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Geography notes HSC:

Ecosystems at risk:
Ecosystems and the functioning
+Its important to understand the complexity of ecosystems before any management strategies can be instigated. What is an ecosystem: +An identiable systems of interdependent organisms and non-living features of the environment. +Are systems through which solar energy is transformed and transferred throughout a web of interdependent organisms. +Ecosystems are dynamic and adaptable, ecosystems are constantly changing. Variations in ecosystems: +The components of any ecosystem can vary naturally or through human activity. Any modication will be magnied over time, and throughout the ecosystems, [small] changes in an ecosystem can be catastrophic. Classifying ecosystems +Ecosystems are classied according to their dominant feature. Hence they are named after: climatic types [polar, sub-tropical etc.], physical features [coral reefs, dune systems], and dominant vegetation [heath land, rainforest]. +the smaller the scale of an ecosystem the more likely it is named after a physical feature. +Land based ecosystems: the greatest contributing factor to the type of ecosystem, is climate, [rainfall, temperatures etc.] Marine based ecosystems: greatest contributing factor is the amount of dissolved nutrient in the water The ecosphere: +The ecosphere is a collection of living and dead organisms, interacting with one another and the non living environment. The ecosphere therefore represents the collection of all the worlds ecosystems: ecosphere : biomes : major ecosystems [tundra etc] : medium ecosystems [subtropical rainforest] : small ecosystems [characterized my micro-climatic conditions]. Productivity of ecosystems: +The productivity of an ecosystem is expressed in two ways:

-1- The mount of biomass per unit of area per unit of time -2-The amount of energy that is contained in said ecosystem per unit area, per unit time. +Energy ows through an ecosystems through each -trophic - level. Energy ows away from producers, to primary consumers, to secondary consumers, to tertiary consumers, along the way energy is recycled back to producers through decomposers and heat. +Nutrient cycles are driven directly or indirectly by the sun, and include carbon, sulfur, water and oxygen cycles. Factors affecting the functioning of an ecosystem: +These are the four components of the biophysical environment. +The atmosphere: The main source of climatic variation. Temperature, rainfall determine the nature of all ecosystems, an the speed at which they function. Also determines how pollutants are cycled through the world. +The hydrosphere: The hydrosphere is closely linked with the atmosphere. The hydrosphere [in terms of rain] causes; land degradation, erosion and soil leaching. It is essential for high levels of bio-diversity. Large bodies of water moderate climatic conditions, and ensure less climatic variations in places were they adjoin land. +The lithosphere: The lithosphere determines the nature of the soils, and provides habitat for many species. it also Stores mineral nutrients and water. The capacity for soils [and hence the lithosphere ] to perform these functions determines the nature of an ecosystems. For example sandy soils, drain easily and will hold little water for plants. changes in elevation create marked differences in climate, meaning similar soils can different ecosystems. Permafrost is an example of climatic differences due to latitude. +The biosphere: Is the preside of all living things. autotrophic organisms like plants... eterotrophic like consumers... +The technosphere: the built environment

Vulnerability and resilience of ecosystems:


+All ecosystems are in a state of dynamic equilibrium or a continual state of balanced change. This state of dynamic equilibrium is the product of the interrelationship of the elements of the ecosystem. Causes of ecosystem vulnerability: +location: latitude, altitude. extreme locations provide highly specialized ecosystems. The greater the degree of specialization the great the degree of vulnerability.

+Extent: The extreme of any ecosystem is due to : vertical-zonation, microclimatic features. Ecosystems that are restricted to small area are more vulnerable. Ecosystems such as rainforest, much diversity in small space mean more vulnerable. whereas savanna few species [little diversity] in big space mean less vulnerable. +Biodiversity: 1 Genetic diversity [more means species ad ecosystem can adapt ;) 2 species diversity [more species means more resilience and there fore less vulnerability] 3 Ecosystems diversity [is the variety of habitats, process and communities] Linkages: refers to the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem. Ecosystem with more linkages are more robust. e.g. krill whale end versus plant ant or insect or bird or mammal end. Natural and human induced stress:

Catastrophic Natural induced stress +drought +ood +re +earthquake +disease +deforestation +mining +urbanization +pollution +erosion +use of pesticides

gradual +climatic change +immigration +adaptation +ecological succession +disease +irrigation +soil compaction +pollution +land degradation +introduced species

Human induced stress

Human threats to bio-diversity include: +species introduction +habitat destruction +Hunting +Pollution

Case study: Mt St. Helens


+natural stress= earthquake, and volcanic eruption -widespread damage and devastation -few years natural recovery great coniferous plants growing etc. Types of Human [induced] modication of the environment: +humans have the ability to dramatically [and negatively] simplify the environment,

in order to improve if for immediate human use. modication include: +removal: land clearing etc. +replacement: replace destroyed ecosystems with simplied human one [monoculture] +Utilization: exploitation of native vegetation with some degree of damage e.g. forestry, pastoralism and recreation. +Conservation: the positive maintenance and restoration of an ecosystem. Nature of human induced modications: +Intentional ecosystem change: difcult to distinguish between the intentional and the unintentional. Some like are the unintended consequences of human activity. such as Abo. burning land, change vegetation patterns. +Inadvertent ecosystem change: -inadvertent- damage caused by the expansion of the human built environment.

human activity farming

inadvertent affect -reduction of biodiversity and the encouragement of excessive population growth of one species. soil erosion poisoning of the environment with pesticides etc. total destruction of all ecosystems within the area that is built up. poisoning f the environment in all adjacent ecosystems.

urbanization

Ecosystem change caused through negligence: +industrial disasters such as 2010 BP oil spill in the gulf of Mexico Measuring the effects of human activity on ecosystem functioning: +there is no standard measure of ecosystem degradation, only specialized statistics can be formed through survey. The magnitude of change: Refers to the extent to which an ecosystem has been stretched beyond its state of dynamic equilibrium. Measuring the data requires a benchmark and a survey of present conditions. The rate of change: +rate of ecosystem change is related to two factors: 1 rapid world population growth

2 the ever increasing demand for resources [a ow on effect of population increase]. +refers to the rate of species extinction, forest loss etc. Human population and ecosystem change: +an increase in human population will lead to a direct increase in the consumption of resources. +impacts include: demand for land, more land clearing [more species loss and more erosion], lead to farming [loss of soil nutrients, poison the environment] demand for minerals: land clearing, land loss, erosion, to mineral extraction, land poisoning. The importance of ecosystem management and protection: +reasons for managing and protecting include: 1 Maintaining genetic diversity: +Ecosystems rich in genetic diversity are more resilient +Genetic variations represent each species survival strategy +species diversity is important to preserve different types of organisms +All of the above; genetic, species, ecosystems. are needed for a healthy environment hat can continue the process of natural selection. there is no single argument for maintaining genetic diversity...a more pragmatic approach is needed, that recognizes that; resources, values [precautionary ethics], combine to form..an argument 2 Utility value: +is the value an ecosystem has in terms of exploitable wealth. +utility value is broad; coal resources, to forests, to genetic diversity [for future genetic engineering] terms: existence value: the price a community is prepared to pay [place on an ecosystem] to keep it in its natural state: option value: the cost of keeping the ecosystem in its natural state as opposed ti exploiting its resources. 3 Intrinsic value: +the aesthetic of a ecosystem +links between traditional owners of the land are always much stronger. 4 Heritage value: natural features consisting of physical and biological formation or groups, which are of outstanding universal value from aesthetic or scientic viewpoint. 5 The need to allow natural change to proceed: the vast array of life on the planet, and the importance of the diversity of this life is essential to the continued adaptation and future of all organisms.

to ensure this preserves must be: 1 large 2 have natural not political boundaries 3 take into account the interests of locals 4 have a buffer zone 5 be well maintained and managed. Evaluation of traditional and contemporary management strategies: There is a growing acceptance that our present strategy to manage the ecosphere [and specic ecosystems] are not as effective as traditional management strategies. The management of ecosystem: There is no one measure of ecosystem health/management. +there must be a benchmark to access present data against. +Increasingly the environmental impact of human activity is being judged un terms of its ecological sustainability.

management approaches: there are four key approaches to managing ecosystem: 1 preservation 2 conservation 3 Exploitation 4 Utilization underpinning these approaches are ve attitudes: 1 environmental imperialism [an extreme anthropocentric view] 2 utilitarianism [things only have value if they are used] 3 stewardship [people occupy the privileged position of being able to exploit, whilst having a responsibility to protect, foster and grow ecosystem] 4 Romanticism [a view that values the beauty of the environment]. 5 Radical environmentalism [a view that holds to the extreme end of conservation. the view holds that any development is bad] Evaluation criteria: Contemporary approaches to the management of ecosystems focus on the extent to which the strategies adopted promote, or are consistent with the principles of ecologically sustainable development. +Sustainable development is achieved by maximizing people economic and social well-being while maintaining the ecosystem and the biophysical environment. the principle of sustainable development incorporates four concepts: 1 intrageneration equity: that the preservation of future needs doesnt cost the meeting/satisfying of needs of the present 2 intergenerational equity: that the future generations have enough resources

3 the precautionary approach: in the face of uncertainty there should be no action of only the safest option. 4 biological diversity: there must be a distinction made between; species, genetic and ecosystems diversity. and each must be maintained independently, and in unison. progress means: +that wars are avoided +food is provided +water is provided +education is provided +an acceptance of the intrinsic value of the ecosystem +the promotion of a sustainable lifestyle. Minimizing human impacts in the ecosystem: strategies include: +exclusion: +education: +action:-restoration and rehabilitation, replacement +design: when maintaing an ecosystem it is important to minimize stress +legislation: to assist in the preservation Changes in management strategies The way ecosystems are being managed is constantly changing. It must be realized that ecosystem are not independent systems but are linked with many different ecosystems and cycles. A holistic view must be adopted that understands that any action may have many consequences. Changing economic attitudes; economists are understanding that ecosystems are fragile and very nite resources. that if too much is removed an ecosystem will slowly die. +an example if such government strategies include: carbon tax [?] Changing technologies: +new technologies have created an opportunity for less pollution, or less serve pollution. conversely the increase in technology has lead to an almost exponential output of pollution. +possibility of new alternative technologies providing energy sources that do not destroy the environment so much and are renewable. +efciency changing environmental attitudes: +The attitudes towards the environment have changed as humans have watched the impacts of many of their actions on the environment. +new politics

Coastal dune systems [case study 1]:


What are dune systems: Are massive accumulation of sand [and sediment] that are constantly being shaped by the wind and the environment. Sand dune ecosystem are the product of the complex interactions of the four biophysical spheres and are considered essential to the balance and long-term functioning of the coastal environment. Coastal dunes: are large accumulations of sand behind an active beach zone. Accretion: the process of growing dunes. Opp. Erosion Spatial distribution and dimensions of coastal dune ecosystems: +They are found all over the world. expect Antarctica. +the sand that composes dunes, is very different pending upon location. +determining factors: wind, rain, sand type etc. [to be explored later]. +the occurrence of dunes is dependent upon topography. INteractions with the biophysical environment: The role of the atmosphere: +There are three main components of weather: rain, wind and temperature. +Wind: the movement of sand by wind is called Aeolian transport. [sand is blown by wind, sand hits more sand, that sand is loosened and more sand it thrown up into the air]. +Temperature: the hotter it is the faster the sand evaporates. Also determines what type of vegetation may grow on the dune. +Precipitation: the amount of rain affects how much vegetation may grow. also wet sand is more difcult to transport. Hydrological process: +longshore drift +destructive and constructive water +precipitation +washout and wash-overs. +excessive sea swell. +warm current bring warm water ring warm air, therefore more vegetation. Composition of sand [lithosphere]: +all sand is different pending upon chemical composition. dune formation [biosphere]:

+sediment is deposited, then accumulated, then built up, then stabilized etc. Types of Dune: +Foredunes: are the frontal dunes, it is the rst permanent dune constructed. some beaches may have a incipient dune in front of the the fore dune this acts like a bank of sand, that pr3events some erosion. +Parallel dunes: when seaward face of the dune is eroded by storm action a cliffed fore dune develops. Afterwards, as the dune is regenerating, a there will be two dunes, with a trough in between, parallel to the beach. these accumulate until the systems are many hundreds of meters long/deep. +Parabolic dunes: are long parabola dunes, caused by a blow out or storm damage, the arms are stabilized, and the nose are stabilized, but any disturbance will cause the dune to advance inland. Dune prole: +the windward, face of any dune has a more gentle slope then the leeward face. +the lee ward face is sometimes called the slip-face. Long-term dune stabilization; the slow accumulation of sand that is stabilized [typically by vegetation]

Dune vegetation; 1 Primary: 2 secondary 3 Tertiary: Coastal dune fauna: There are very few animals that live permanently in dune systems. only: crabs, and migratory birds. Further in around dune lakes and in the tertiary zone there are more animals. Nature and rates of change: +dunes are both resilient and vulnerable. They are fragile ecosystems that while not rich in life are essential to preventing erosion. naturally induced change to coastal ecosystems: +Storm damage:

+wash-overs: waves over +washouts: water out +Blowouts: wind Human impacts on dune systems: Given the rapid growth in the human population it is not surprising that there has been a reduction in the quality and quantity of dune ecosystems as more and more coastlines and coastal areas are reclaimed for use as residential land. +Reduction and alteration of sediment ow: human activities such as damming, and the construction of break walls and harbors, and groynes all reduce the amount of sediment in a system and can break the sediment cycle. +Coastal development: the attening of sand dunes, and the reclaiming of many coastal areas has resulted in destruction of many coastal ecosystem for use as residential land. The is land is of little real value and highly susceptible to erosion because the natural protections [dunes] no longer stop wave damage etc. +Recreational use: the use of beach results in trampling etc. this causes an increase in erosion and the eventual destruction of any given vegetation. [5 paris of feet = 50% decease in growth rate.] +Sand mining and extraction: as seen at Kurnell is the single most destructive inuence in any dune system as it entails the systematic removal of entire dunes. +Introduced species and weed: e.g. Bitou bush. +Impact of global warming an increase in sea levels: 1 more water will enter oceans as oceans heat. 2 higher temp. will result in expansion of oceans.

Management of coastal dune systems: Traditional approaches to dune management: +burning of dunes lead to the de-stabilization of dunes. Contemporary approaches to dune management: +dune protection: cost effective, simply allow natural cycles to restore dunes by preventing people damaging them [e.g. stop sand mining etc.] +Land-use controls: re-zone there area to prevent destructive patterns of use. e.g. stop residential development +Fencing: stop access to all of dune. +Fenced pathways:

+Dune restoration and stabilization: re-vegetations, matting, brushwood etc. +Fire management: remove weeds that pose a re risk Dealing with weeds: +physical removal +chemical sprays +biological controls.

Great barrier reef [case study 2]:


Spacial patterns and dimensions: +the great barrier reef stretches 2300km from papua new guinea to Fraser island.. facts about conditions: +sunlight is a pre-requisite for coral to develop +temperature min 17-18 max. 33-34 + moderate around 5% salt. Interaction within the biophysical environment: +largest world heritage site. +1500 species of sh 500 species of seaweed 6 of seven world turtle species 200 bird species 600 echinoderm 125 sharks and rays 360 species of hard coral Atmosphere: +lies in the cyclone zone; destructo. waves, freshwater, turbidity Lithosphere: +reefs produce lime stone leads to forming cays +turbidity leads to death of coral Hydrosphere: +coral grows good in high wave energy, coral absorbs wave energy +water ows north in dry season south in wet season causes currents and changes in nutrient ows and temp. regulation. Biosphere: +330 species of coral, reefs are formed by the excretion of limestone by polyps who have a symbiotic with zooxanthellae. reefs all start as a single coral polyp. +the ecosystem is hugely productive due to : constant recycling of nutrients +the coral attracts sh who attract bigger sh who attract cnidarians who attract echinoderms who attract crustaceans. example of interactions: coral cays building up rock exposed, then collect sediment then collect plants that retain sediment fertalised by bird dropping creates microclimate. Nature and rates of change: Natural impacts: +cyclones +crown of thorns starsh Human impacts:

+climate change: hot then bleaching, sea level rise, water hot then algae sunlight loss +Dredging and sand mining: hamilton island +Sewerage and waste disposal: +Boating and commercial shipping: anchoring damage, pollution, ballast water +Overshing: +Tourism: 5 billion, coastal tourism, island tourism, marine tourism, water tourism. +Land clearing: urban development, industry, agriculture, loss wetlands leading to more freshwater and more sediment load in run-off +Agriculture: run-off, fertilizers, turbidity and aquaculture. Traditional and contemporary management strategies: Traditional management strategies: +Torres straight islanders are the main mangers +sustainable shing practices indenite [due to poor shing techniques] +however now they do not sh by traditional means e.g. dugong hunting Contemporary management strategies: +research, monitoring and marine parks +zoning: to ensure intergenerational quality some commercial, some tourism some future. +anchoring and mooring: anchoring is bad so moorings made. +managing tourism: manage, interaction with turtles, whales. +improving water quality: reduce pollutants owing into reef, rehabilitate catchment sot improve run-off quality, reduce agriculture problems and urban development of wetland areas.

People and Economic activity:


Global tourism:
The nature of tourism:
+It involves that activities and interests of large transport undertakings, owners of tourist sites and attractions, and of various tourist services at destinations. +Travel and tourism is the worlds largest industry [tourist numbers around 1 billion and earnings around 1 trillion dollars] Dening tourism: Tourism is the productive activity that encompasses human behavior, use of resources, and interaction with other people, economies and environments. It involves physical movement of tourists to locations other than their

normal living space. +it is important to differentiate between; leisure, recreation and tourism. Important characteristics of tourism: +industry operates 24hrs 7 days a week. +labour intensive industry with employment opportunities at all levels. +few if any barriers to tourism +small businesses' dominate, despite growing investment by larger companies +important medium for cultural and educational exchange Forms of tourism: [1] International tourism: Most important sector of the tourism as more money is spent, more resources and services consumed and longer duration of stay. [2] Domestic tourism: Estimates of domestic tourism are inaccurate because it is difcult to assess what constitutes tourism. fun facts: in the US and the UK where accurate measure for international and domestic tourism exists the ratio of international to domestic trips [domestic tourism being any journey greater then 160km] is 1 to 100 and 1 to 6, respectively.

The future of tourism:


tourism is essentially governed by these four factors: [1] Affordability: the connection between economic stability and tourism [2] Accessibility: transport, and government issues [3] Accommodation: the type and nature of the built environment [4]Attractions: technology, entertainment, natural environment.

Global pattern of tourism:


+Western europe and North America dominate tourist ows. +The greatest growth in tourism has been in the East asia region. This reects the growing incomes of industrialised nations such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and the other Bear economies. top 7 tourist destination: 1.France 2.Spain 3.US4.China

5.Italy

6.UK

7.Hong Kong

Fun Facts: +tourism constitutes 3.6% of the world GDP +tourism constitutes 8% of the world job market

Factors affecting tourism:


The biophysical environment; +A places unique cultural and natural heritage are intrinsic to the value of that

place as a tourist destination +The tourism industry is ultimately located according to the spatial distribution of attraction and access to them, which is largely determined by environmental factors [e.g. ski industry relies on winter snow, however ease of access as in small European nations facilitates greater travel opportunities]. +Coasts, water ways and mountains are the most common locations for tourism Technological change: +The development of cheap cars and plane trips has greatly increased the volume of tourism +the development of the Boing 747 and the Airbus A380 is important. Social Inuences: +An increase in life span has lead to an increase in the propensity for travel. +Tourist are often searching for a release, or at least a different environment to their own. +There is a developing tourist culture. +The rise of double income earning house holds and the reduction of children in a family has created larger disposable income leading to grater travel. Cheaper to y with a family of 3-4 then of 5-6. +exchange programs introducing young students to foreign places has also developed a travel culture. Economic factors: +An increase in GDP per capita and greater overall individual wealth in society has enabled travel. +Tourism is now seen as an industry that may be developed similar to any other industry. +A healthier, better educated, better paid workforce e is able to and more willing to travel and experience new things. Cultural inuences: three forms of culture include: [1]Forms of culture that are inanimate or do not directly involve human input: architecture. [2]Forms of culture reected in daily life of destination: beach culture, lifestyle. [3]Forms of culture reected in particular occurrences: festivals. Political inuences: +The ease of access to a country +Taxation, regulation, zoning, policy etc.

The relationship between production and consumption:


+Tourism constitutes three major components: [1]the destination [2]routes between departure and destination [3]the country of origin of the tourist +Tourism generating areas affected by: these areas represent the main tourist markets in the world.

+Tourism destination areas: attract tourists by offering what they cannot have at home. +The nature of production is distinctive in that the quality of labour at the point of service is vital. Tourism is distinguished from other productive activities, such as agriculture and manufacturing, by the degree to which consumption occurs at the point of production. The changing nature of the production process: +three major factors were responsible for the rise of tourism as a productive activity: [1]the wealth of industrial society; living standards [2]developments in transport; particularly the boeing 747 and the airbus [3]the organizing and servicing of travel; growth of tourist companies [Contiki tours] Internationalization of tourism: +tourism has become globalized +technological advances in communication +the increasing democratization of the world has create more porous borders Organizational developments: +Governments have recognized tourism as a private sector activity +Tourism offers itself to large technical organizations [hotel chains] and small organizations [camping grounds, caravan parks, Bed and breakfast]. Changing consumer products and markets: +A shift towards more active holidays +Increasing ease of international communication has created interest in foreign areas. +trend towards experience orientated holidays

The impacts of changing patterns of consumption:


+tourism is fundamentally driven by individual consumer choice The evolving tourism product: +package tours: buying a ight, accommodation, and entertainment in one purchase +small group tours: a personal group experience that is associated with adventure. +individual tourism: consumers becoming more selective about their travel because of previous experience. People developing more interest in certain areas. +adventure travel: recreational travel the includes a physical interaction with the environment +culture and environmental travel: tourists want to experience the unique nature of their destination, engaging in educational tours, pilgrimages, festivals. seek to appreciate natural and built heritage of an area. +Rural tourism: informal and unstructured tourism that is largely self directed, little inuence by any organization. typically done with families. Growing market diversity: +the increasing volume of tourists has created a large and diverse market where many different tourists ideologies are met and catered for.

Changes in ownership, decision-making and control:


Increasing the scale of production: +The growth of large companies involved in tourism is largely to do with the economies of scale. evident in the growth of large hotel chains [06 seven chains control 7000 hotels] +the scale of operations in the hotel sector continues to expand. Horizontal and vertical integration: +the ability to control and develop inputs and markets more thoroughly +the ability to operate protably in related elds. +horizontal integration expansion within the given sector in oder to dominate the market, an example of this is Wyndham worldwide hotel chain that control luxury and budget hotels. +vertical integration is expansion into related elds such as when a ski resort may also own and operate the local bus service so as to manipulate the market. Transnational corporations: +many hotel chains are owned by TNCs +a global market provides greater potential for any industry particularly tourism +tourism is subject to climate variations and a greater diversity of holdings would alleviate that stress Data gathering and industry support: +the world travel and tourism council [WTTC] is a coalition designed to support the industry by pressuring governments to lift barriers. +WTO [world tourism organization] is designed to gather information to support and develop tourism.

Technological change:
Consumer choice: +tourist motivation and choice is increasingly shaped by changing technology. +the internet plays an ever greater role. Transport changes: [1] Aircraft: the devlopment of the boing 747 [2] Land transport: a larger and more effective roads network that isnt affected by weather. [3] Sea transport: The cruise ship industry is exploding [4] Keeping track of people and possessions: computers enable operaters to deal far more effectivly with large numbers of bookings and arrangemnt and increase in communication times means few delays. Enhancing the tourists experience: +3D movies and other entertainment developments +theme parks etc.

Political and economic factors:


Most governments now support tourism and have lowered barriers to the sector. Tourism is seen as a way of quickly improving GDP and injecting money into the economy. the changing political and economic environment: +collapse of the soviet union +the switch from centralized economies to free market economies in China and India has opened up some 37% of the worlds population to trade. +the creation of the worlds largest free trade area [US, Canada and Mexico] 438 million consumers and a output of $10 trillion. +the arab spring and the growing liberalization of the world economy and political machine The nature of government involvement: [1] Tourism promotion: e.g. shrimp on the barbie [2] Facilitating visitor entry. [3] Transport policy: the availability, pricing and ease of transport dictates th ow of tourists within and between countries. e.g. the deregulation of airlines has lead to the formation of airline alliances such as one world between QANTAS, british airlines and other smaller services. [4] Regulation and control: various obstructive issues. [5] General economic policy: Higher interest rates, and ination rates can lead to signicant problems with investment

Issues surrounding the future of tourism as an economic activity:


Tourism and the environment: +most tourist destinations are located in or near to unique ecosystems. +this presence of people transiting over a ecosystems will often damage it e.g. anchoring on reefs The social impacts of tourism: +social contact between tourists and residents can be mutually benecial +the may be a positive exchange of ideas, culture, music, craft and product. +However the transient nature of tourism lends itself to the idea that the contact between tourists and locals is to brief and to shallow to have any meaningful contribution. +A serious impact of tourism is the creation an development of prostitution in areas and destination where the money exchange is favorable.

Potential impacts of tourism on the environment:


The natural environment [1]Changes in ora and faunal species composition: destruction of habitat, habits poaching, creation of sanctuaries. [2] erosion: rivers, land slides The built environment [1]Urban environment: land taken out of primary production, change in hydrological patterns [2]Restoration: reuse o disused buildings

The natural environment [1]Changes in ora and faunal species composition: destruction of habitat, habits poaching, creation of sanctuaries. [2] erosion: rivers, land slides [3] Pollution: acid rain [4] Natural resources: depletion of fossil fuels, land, soil, water [5] Visual impact: litter etc.

The built environment [1]Urban environment: land taken out of primary production, change in hydrological patterns [2]Restoration: reuse o disused buildings [3] Infrastructure: roads, transport overloads, provision of new infrastructure [4] Urban form: changes in land use, urban consolidation, emergence of tourist districts [gold coast] [5] Visual impact: development of new styles, tourism related advertisement.

Case study 1: Perisher Ski Resort


The nature of the enterprise:
+Owned and operated by the Perisher Blue ski resort. +Located within the Kosciusko national park +Operates 50 lifts, covers 12.5 km2. +OPerates the ski-tube train that runs from below snow line to the resort; vertical integration. +Is a merger of many companies; horizontal integration. +Is cold-destination tourism; that is determined by climatic and seasonal factors.

Locational factors:
+located within the Kosciusko national park +Closest town of signicance is Jindabyne 30km away. +Sydney and Canberra represent that two major markets for perisher. The high seasonal variability of the enterprise: +Variation between winter and summer dominate the destination appeal. +The season takes really 12-14 weeks. what are tourists seeking: +adventure sports tourism; demographic of >35 years. +want comforts of a lodge, village style accommodation Elevation, latitude and climate: +Contrary to popular belief the resort lies within the boundaries of international ski

resorts [whistler 653m, Zermatt 1608m are lower then perishers base elevation of 1700m]. Hence elevation is not determining factor. +MAjor issue, Australia misses out all the cold fronts of the southern ocean, these are picked up by New Zealand. +High annual precipitation 2000mm, most falls as snow during winter. +Area provides four months of snow cover Accessibility: +The location of the tourist destination and the infra-structure to allow passage are determining factors in popularity. e.g. free way to Jindabyne, Train from bullocks at, and recently QANTAS plane service. +Development of well maintained road to Canberra, decreased travel time.

Ecological dimensions:
+The uniqueness of the climate at perisher makes it a place in of particular beauty, and ecological importance. Ecological sensitivity of the site and the management responses: +Impacts: resort facilities, clearing and preparation of ski runs, waste disposal, compaction of snow. +Threatened animal species: mountain pygmy possum [of particular note, thought to be extinct then nursed back to stable population], broad tooth rat, alpine water skink. +Actions: preservation of many areas, and the construction of love runs, tunnels that allow for the possum to move about freely, under the ski elds. +Climax vegetation communities: Highly specialized [relate to ecosystems at risk?] alpine and subalpine plant communities. 178 plant speacies identied in the area. 11 are considered threatened. Of note is the valley bog complex, is mainland Australias few exmaples of alpine bog. Water supply: a critical resource +Location on the mountains means the perisher area is the headwaters of the catchment. +draws much water form the snowy mountains river hydro scheme, to be returned during the off-peak season. +Is a series shortage of water during seasons of low snowfall; because snow is produced with water. Pollution: +Sewerage: must switch from now waste during summer to great waste. waste poses many problems as the system operates at capacity during the period of greatest snow coverage. +Cars: spillage of hyrdorcarbons into water ways leads to contamination. Climate constraints: +the resort is susceptible to any change in climatic conditions, most particularly increase in temperature. establishing the ecological dimensions of perisher blue:

+perishers existence is dependent on climate, topographical features. +The development and operation of the resort has had a big impact on the biophysical environment. +The resort is in constant correspondence with the national parks +No further spatial developments may occur, so Perishers master plan is only one of re-development. +The future of the resort may be restricted by Global warming. Future planning encompassing the principles of ecologically sustainable development: +All actions are guided by environmental concerns. +PLanning involves an improvement of the ecological impact of the resort on the ecosystem. +A fundamental issue in the intensity of any development.

Internal and external linkages and ows of people, goods, services and ideas:
Market linkages: +Perisher blue receives twice the visitations of Thredbo, and more then all the other victorian destinations combined. +perisher blue is a signicant local employer and a major player in regional economy. +The economical impacts are huge, most people employed by the resort dont save their money spending about 50% of it in town. This discounts the contributions made by visitors around town. PLanning and development: +the NSW state government set the parameters for the operation of the resort. +NSW parks and wildlife services must provide: water supply, sewerage treatment, garbage collection, road access, storm water management, health and building inspections. +NSW department of planning: responsible for the assessment of any development. Flow of people, goods and services at perisher blue: +tourists: divided into day visitors and multi-day visitors +Lodge owners/manages: most owners stay in their accommodation during the winter months. +Ski and snowboard instructors: employs around 400 instructors. +Food and beverages: much food and trunk is to be consume. +Retail activities: include the hire of various apparel. +Service/utilities from nearby urban centers: gas supply companies etc. +Medical facilities: snow riding is a dangerous activity so their are many facilities for this. +entertainment: night-clubs etc. +Administration: NSW parks and wildlife services must locate themselves. +Transport: plane, train and car perishers has it all. Ideas and technological inputs: +snow groomers: machines to care for the slopes conditions.

+Snowmaking equipment: snowmakers. +Lifting equipment: chair lifts etc. +Specialized cold weather clothing and equipment: equipment hire +Over-snow transport: +Information technologies: now has life snow cam. Flow of capital: +The capital costs of infra-structure at ski resorts is enormous. +wages alone exceed $13.5 million. so running costs are also high. +The new development will cost more than $500 million.

Effects of Global changes in the economic activity on the enterprise:


Global climate change: +Warmer climate will mean smaller if not no season. +This has lead to new developments diversifying the activities available for example new building includes: theatre, rock climbing indoors, indoor tennis, gym, pool, restaurants, and other facilities that may be used year round. Increasing global competition: +Rising Australian dollar leading to cheaper overseas destinations. +They must compete with warm-destination tourists areas as well, both within Australia and overseas. +Cheaper airfares mean greater access to other areas. +Perisher must capitalize on any niche it can and exploit to compete with other unique areas.