This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS (HUNGARY)
“UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR-CONDITIONING”
AUTHOR: Juan Carlos Picó Cantero SUPERVISOR: Dr. Gyula Gróf BUDAPEST, DECEMBER 2007
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR-CONDITIONING PROJECT OBJETIVE
PROJECT OBJECTIVE…………………………………… ………………………. 3 OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES.............................. 5
PASSIVE TECHNIQUES……………………………………………………… 6 1. Introduction............................................................................................. 6 2. General principles................................................................................... 6 3. Strategies................................................................................................. 8 3.1. Protection from sun.................................................................. 9 3.2. Thermal mass control............................................................... 10 3.3. Ventilation.................................................................................. 10 4. Techniques for the reduction of summer cooling loads....................... 11 ACTIVE TECHNIQUES........................................................................ ............ 14 1. Introduction............................................................................................. 14 2. Chillers..................................................................................................... 14 2.1. Absorption chillers.......................................................................... 14 2.2. Adsorption chillers.............................................................. ............ 17 3. Desiccant cooling system........................................................................ 19 4. New chiller technologies......................................................................... 22 5. Aplication of solar assisted air-conditioning systems.......................... 22 6. Primary energy saving. Potential of solar assisted air-conditioning systems. ....................................................................... 25 7. Economic aspects of solar assisted air-conditioning systems.............. 26 8. Thermal collectors for solar assisted air-conditioning systems. .............................................................................................. ........... 28
CALCULATION OF THE LOAD................................................................ ............ 30
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ 31 2. SIMPLIFICATIONS........................................................................................ 31 3. CLIMATIC DATA OF BUDAPEST.............................................................. 33 4. CONSIDERATIONS....................................................................................... 37 5. CONCLUSIONS............................................................................................... 38 5.1. Load in offices................................................................................... 38 5.2. Load in zones..................................................................................... 39 5.3. Load in the building......................................................................... 39
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR-CONDITIONING PROJECT OBJETIVE
EQUIPMENT SELECTION....................................................................................... 41
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ 42 2. CALCULATION OF THE AUXILIARY POWER...................................... 42 3. EQUIPMENT SELECTION........................................................................... 44 3.1. Description of the process................................................................ 44 3.2. Description of the elements of the process...................................... 45 3.2.1. Solar collector field........................................................... 45 3.2.2. Absorption machine.......................................................... 49 3.2.3. Auxiliary boiler................................................................. 52 3.2.4. Calculation of the cooling tower power needed............. 53 3.2.5. Storage tanks..................................................................... 54 3.2.6. Fan coils....................................... ...................................... 56 3.3. Operating modes of the process...................................................... 57 3.4. Objectives of the process and specific control aim........................ 57 3.5. Controlled variables and constraints.............................................. 58 3.6. Manipulated variables...................................................................... 58 3.7. Disturbances...................................................................................... 58 3.8. Instrumentation and architecture................................................... 58 3.9. Security.............................................................................................. 58
INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY............................................................................. 59
1. INITIAL INVESTMENT.............................................................................. 60 2. CONTROL COST..........................................................................................64 3. OPERATIONAL COST……………………………………........................ 64 3.1. GAS.................................................................................................... 64 3.2. ELECTRICITY…………………………........................................ 67 3.3. SUMMARIZING OPERATIONAL COST................................... 68
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING PROJECT OBJETIVE “PROJECT OBJETIVE” -3- .
This project can be viable in the future.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING PROJECT OBJETIVE Sunny summer days are beautiful. Such systems have advantages over those that use problematic coolants (CFCs). Sorption‐assisted air conditioning: collector system on the rooftop of Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Freiburg. -4- . since the said building lacks air-conditioning system at the moment. hotels. Figure. Basic structure of a solar air‐conditioning system So the purpose of this project is the implantation of a solar air-conditioned system in a building. The demand for air conditioning in offices. This is where solar air conditioning comes in: The summer sun. laboratories or public buildings such as museums is considerable. The mentioned building is part of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics (Hungary) and it is called “D building”. Under adequate conditions. also delivers the energy to cool them. Because productivity can suffer under such conditions. solar and solar-assisted air conditioning systems can be reasonable alternatives to conventional air conditioning systems. which heats up offices. but also in middle Europe. not to mention the incidental CO2 emissions that are taking on increasingly critical values. This is true not only in southern Europe. more and more buildings are being fitted with airconditioning systems. Germany. Photo. and it would be my pleasure that my work lay the foundation for future implementation. The thermal use of solar energy offers itself: Days that have the greatest need for cooling are also the very same days that offer the maximum possible solar energy gain. yet in the office a hot day can be altogether stressful.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES “OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES” -5- .
and existing ones for which there are. -6- . anyway. strategies and techniques for reducing summer cooling loads. Therefore. like solar radiation incidence. different kinds of machine. ‐ GENERAL PRINCIPLES In summer cooling systems. is free. both internal and external. both sensible and latent. due to the presence of both people and heat-generating (lighting. one should carefully analyze the features of the building to be acclimatized and adopt all the measures needed to reduce energy requirements. many intervention strategies. In summer the amount of heat to be removed depends on a number of factors some of which. The purpose of the text that follows is to recap the principles. • internal thermal loads. ‐ INTRODUCTION Thanks to solar energy cooling systems it is possible to cool buildings yet avoid any environmental impact. However. if deciding to install a solar energy cooling system. that is the summation of all cooling loads. The regulations considered for calculation models are procedures developed in the United States (the Ashrae method). vary depending on the time of the day.). The advice contained in this document covers both buildings still to be designed. such systems are far more expensive than air-conditioning systems using traditional compression cooling systems. whilst solar energy. given the same amount of cooling power generated. 2. which go to affect the thermal balance between the closed environment and whatever is to be found outside it (not only the external environment as such but also all the neighboring environments which are not air-conditioned). • impact of heat transfer through clear and opaque structures. that is the source of energy they use.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Passive techniques 1. • thermal inertia of building structures. etc. which are taken as standard procedures. The factors having the greatest impact on summer cooling loads are the following ones: • impact of solar radiation through clear transparent surfaces. for which it is possible to opt for far more innovative approaches and solutions. the cooling power of the cooling machine is assessed on the grounds of the summer cooling load.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES • heat gain. as a result. due to infiltration and airing of room. as its temperature is higher than ambient temperature. drying of laundry. is the summation of the heat loads which go to increase the amount of vapour to be found in the air and.). the air coming from the outside brings sensible heat. which usually prevails over latent heat. is the summation of the heat loads which result only in an increase in temperature. instead.). The flow-chart shows that the summer cooling load is greatly influenced by the features of the architectural elements defining the building envelope. • Sensible heat. -7- . of humidity. without increasing temperature. given its vapour content. • Latent heat. the difference in temperature between the outside and the inside of the building (transmission of heat by conduction through the structures) and also of the so‐called internal loads. When airing a room. etc. both sensible and latent. etc. machines. engines. and latent heat. such as for instance people and any source of heat (lighting. A cooling system planned for summer months must be able to remove both sensible and latent heat from the building. ambient latent heat results of vapours emitted by people (through breathing and perspiration) and other vapour producing sources (cooling. it comes from outside the building and results of solar radiation.
3. • adequate ventilation. • major thermal inertia coupled with nocturnal ventilation. therefore. walls and surface covers. Reduction of outside temperature by intervening on the external setting in close proximity to the building by means of: • increase of relative air humidity by means of ponds.). • choice of light‐coloured scheme for exterior walls. fountains and vegetation. – STRATEGIES The summer cooling load of a building and. Reduction of heat loads. • shading through planting schemes (trees. • reduction of external sun‐glare (creation of green areas). by using artificial or natural screening devices. we have the sensible and latent heat resulting of the airing of a room and internal sensible and latent heat.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Basically. -8- . etc. pergolas. the energy requirements of the cooling system. The sum of these corresponds to the amount of heat the cooling system must remove. may be reduced by adopting “bioclimatic” strategies. by foreseeing in the design stage: • protection from the sun for windows.
• special glazing. External shading devices prove to be the most effective as they prevent solar radiation from beating on clear surfaces. solar radiation penetrates the clear surfaces of the envelope (doors and windows) causing an immediate energy gain which must be removed by the cooling system. • fixed or adjustable external sun‐screens. which are the envelope surfaces most affected by solar radiation. • internal curtains (Venetian blinds or fabric). ‐ Protection from sun In summer. Solar protection is also important for opaque surfaces and above all external coatings.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES 3. -9- . • external awnings (rolling blinds or Venetian blinds). The impact of solar radiation may be reduced by having recourse to different kinds of shading devices: • vertical shading devices (for east or west‐facing orientations) or horizontal (for south‐facing orientations). Should it be impossible to resort to true and proper screening devices it might be advisable to choose the most suitable external surface colour scheme opting for colours having a low absorption coefficient. The table here below shows the effectiveness of some solar protection systems.1.
ventilation is one of the easiest ways to ensure the thermal comfort of occupants of a building. directed at cooling the building.2. • walls with openings subject to low noise‐emissions (to allow for the opening of air‐intakes). In both instances the goal may be achieved either mechanically or by means of an airflow which is conveyed naturally through the building. therefore. In buildings having high thermal inertia. ‐ Thermal mass control The thermal inertia of a building has a major impact on the transfer of heat to the inside ambient. The second approach. possibly thanks to the help of air from the outside (provided this is not warmer than air inside the building). ‐ Ventilation In summer.3. cooling system peaks are lower. 3. As a matter of fact.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES The thermal gain due to solar radiation on dark vertical surfaces is shown in the figure here below and quantitatively assessed in the graph showing different temperature profiles. A building characterized by a major thermal mass takes longer to heat and allows for the distribution of the heat entering through clear walls over a longer period. This entails having: • rooms having a double orientation (at least two walls facing externally in two opposite directions). There are two possible strategies. consists in insistently airing the rooms provided the external air is cooler than the air to be found inside the building: this way the structures cool thus prolonging occupant comfort also during the hottest hours of the day. the structures accumulate direct radiance from the outside and release it to the inside ambient a few hours later. The first one also has a direct impact on the psychological well‐being of the occupants. and consists in moving the air inside the building by stirring it with ceiling fans or the like or by getting the air to circulate. -10- . 3.
many interventions aimed at the reduction of the summer cooling load may be implemented also in existing buildings at a reasonable cost. -11- . Although some of the techniques discussed can be efficiently applied to buildings still in the design stage.). Adiabatic air humidification causes a decrease in air temperature and an increase in relative humidity. Natural Techniques and Passive Cooling Passive Cooling techniques may be subdivided into two major groups: • those protecting the building through project solutions limiting solar heat gains and internal gains. solar protection and ventilation bring about a marked decrease in average internal temperatures in summer. • those contributing to remove summer heat from the air‐conditioned ambient by conveying it towards other ambients (water. a roof cover which has been cooled at night reduces heat gains due to solar radiation. is based on this principle. 4. Passive Cooling. Ground cooling. ground. We have already introduced the key notions pertaining to the first group. During the day. etc. A film of water may increase heat exchange through evaporation.TECHNIQUES FOR THE REDUCTION OF SUMMER COOLING LOADS If buildings are carefully planned taking into account the building design parameters discussed above. while for the second it would be advisable to remember the following solutions which have already been applied and thoroughly tested in low energy consumption buildings: Evaporative cooling. The roof cools by allowing heat to be released to the outside during the night. . Radiative cooling.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Controlling the three elements: thermal inertia. air. the need for summer air‐conditioning is drastically reduced. Excess summer heat is directly dissipated towards the ground by conduction via walls in direct contact with the ground or indirectly through exchangers located at variable depths and through which thermal‐conductive fluids run (as a rule water or air). which (be it direct or indirect) works for sites characterized by low external relative humidity values.
In the table below are reported in a synthetic way the possible interventions that can be undertaken. • structural interventions on the building envelope. Certain measures imply no costs whereas others involve limited costs that can be repaid in few years.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Reduction of summer cooling loads in existing buildings In existing buildings it is possible to reduce summer cooling loads.). by: • improvement of the operational management of the building‐plant system. • interventions of the air conditioning plant. both as peak power as well as energy consumption. A correct planning of these interventions within standard maintenance practices can reduce significantly the costs. The interventions that are more costly are related to the building envelope (for example the application of external shading devices and the insulation of perimeter walls and roof. • reduction of the internal thermal loads. -12- . etc.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES List of possible interventions to reduce summer thermal loads in existing buildings -13- .
The desorbed refrigerant condenses in the condenser. ‐ CHILLERS 2. The vapour is compressed to a higher pressure and condenses at a higher temperature (heat rejection). 5. the most common types of thermally driven chillers are presented.1. where it is absorbed in a concentrated solution. the pressure of the refrigerant condensate is reduced in this step. namely absorption chillers and adsorption chillers. the pressure of the liquid is reduced by expansion through a throttle valve. Latent heat of condensation and mixing heat must be extracted by a cooling medium. and the cycle is repeated. and in particular the ones which are feasible for coupling with a solar thermal energy source. 4. The steps of the absorption cycle are: 1. A vaporizing liquid extracts heat at a low temperature (cold production). The compression of the vapour is accomplished by means of a thermally driven ‘compressor‘ consisting of the two main components absorber and generator. generator or desorber). so that refrigerant vapour is released at high pressure. ‐ Absorption chillers The working principle of an absorption system is similar to that of a mechanical compression system with respect to the key system components evaporator and condenser. The refrigerant vapour flows from the evaporator to the absorber. thereby extracting heat from a low temperature heat source.e. The condenser is usually water‐cooled using a cooling tower to reject ‘waste ‐heat‘. whereby heat is rejected at an intermediate temperature level. The concentrated solution flows back to the absorber. where it is heated above its boiling temperature. 2. The diluted solution is pumped to the components connected to the driving heat source (i. including a brief description of the processes. Subsequently. so the absorber is usually water‐cooled using a cooling tower to keep the process going.. This results in the useful cooling effect. Absorption cycles are based on the fact that the boiling point of a mixture is higher than the corresponding boiling point of a pure liquid. 2. The refrigerant flows to the evaporator through an expansion valve. Desiccant cooling technology is also presented.‐ INTRODUCTION Chiller systems based on thermally driven cold water production and desiccant cooling systems are key solutions for solar‐assisted air‐conditioning systems. For this reason. 3. The refrigerant evaporates in the evaporator.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Active techniques 1. -14- .
Electrical energy is necessary to drive the solution pump. The main energy input is the heat supplied to the generator. Crystallization of the LiBr will occur at higher concentrations and may damage the machine. In the water/lithium‐bromide absorption chiller. because they require a comparatively low temperature heat input. the chilling temperature meets a physical limit at this level. The heat required for step 3 as described above. Since water freezes below 0°C. LiBr is soluble in water if the LiBr mass fraction of the mixture is less than 70%. As a consequence. Appropriate operating controls will prevent this kind of problem.7 to 0. for example when used for refrigeration. In order to sufficiently reduce the temperature of the absorber and dissipate the heat from the condenser. for example when used for air‐conditioning. i. from the nominal volume flow rates and from the nominal temperatures in all -15- . by waste heat or by solar collectors. Depending on the required cooling effect.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES A schematic drawing of a basic absorption cycle is shown in the next figure: Figure. For solar‐assisted air‐conditioning systems with common solar collectors. • For a temperature of the low temperature heat source below 5°C. Poor control of temperature or a fast change of conditions may cause crystallization. Schematic drawing of an absorption chiller for chilled water production. This sets a maximum temperature for the absorber. it is necessary to use a wet cooling tower. The term ‘single‐effect‘ refers to the fact that the supplied heat is used once by a single generator. one of the following working pairs for absorption chillers is commonly used: • For a temperature of the low temperature heat source higher than 5°C. which may be cooled by either air or water. water is the refrigerant. can be supplied. unless a system with a bubble pump is used.8 for standard operation conditions. single‐effect LiBr absorption chillers are the most commonly used systems. a water/lithium‐bromide (LiBr) pair absorption machine is most frequently used. by direct combustion of fossil fuels.. an ammonia/water machine can be used. for instance. Any deviation from the standard operation conditions. and cooling is based on the evaporation of water at very low pressures. which must be water cooled.e. Thermodynamic restrictions in the system dictate that the cooling capacity for ideal and real systems is always less than the heat input. the COP for large single‐effect machines lie in the range of 0.
Figure. Typical operation COP’s of double‐effect absorption chillers are close to 1.2. with a COPthermal of 1. Generally. The choice on the market is quite extensive. Current research is concentrating on three and four‐effect systems. In the top cycle (primary generator). It is possible to use high efficient solar collectors to reach higher temperatures but this will increase the installation. Absorption chillers are commercially available from many manufacturers. will cause a deviation in the chilling capacity and in the COP from the nominal values. which present an attractive potential for improved cooling performance.7 to 2. but these systems require a distinctly higher temperature of driving heat. The vapour is then condensed at this higher temperature and pressure. Photograph of a 52 kW single‐effect absorption chiller installed in a plant for solar air‐conditioning of a wine cellar in Banyuls/France.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES of the three temperature levels. A double‐effect absorption chiller can be viewed as two single‐effect cycles stacked on top of each other. it is driven either directly by a natural gas or oil burner. The need for higher driving temperatures makes double‐effect chillers less suitable for solar‐assisted air‐conditioning systems using common solar collectors. refrigerant vapour is generated at a higher temperature and pressure relative to the bottom cycle. and the heat of condensation is used to drive the generator of the lower cycle (secondary generator). but most machines have a large capacity.1 or slightly above and typical driving temperatures lie in the range of 140°C to 160°C. or indirectly by supplying steam. type* Driving -16- . The top cycle requires heat at a higher temperature level compared to a single‐effect machine. Examples of commercially available absorption chillers suitable for solar‐assisted air‐conditioning are presented in the next table. Manufacturer Chilling power. operation and maintenance costs. Only the smallest available size identified from each manufacturer is shown. Double‐effect cycles have a higher COPthermal than single‐effect cycles. which is at a lower temperature.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES
Table. Examples of commercially available absorption chillers suitable for solar‐assisted air‐conditioning (only smallest available size included).
2.2 Adsorption chillers
Instead of absorbing the refrigerant in an absorbing solution, it is also possible to adsorb the refrigerant on the internal surfaces of a highly porous solid. This process is called adsorption. Typical examples of working pairs are water/silica gel, water/zeolite, ammonia/activated carbon or methanol/activated carbon and other similar materials. However, only machines using the water/silica gel working pair are currently available on the market. In absorption machines, the ability to circulate the absorbing fluid between the absorber and desorber results in a continuous loop. In adsorption machines, the solid sorbent has to be alternately cooled and heated to be able to adsorb and desorb the refrigerant. Operation is therefore intrinsically periodic with time. The cycle may be described as follows:
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES
1. The refrigerant previously adsorbed in the one adsorber is driven off by the use of hot water (left compartment in the figure); 2. The refrigerant condenses in the condenser and the heat of condensation is removed by cooling water; 3. The condensate is sprayed in the evaporator and evaporates under low pressure. This step produces the useful cooling effect; 4. The refrigerant vapour is adsorbed onto the other adsorber (right compartment in the figure). Heat is removed by the cooling water.
Figure. Schematic drawing of an adsorption chiller.
Once a compartment has been fully charged (saturation of the silica gel with water) and the other compartment fully regenerated, their functions are interchanged. In between, the two chambers may be directly coupled in order to achieve some heat recovery, since the hot chamber has to be cooled in the next step and vice versa. Only a few manufacturers produce adsorption chillers. The performance characteristics of some commercially available adsorption chillers are summarized in the next table.
Table. Commercially available adsorption chillers suitable for solar‐assisted air‐conditioning (only smallest available size included).
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES
Figure. Adsorption chiller from the manufacturer Nishyodo; the machine is used for solar‐assisted air‐conditioning of a laboratory building at a hospital in Freiburg/Germany
3. ‐ DESICCANT COOLING SYSTEMS
The use of sorption air dehumidification (whether with the help of solid desiccant material or liquid desiccants) opens new possibilities in air‐conditioning technology. This can offer an alternative to classic compression refrigeration equipment. Alternatively, if it is combined with standard vapour compression technology, it leads to higher efficiency by an increase of the required evaporator temperature of the compression cycle. Desiccant systems are used to produce conditioned fresh air directly. They are not intended to be used as systems where a cold liquid medium such as chilled water is used for heat removal, e.g., as for thermally driven chiller based systems. Therefore, they can be used only if the air‐conditioning system includes some equipment to remove the surplus internal loads by supplying conditioned ventilation air to the building. This air‐flow consists of ambient air, which needs to be cooled and dehumidified in order to meet the required supply air conditions. Desiccant cooling machines are designed to carry out these tasks. Economic advantages arise for desiccant cooling equipment when it is coupled with district heating or heat supplied from a combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Of particular interest is the coupling with thermal solar energy. The components of such systems are generally installed in an air‐handling unit and are activated according to the operation mode of the air‐conditioning system. These operation modes implement different physical processes for air treatment, depending on the load and the outdoor air conditions. These systems are based on the physical principle of evaporative and desiccant cooling. Unsaturated air is able to take up water until a state of equilibrium, namely saturation has been achieved. The lower the relative humidity of the air, the higher is the potential for evaporative cooling. The evaporative cooling process uses the evaporation of liquid water to cool an air stream. The evaporation heat that is necessary to transform liquid water into vapour is partially taken from the air. When water comes into contact with a primary warm air stream it evaporates and absorbs heat from the air, thus reducing the air temperature; at the same time, the water vapour content of the air
it is not possible to reduce the vapour content of the ventilation air. the ventilation air can be cooled to lower temperatures via subsequent indirect and direct evaporative cooling. i. will use one of the above mentioned cooling modes. Moreover. Schematic drawing of a desiccant cooling air‐handling unit. In this case. indirect or in a combined process. But. The most commonly used desiccant cooling process. using a desiccant cycle. in the range of 50°C to 100°C. the supply air is cooled directly by humidification and the process is referred to as direct evaporative cooling. In this case. which has been previously humidified and thus cooled. Fresh air conditions have a considerable effect on the amount of cooling that can be achieved.e. the solar desiccant cooling system. Regeneration heat must be supplied in order to remove the adsorbed (absorbed) water from the desiccant material. with the aim of providing comfort conditions in the building. works as follows (see the next figure): Figure. Systems employing liquid desiccants use air‐desiccant contactors in the form of packed towers or the like. -20- . the pre‐treatment involved is the desiccant dehumidification process to enhance the potential of evaporative cooling without obtaining a disproportionate high humidity ratio. which is based on the use of desiccant wheels.. in principle lowering of the temperature and the humidity ratio of ventilation air is possible. These two techniques of evaporative cooling can also be combined in a process that is known as combined evaporative cooling. This combined cooling process is referred to as desiccant cooling. depending on the cooling loads and environmental conditions. For this purpose.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES increases. depending on the desiccant material and the degree of dehumidification. Indirect evaporative cooling involves the heat exchange with another air stream (usually the exhaust air). The required heat is at a relatively low temperature. If the outdoor air is properly pre‐treated. Systems working with solid desiccant materials use either rotating wheels or periodically operated fixed‐bed systems. either direct. The dehumidification process uses either liquid or solid desiccants. direct evaporative cooling and/or indirect evaporative cooling and/or desiccant cooling. Using evaporative cooling. Complementing combined evaporative cooling with desiccant dehumidification enhances the cooling capacity of the cycle and thus it is possible to reach even lower temperatures. the water vapour content of the primary air stream is not influenced.
more than 20% of the air can go through the bypass thus saving regeneration heat and also electricity. For this reason. Table. the next table provides a list of desiccant wheel manufacturers. which is not implemented in most of the standard air‐handling units. because of the reduced pressure drop along the desiccant wheel. Depending on the actual conditions.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Figure. -21- . Manufacturers and product description of sorption dehumidifiers. Example of a desiccant air‐handling unit with desiccant wheel. along with a short description of the available products. It is important to mention that in many desiccant systems a bypass is installed which allows that some of the air coming from the heat recovery unit bypasses the regeneration air heater and the desiccant wheel. The sorption dehumidification unit is a central component in a desiccant cooling system.
the cooling demand can be decreased using energy saving equipment and applying passive techniques.‐ NEW CHILLER TECHNOLOGIES A new development for solar assisted air conditioning is a chiller based on the steam jet cycle. The load structure of a building or of a particular area of a building depends on the physical properties of the building and of the climate conditions at the location and thus on the thermal and radioactive solar gains. -22- . The evaporation temperature in these developments is approx. 5°C and the COP exceeds 0. to give an example. As a result of current studies the system can be economically competitive compare to other solar cooling technologies. and internal additional loads due to the technical equipment of the rooms. as it may be found necessary in some Mediterranean areas. But also in case of a low occupation density (office rooms). requiring high generation temperatures above 100°C and running with a comparatively low thermal COP around 0. COP values at part‐load operation may exceed the value 1. Since a high exploitation of the solar system is desired. this type of chillers is preferably used in industrial processes with high chilling power demand and continuous operation.5. the supply air may have to be cooled and dehumidified at locations with high humidity of the hot ambient air. Further cost reductions are likely with series manufacturing of adapted steam jet systems. a precise knowledge on the load structure plays a key role. Currently. using Ammonia‐Water as working fluid. Furthermore. This type of chillers is usually manufactured with large capacities for refrigeration temperatures below 0°C.0. 5. concentrating collectors with tracking systems are required. promising NH3/H2O chillers have been adapted to work with low generator temperatures between 65°C‐80°C and thus can be heated by solar thermal systems. Further development has been made on absorption chillers. the heating demand of the building should be integrated into the calculation as well. Chilling power control is obtained by switching up to four steam jet units stepwise according to the load demand. As an advantage in comparison to absorption and adsorption chillers. In pilot projects and pre‐investigations. and of course on the usage of the building: occupancy and frequency of occupancy. In pilot projects. ‐ APPLICATION OF SOLAR ASSISTED AIR‐CONDITIONING SYSTEMS As there are many different solutions in the planning of a solar assisted air‐conditioning system are possible. Only water is used in the fluid cycle and the construction principle is simple without moving parts. Here desiccant cooling technology might be an appropriate choice. to support the decision on a specific type of a solar assisted air conditioning system.6. this chiller principle is adapted to small size units (20‐200 kW cooling power) to be combined with solar thermal systems. High latent loads have to be removed with high air exchange rates of an air handling unit typically in case of lecture or seminar rooms.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES 4. The driving temperature of the proposed steam jet cycle chillers is typically 200°C and thus. such as night ventilation in combination with the thermal inertia of the building.
but provide high comfort. However. climatic conditions with high humidity values of the ambient air.e.e. -23- . Depending on the cooling loads and also according to the desire of the users/owner. temperature and humidity of indoor are to be controlled.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Other questions may arise from a construction point of view or from economic considerations: is it always possible to implement the required air ducts or is it more favorable to implement a chilled water network? Which system matches at best the existing technical infrastructure of a building. a pure water system or hybrid air/water systems are possible for extraction of heat and humidity out of the building. In all other cases only thermally driven chillers can be used in order to employ solar thermal energy as driving energy source. The figure that follows shows a simplified decision scheme for solar assisted air conditioning technologies. i. which is not newly designed? For instance. A basic assumption is that both. chilled ceilings and other gravity cooling systems require for high investment cost. a supply/return air system makes only sense in a rather tight building. AHU = air handling unit. whether an adsorption chiller or an absorption chiller is applied. i. desiccant systems as well as thermally driven chillers.g. It is not decided here. type of collectors). The basic technical decision is whether or not the hygienic air change is sufficient to cover also cooling loads (sensible + latent).g. Application of desiccant technique in extreme climates.. This is more subject to the heating system (e. e. either a pure air system. cooling the air below the dew point or whether air dehumidification is realized by a desiccant process. ‐ Economical issues. but allow dehumidification only when connected to a drainage system. the additional required chiller for peak‐load cooling may be an electric driven compression chiller for economical reasons. centralized air handling systems using supply and return air require a certain level of air tightness in order to work efficiently. such as e. It has to be kept in mind that the following tasks cannot be considered in this condensed presentation: ‐Necessity of a backup system for the cold production or to allow solar autonomous operation of the solar assisted air conditioning system.e. The lowest required temperature level of chilled water is determined by the question whether air dehumidification is realized by conventional technique. ‐ Availability of water for humidification of supply air or for cooling towers. lecture rooms. since otherwise the leakages through the building shell is too high... In cases of supply/return air systems both thermally driven technologies are applicable. Short cuts: DEC = desiccant cooling. This will typically be the case in rooms/buildings with a requirement of high ventilation rates. If a DEC system is applied.g. In the latter case the temperature of chilled water (if needed at all) can be higher since it has to cover only sensible loads. to allow certain deviations from the desired air states. Figure. ‐Comfort habits for room installations: fan coils have lowest investment cost. ‐ Flexibility in comfort conditions. the following Figure provides a simplified decision scheme on possible applications of solar assisted air conditioning. The solar heat is then used for the regeneration of the desiccant wheel. The starting point always is a calculation of cooling loads based on the design case. However. i. special configurations of the desiccant cycle are necessary in order to be able to employ this technology. each decision results in a solution which includes use of solar thermal energy for conditioning of indoor air. Finally.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES -24- .
For this reason a basic energy balance can help to assess the energy saving potential. It is evident that solar assisted air‐conditioning systems should be designed in order to save primary energy consumption. POTENTIAL OF SOLAR ASSISTED AIR‐CONDITIONING SYSTEMS With respect on environmental issues.5. compared to a conventional system solution. In this calculation. and b) a COPconv of 4. a primary energy conversion factor for electricity of 0. ‐ PRIMARY ENERGY SAVING.2. a primary energy conversion factor for heat from fossil fuels of 0. Furthermore. The figure down shows as an example the specific primary energy consumption as a function of the solar fraction.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES 6. and PEaux denotes the specific primary energy consumption of auxiliary components like for example a cooling tower and other fluid pumps.5.36 (kWh of electricity per kWh of primary energy) is applied. whereas the latter represents a high efficient large size compression chiller.9 (kWh of heat per kWh of primary energy) is assumed. efossil being primary energy conversion factor of a burner using fossil fuels. The specific primary energy consumption of a solar/fossil fueled hybrid system is defined by expressing the amount of consumed primary energy per produced kWh cold: with SFcool being the solar fraction (1 = total coverage of the cooling load by the solar system.6 to 1. some pre‐conditions in the planning and sizing phase may be derived from simple rules and calculations. The different slopes of the curves reflect different average COPthermal values of the process from 0. -25- . 0 = no contribution of the solar system to the cooling load coverage). the figure shows two horizontal lines: these are the specific primary energy consumptions of conventional electrically driven compression chillers with a) a COPconv of 2. Additionally.
The following conclusions can be drawn from these considerations: • A thermally driven cooling system with a comparatively low COP and a fossil fuel heat source as a backup. a conventional chiller as backup system may be used.5. e. 0. Specific Primary Energy consumption of solar assisted cooling systems as a function of the solar fraction for different values of COPthermal.5. The reason is that the heat from the fossil fuel burner is also converted at a high COPthermal. each unit of cold provided by the solar thermally driven chiller reduces the cold to be delivered by the conventional unit. ‐ ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF SOLAR ASSISTED AIR‐CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Most of today’s realized solar air conditioning projects are of research or demonstration nature and still a lot of additional design and planning effort is necessary in the implementation phase of such a project. This has to be guaranteed by a properly design of the system. This. competitive with a conventional system from a primary energy point of view.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Figure. Assuming for example a thermally driven chiller system with an average COPthermal of 0. requires a high solar fraction in order to achieve significant primary energy savings. In this concept. • Alternatively. sufficient large storages and other measures in order to maximize the use of solar heat. the primary energy consumption for conventional electrically driven compression chillers with two different values of COPconv is shown (horizontal lines).7. The solar system then serves mainly to reduce the electrical energy consumption. • When a heat backup using fuels is applied. the use of the solar collector should be maximized by supplying heat also to other loads such as the building heating system and/or hot water production. If the conventional chiller works with a high COPconv of 4. 7. and the production of particular components currently below the level of industrial large series manufacturing. • Solar thermally autonomous systems do not require any other cold source and therefore always work at the limit with a 100% solar fraction. causes investment cost clearly above the investment cost of a conventional system solution. to save primary energy compared to a conventional chiller system with a COPconv of 2. primary energy savings are achieved at solar fraction of > 0. • Systems with a thermally driven chiller with a high COPthermal may be designed with a smaller solar fraction even if a fossil fuel heat backup source is applied. a sufficient large solar collector area. Additionally. any replacement of fossil fuels by fuels from renewable sources such as biomass will increase the fossil fuel conversion factor (εfossil → ∞ in case of 100% biomass fuel. • In any case. This design allows some primary energy savings even at low values of solar fraction.5.g. although the solar driven cooling system can support environmental protection by saving -26- . the system has to be designed for a solar fraction of approx.6. only PEaux is then contributing to the specific primary energy consumption) and thus decreases the primary energy consumption of the thermally driven system.
e. All solar assisted systems have been compared to defined reference systems. i. on the site and applied technology). office building and hotel) were applied and beside different technical approaches in the configuration of the cooling system. • The annual cost are in general distinctly higher for systems with thermally driven chillers. • Saved primary energy. -27- . The results of the survey can be summarized as follows: • The potential in saving primary energy is high for solar assisted air conditioning systems using thermally driven chillers (up to 50% using high efficient solar collectors) and moderate for desiccant cooling systems (up to 30%). Palermo. depending on the load structure. Three typical load structures (lecture room. but does not include installation cost). The key figures. different types of solar collectors were investigated.. compared to the annual cost of a conventional designed system without solar assistance. reported in the study. The European sites Madrid. Athens.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES primary energy considerably and thus contributes to the goals in reducing greenhouse relevant emissions. which are the conventional solutions without any solar assistance. air cooling or cooling tower. Specific cost ranges for different chiller types as a function of the cooling power (cost figures include heat rejection device. Figure. compared to conventional systems using an electric driven vapour compression chiller (up to 190% of the annual cost of the reference system. Perpignan and Freiburg were selected to include different meteorological areas from moderate continental climate to Mediterranean humid climate into the survey. • Cost of saved primary energy. are: • Annual cost. • Net collector efficiency.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES • The annual cost are in general moderately higher for desiccant cooling systems. lowest values are 60°C. standard flat‐plate collectors and solar air collectors may be implemented with most benefit in solar assisted desiccant systems. the cooling and heating system is mandatory in order to maximize its use and thereby improving the economic conditions. high efficient collectors are to be implemented.g. Consequently. For thermally driven chillers. evacuated tube collectors. a heat backup is more advantageous. Highest temperatures may be achieved with fixed mounted evacuated tube collectors using optical concentration or even with tracking collectors using high optical concentration at regions with sufficiently high amounts of solar beam radiation. an ideal stratification in the hot water storage is difficult and the return temperature to the solar collector is relatively high as well. For other areas and for chillers requiring higher driving temperatures. • Collector type: in desiccant cooling systems are mostly common flat plate collectors sufficient. the difference in the operation of the solar collectors compared to solar thermal collector systems for hot water production is the high temperature level. 8. the most promising collector type depends on the load pattern and on the chiller type. The figure that follows shows typical efficiency curves for different solar thermal collectors. at which the useful heat has to be provided. compared to conventional air handling systems with an electric driven vapour compression chiller (up to 115% of the annual cost of the reference system). the driving temperature is mainly above 80°C. -28- . an electric compression chiller as backup chilling device system leads to lower cost than a heat beck up. • Backup system: in most considered systems with thermally driven chillers. Due to the high volume flow rates in the heat supply cycle. evacuated tube collectors lead to a slight increase in annual cost only. the driving temperature is above 55°C up to 90°C. in systems using thermally driven chillers. but with high positive effect in primary energy saving and on the net collector efficiency. ‐ THERMAL COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR ASSISTED AIR‐CONDITIONING SYSTEMS In solar assisted air conditioning systems. For desiccant cooling systems. • The use of the solar collector system in both. In configurations using an adsorption chiller or a single‐ effect absorption chiller. e. in desiccant cooling systems. This causes some restrictions in the selection of the collector type. the use of selectively coated flatplate collectors is limited to areas with high irradiation availability. This is an interesting option for solar assisted air conditioning system using high efficient absorption chillers (2‐effect) or new technologies such as steam jet cycle chillers. Often.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE AND ACTIVE TECHNIQUES Figure. EHP = evacuated tube collector with heat pipe. The marked areas characterize the typical operation area of the different thermally driven cooling/air conditioning processes. CPC = stationary compound parabolic collector. -29- . EDF = evacuated tube collector with direct flow. Typical efficiency curves of different solar thermal collectors as a function of the difference in the operation temperature of the collector and the ambient temperature. Meaning of the abbreviations: SAC = solar air collector. SYC = concentrating evacuated tube collector. FPC = flat plate collector. Whereas all collectors are applicable for desiccant cooling systems (but economically senseless for expensive high efficient collectors). ΔT. only direct‐flow evacuated tube collectors and concentrating systems can be combined with 2‐effect absorption chillers. divided by the radiation in collector plane. G.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD “CALCULATION OF THE LOAD” -30- .
the following simplifications are going to be considered: 2. in order to determinate the cooling power necessary for the airconditioning system. These loads are going to be calculated with the program dpclima 1. which is much known in Spain to these types of work. Simplified representation of Building D. since these areas will not be conditioned. ‐ SIMPLIFICATIONS Figure. It will be considerate the following standard distribution of every floor. with the most important measures and the orientation - The loads of the ground floor and the 7th floor are not necessary to be calculated. Photo. The intention of the following paragraphs is to calculate the summer loads of the D building in BME campus (Budapest). The ground floor because there are a lot of trees that cover the surface of this floor and the 7th floor because it is only for the maintenance of the building.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD 1. ‐ INTRODUCTION The purpose of this project is design a solar air-conditioning system to cool a building. BME campus In order to make the work easy. Building D. in this design is necessary to calculate the loads that influence in the temperature of the building. since all the floors have variations: - -31- .3. First of all.
5 meters. Like the ground floor and the 7th floor. Representation of the standard distribution of Building D to calculate the load. - It will be considerate that the height of all the floors is 3. corridors. - -32- . halls and toilets will not be conditioned. although the first floor height is a little more different than the rest of the floors.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD Figure. stairs.
There are shown the graphics of temperature. – CLIMATIC DATA OF BUDAPEST The building is in Budapest. Color code: January August February September March October April November May(White) December June July Figure. Materiales circundantes = Surrounding materials. Summer evolution of Budapest is exposed in the followings figures. Ts. Turbiedad atmosférica = Turbid of the atmosphere. the result is shown in the next figure: Figure.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD 3.ext. Latitud = Latitude. temperature of the land and global radiation of the sun. Terreno = Temperature of the land. humidity. Temp. Consulting the data of this city in the mentioned program. Verano = Summer.ext. Altitud = Altitude. Budapest data from the Ashrae norm.máx = Maximum outside dry temperature. Evolution of the temperature according to the hour of the day (ºC) -33- . Hungary. Velocidad del viento = Wind speed.máx = Maximum outside humid temperature. which has a good data base accord with Ashrae norm. φ = Humidity. Invierno = Winter. Localidad = Locality. Th.
Evolution of the relative humidity according to the hour of the day (%) Figure. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Temperature of the land (ºC) Figure.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD Figure. Right: North surface -34- . Left: horizontal surface.
Right: North‐East surface Figure. Right: South‐East surface Figure. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Right: South surface -35- . Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Left: South‐South‐East surface.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD Figure. Right: East surface Figure. Left: East‐South‐East surface. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Left: North‐North‐East surface. Left: East‐North‐East surface. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2).
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD Figure. Right: North‐West Figure. Right: South‐West surface Figure. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Left: West‐North‐West. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Left: North‐North‐West surface. Left: West‐South‐West surface. Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Global radiation of the sun (W/m2). Left: South‐South‐West surface. Right: West surface Figure. Right: Normal direct radiation -36- .
7 for the windows. It is going to be considerate a ratio increase coefficient in the locals of 5 %. The activity considerate will be seated with slight work / standing up without movement. – CONSIDERATIONS Building: The period considerate to calculate the loads is summer . and another 5 % coefficient for the own load of the installation. Diffuse radiation on horizontal surface 4.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD Figure. because from 8 to 18 hours in summer they are not necessary. Locals: For the occupation of each one of the locals. Zones: The building has been separated in two zones (two controls of temperature) for a correct operation of the system. The inner conditions of comfort in the locals will be 25ºC for the temperature and 55% for de humidity. The height by defect in the locals will be 3.2 for the exterior walls. it will be considerate that there will be 2 persons and one computer per office.4 for the zone under the windows according the information of the building. It is going to be considerate a ratio increase coefficient in the zones of 5 %. Lights are not included in this load calculation.5 m. 1 for the interior walls and 0. It is going to be considerate a ratio increase coefficient in the building of 5 %. The Temperature of impulsion in refrigeration will be 14ºC. and another 5 % coefficient for the own load of the installation. One zone corresponds to offices 1 to 26 (with north orientation) and the other corresponds to offices 27 to 48 (with South orientation). The Thermal conductivity (k) will be 1. It will be used a 100 % coefficient of use to increase the capacity of the equipment. it will be considerate that the schedule of the D building will be from 8 to 18 hours. 1. -37- . in concrete it will be used the period May to September. In adition.
LOAD IN OFFICES: ZONE NORTH: Maximum: 1201 W (July at 14 hours) Maximum: 1110 W (July at 14 hours) Maximum: 1066 W (July at 14 hours) ZONE SOUTH: Maximum: 1083 W (July at 14 hours) Maximum: 2082 W (September at 13 hours) Maximum: 2148 W (September at 13 hours) -38- . – CONCLUSIONS The result of to introduce all the considerations in the mentioned program is shown in the following graphics: Color code: May June July August September 5.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD 5.1 .
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD Maximum: 2107 W (September at 13 hours) 5.LOAD IN THE BUILDING: Maximum: 377928 W (August at 13 hours) -39- .3 .LOAD IN ZONES: ZONE NORTH: ZONE SOUTH: Maximum: 30091 W (July at 14 hours) Maximum: 49339 W (September at 13 hours) 5.2 .
because of this it is necessary to get a refrigeration machine (in this case it will be used an absorption machine) with approximately 380 kW of cooling power. This peak demand has a value of 377928 W.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING CALCULATION OF THE LOAD COMPARISON OF TYPE OF LOADS PER MONTH: Color code: Total Walls Windows Occupant Computer May June July August September Therefore. -40- . the cooling power needed for the air-conditioning system for the whole building has to cover the peak demand. which is situated at 13 hours in the month of August.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION “EQUIPMENT SELECTION” -41- .
‐ INTRODUCTION Once the power necessary for cooling the building is calculated. the next step is to select the equipment necessary to be installed. -42- . but this area could be expanded to about 800 m2.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 1. This power will be contributed to the system through a gas burner. Most common technologies used in combination with solar heat. it is possible to determine the necessary auxiliary power. In our case. for space limitations. the catchment area will be 600 m2 as limit. in this case. it is necessary to know how much refrigeration power is achieved in uptake with the solar vacuum tubes and how is the auxiliary power added by otherwise. Solar assisted air conditioning systems operated so far may be classified into: Table. it is going to be used the highlighted technology of the most common technologies used in combination with solar heat that are shown in the following table. First of all. It is going to be considerate that. 2. ‐ CALCULATION OF THE AUXILIARY POWER Comparing a monthly curve of the power obtained by solar energy and the curve of thermal load.
it is necessa to add 192 kW throu the gas heater. .UTIL LIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FO OR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELE E ECTION The mention curves a shown now: ned are MAY M 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 8 9 10 11 1 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 6 0 Solar hours 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Power (kW) Power (kW) JUNE 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 Solar h hours JU ULY 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 8 9 10 11 1 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 6 0 Solar hours 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Power (kW) Power (kW) AUGUST A T 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 Solar h hours SEP PTEMBER 40 00 35 50 30 00 25 50 20 00 15 50 10 00 50 5 0 8 9 10 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 5 9 Solar hou urs Graphics.7 in t the vacuum tu ubes. ary ugh -43- . Co omparison of t the solar pow wer captured a and the load curves. Power (kW) Measuring o the graph the max on hics ximum diffe erence betwe load and radiation. which occu in Augus een d urs st at 18 hours. It was c considerate a catchment area of 600 m2 and an efficiency about 0.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3. Figure.1. heat storage tank. The main functionality of the plant is chilled water generation for air conditioning. -44- . It is used to supply hot water to an absorption machine. gas heater and absorption machine. which generates chilled water for air conditioning. but it will be able to use the system in winter for heating the building. The plant includes buffer storage and an auxiliary energy system to be used in case the solar energy supply is not enough. ‐ EQUIPMENT SELECTION HYBRID SYSTEM: SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING PLANT BUILDING D FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS (HUNGARY) 3. Solar air conditioning plant system. . The plant is composed of four subsystems: solar collector fields.DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS The process is a cooling plant that consists in a field of solar vacuum tube collectors.
The heat exchanger pipe feeds into a distributor pipe. Up to 6 m2 collector surface can be joined in parallel and a further 6 m2 collector surface can be joined. through which the process medium flows. the standard delivery includes flexible connecting pipes with O-rings. Product description: Vitosol 200 vacuum tube collectors are available in the following versions: • • 2 m2 with 20 pipes 3 m2 with 30 pipes The Vitosol 200 can be installed on pitched roofs. A kit with locking ring fittings enables the collector array to be readily joined to the pipes of the solar circuit.1. to form a collector array (collector arrays arranged in series should be of the same size). It ensures high absorption of solar radiation and low emission of thermal radiation. . .2. flat roofs or on walls. In order to fully utilize the solar energy. when joining several collectors. A coaxial heat exchanger pipe. Install the collector temperature sensor into a sensor well in the flow pipe of the solar heating circuit. The flow and return pipes integrated into the connection housing enable the connection of solar flow and solar return pipes on one side. in series. The process medium picks up the heat from the absorber via the heat exchanger pipe. This enables the utilization of even low radiation levels (diffused radiation). -45- . Convection losses between the glass tube and the absorber are almost completely eliminated. for space limitations and the technology and mark of the collectors will be: Vacuum tube solar collectors mark Vitosol 200-T. every vacuum tube is able to pivot so that the absorber can be turned towards the sun. A Sol-titanium coated copper absorber is built into each vacuum tube. For this purpose.SOLAR COLLECTOR FIELD (Vitosol 200-T vacuum tube collectors) The catchment area will be 600 m2 as limit. The vacuum in the glass tubes ensures optimum heat insulation. On pitched roofs the collectors may be positioned longitudinally (tubes at right angles to the ridge of the roof) or across (tubes parallel to the ridge of the roof). is arranged on the absorber.2.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3.DESCRIPTION OF THE ELEMENTS OF THE PROCESS: 3.
-46- .UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION Figure. walls and freestanding installation. direct flow vacuum tube collector for high solar energy utilization. Characteristics: • • • Highly efficient. Universal application through vertical or horizontal installation in any location. Vitosol 200‐T. on rooftops. Easy and safe connection of the individual tubes through an innovative plug-in system.
The flow and return connection on one side through the integral header inside the header casing minimizes the effort required in connecting the pipework. which are integral to the vacuum tubes. -47- . Tubes can be rotated for optimum alignment with the sun. thereby maximizing the energy yield. Highly effective thermal insulation of the header casing for minimum thermal losses. are not susceptible to contamination.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION • • • • • The absorber surfaces. Easy installation through the Viessmann fixing system and corrugated stainless steel plug-in pipe connectors.
Installation with Vitosol 200‐T.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION Image. -48- .
284 USRT. .2. Control of the optimum conditions of operation using a microprocessor controller (PID). Single‐effect hot water fired absorption machine. and minimizing downtime of the operation. LS model LWM‐W012 (LiBr and water).95 USRT.7 and they are feed with hot water between 85-90 ° C. It is going to be selected one absorption machine of 113 USRT = 397. -49- . Low energy consumption.2. preventing the crystallization BrLi-H2O. maintenance and repair of the system.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3. Reduction of energy consumption maintaining the concentration of the solution absorbing at an optimal level.76 kW that is the first machine of this manufacturer that covers the demand of power. thanks to the wide monitor LCD. These machines have a valve of service that allows an easy sampling of the coolant and the absorbent solution. Image. The power needed is 380 kW and 1 kW is approximately 0. alarm damage and storing information operation. Easy and fast verification of the operation of the state. These machines have a compact design and lightweight structure that help save space installation and facilitate transportation.ABSORPTION MACHINE (LS LWM-W012 LiBr-H2O) Characteristics: The absorption machines with single effect have a COP about 0. Remote Control System for up to 8 units. therefore it is needed a minimum power of 107.
Technical characteristics: -50- .UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION Image. Cycle of Single‐effect hot water fired absorption machine.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION Dimensions: -51- .
It will be necessary to use two units of 96 kW each one in cascade to meet the 192 kW of the maximum demand. 72 to 144 kW. A huge plus as far as the environment and your wallet are concerned. but also minimum noise levels during its operation and on starting. These include heating surfaces made from special cast iron. -52- .3. Product description: The Vitogas 200-F has true stature from 72 to 144 kW or as cascade up to 432 kW. The standard components of the powerful gas fired cascade are the proven Vitogas 200-F (up to 144 kW). where quiet operation and an optimum price/performance ratio area must. Low energy consumption through modulating boiler water temperature. Standard efficiency: 84 % (Hs) / 93 % (Hi). Pre-assembled boiler body for output between 72 and 144 kW.2. This makes the Vitogas 200-F an ideal solution even in larger buildings. . This ensures rapid. the atmospheric premix burner and the Vitotronic digital control units for operation with modulating boiler water temperature. ensuring a balanced loading of the burner and the heating surfaces that is kinder on the materials used. The Vitogas 200-F ensures high operational reliability.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3. low noise ignition through intermittent ignition system. low emissions and low energy consumption. also as dual or triple-boiler systems with matching flue gas header. Highly reliable and gentle. This is easily explained: The special feature of this burner is its segmentation into several gas fittings. High operational reliability and a long service life through heating surfaces made from special cast iron with lamellar graphite and low heating surface load. the matching flue gas header and the Vitotronic control unit. Vitogas 200‐F multiboiler The stainless steel atmospheric premix burner not only ensures excellent emission values. even gas distribution and reduces the start-up noise development to a minimum.AUXILIARY BOILER (Vitogas 200-F) It will be used for the auxiliary power needed when the solar energy is not sufficient a Gas burner mark Vitogas 200-F. Even in partial load operation the entire burner area is fired up. or supplied in individual cast iron sections. Image. Characteristics: • • • • • • Atmospheric low temperature gas fired boiler.
001m Kg ⋅º C It is going to be selected two towers of 320.2. -53- . Characteristics (Up) and Section (Down) of Vitogas 200‐F multiboiler 3. the specific heat of the water and the temperatures of the water before (20ºC) and after (12ºC) the cooling tower. it is possible to see the data of the flow rate of the chilled water. This data is 68. it is possible to calculate the power needed in the cooling tower: Power needed = 68.5 m3/h.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION Image.3 kW 3 3 h 3600 s 1dm 0.5 m3 1h 1Kg 1dm 3 kJ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ 4. With this data.18 ⋅ (20 − 12)º C = 636.4. .CALCULATION OF THE COOLING TOWER POWER NEEDED Looking in the absorption machine characteristics.
one of the most important characteristics being precisely their unrivalled storage capacity. Image. Storage tank brand Lapesa. a cathodic protection unit comprising magnesium anodes and an anode load measurer. Exclusive system of exchangers comprising a set of removable coils that join together the primary circuit flow and return collectors. – STORAGE TANKS (Lapesa Master Europa DHW 3000 x 2) Product description: Large capacity storage tanks made of steel for the production and storage of industrial hot water. Characteristics: º -54- . model Master Europa. Permanent cathodic protection unit and. All of the tanks are insulated with 80 mm thick solid mould-injected polyurethane foam of optimum density and CFC-free. made in stainless steel.5.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3. Connections for the incorporation of external heating elements at the main as a support system or an external energy source.2. as an option.
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION -55- .
it has been selected the following fan coil of the trademark Broad – Thin series with a cooling capacity of 2. which is the maximum load to cover in each of the offices.FAN COILS (Broad thin series) For the selection of the type of fan coil it is necessary to know that the minimum power is 2.15 kW.2. .6. With this data.7 kW: -56- .UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3.
9. The gas heater is used when the absorption machine input temperature is inadequate. Using the solar collectors and gas heater. and loading tanks: The water from the solar collectors is divided into the tanks and the absorption machine. the storage energy in the tanks is considered at the final day. Using tanks: When little solar radiation is appeared. The gas heater on must be avoided too. 7. Loading the tanks and using the gas heater: The tanks are loaded with hot water. The gas heater on must be avoided. When a little solar radiation is appeared. Using the tanks and gas heater: The water of absorption machine is given by the tanks.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3. The water of absorption machine is given by the gas heater. The water flows to absorption machine. then the stored hot water is used. 6. Besides. 3. Using the gas heater: The water is heated in the gas heater. which can be combined or used independently. The inlet water to the absorption machine is from the solar collectors and gas heater. 10.4. Recirculation: All water flow through the solar collectors. Loading the tanks with hot water: The water in the solar collectors flows through the tanks. 2. the water temperature is elevated. . 11. -57- .OPERATING MODES OF THE PROCESS 1. thermal energy coming from a storage tank can be added to the system. 3. 8. The gas heater is used when the absorption machine input temperature is not enough. then the heat stored in the tanks is used to operate the absorption machine. – OBJECTIVES OF THE PROCESS AND SPECIFIC CONTROL AIMS The main objective is to keep the outlet air temperature at its desired setpoint. minimizing auxiliary energy (gas) consumption and fulfilling operational constraints in the absorption machine. The primary energy source (solar radiation) cannot manipulated and has to be treated as a measurable disturbance. In this mode. Using the solar collectors and gas heater: The water is heated in the solar collectors. The plant can be re-configured on-line manipulating electrovalves and pumps (on/off) to allow selecting the components for energy supply.3. Recirculation and using the gas heater: The water is recirculated through the solar collectors. The water to the absorption machine from the gas heater only. Also. Using the solar collectors: The water is heated in the solar collectors. and then it flows through the absorption machine. 4. The hybrid nature of the plant comes from the use of two different energy sources (solar and gas). 5. Using the solar collectors and loading tank: The water from the solar collectors is divided into the tanks and the absorption machine.
The electrovalves allows to connect this elements: • Solar field to absorption machine • Solar field to tank • Tank to absorption machine • Gas heater to absorption machine 3.5. The discrete manipulated variables are the electrovalves’s set and the on’s pumps. humidity.6.8. – DISTURBANCES The measured disturbances are the ambient air temperature. – INSTRUMENTATION AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM OF THE PROCESS The instrumentation of the process is composed for a great number of instruments which are used to measure the exchanged energy in every element: flowmeters. which can shut down some equipment if these limits are violated. the maximum temperatures at the gas heater.9. wind speed and direction (anemometer)… The control system is based on a Simatic IT. pressure transmitters. temperature transmitters. For example. 3. – MANIPULATED VARIABLES The continuos manipulated variables are the three-way valve in the absorption machine inlet and the pump’s velocity in the solar collectors. adequate temperature in the absorption machine inlet.7. – CONTROLLED VARIABLES AND CONSTRAINTS The continuous controlled variable is the chilled water temperature. solar radiation (pyrheliometer). 3. ambient temperature. it has a variable set point depending on load.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT SELECTION 3. The continuous constraints are to keep the absorption machine inlet water temperature between 80ºC and 110 ºC. which uses a multifunctional controller (PMC) connected to the supervisor PC by LAN. maximum and minimum temperatures in the solar field. – SECURITY Operational constraints are included in the control system. the solar radiation and the inlet chilled water temperature. 3. -58- .
UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY “INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY” -59- .
60 2419. runing with LiBr-H2O. fully assembled.58 75.00 17.60 10. tested and running. including piping. tested and running. model VITOSOL 200-T.00 1.88 001T TOTAL SOLAR FIELD (600 m2) 200 2605. with 113 USRT of cooling power.00 12.56 173.32 Price 29.00 10.29 Price 26.78 € Absorption machine.60 1047. 3 m2 of surface of catchment.00 Amount 447.32 € Solar collector vacuum tubes system.66 45. optical performance coefficient of 84% and losses coefficient of 1.50 3.32 002T TOTAL ABSORPTION MACHINE LS LWM-W012 LIBR-H2O 69268.33 22. VITOSOL 200-T Small material Indirect costs Quantity 2.00 25.30 6145.80 61455. brand LS.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY 1. Descomposition Code 001A 001B 001C 001D 001E Unity Hr Hr Un % % Description Installer: First officer Installer: Assistant Solar collector VIESSMANN.75 W/m2 x C.00 0.17 25. model LWM-W012.10 61455. delivered to hungary.78 € -60- .60 349.00 2. fully assembled.00 1. pumps and accessories (the cooling tower is not included). Descomposition Code 002A 002B 002C 002D 002E Unity Hr Un Un % % Description Installer team ABSORPTION MACHINE LS LWM-W012 LIBRH 2O Pumps Piping + valves + accesories + small material Indirect costs Quantity 15. ‐ INITIAL INVESTMENT 0010 Unity SOLAR COLLECTORS VITOSOL 200-T 2605.32 521064 € 0020 Unity ABSORPTION MACHINE LS LWM-W012 LIBR-H2O 69268. brand VIESSMANN.00 3.00 Amount 52.20 2419.00 61455.
tested and running.19 10108.00 1.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY 0030 Unity COOLING TOWER (320 kW) 5054.00 1.00 17.00 Amount 173.37 € -61- .28 181.30 85.79 1143.00 4.19 € Cooling tower with centrifugal fan.34 15.16 4655. 96kW + 96 kW of power in cascade including accessories. Descomposition Code 003A 003B 003C 003D 003E Unity Hr Hr Un Hr % Description Installer: First officer Installer: Assistant Cooling tower (320 kW) Telescopic crane Indirect costs Quantity 4. tested and running.79 4655.96 004T TOTAL AUXILIARY BOILER VITOGAS 200-F (192 KW) 3299.47 3. Descomposition Code 004A 004B 004C 004D 004E Unity Hr Hr Un Un % Description Installer: First officer Installer: Assistant Auxiliary boiler Vitogas 200-F Control equipment for leaks Indirect costs Quantity 10.36 63. support antivibration.00 10.00 1.85 7. model 200-F.38 € 0040 Unity AUXILIARY BOILER VITOGAS 200-F (192 kW) 3299.64 628.82 628.09 003T TOTAL COOLING TOWER (640 KW) 2 5054.47 51.00 2. brand Vitogas.34 15.32 Price 17.30 56.87 Price 17. installed.90 2287.50 25.37 € Auxiliary boiler: gas burner.00 Amount 69.40 157. fully assembled.
700 W including accessories.00 3.80 7.235 15.00 612. model included in Thin Series.7 kW) 776. derivations.800 0.20 € 0060 lm PIPE (D = 200 mm) 24. brand Broad.21 € Lineal meter of helical Pipe.500 0. elbows.63 € Vertical fan-coil.10 4.60 34.60 14. type Isoair completely installed.500 1.00 Amount 52. tested and running.91 4. Descomposition Code Unity Description Installer: First officer Installer: Assistant Quantity Price Amount 006A 006B 006C 006D 006E Hr Hr lm m 2 0.00 5.69 0.79 612.32 Price 17.5 mm of galvanized sheet steel. sleeves and other accessories. with a refrigeration power of 2.00 2.20 4.64 005T TOTAL FAN COILS 5 x 48 (floors) x (offices) 776.63 186391.91 3.61 3.00 17.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY 0050 Unity FAN COIL BROAD THIN SERIES (2. e = 0.00 € * Note: The 1100 m of lineal piping corresponds to: Perimeter: 2 x 88 + 2 x 15 = 206 m 206 x 5 (floors) = 1030 m 1100 m to increase -62- .02 47.37 612.21 26631. fiberglass insulation.000 0. fully assembled. D = 200 mm.00 7. Descomposition Code 005A 005B 005C 005D 005E Unity Hr Hr Un % % Description Installer: First officer Installer: Assistant Fan coil Broad Valves and accesories Indirect costs Quantity 3.00 1.00 30.71 Tube FLEXIVER D-D/254 mm Fiberglass insulation type Isoair Indirect costs % 006T lm TOTAL PIPE OF THE BUILDING 1100* 24.34 15.
17 482.45 61.07 145. LAPESA DHW 5838.00 371.94 € Storage tank brand LAPESA of 3.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY 0070 Un STORAGE TANK 3000 l. etc… and regulation system.000 l.86 39.00 1.00 1.20 3868.45 7.00 Amount 231. interior protection against corrosion.00 1.90 3868.43 39.00 1. a network of steel pipes black soldier.00 742.07 145.17 482.94 11677.88 € 00T1 TOTAL INITIAL INVESTMENT 828440. completely installed.00 170.00 3.12 99. of capacity for vertical installation in galvanized carbon steel.07 007T TOTAL STORAGE TANKS 2 5838.00 56.64 99. for an operating pressure of 8 Kg/cm2.69 Price 28.00 2. purgador. safety valves thermometer gauge . circulation pump. Descomposition Code 007A 007B 007C 007D 007E 007F 007G 007H 007I Unity Hr Un Un Un Un lm Un Un % Description Installation team Storage tank LAPESA DHW-3000 Circulator 50/80 r Security valve 1/4" Termostat RX100 Piping Termostat TX300 Heat exchanger UF-6/11/5 Indirect costs Quantity 8.00 1.00 8.61 € -63- . cathodic protection.
controllers.69 007T TOTAL 1 YEAR OF CONTROL OF THE EQUIPMENT 6 311. . Descomposition Code 007A 007B 007C Unity Hr Hr % Description Engineer Assistant Indirect costs Quantity 5. fan coils.1. pipelines and power lines. .50 3. Periodic visits with detailed report every two months that will indicate the following: 1) Regulations applied.19 1867. . ELECTRICITY: 0. . ‐ GAS It will be calculated by month. 5) Follow-up to the deficiencies noted in previous visits. etc. 3) Results obtained (pursuant to the implementing rules and specifications of the project) with photographic and written information. absorption machine. fixing systems. (Price per unit of equipment).) to the installation of air conditioning. – OPERATIONAL COST Consulting the Hungarian web page www.Accessibility of the facility for maintenance.00 28.gov.144 €/Kw. Resolution of the same.Sujección of equipment. Control drains.14 € 3.eh. 4) Conclusion. . 2) State of the works. In the following page are shown the mentioned graphics.19 € Unity of control performance of the equipment (units outside and units interiors. which impacted mainly in the following aspects:-Type and disposition of equipment according to the project.Placing silent-bloc. Then is presented the calculation of the gas demand by day and month from May to September.00 5. It is necessary to know the power added by the gas burner.4 €. because as it is known the demand of auxiliary gas is different depending of the radiation of the sun that is different in the different months. -64- .UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY 2. This was done to know the maximum power needed by the gas burner in the chapter 3. thus it is necessary to calculate the power contained between the curve of the load and the radiation one.h 3. – CONTROL COST 0070 Ud CONTROL OF THE EQUIPMENT 311.Connection refrigeration.00 1. and now it is presented by months.00 142.23 Price 33.hu it is possible to know the current price of the electricity and gas to evaluate the operational cost: GAS: 0.50 3.00 Amount 165.Checking noise emission.
UTIL LIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FO OR AIR‐CONDITIONING INV VESTMENT AND E ECONOMY MAY M 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 8 9 10 11 1 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 12 6 0 Solar hours 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Power (kW) Power (kW) JUNE 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 Solar h hours JU ULY 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 0 Solar hours 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 Power (kW) Power (kW) A AUGUST T 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 4 Solar h hours SEP PTEMBER 40 00 35 50 30 00 25 50 20 00 15 50 10 00 50 5 0 8 9 10 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 11 5 9 Power (kW) Solar hou urs Graphics. It was c considerate a catchment area of 600 m2 and an efficiency about 0. Co omparison of t the solar pow wer captured a and the load curves.7 in t the vacuum tu ubes. -65- .
67708 260 49.455 JULY 395.38404 280 354.557 9.90692 16 219.137 180.9741 262 290.582 [m3] x 0.0698 192.32854 83.85398 160 290.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY MAY RADIATION MAY LOAD JUNE RADIATION JUNE LOAD JULY RADIATION JULY LOAD AUGUST RADIATION AUGUST LOAD SEPTEMBER RADIATION SEPTEMBER LOAD GAS BURNER MAY GAS BURNER JUNE GAS BURNER JULY GAS BURNER AUGUST GAS BURNER SEPTEMBER 8 219.65652 1102.575 36.83698 40 32.44638 190 95.4311 230 231.572 Table.43276 319 354.32304 110.39758 280 10.0453 9.7506 210 164.34878 166.57412 265 11 356.2627 289 375.04812 210 336.6642 45 118.37146 270 288.582 m3 of gas needed in one day in MAY = 6.675 551.32292 178.38404 ‐44.60242 17 150.h] with one m3 of the gas in normal conditions (0ºC. Example of calculation: MAY 179.4[€/ m3] = Following the same procedure as in the example above.395 292.09308 327 ‐17.85048 13 357.82174 145.930 815. Calculation of the gas demand by month and solar hour.023 451.55776 30 217.648 132.14952 357 ‐78.55776 ‐95.972.66568 360 ‐38.00262 330 262. Then it is needed an auxiliary power through the gas burner by one day of month of: POWER NEEDED IN ONE DAY (kW) 179.6642 ‐20.372 16.372 [kW/day]/10.33432 15 279.574 1378.58898 ‐59.93228 ‐113.57322 34.354 ‐22.0936 350 320.659 JUNE 243.98992 ‐85.354 310 364.934 27.25094 320 ‐97.65122 231 79.4011 17.05428 378 262.659 € 16.59816 218 240.633 331.7713 300 118.947 40.977 129.657 68.32548 67.85398 ‐117. The negative numbers means that it is not necessary the Operationalization of the gas burner.59816 ‐54.18044 18 80.79414 90 0 80 0 51 22.4615 ‐96.03452 190 19 17.70196 285 177.17826 335 181.558 AUGUST 745.4 [€/ m3] (according the mentioned web page).30762 0 231.67696 245 149. TOTAL IN ONE SUMER 1.04326 ‐46.14346 289 336. Calculation of the volume in m3 and price in € of the auxiliary power by day and by month.14346 ‐26.74906 12 367.633 € x 20 working days = 132.5689 28.31064 5 9 279.98892 195 10 327.20586 80 51 20 0 0 0 35 0 55 0 60 0 39 0 35 55 60 39 ‐219.31374 ‐167. 1atm) and a price of 0.779 2038.43276 ‐4.04812 ‐201.4615 195 277.99738 57.4011 310 324.37248 152.224 37.01108 34. Power needed by day in summer months It will be considerate that the gas used has a LHV (low heating value) of: LHV: 9300 [Kcal/m3.9302 246 37.98992 259 365.57322 285 277.224 342 330.75548 MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER Table.96548 230 0 190 109.15814 80 17.81956 228 59.94572 107.31374 240 324.69488 14 327.714 € -66- .93228 288 230.2494 80.9741 ‐5.30512 370 ‐60.023 368 230.570 14.58898 50 177.2627 ‐65.470 SEPTEMBER 1102.67452 260 217.54202 78.755 101.45798 342 289.30762 ‐119.582 6.29804 122.0936 57.628 731.67146 368 273.817 [kW.57498 745.2287 161.31064 14.55362 135.0678 220 180.37146 ‐132.633 € in one day of MAY 6.04326 297 365.0453 310 320.62752 260 107.42588 Table.997 22. the results are shown in the next table: 3 m3 BY DAY POWER NEEDED IN ONE DAY (kW) € BY DAY m BY MONTH € BY MONTH MAY 179.817 kW=16.16302 47.N] = 10.84186 72.29264 94.70736 312 240.9973 395.0678 ‐0.37192 243.N] = 38940 [kJ/m3.
555 JULY 2985.000 221.824 € by day In a month with 20 working days: 276.349 € SAVED BY MONTH 1.h] x 0.395 2308.h] = 8.2 kVA. ABSORPTION MACHINE: Consulting in the chapter 3 the characteristics of the absorption machine.383 2142.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY If only was used gas to cool the building.100 € 1.58 [kW] x 10 [h] = 55.800 [kW.04 [kW] x 10 [h] = 0.000 267.2.512 € 239. it is possible to read that the electric consumption is 6.000 288.915.078 € 1.035 € by day In a month with 20 working days: 160.981 € MAY JUNE JULY AUGUST SEPTEMBER SAVED IN ONE SUMER 8.968 € 227.448 5772.128 5356.014 € 3.387 2000. Considering Cos φ= 0.400 [kW.955 110.366 € 1. then: 5. The machine works ten hours by day. the results are: 3 m3 BY DAY € BY DAY m BY MONTH € BY MONTH POWER NEEDED IN ONE DAY (kW) MAY 2396.326.064 1772.090 2207.h] by day 55.958 SEPTEMBER 2897.8 [kW.028 5001. – ELECTRICITY The higher costs of electricity are located in the absorption machine.636 AUGUST 3122.h] x 5 [floors] x 48 [offices] x 0.700 € From May to September: 803.h] = 13.639.480 € From May to September: 1382. 0.620 115.2 x 0.069 100.000 250.820.9.144 [€/kW.385 € 261.4 [kW. the fan coils and the pumps.503 88.046 € 66.601 4430.026 JUNE 2705. the consumption in kW is 6.488 € 1.553 Then the conclusion is that with the solar energy it is possible to save: SAVED BY DAY 81.h] by day 0. it is possible to read that the electric consumption is 40 W that is the power needed to move the fan.819 107.459.757.520 € FAN COILS: Consulting in the chapter 3 the characteristics of the fan coils.000 275.9=5.400 € -67- .382 5519.144 [€/kW.58 kW.
000 566.920 ABSORPTION MACHINE FAN COILS PUMPS TOTAL 3.000 € SUMMARIZING ELECTRICITY: € BY DAY 8.h] x 0.h] = 6.5 [kW] x 3 [number of pumps] x 10 [h] = 45.806. solar-assisted air-conditioning cannot. The grants are necessary to considerate.3. it is possible to conclude with the operational cost of the system in a period from May to September: TOTAL GAS + ELECTRICITY IN ONE SUMMER 4. since without financial incentives. This cost does not include the cost of the auxiliary consumptions like the water.480 28. for the time being (given the energy prices and system component costs that were used) be economically competitive to conventional systems. and can be considered a promising approach for the future. – SUMMARIZING OPERATIONAL COST Then adding up the cost of electricity and gas. -68- .400 129.382.634 € It is necessary to mention that the calculations have been done supposing the system working with all the elements and all the scheduled time that is not the real situation.480 € by day In a month with 20 working days: 129. that has to be replaced after 20 years for a solar or gas system.780 2.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING INVESTMENT AND ECONOMY PUMPS: Considering a power of 1500 W for each of the three pumps: 1.480 1.600 € From May to September: 648.520 276.144 [€/kW. with funds that support energy-saving measures and the use of systems that exploit renewable energy sources (as are available in several countries) solar-assisted air-conditioning become financially competitive.600 648.824 6.339 € BY MONTH € BY SUMMER 160.833.700 803.035 13.h] by day 45 [kW.000 [kW. However.
Saying. Hennin “Solar Radiation in Air Conditioning” Ivor S.energuia.gov.htm http://www.G.UTILIZATIONS OF SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR AIR‐CONDITIONING BIBLIOGRAPHY “BIBLIOGRAPHY” BOOKS: • “Advances in Solar Energy Technology” H.de/solarmagazin/artikeljuni2002-e. • • • • • • WEB-SITES: http://www.com/watch/816910/solar_air_conditioning http://raee.eh.com/ http://www.html http://www.1974 “Solar Air Conditioning and Refrigeration” A.hu -69- .metacafe.M. Hardcover “Solar-Assisted Air-Conditioning in build” Hans M. 1984 “Solar Energy Air Conditioning” National Science Fundation.A.org/climatisationsolaire/gb/presentation. Lim 1983 Springer “Analysis and Performance or Solar Energy Absorption Air Conditioning” Master Thesis. Garg 1987 Springer “Solar Energy Applications in the tropics” Bill B.P.solarserver.P. University of Delaware.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.