Self is death. would enthrone him above the Truth. that self is ignorance.
The volume begins with an extended introduction in which the editors provide an excellent overview of a wide range of issues and technical developments in the literature on truth since Tarski (1935). The collection aspires to draw attention to important connections between technical developments and insights from philosophical reflection on truth in the conviction that they will illuminate each other. Hansel-Hohenhausen. Leon (eds). EUR 66. The other attempts to answer such philosophical questions as what it is for a putative truth bearer to be true or false or what practical and theoretical purposes are accomplished by our use of a truth predicate. Principles of Truth. a superb account of the debate over deflationism and conservativeness.00. Moreover. which.Principles of Truth Halbach. 2002. prosentential theories. disquotationalist theories. These equivalences are often summarized by an equivalence schema. One is provoked by the semantic paradoxes and makes extensive use of mathematical methods in order to develop sophisticated formal theories of truth. different deflationists characterize differently. . the explanation of the respects in which instances of the equivalence schema are central to truth varies from proposal to proposal. The present volume consists of nine excellent articles on the interface between the two areas by distinguished logicians and philosophers. What is perhaps the most distinctive mark of all these views is the claim that. an attribution of truth to a truth bearer is trivially equivalent to the truth bearer in question. Different deflationists may differ with respect to whether they take utterances. Volker and Horsten. redundancy theories and others. 244pp. Deflationism is a general approach to truth that includes a wide range of more specific proposals such as minimalist theories of truth. ISBN 3826712048. 1. But this doesn t detract from the value of the introduction as an attractive map of contemporary research on truth that stresses critical forks in the road and provides the reader with useful background for much of the discussion undertaken in subsequent articles. in general. sentences. University of Rochester Two strands of research are prominent in the philosophical literature on truth. This includes a valuable discussion of Tarski s theory of truth. and a helpful outline of prominent typed and type-free approaches to truth. one should read: PA(S) without the induction axioms involving truth is conservative over PA. The discussion of deflationism makes up the first and largest part of the book. occasional omissions that may disconcert a reader who is not careful to read between the lines. or propositions to be the truth bearers. again. when the editors write PA(S) is conservative over PA in the last paragraph of page 22. For example. but they all reserve a special status for the equivalences between attributions of truth to truth bearers and the truth bearers in question. Reviewed by Gabriel Uzquiano. and that it is precisely this equivalence that endows truth with its practical and theoretical utility. There are. however. Deflationism.
3. Each criterion has significant consequences for the comparative evaluation of systems such as the revision theory of truth. The article by Hannes Leitgeb. Axiomatic Theories of Truth and Intensionality. however. however. Even articles that are not primarily concerned with deflationism raise issues that effectively connect with the discussion of deflationism. This strikes one as a fact that cries out for an explanation. that one might use to assess both formal semantic and axiomatic approaches to truth. contravene some of the criteria he discusses. A sentence is thus assigned a set of possible worlds that. Semantic Approaches to Truth. however. the semantic paradoxes afflict both deflationary and correspondence theories of truth. Thus. the prevalent theme of the volume. The last part of the volume is mostly concerned with axiomatic theories of truth and informal provability. To be sure. he suggests.´ identifies six different criteria. There is. since he intimates that conservative theories of truth may. the accessibility relation gives rise to frames that are familiar from temporal logics. To the extent that this is one of the primary aims of the editors. Of particular interest. corresponds to the proposition it expresses. But while it seems in principle open to deflationists to restrict the equivalence schema to a suitably limited range of non-paradoxical instances without real harm to the position. ³Metaworlds: A Possible Worlds Semantics for Truth. and Michael Sheard comments on the risks of adopting conservative theories of truth. Kripke¶s fixed-point semantics. Sheard touches on the debate over deflationism. some irony in the fact that the semantic paradoxes seem to pose a particularly urgent problem for correspondence accounts of truth. the accessibility relation may be the identity relation. Andrea Cantini reports on the search for type-free theories of truth that capture the deflationary outlook. The deflationary conception of truth is. when Tarski¶s policy to separate the object language from a strictly richer metalanguage is observed. based on central features of our use of the truth predicate. the volume is largely successful. The articles grouped under the label semantic approaches to truth are motivated by very different concerns.´ explores a possible worlds semantics for truth. In some cases.2. is the fact that when the language contains its own truth predicate. for example. correspondence theorists are forced into the rather uncomfortable position of admitting that we are far from understanding the connection between the truth bearers and the facts in virtue of which true attributions of truth are true and false . The result is a compact volume whose treatment of deflationism makes plain that there is a continuity between the technical development of formal theories of truth and philosophical reflection on the role of truth. in ³Truth. in fact. Michael Sheard. and Naive Criteria. A sentence of the form T([ ]) is then true in a world w just in case is true in all accessible worlds to which w is related. or variants of the Kripke-Feferman system of partial truth. Provability.
Thus. as a look at Vann McGee¶s article suggests. .attributions are false. there is a great potential for interaction between reflection on correspondence accounts of truth and technical research on the semantic paradoxes.
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