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HNF-8597, Rev. 0
Corrosion Control and Maintenance Program For Tanks/Coatings at the 300-Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility
Prepared by: Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC: Phillip C. Ohl, PE James R. Divine, PhD, PE Kristen S. Thomson Reviewed by: Paul Day, Holmes & Narver/DMJM Tom Delucchi, COGEMA Engineering Corporation
Prepared for: Fluor Hanford, Inc. PO Box 1000 Richland, WA 99352 Attn: Lisa Berneski Reference: HND Contract 4408, Release 09
Final Report September 25, 2001
Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC
TEDF Corrosion Report
HNF-8597, Rev. 0
Table of Contents
Acronym List........................................................................................................................... ii Figures ..................................................................................................................................... ii 1.0 Introduction .................................................................................................................. 1 2.0 Background .................................................................................................................. 1 3.0 Tank Descriptions ........................................................................................................ 1 4.0 Preliminary Tank Conditions Assessment ................................................................... 2
4.1 Conditions Assessment Inspection Results............................................................... 4 Best Engineering Practices for Corrosion Control and Maintenance ....................... 8 Code Requirements for Corrosion Control and Maintenance................................... 9 Regulatory Requirements for Corrosion Control and Maintenance ......................... 9 Operational Controls............................................................................................... 10 Engineering Controls.............................................................................................. 10 Inspection Practices and Frequencies ..................................................................... 10 Repair and Replacement Specifications ................................................................. 11
Corrosion Control and Maintenance Requirements ..................................................... 8
5.1 5.2 5.3
TEDF Specific Corrosion Control and Maintenance Program .................................. 10
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4
7.0 8.0 9.0
Recommendations ...................................................................................................... 14 Conclusions ................................................................................................................ 15 References and Bibliography ..................................................................................... 16
Appendix A EXHIBIT A EXHIBIT B EXHIBIT C EXHIBIT D
TEDF Tank Descriptions TEDF Corrosion Inspection Instruction TEDF Coating Repair Instruction TEDF Pitting Weld Repair Instruction TEDF Weld Patch Repair Instruction
Vista Engineering Technologies, LLC
LLC Page ii .TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Caption Simplified Process Flow Diagram Pitting Clusters in Clarifier Pitting Clusters in Clarifier Coating failure of Gravity Filter Weir pH Probes in Effluent Holding Tank pH Probes in Effluent Holding Tank Coating Blisters in Effluent Holding Tank Coating Blisters in Effluent Holding Tank Vista Engineering Technologies. Rev. 0 ACRONYM LIST API ASME ASTM AWWA NACE NPDES OSHA SSPC TEDF UBC WAC American Petroleum Institute American Society of Mechanical Engineers American Society for Testing Materials American Water Works Association National Association of Corrosion Engineers National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Occupational Safety and Heath Act Steel Structures Painting Council Treated Effluent Disposal Facility Uniform Building Code Washington Administrative Code FIGURES No.
and organic liquids in industrial wastewater from the Hanford Site’s 300 Area prior to discharge to the Columbia River. LLC Page 1 . ion exchange. filtration.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. This report details a TEDF specific corrosion control and maintenance program. The treatment process includes ferric chloride/sodium hydroxide co-precipitation. shell thickness) Operational History – maximum and average incoming and outgoing flow rates Physical Dimensions – dimensions of tank Vista Engineering Technologies. ultraviolet/oxidation with hydrogen peroxide.0 BACKGROUND The TEDF began operation in December 1994.” lists the following information for each tank at TEDF: • • • • • • • • • • Nominal Size – capacity and operating volume Year Built Operating Conditions – temperature. with a mission to reduce solids. Appendix A: “TEDF Tank Descriptions. closed. including recommended type and frequency of inspections and establishment of instructions for repair of failed coatings and tank materials. including failure of the tank in which a steel tank corroded completely through. pH. 0 Corrosion Control and Maintenance Program for Tanks and Coatings at TEDF 1. The Corrosion Control and Maintenance Program will be used by facility personnel to perform recommended inspections and make repairs for the maintenance and operation of TEDF. Several tanks have shown signs of corrosion ranging from minor to severe.0 INTRODUCTION Corrosion management at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) is currently accomplished through operational controls such as pH and chemistry. dissolved metals. Rev. This report includes an evaluation of the conditions of the 23 tanks at the facility and a review of the current corrosion control and maintenance requirements. atmospheric or pressurized Design Standards – construction and operation design codes Material of Construction – what it is made of Coating or Liner – coating or liner manufacturer and name Repairs – repairs made during construction and operation Structural Description – type of tank (open top. and finally a pH adjustment with sodium hydroxide. The TEDF does not currently have a specific corrosion control and maintenance program for tanks and coatings. 2.0 TANK DESCRIPTIONS This section provides physical descriptions of all 23 tanks as well as waste characteristics and operating conditions. a pH adjustment with sulfuric acid. 3.
Observations made during the inspections are detailed in Table 1. Lisa Berneski. 0. Jim Langdon took photos.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Rev. Jim Divine. WHC-SD-L045H-TM-001.) 4. Kristen Thomson. WHC 1994. Vista Engineering Technologies. and Jim Langdon conducted the inspections of TEDF tanks. plant equipment was not operating. During the inspections. resulting in stagnant fluid conditions in the tanks and vessels. 0 A simplified process flow schematic of the TEDF can be seen in Figure 1 below. Tank bottoms could be seen in most cases.0 PRELIMINARY TANK CONDITIONS ASSESSMENT Visual inspections and assessments of all 23 tanks were conducted during several routine plant outages. Rev. Figure 1 Simplified Process Flow Diagram (Reprinted from Facility Description Manual. Phil Ohl. LLC Page 2 .
Internal visual from manway. Internal from top manway. Inspection Comment Summary Tank Name Equalization Tank Tank Number EQ-T-1 05/22/01 04/4/01 05/22/01 04/4/01 05/22/01 04/4/01 CP-T-4 CP-T-5 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 Date Inspected 04/4/01 Comments External visual from ground. External visual from ground and above walkway. Bulge behind patch on top blank. no issues noted. algae growth on top. Clusters are ~ ¼” dia. particularly along the second course horizontal weld. Weir has coating failure on support. Weir has coating failure on support. top growth or break. no issues noted. Coating 2 years old. Old carbon steel rake has significant pitting and coating failure. External visual from ground and above walkway. Whitish product on inlet plastic pipe. New stainless steel rake has not been in service. (This tank was drained and the manway opened in September 2001. 0 Table 1. Diversion Tank DV-T-2 Diversion Tank DV-T-3 Chemical Mix Tank Flocculator Clarifier A CP-T-6A 04/20/01 Clarifier B Gravity Filter Tank A Gravity Filter Tank B Gravity Filter Tank C Ion Exchange Feed Tank Ion Exchange Column A Ion Exchange Column B CP-T-6B CP-F-1A CP-F-1B CP-F-1C IX-T-7 IX-T-22A 04/4/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 IX-T-22B Vista Engineering Technologies. Some scaling and dirty water Algae growth.) Visual from walkway. 3 ft x 3ft square on lower wall has 40 pits. no issues noted. Bolts of manway are carbon steel. Power washed during cleaning. several pitting clusters were noted. Weir has coating failure on support. Algae on tank walls Sand and coal on bottom. CaCO3 Ferric chloride and ferric hydroxide sludge caked on 1/8” – 1 ½”. no issues noted. (Subsequent routine inspection by facility personnel discovered evidence of a leak through containment drain system – 8/21/01) Internal visual from manway. Wind damage during construction (1994) noted. no issues noted. Visual from walkway. pit below head weld seam and supports. Discussion from 1999 pitting and weld repair. no issues noted. SW side. External visual from ground. x 1/32” deep. (including 1 pit cluster with 7 small pits). scaling. Tank has 8 pit clusters of 3 to 7 smaller pits. Scaling issues. Rev. LLC Page 3 .TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Similar to Clarifier A. no issues noted. Liner discoloration None None None Coating break with corrosion streak on NE wall. Visual from walkway. 1 year service. some pitting. External visual from ground.
2001. these bolts should be replaced with either stainless steel or galvanized bolts. but otherwise is not distinguishable. UV-T-11 CF-T-12 CF-T-13 CF-T-14 DR-T-15 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 Conditions Assessment Inspection Results The results of the tank assessment show that there are no urgent safety issues and no potential for imminent failure of the plant equipment. no issues noted. External visual. External visual. During a scheduled outage. no issues noted. Diversion Tanks (DV-T-2 and DV-T-3) The Diversion Tanks were inspected with an external visual inspection from the ground on 4/4/01 and with an internal visual inspection with flashlights from the top manway on 5/22/01. External visual. Rev. Dissimilar metals at pH probe entry. no issues noted. Equalization Tank (EQ-T-1) The Equalization Tank was inspected with an external visual inspection from the ground on 4/4/01 and with an internal visual inspection with flashlights from the top manway on 5/22/01. pH probe has rust nodules and external crud. LLC Page 4 . External visual. External visual. Vista Engineering Technologies. the bolts may be difficult to remove. Subsequent to the conditions assessment inspections in April and May. Each tank is discussed below. It was noted during the inspection that the bolts that attach the circular manway port to the square. External visual. blisters. TEDF facility staff discovered water and moss DV-T-3 in one of the containment system drain pipes on August 21. However if allowed to continue. No corrosion issues of note were found during either inspection. External visual. hinged manway entry are carbon steel and have a uniform corrosion layer (rust) on them. External visual. no issues noted. External visual. no issues noted. and rust spots Blistering coating.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. no issues noted. External visual. 0 Tank Name Ion Exchange Column C Ion Exchange Column D Sludge Storage Tank Backwash Storage Tank Effluent Holding Tank Hydrogen Peroxide Storage Tank Sulfuric Acid Storage Tank Sodium Hydroxide Storage Tank Ferric Chloride Storage Tank Process Sump Tank 4. 2001. This rust is not a particular hazard to the tank or a safety issue. uniform discoloration None None Some evidence of existing general bubbles. no issues noted.1 Tank Number IX-T-22C IX-T-22D SL-T-8 BW-T-9 EF-T-10 Date Inspected 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 04/19/01 04/4/01 Comments None None None None Light residue on sides Uniform sludge coating. A repair made during construction due to wind damage is visible from the outside due to slight color differences in the coating. no issues noted. no issues noted. no issues noted.
and sodium hydroxide wet sludge attached to them. the granular/gritty nature of the sludge could by abrasive to the chem-mix tank coating. The development of scaling along the walls of the tank and dirty water were observed during the 4/4/01 inspection.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Clarifier A (CP-T-6A) The Clarifier A tank was visually inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/20/01 from the ground and the above walkway. The new stainless steel rake had not been in service at the time of inspection. LLC Page 5 . however. The most economical leak detection systems involve use of a tracer gas like helium. the bottom of this tank as well as DV-T-2 and EQ-T-1 should be inspected visually and leak tested quantitatively. Figures 2 & 3. The chemical mix tank and the chemical mix agitator both have thick (½ to ¾ inch) layers of ferric chloride. (Subsequent to the conditions Vista Engineering Technologies. Furthermore. No corrosion issues were noted as a result of the inspections. This sludge is not particularly corrosive by itself. Chemical Mix Tank (CP-T-4) The Chemical Mix tank was visually inspected with flashlights from the walkway grating above the open top on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01. or evidence of microbiologically influenced corrosion becomes evident. Significant pitting and coating failure were noted on the old carbon steel rake. The pit clusters were ~ ¼ inch diameter x 1/32” inch deep. 0 This water and moss may be evidence of a leak in the bottom of this tank. Rev. Flocculator (CP-T-5) The Flocculator tank was visually inspected from the above walkway on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01. A 3ft x 3ft square on the lower wall had 40 pits. Algae growth and scaling were observed along the walls of the flocculator tank during inspection on 4/19/01. Figures 2 and 3 show two of the pit clusters after cleaning away the surface nodules. a biocide injection system may be appropriate. If the algae growth becomes a problem. Pitting in clusters in Clarifier A (CP-T-6A) Clarifier B (CP-T-6B) The Clarifier B tank was visually inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/20/01 from the ground and the above walkway. The source of this water should be determined and corrective actions should be taken ensure that the presumed leak doesn’t get any worse. ferric hydroxide. The tank had 8 pit clusters of 3 to 7 smaller pits.
A coating break with corrosion streak on the NE wall of the tank was Vista Engineering Technologies.) Ion Exchange Column A (IX-T-22A) During the visual inspection of the Ion Exchange Column A on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 no corrosion issues of note were observed. Coating Failure of Gravity Filter Weir Ion Exchange Feed Tank (IX-T-7) The Ion Exchange Feed Tank was visually inspected on 04/4/01 and 4/19/01 from the above walkway. Ion Exchange Column B (IX-T-22B) The Ion Exchange Column B was visually inspected for external damage from the ground on 4/4/01. particularly along the second course horizontal weld. Coating failure on the weir support was observed during the 4/19/01 inspection. No apparent signs of damage were noted. This coating failure is shown in Figure 4. Rev. Coating failure on the weir support was observed during the 4/19/01 inspection. LLC Page 6 . Gravity Filter Tank C (CP-F-1C) The Gravity Filter tank C was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01. Sand and coal were also visible at the bottom of the tank. Algae growth was present on the liner of the tank resulting in discoloration.) Gravity Filter Tank A (CP-F-1A) The Gravity Filter tank A was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01. Further inspection of the tank through an external window was conducted on 4/19/01. Similar to Clarifier A. 0 assessment inspections. A bulge was observed at the site of previous damage behind the patch on top blank (SW side. Coating failure on the weir support was observed during the 4/19/01 inspection.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Figure 4. this tank was drained and the manway opened in September 2001. Gravity Filter Tank B (CP-F-1B) The Gravity Filter tank A was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01. several pitting clusters were noted.
No corrosion issues were noted during either inspection. Sludge Storage Tank (SL-T-8) The Sludge Storage tank was inspected with a visual inspection on 4/4/01. a uniform discoloration of sludge was observed coating the interior of the tank.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Figures 5 & 6. The extent of blistering is indicative of surface preparation issues when the tank was originally coated. During the inspection of the tank on 4/19/01. Rust nodules and discoloration on the pH probe and external scale development on the pH probe at the point of contact with a dissimilar metal were also observed. blisters. and rust spots along the wall of the tank. Ion Exchange Column D (IX-T-22D) During the inspection of the Ion Exchange Column D on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 no corrosion issues of note were observed. Backwash Storage Tank (BW-T-9) The Backwash storage tank was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 with an external visual inspection. In addition. and dark spotting (possibly algae) on the top dome were all observed. Figures 5 and 6 show the pH probes in the Effluent Holding Tank. Vista Engineering Technologies. a pit below the head weld seam and supports. Ion Exchange Column C (IX-T-22C) During the inspection of the Ion Exchange Column C on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 no corrosion issues of note were observed. 0 observed. pH probes in Effluent Holding Tank (EF-T-10) Figures 7 and 8 show blistering and coating failure in the Effluent Holding Tank. Further inspection during 4/19/01 found blistering of the coating. Effluent Holding Tank (EF-T-10) The internal visual inspection of the Effluent holding tank on 4/4/01 showed evidence of existing general bubbles. Rev. LLC Page 7 .
No corrosion issues were noted during either inspection. Process Sump Tank (DR-T-15) The process sump tank external visual inspections on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 showed no corrosion issues of note. Coating blisters in Effluent Holding Tank (EF-T-10) Hydrogen Peroxide (UV-T-11) The Hydrogen Peroxide storage tank was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 by external visual inspections. No corrosion issues were noted during either inspection.0 5. No internal inspection was conducted. No internal inspection was conducted. No internal inspection was conducted. No corrosion issues were noted during either inspection. 1986 and ASM. Ferric Chloride Storage Tank (CP-T-14) The Ferric Chloride storage tank was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 by external visual inspections. Sulfuric Acid Storage Tank (CF-T-12) The Sulfuric Acid storage tank was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 by external visual inspections.1 CORROSION CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS Best Engineering Practices for Corrosion Control and Maintenance In industrial systems. LLC Page 8 . 5. Rev.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. corrosion is generally controlled by a combination of the following (Fontana. No internal inspection was conducted. 1990): • • • Materials Selection Control of Environment Cathodic Protection Vista Engineering Technologies. Sodium Hydroxide Storage Tank (CF-T-13) The Sodium Hydroxide storage tank was inspected on 4/4/01 and 4/19/01 by external visual inspections. 0 Figures 7 & 8. No corrosion issues were noted during either inspection.
Nor do these codes apply to operation or repair of water and wastewater treatment facilities. Good environmental practices including the use of preventive measures such as coatings and nonmetallic tanks and process vessels are left to the responsibility of the owners and operators of water and wastewater treatment facilities. Because nearly all of the carbon steel vessels at the TEDF are coated. These are codes of construction only. The tank integrity assessment requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-640 are not applicable because the TEDF does not treat or store Dangerous Waste as defined by the WAC. all of these methods are used with the exception of cathodic protection.3 Regulatory Requirements for Corrosion Control and Maintenance Similar to national codes and standards. all of these methods of corrosion control can be employed. and tutorials for purchase. The AWWA in particular has published several useful texts on maintenance and troubleshooting for water and wastewater treatment facilities [Jordan and Tillman]. resources for facility engineers responsible for corrosion control and maintenance of water and wastewater treatment facilities. Best engineering practices for control of corrosion at a facility such as TEDF revolve around periodic inspection for off-normal conditions and unexpected corrosion activity combined with prompt corrective action of corrosive conditions. Coating maintenance and control of environment are employed by TEDF for operational control of corrosion. Material and coating selection have the largest effect on the corrosion impact for an operating facility. Owners and operators of water and wastewater treatment facilities are expected to use best engineering practices to operate the facility safely and economically while maintaining compliance with applicable environmental and safety regulations and standards. and AWWA that address operational corrosion control and maintenance of tanks that are manufactured to those standards. however. 5. material selection. 5. In addition. there are no specific regulatory requirements for corrosion control and maintenance of water and wastewater treatment facilities. and AWWA all offer texts. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). One would expect to find such standards either through the American Water Works Association (AWWA) or the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE) International. Vista Engineering Technologies. NACE International. and coatings are used during construction.2 Code Requirements for Corrosion Control and Maintenance There are no national codes and standards that specifically address corrosion control and maintenance for wastewater treatment components. Specifically at TEDF. There are. There are no specific sections of tank construction standards such as American Petroleum Institute (API). standards. At the TEDF. a specific coating inspection and repair standard is appropriate.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Design. The Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC). LLC Page 9 . 0 • • Coatings Design In water and wastewater treatment systems such as TEDF. care should be taken to address corrosive conditions by utilizing similar materials and process configurations. materials were appropriately selected and applied for the mildly corrosive environments associated with wastewater treatment. Rev. during the course of regular maintenance and repair of facility components.
6. 0 6. the tanks need not be drained.3 Inspection Practices and Frequencies Visual inspections of tanks and process vessels should be scheduled at 24 month intervals (+/. The current facility operational controls for water chemistry. and repair activities at TEDF. however. temperature. maintenance. A facility cognizant engineer should perform visual inspections while the tanks and vessels are stagnant. and suspended solids are sufficient for corrosion control. The current facility engineering controls for process chemistry and environmental discharges are sufficient for corrosion control. tailored to their facilities. there are no special engineering controls for corrosion specified in this program. Rev. the service and load requirements for TEDF tanks are significantly less critical than the pressure vessel applications of ASME Section VIII and the petroleum tank applications of API 650. Vista Engineering Technologies. 6.6 months) during a scheduled outage. At a minimum. Generally owners and operators of water and wastewater treatment plants have the responsibility to establish their own programs for operation. Photographs of anomalies are helpful in development of any necessary corrective action and repair requirements. indicative of leaks Drains and collection systems where appropriate Exhibit A provides a TEDF specific corrosion inspection instruction and checklist for performing regular corrosion inspections. 6. and repair. Although many TEDF tanks were manufactured to stringent codes such as ASME Section VIII and API 650. Most TEDF tanks are operated at ambient temperature and pressure except the ion exchange columns. At no case should the period of time between visual inspections of tanks and process vessels exceed 30 months.2 Engineering Controls Similar to operational controls.1 Operational Controls There are no special operational controls for corrosion specified in this program. operating at 20psig. LLC Page 10 . maintenance. each tank or process vessel should be inspected for: • • • • Coating failures such as pitting and blistering Localized discolorations. indicative of corrosive attack External discolorations and staining. The visual inspections should be documented and should include a checklist of tanks and process vessels inspected with recorded date of inspection and any anomalies noted.0 TEDF SPECIFIC CORROSION CONTROL AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM A plant specific corrosion control and maintenance program is provided in this section to support corrosion related operations.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. The straightforward nature of water and wastewater treatment plants has generated little in the way of national standards.
Prepare surface according to manufacturer’s recommendations and apply appropriate coating. and discolorations. water blast. As discussed in Section 6. grinding. No action is necessary for small pits. Although universal repair instructions for coatings and welds on water and wastewater treatment tanks and process vessels are not available. including complete coating replacement if necessary. the in-service operating conditions and load requirements do not require ASME Section VIII and API 650 compliance. With respect to corrosion related failures. wire brush. Prepare surface according to manufacturer’s recommendations and apply appropriate coating. water blast. Coating Blisters Nuisance Pitting Shallow Pitting (< ½ wall t) Deep Pitting (> ½ wall t) Through-wall Pits Vista Engineering Technologies. sanding. etc. water blast. grinding. water blast. The facility engineering staff are responsible for identifying the appropriate condition and determining the appropriate corrective action. sanding. Remove blistered coating by any appropriate means (sand blast.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. LLC Page 11 . construction specifications of convenience may not be applicable to in-service operating conditions. there are common resources for facility engineers to develop appropriate repair instructions that address specific needs. Remove existing coating and clean debris from pit(s) by any appropriate means (sand blast. wire brush. coating repairs are made in accordance with the coating manufacturer’s recommendations. Prepare surface according to manufacturer’s recommendations and apply appropriate coating. If nuisance pits coalesce into pit clusters repairs should be made in accordance with established repair instructions. sanding. grinding. Fill with weld metal according to weld repair instruction. even though many of them were constructed to these specifications.). Corrosive Condition Surface Rust Repair Options Clean surface to bare metal by any appropriate means (sand blast. water blast. wire brush.4 Repair and Replacement Specifications Repair of a tank or process vessel should be addressed with repair instructions unique to the failure or non-conforming condition. Remove existing coating and clean debris from pit(s) by any appropriate means (sand blast. discontinuities. grinding. Typically. wire brush. sanding.). Remove existing coating and clean debris from pit(s) by any appropriate means (sand blast.). Either grind smooth or fill pits with industrial coating filler. In the case of TEDF tanks and process vessels. Table 2 below discusses some common corrosion related failures and repair options.0 above. 0 6. Rev. etc. Table 2.) and prepare for coating in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. etc. Apply new coating in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. two common aspects of repair involve coatings and welds. etc. Corrosive Conditions and Common Repair Options. wire brush. sanding.
In severe cases of erosion or thinning. Recoat according to coating repair instruction. the affected section may require removal and replacement with a patch in accordance with a weld repair instruction. “Standard Specification for Filament-Wound Glass-Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Corrosion –Resistant Tanks.) tanks in nonnuclear applications. wire brush. Div 1 is an appropriate fabrication specification with ASTM B209. Rev. 1. 5252 as appropriate material specification. sanding. etc. etc.” are appropriate specifications for new construction of a replacement steel tank. grinding. “Standard Specification for Contact-Molded Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Corrosion-Resistant Tanks. Prepare surface according to manufacturer’s recommendations and apply appropriate coating. API.” and D4097-95ae3. Apply welded patch according to weld repair instruction. Section VIII. Grind smooth to completely remove crack. wire brush.). Cracking Remove existing coating and clean debris from crack(s) by any appropriate means (sand blast. It should be noted that aluminum alloy 5254 that the current Hydrogen Peroxide Storage Tank (UV-T-11) is constructed of. Replacement non-metallic tanks such as fiberglass reinforced plastic may also be appropriate. Erosion or General Thinning In addition to these repair options. the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. water blast. For the specific case of replacement of the aluminum UV-T-11 Hydrogen Peroxide Storage Tank. or non-metallic tanks and vessels. Vista Engineering Technologies. D120-84. 0 grinding. Apply new coating in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations. the above ASTM standards offer appropriate guidance for non-metallic tanks.” is an appropriate construction standard. “Thermosetting Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Tanks. Division 1 offers appropriate guidance. For replacement of chemical storage tanks. sanding. etc. Aluminum. grinding. Either fill with weld metal or apply welded patch according to weld repair instruction. significantly corroded tanks and vessels can be replaced with similar size stainless steel. ASTM materials specifications D3299-00. Stainless Steel. water blast. OR 3. ASME Section VIII.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. or ASME standards may also be appropriate replacement tanks following a specific acceptance test procedure.). LLC Page 12 .” and AWWA D102-97. AWWA. such as a visual inspection by a qualified tank inspector and an as-installed hydrostatic leak test. Custom non-metallic liners or inserts are also viable options for continued use of a corroded tank or vessel that is still structurally sound. “Coating Steel Water-Storage Tanks. coated carbon steel. “Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage. is no longer available commercially. AWWA construction standard. 2. Used steel tanks originally constructed to AWWA. OR 4. For metallic tanks (Carbon Steel.” are both appropriate specifications for non-pressurized water and chemical service applications. Fill with weld metal according to weld repair instruction. etc. Clean surface to bare metal by any appropriate means (sand blast. D100-96.) and prepare for coating in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.
g.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. It should be noted that welding repairs on ASME section VIII or API 650 tanks and vessels may limit their future use to ambient pressure water and wastewater service. filling of pits. General guidelines for when to use welding as a repair technique for pits and other discontinuities at TEDF are: 1.1 Coating Repairs Coating repairs are unique to each tank or vessel and the nature of the coating damage (e.” No welding is required. “TEDF Coating Repair Instruction. 6.).” IF discontinuity penetrates the vessel or if discontinuity depth is greater than ½ of the design wall thickness for the vessel.” and recoat in accordance with Exhibit B. “TEDF Coating Repair Instruction. and discontinuity diameter is less than ¼ inch. IF discontinuity depth is greater than ½ of the design wall thickness for the vessel. and re-coat in accordance with Exhibit B. THEN clean. or corroded component rather than repair of a defective weld. worn. THEN clean. Coating repairs should be addressed through the existing facility corrective maintenance process with a specific coating repair work package written to address the specific issue. grind. WPS-005 and WSM-CS-1 for carbon steel components. and Ameron have technical representatives available to help disposition coating failures and develop unique coating repair instruction using their products. Carboline. pitting. cracking. and FILL in accordance with Exhibit C.” 2. “TEDF Coating Repair Instruction. grind. This instruction may be used in conjunction with weld repair instructions Exhibits C and D. specifically. etc. “TEDF Filler-Metal Weld Instruction..4. “TEDF Weld Patch Instruction.g. access these standards is complicated. scratches.) Weld repairs should be addressed through the existing facility corrective maintenance process with a specific weld repair work package written to address the specific issue. The original coating manufacturer’s recommendations may be the most complete and most specific to the specific repair issue. Exhibit B provides an instruction to be used to repair a coating. blistering.4. however. REMOVE and PATCH in accordance with Exhibit D. replacement of corroded base metal.2 Weld Repairs Weld repairs in an operational facility are generally associated with repair or replacement of a damaged. Similar to coating repairs. etc..” and recoat in accordance with Exhibit B. welding repairs are unique to the tank or vessel and the nature of the repair (e. 0 6. and discontinuity diameter is greater than ¼ inch. LLC Page 13 . Coating manufacturers such as TNEMEC. General service welds such as installation of new nozzles and penetrations or welded sections of pipes and flanges are covered by the Hanford Welding Procedure Specifications. There are two basic applications for repair of corroded surfaces that involve welding: (1) filling pits and other small-area discontinuities and (2) applying a patch to repair or prevent a through wall leak. Vista Engineering Technologies. 3. THEN clean. IF discontinuity depth is less than ½ of the design wall thickness for the vessel. Rev. they require specific training and qualification for proper use. Guidelines for surface preparation and coating repair can be found through both the Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC) and NACE International. grind.
“Structural Welding Code – Steel.1. There are a number of leak location techniques available as a service from tank leak detection and tank inspection vendors. they should be spot re-painted as an interim repair/prevention measure prior to placing the tank back into service. Surface Finish Requirements. Exhibit D provides a weld repair instruction for applying a patch over larger area discontinuities. Helium gas is injected into the containment drain system from the outside and a sensitive helium detector is used inside the tank to locate the leak (or leaks) for subsequent repair. 7. ANSI/AWS D1. however. While these pitting clusters are not life threatening to the tank. As discussed previously. it does not necessarily require redesign or selection of a different material for the rake. This situation warrants attention and inspection during the first outage in which the Clarifier is drained.” is an appropriate specification for welded repair of welded steel tanks for water and wastewater service. Repair. “Rules for Inservice Inspection of nuclear Power Plant Components. which allows manned access. The most economical leak detection technique for a tank such as DV-T-3. and Reconstruction. LLC Page 14 . For most TEDF applications. particularly in the bottom three to four feet.” and NACE RP-0178. The new stainless steel rake in Clarifier A may cause increased pitting along the coated carbon steel walls. Due to the similar service conditions to DV-T-3. Coating failure on gravity filter weir The gravity filter weir is made of coated carbon steel sheet. Although an actual Vista Engineering Technologies. Figure 4 shows the complete coating failure and initial uniform corrosion of the thin gauge sheet that comprises the weir. visual inspection of weld repairs by qualified weld inspectors followed by a hydrostatic leak test is sufficient for acceptance of weld repairs. Following similar inspections and spot repairs in future years. Additional guidance is available in ASME Section XI. and Proper Design Considerations for Tanks and Vessels to be lined for immersion Service”. Exhibits C and D to this report are available for repair instructions for tank DV-T-3. Alteration. Exhibit B provides a coating repair instruction that can be used in conjunctions with Exhibits C and D. 0 Exhibit C provides a weld repair instruction for adding weld-filler metal to a pit or other small-area discontinuity. Rev.0 RECOMMENDATIONS Issues that should be addressed and resolved as a result of the tank conditions assessment are as follows: Pitting in Clarifiers Figures 2 and 3 show two of the eight pit clusters found in Clarifier A (CP-T-6A) during the condition assessment inspections. the other diversion tank (DV-T-2) and the Equalization Tank (EQ-T-1) should both also be drained and inspected using a quantitative technique for similar leak sites.” API 653. “Fabrication Details. “Tank Inspection.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. the tank will eventually require a complete blast and re-paint. is to utilize a tracer gas technique such as helium. The large surface area of the stainless steel rake will tend to set up a galvanic cell within the tank with the uncoupled tank wall as an anode. Leak in Diversion Tank The water and moss discovered by facility staff in the containment system drainpipe are indicative of a leak in the bottom of tank DV-T-3.
they do warrant prompt attention. repair of the coating failure by stripping the failed coating. however. Remove tank and blast/re-paint at a qualified shop. There are five basic alternatives for disposition of the effluent holding tank coating-blisters: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Spot repair blisters by cleaning to bare metal and re-coating spots. The stainless steel nipples currently used for the pH probes create a localized cathode that uses the carbon steel tank as an anode for a simple corrosion cell. the bolts may be difficult to remove. Blast/re-paint tank in-place Insert a custom fit non-metallic tank liner Replace tank with new.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. plastic. if allowed to continue. hinged manway entry are carbon steel and have a uniform corrosion layer (rust) on them. fiberglass) All of these options are viable and should be evaluated by the facility engineering staff for cost and schedule impacts. however. LLC Page 15 . coated carbon steel. Coating blisters in effluent holding tank The photographs in Figures 7 and 8 show the extent of coating-blisters in the effluent holding tank. Furthermore. these bolts should be replaced with either stainless steel or galvanized bolts. Previous corrosion issues can be attributed to anomalies in the process or anomalies in fabrication. No imminent hazard or safety issues were noted during the facility condition assessment inspections. there Vista Engineering Technologies. API 650 Appendix A and E. and American Society for Testing Materials. Rev. either plastic nipples with stainless steel pH probes or a plastic tank with stainless steel pH probes (or both) would completely remedy this problem. This rust is not a particular hazard to the tank or a safety issue. brushing or chemically removing the surface rust and re-coating may be significantly easier than cutting out a failed weir and welding in a new one.0 CONCLUSIONS The TEDF was designed appropriately and utilizes appropriate materials for corrosion control and maintenance of process vessels. 8. 0 failure of the weir itself would not create a safety issue. Carbon Steel bolts on Equalization tank way The carbon steel bolts on tank EQ-T-1 that attach the circular manway port to the square. blasting. grinding. Dissimilar metal pH probe in effluent holding tank It can be seen from the photographs in Figures 5 and 6 that there is a surface oxide layer at the penetrations created by the pH probes in the effluent holding tank. choosing a material to minimize corrosion (stainless steel. The service and load requirements for TEDF tanks are significantly less critical than the requirements of the pressure vessel applications of ASME Section VIII and the petroleum tank applications of API 650. The TEDF tanks were manufactured to various national codes and standards like ASME Section VIII. Although this is significantly better than the previous uncoated carbon steel nipples that were corroding away. The coating-blisters are not indicative of an imminent tank failure. During a scheduled outage. Areas for improvement are noted in the recommendations section above.
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Volume 08. D4097-95ae3. D1. 1. Alteration. Maryland. 1998. Easton. New York.1984. American Society for Testing Materials. 1990. 9. Denver. Maryland. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 1993. D3299. Specifications for Contact-Molded Reinforced Thermosetting Plastic (RTP) Laminates for Corrosion Resistant Equipment. DC. Section XI. Specifications for Filament-Wound Glass Fiber Reinforced Thermoset Resin Corrosion Resistant Tanks.04. ASME 1998 ASTM 1997 ASTM 1999a ASTM 1999b AWS 1998 AWWA 1984 Vista Engineering Technologies. Tank Inspection. 1990.0 REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY API 1993 API 1995 ASM. Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components. Miami. API-653. 1999. Washington. Colorado. Thermosetting Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic Tanks. Washington. New York. and Reconstruction. American Welding Society. Div. Metals Handbook. Metals Park. Section VIII. American Society for Testing Materials. Corrosion. New York. 1993. 2nd Edition. C582. 1990 ASME 1990 API. Florida.04. Ohio. American Petroleum Institute. American Society of Materials. 1999. Structural Welding Code – Steel. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Easton. Section 8. 1997. American Petroleum Institute. Standard Specification for Contact-Molded Glass Fiber-Reinforced Thermoset Resin Corrosion-Resistant Tanks. LLC Page 16 . Section XI. Four TEDF specific corrosion maintenance and control instructions are presented in Section 6.0 and included as Exhibits A through D that will aid facility and engineering staff. Repair.1-98. Maryland. Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. Easton. a facility specific corrosion control and maintenance program for tanks and coatings is necessary.TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. or corrective maintenance of water and wastewater treatment plants. DC.650. American Water Works Association. 0 are no national codes or standards for operation. 9th Edition. Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage. American Society for Testing Materials. Because there are no national codes or standards that specifically address operation of water and wastewater treatment facilities like TEDF. Section 8. Volume 13. Section VIII. Rev. New York. preventive maintenance. Volume 08. 1990. Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels Division 1. D120-84.
TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. Fabrication Details. December 1994. D102-97. Tillman. Texas. Jordan. 1986. 1997. RP-0178. 1986 Jordan. and Proper Design Considerations for Tanks and Vessels to be lined for immersion Service.. Denver. New York. New York. NACE International. Rev. Colorado. Westinghouse Hanford Company. Denver. American Water Works Association. LLC Page 17 . Fontana. Water Treatment: Troubleshooting and Problem Solving.. Colorado. 0 AWWA 1996 AWWA 1997 Fontana. Richland. McGraw-Hill. Corrosion Engineering. Washington. 1981. American Water Works Association. American Water Works Association. 1997. Denver. New York. Lewis Publishers. WHC-SD-L045H-TM-001. Mars G. Facility Description Manual – Hanford 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. Coating Steel Water-Storage Tanks. 1996. Glenn M. Tillman. Maintenance Management for Water Utilities.1996. Surface Finish Requirements. Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage. Colorado. New York. Houston. 2000 NACE 1981 D100-96. James K.. 1996 WHC 1994 Vista Engineering Technologies.
TEDF Corrosion Report HNF-8597. 0 Please Contact Vista Engineering Technologies For Copies of Appendix A Exhibit A Exhibit B Exhibit C Exhibit D Vista Engineering Technologies. Rev. LLC Page 18 .
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