This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
I CHAITANYA KUMAR VARMA 83022 ARUN KUMAR 83016 M KRISHNA NAIDU 83056
GUIDED BYPROF. MURTHY NICMAR, HYDERABAD.
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT AND RESEARCH
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
India has witnessed a large growth in the field of construction, with construction sector comprising 40% to 50% of India’s capital expenditure on the projects in various sectors. While the growth has been equally high in the field of real estate and infrastructure projects, a much larger growth has been witnessed in the field of segmental bridge construction. This is due to the distinct advantage of speed and aesthetics that this technology provides. Bridge is the structure that spans and provides a passage over a road, railway, river, or some other obstacle. Flyover means bridge formed by the upper level of a crossing of two highways at different levels, i.e. an intersection of two roads at which one is carried over the other by a bridge. There are two main types for flyover construction. 1) Cast in Situ 2) Use of Precast Segments Here in this project study of precast segmental flyover construction is given. There are various types of segmental bridges, to name a few: i. Precast segmental superstructure, simply supported or continuous, internally prestressed or externally prestressed, epoxy jointed or dry jointed. ii. Balanced cantilever construction using cast-in-situ or Precast segments iii. Spliced girder superstructure constructed using concrete stitch or epoxy joint, etc.
Until year 2005, Indian codes did not cover design and construction of segmental superstructures. Now, a new document IRC: SP: 65-2005 prepared by the author under the aegis of the IRC code committee, has been published. This document covers design and construction aspects of segmental bridges. In totality, there are many forms of segmental construction. However, the most popularly known form of segmental construction is precast segmental superstructure, constructed by span-by span method of construction. In this technique, precast box girder segments, aggregating a total length equal to approximately one span at a time are assembled and prestressed. Thereafter, segments of similar total length are assembled for each subsequent span. The assembled length can either be between two consecutive piers, each time or 1 ¼ span then ¾ span + ¼ span then ¾ span + ¼, and so on. At each stage, prestressing has to be carried out, in order to make the constructed structure self- supporting. It may be noted that precast segmental superstructure, so constructed, has to necessarily be prestressed, as untensioned reinforcement cannot continue through the joints of precast segments. Assembling of precast segments is facilitated through either under slung assembly truss or over head assembly truss.
These include delivery and storage areas. greatly simplifying control during segment production. The casting yard brings factory. 2. steam curing facilities. all segments are cast on a soffit the full length of the cantilever (or half-length if the cantilever is symmetrical). Regardless of the project location or size.Chapter 2 Casting of Segments Producing bridge segments in a casting yard away from the bridge construction site is a major advantage of segmental concrete bridges. A typical production rate is four or five segments per five-day work week. a concrete batch plant.controlled production techniques. Precise surveying skills and equipment are needed to measure elevations and 5 . centralize d production. Casting bridge segments using a short-line bed requires accurate placement of the match-casting segment and post-casting geometry observations. and the ability to reuse the forms many times. Advantages of short-line casting are much smaller space requirements. geometric control stations. requires a large area. a contractor’s casting yard for bridge segments has several essential features. however. and segment storage and handling facilities. a rebar cage assembly area. In long-line casting. Fabricating bridge segments in a separate area also removes casting operations from the construction critical path and reduces the overall construction time. and time savings to bridge construction. efficiency. The size of the yard depends on the size of the job and the required rate of segment production. All geometric control is accomplished while constructing the soffit.1) Forming Systems Two methods of segment casting are available to the contractor. adaptability to variations in bridge geometry. one or more casting cells. Long-line or short-line forms can be used depending on the area available for the casting y a rd and the geometry of the bridge spans. With short-line casting beds the form is stationary while the individual segments move from the casting position to the matchcasting position to storage. A full soffit constructed for the long line method. quality control. and the soffit might only be used once because it is difficult to accommodate variations for different bridge spans.
Final adjustments made in the casting cell account for movement during transport or slight variations in shape. reinforcement. some contractors prefabricate rebar cages with post-tensioning ducts and hardware already installed.001-foot tolerances. soap. A bond breaker (usually chemical compounds or a mixture of wax. place and consolidate the concrete properly to eliminate honeycombing. Match casting is a type of casting method where a new segment’s fresh concrete is cast against the hardened concrete of a previously produced segment. or post-tensioning requirements. Both short line and long-line casting operations can use match casting.alignments within 0. and then make local adjustments to the rebar as needed. 2. Custom jigs and templates are typically used to facilitate initial assembly. Using tie wire alone may cause deformation of the rebar cage unless braced by local transverse rebar. Shop drawings should show details of the post tensioning hardware system. Regardless of the forming system used in the casting yard. follow basic recommended practices to produce quality concrete segments and achieve desired production rates. In densely reinforced anchor zones. These basic practices apply to both long-line and short.line casting methods. Proper alignment of the post tensioning ducts is more important than rebar location. When using e p ox ycoated rebar. the joint is almost invisible when the segments are reassembled during erection of the bridge. and any special construction details. spacer bars.2) Rebar Cages and Post-tensioning Ducts and Hardware To increase segment production rates. ducts. reinforcing bars. By casting against the hardened surface of the previous segment. avoid damaging the coating. A combination of chairs. and tie wire is recommended to maintain post-tensioning ducts at the correct elevation and secure them to the reinforcing steel. Position post-tensioning ducts correctly. 6 . avoid conflicts between the rebar and the post-tensioning ducts and hardware. During fabrication. and talcum powder) applied to the hardened concrete surface ensures that the segments will separate.
Before placing concrete. all joints are tight and sealed. damage to post-tensioning ducts. chutes. A proper sequence will minimize flow of the concrete after it has been placed. especially after placing the bottom slab and web corner concrete. and heavily reinforced anchor zones. be sure forms are thoroughly cleaned. spirals. Deliver bottom slab concrete through a trap in the top slab soffit or through the bulkhead end. A short interval allows the concrete to set up enough to support the weight of the rest of the web concrete without creating cold joints. Vibrators should be pushed into the concrete no more than about 2 feet and should be withdrawn slowly from the same location. and post tensioning ducts are aligned and secure. Be sure the concrete is thoroughly compacted. Moving the vibrator sideways in the concrete or trying to move concrete with the vibrator can lead to poor consolidation and honeycombing. short waits are occasionally necessary.4) Placement Sequence A good placement procedure should prevent the concrete placed in the bottom of the web from spilling into the bottom slab. which can cause damage or displacement. This prevents concrete segregation. Though concrete delivery should be as continuous as possible. Place the first concrete in the middle portion of the bottom slab. Avoid Contact between the vibrator and rebar or post-tensioning ducts. Next. especially in awkward areas such as corners.2. The forms should be lightly oiled for easier stripping and the face of the match-cast segment coated with a suitable bond breaker.3) Placing Concrete Follow good concrete placement practice to ensure a quality product. Use skips. 2. place concrete in the webs and consolidate it around the bottom corners to 7 . Retarding admixtures are often used to help simplify the operation. Thoroughly consolidate the concrete using internal vibrators. and rebar displacement. or pumps to deliver concrete without letting it fall a great distance. leaving about 6 to 12 inches clear of the side forms at the bottom of the webs. Movement of the web concrete can easily displace rebar and post-tensioning ducts and can pull concrete away from the heavily rei forced bottom anchors or the web itself.
working up to the top slab. 2. dense. The straight edge also produces an accurate. curing blankets. If hand finishing the surface. Finally. Mechanical finishing equipment provides a smooth riding surface if used properly by trained and experienced operators. level surface across the top of the segment from the bulkhead to the match-cast segment. ensure a level surface by using a strong. Other successful methods include wet burlap. differ. Continue placing concrete in the webs. and fog sprays. place the concrete in the top slab. after stripping the form.5) Finishing and Curing A high-quality finish of the top surface is essential in superstructure segments where it also functions as the riding surface. Match casting against the hardened surface of the previous segment leaves an almost invisible joint when the segments are assembled. Mechanical screeding should be followed by a straight edge used to check and correct any low and high areas (Figure 2). straight screed that extends from the top of the bulkhead to the top of the match-cast segment. working from the center and outside edges toward the webs. Be sure to fill in depressions and remove high areas to achieve a very uniform. the curing process in the casting cell cannot be longer than from the completion of the casting in the evening to the start of survey and stripping the next morning. 8 . Both rolling and vibratory screeds work well to produce a smooth finish. Curing procedures depend on the concrete mix and the environmental conditions after casting. and level surface. Although curing procedures may Figure 1. The only opportunity to achieve a smooth surface is during the casting operation. Common practice is to cover the segment with tarpaulins and apply steam to maintain a controlled temperature and humidity. To achieve typical production rates. the segment must remain in favorable curing conditions. Grinding rough surfaces after construction reduces concrete cover and adds time and expense to the project.complete the bottom slab. such as under wet burlap.
In this system. that is created between the arc of the bridge centre line and chord line of the launching truss. short span straight segments of steel girders/trusses of 6m to 8m are placed over steel trestles resting over temporary spread footings at ground level.Chapter 3 UNDER SLUNG SEGMENT LAUNCHING METHODOLOGY 3. wherein the segments may either be supported through the flange (cantilevering deck slab) or through the soffit slab. In our present case the segments will be supported through the flanges (cantilevering deck slab). it entails a larger barricading width. has the advantage that larger vertical clearance below the assembly truss for the traffic movement during construction is available. This type of under slung Launching Truss system is suited to sharp plan curvatures. These straight girder segments negotiate the 9 .1) BASIC CONCEPT: In this arrangement. Former being more often employed. But. the assembly truss is located below the segments. where long straight launching truss cannot negotiate the curves. It is worthwhile to mention here that the cantilever slab will be having adequate bottom reinforcement in order to be able to carry the segment weight. This type of segmental launching has been proposed considering the horizontal alignment of the bridges/flyovers in city areas. due to the transverse offset.
if space is available. entailing a faster construction. it makes it feasible to construct segmental superstructures in as sharp as 80m radius of plan curvatures. transversely and vertically.launching type launching girder (approximately 2 ¼ span length). These are picked up by a cantilevering portal to place it on trolleys to rest over the under slung launching girder.curvatures with kinks at their junctions.5m. including the movement for dry matching is provided. a set of jacks and trolley for manoeuvring the segments longitudinally. In another system of feeding of segments. 3.2) GENERAL ARRANGEMENT OF SCHEME: The proposed super-structure of the flyover is having single cell box girder. Here. which makes it faster to move the segments. A more versatile and faster system is the one which uses a self.44m. Over these girders. This type of under slung system is slow but. In our case the segments will be placed directly over the truss by cranes from sides. 10 . The overall depth of the box section is 2. the precast segments can either be fed from the forward end. The length of each segment is 3m and weight of each segment is about 40T. In this system. The overall width of the carriageway is 8. This type of system is faster but it is suited to straight or near straight spans only. This will make the erection faster. the segments will be fed through a trailer plying over the previously cast deck. which takes more time to slide the segments back or from sides. over head Goliath Crane is provided.
Figure 1 11 .
3) TOWERS/TRESTLES: The trestles shall be used to support the Main Beams/Erection Truss. For stability of the trestles there shall be bracings in longitudinal & transverse directions. 12 . These trestles will be supported and anchored to the precast RCC footings of required size. For ease of handling the trestles shall be fabricated in modules of standard lengths. The typical size of these trestles is 1m x 1m with main sections of ISMB250.Towers & Trestles.3. Figure 2 .
While erection the trestles will be directly placed over the footing anchored through these bolts. The size shall be decided based upon the SBC of the ground strata.4) TRESTLE FOOTING: The foundation for trestles shall be either cast-in place or pre-cast RCC footings of required size and shape. 13 . The footings shall be provided with anchor bolts while casting having required projected length.3.
While doing so care has been 14 . The each span of the super-structure is divided into number of bays by erecting trestles in longitudinal directions.Figure 3 .TRESTLE FOOTING: 3. The entire segments will be supported on these Main Beams.5) MAIN BEAMS: These are the main components of segment erection scheme.
The trolley beams are made with 2-ISMB200 welded side by side with web stiffeners. The Main beams shall be connected to each other through a pin located on trestle top. Over these beams jack are fitted. Figure 4 .6) TROLLEY BEAMS: These beams are supported on Main Beam. The section of for Main Beam is ISMB600 with top flange plate of size 230x20mm.Main Beams 3. Due to provision of this pin the trestle alignment shall be made in curvature. Each segment of box girder will 15 .taken to have bays of equal size. so that the Main Beams of equal lengths shall be used. These trolley beams slide in longitudinal and transverse directions. With this we can lay the main beams along a curve path of 80m radius.
It is a single cell box girder with sloping webs. The vertical pipe will be braced by inclined supports. 3.3m. Launching of one unit shall be taken up in single stage and stressed. These two trolley beams are further connected by cross bracing of ISA65x65x6 and straight bracings of ISMC100. Similarly the 4 spans units will have a total of 36 intermediate segments and 5 pier segments. However the weight of segments near supports and over pier will be more. The jack is made of solid rod of 90mm diameter and fixed on top of seamless pipe.7) JACKS: Each trolley beam supports one screw jack over it.8) CROSS SECTION OF BOX GIRDER: The typical cross section of box girder is shown in the sketch no-1. 16 .be supported over 2 such trolley beams. The position of jack shall be at the centre of trestle during initial placing. Accordingly the 3 span units will have a total of 27 intermediate segments and 4 pier segments. The weight of each segment is about 40T. 3. The overall width of box section is 8. The number of segments in each span is 9 with two end segments over bearings. It is proposed to have the segment length of 2. However while final alignment of the box segments its position may be laterally shifted as per requirement.965m.
Placing of segment on jack will be done by cranes.Figure 5 3. It is proposed to shift and launch the segment during night hours when there will be no traffic. 17 . For this suitable capacity cranes will be used.9) TRANSPORTATION OF SEGMENTS: The segments will be shifted to site by trailer.
Chapter 4 LAUNCHING OF SEGMENTS The stages in launching of segments are illustrated in the drawings below (Figure 6 to Figure 16). 18 .
Figure 6 .Stage 1 ERECTION OF TRESTLES AND BRACINGS 20 .
Figure 7 .Stage 2 MAIN BEAMS PLACED IN POSITION 21 .
Stage 3 TROLLEY BEAMS PLACED IN POSITION WITH JACKS 23 .Figure 8 .
Stage 4 FIRST PIER SEGMENT PLACED IN POSITION 24 .Figure 9 .
Figure 10 .Stage 5 SEGMENT PLACING IN PROGRESS IN SPAN 26 .
Stage 6 ALL SEGMENTS OF THE SPAN PLACED IN POSITION 28 .Figure 11 .
Figure 12 .Stage 7 CASTING OF IN SITU STITCH -1 BETWEEN PS1 & S1 29 .
Figure 13 .Stage 8 TEMPORARY HORIZONTAL STRESSING AT SOFFIT & DECK LEVEL 32 .
Stage 9 CASTING OF IN SITU STITCH -2 BETWEEN PS2 & S9 33 .Figure 14 .
35 .DRAWING SHOWING THE CRAIN ARRANGEMENT FOR SEGMENT LAUNCHING.Figure 15 .
Precast Segmental Balanced Cantilever Construction.Chapter 5 Precast Segmental Balanced Cantilever Bridges Precast segmental balanced cantilever construction involves the symmetrical erection of segments about a supporting pier. Typically. a closure 36 . is in place on each end of the cantilever. balancing segment. Figure 16 . Figure 16 shows two typical methods of placing precast segments in balanced cantilever. Consequently. When all segments of a new cantilever have been erected and tendons stressed. more top cantilever tendons are added. as segments are added. When a segment is lifted into position. post-tensioning tendons are installed and stressed from one segment on one end of the cantilever to its counter-part on the other. using cranes with stability towers at each pier and using an overhead launching gantry. adjoining match-cast faces are coated with epoxy and temporary post-tensioning bars are installed and stressed to attach the segment to the cantilever. after a new.
Typical Balanced Cantilever Segment Figure 17 offers a perspective showing various features of a typical precast cantilever segment. Continuity post-tensioning tendons are installed and stressed through the closure to make the cantilevers continuous. tendon locations and anchors. 5. 5.joint is made at mid-span. usually spaced in a single layer over each web. These are briefly as follows.2) Cantilever tendons Longitudinal post-tensioning tendons for cantilever construction are contained within the top slab. For long spans. a second 37 .1) Typical Features of Precast Cantilever Segments Figure 17 .
The layout pattern of the ducts is always the same at each match-cast joint and ducts shift sideways or up and down within a segment to make up the full tendon profile from an anchor at one end of the cantilever to that at the other. Tendons terminate at anchors by a shift of the duct from its row in the slab to an anchorage. When the closure concrete attains sufficient strength. the closure joint is usually nearer to the end expansion joint. In end spans.layer of tendons in the thickened haunch of the top slab may be required. 5. cantilever tendons always anchor in the same location.3) Continuity Tendons To complete a span. This may be in the end face of the segment or within an anchor block (or "blister") on the interior of the segment. the ends of two adjacent cantilevers are connected by a cast-inplace closure at or near mid-span of interior spans. Relative to each segment. Figure 5. 38 .3 depicts typical locations and layouts for bottom continuity tendons at mid-span. longitudinal post-tensioning (continuity) tendons are installed. tensioned and grouted.
39 .Bottom Continuity Tendons for Balanced Cantilever Construction 5. Figure 19 shows typical phases for span-by-span construction.4) Precast Segmental Span-by-Span Bridges Span-by-span construction involves the erection of all segments of a span on a temporary support system with small closure joints cast at one or both ends next to the segments over the pier.Figure 18 .
are installed and stressed from the pier segment at one end of the span to that at the other (Figure 20).Span-By-Span Construction Tendons. being anchored near the top of the section over the piers but deviated to the bottom of the section within the mid-span region. usually external.Figure 19 . The tendons drape between the piers. 40 .
At the very ends of each continuous unit. 41 .Figure 20 . the ends of the tendons anchor in the diaphragm of the expansion joint segment with anchors dispersed vertically and approximately parallel to the web of the box.Interior Span Post -Tensioning for Span-By-Span Construction. the tendons from one span overlap with the tendons of the next in the top of the pier segment. In order to achieve continuity with the next span.
Main Girder & Trestles Figure 21 42 .Chapter 6) Dismantling of top Trolley.
Chapter 7 SPECIFICATIONS OF FLY OVER 43 .
wherein he has to start collecting toll as soon as possible.Chapter 8 Conclusion A careful planning of erection technique for launching of segmental bridges can lead to desired speed and economics. due to better finish and adaptability to innovative designs. More so. Speed of construction is of paramount importance because the infrastructure facility is always a prerequisite to development of an area. Use of precast concrete makes the structure amenable to better aesthetic appeal. in the BOT projects. 44 . the concessionaire has a commercial stake.
htm 5.Bridge Technology FHWA. MORETON AND H. ALAN J.wikipedia. J.Reference 1. By.KUMAR INFRAPROJECTS. HUBERT JANSSEN 46 . www.org 3.com 2.nbmcw. Casting Box Girder Segments. 6. www. www.thefreedictionary.com (NBM construction information media. Post-Tensioning Tendon Installation and Grouting Manual .) 4. MUMBAI.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.