NILEKANI Impact of Nehru¶s Policies on Business and the Development of a Middle Class ³Last English man to rule India

.´ He was India¶s first prime minister. Nehru created idea of a united democratic India ± gave people the universal right to vote 1970¶s ± movement toward the creation of a bourgeoisie of government and private sector employees. There was a huge gap between old, feudal India and new, secular India. Common ground was hard to find between government, entrepreneurs, middle class, and poor when peoples¶ priorities and incentives are so different. Nehru opposed globalization & theory of comparative advantage. He is an Indian protectionist. He led the struggle for independence in the 1960¶s, viewed English language as oppressive & imperialistic. Socialist state & government run companies, negative attitude towards big business and private companies.

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History and Future of the English Language in India English was language of imperialism, symbol of oppression, resistance, compromise. Now, language of economic, professional life. English was introduced in India as a port language used by merchants. British didn¶t want to spread English out of fear of revolution (like in America). 1800¶s ± Government posts become available for English speaking Indians. Elite group of English-educated Indians are created, and English becomes associated with social prestige. English represented repression for some and emancipation for others. English language exposes Indians to Western ideas of nationalism, liberty, and freedom. Anti-English sentiment evolves (Ghandi & Nehru), English enslaves people. But many people do not want Hindi to be the national language, so English rises in popularity. English has unified India as a common language (it is neutral, links North and South). 30% of India is English speaking, more than 300 million. English becomes language of aspirations and upward mobility. Private school sector grows, because they teach English.

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Bombay Plan vs. Bombay Club vs. Bombay House Bombay Plan: State socialism, protectionism Bombay Club: Indian entrepreneurs protest the fall of trade barriers. Bombay House: (Tatas) Mind-set of global competitiveness across India industry. Global headquarters in Bombay is center of India¶s capitalism. Indian businesses want to compete globally ± they are outward looking and willing to take risks.

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Bridging Power of India India has bridging power ± can position itself between developing and developed nations. India is the world¶s largest democracy to enter the economy in recent years, entrepreneurship thrives, young demographic, technology advantage. Diaspora of non-resident Indians provides window to the world. India benefits from economic openness and globalization. 1991 ± India reforms: growing middle class, rise of market economy, better education, freedom to dream. India has opportunity to participate in and shape world¶s economic structures. Challenge for India is from within ± political struggles & corruption.

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