You are on page 1of 3 Urdu Poetry Ash'ar (Couplet).

It consists of two lines (MISRA); first line is called 'MISRA-E-OOLA' and the second is called 'MISRA-E-SANI'. Each verse embodies a single thought o r subject (sing) SHE'R. Bait Another term for SHE'R. Bait-Ul-Ghazal The best SHE'R in a GHAZAL Ghazal (Ode). The literary meaning of the word 'GHAZAL' is to converse with beloved. It is a poem containing minimum 5 verses and maximum 25. The opening Verse of the GHAZAL is called MATLA and both hemistiches rhyme with one another. The last ver se of the GHAZAL is called MAQTA which usually contains the penname of the poet. Most of Persian and Urdu writers have earned fame as GHAZAL writers. GHAZAL is the soul of Urdu literature and most popular form of Urdu poetry. Fard Composition of only a single SHE'R is called FARD. Hamd Poem written in praise of God. Hazal Poem with humourous subject. Hijv (Satire). A poem written to condemn or to abuse a person. This form of poetry is considered of low type and which is usually avoided by reputed poets. The exact opposite of HIJV is MADAH which is a poem written in praise of Kings and Patron s. Husn-E-Matla Rhyming of the first two lines of a GHAZAL is called HUSN-E-MATLA. Madah Poem written in praise of Kings and Patrons. Manqabat Poem written in praise of Ahle-E-Bait (the members of the family of Holy Prophet ). Maqata The last line of a GHAZAL or a poem which generally contains the poet's pen-name . Marsiya A poem written to commemorate the exploits of great men of Islam; usually to des cribe the battle fought on the plains of Karbala in Iraq by Hazarat Imam Husain and his supporters against the army of Yazid. It is usually a poem of mourning. The famous MARSIYA writers in Urdu are Mir Baberali Anis and Salamatali Dabir. E ven a short poem written to mourn the death of a friend can be called MARSIYA. L ord Alfred Tennyson's poem 'In Memoriam' can rightly be called MARSIYA. The subparts of MARSIYA are called NOHA and SOZ which means lamentation and burning of

(heart) respectively. Masnawi A long epic poem describing the battles fought long ago and past events. It may also contain philosophical or ethical themes. The most famous MASNAWIS are ShahNamah of Firdosi, Masnavi-E-Roomi in Persian language and Zehar-E-Ishq in Urdu. Even epic poems of India, Mahabharata and Ramayana can be called MASNAWI. Matla The opening SHE'R of a GHAZAL or a poem. Misra' One line of a couplet, or verse. Munajat A lyrical poem as prayer to God. Musaddas Each unit consists of 6 lines (Misra). Most famous writer of this type of poem i s Maulana Altaf Husain Hali. Nat Verses written in praise of the Holy Prophet. Nazam The literary meaning of NAZM is Poetry (opp of NASR) (Prose) A poem fully dealin g with a single subject or thought. Qafia Rhyming of the last words of a poem. Qasida (Ballad). It is a long poem in Urdu, Persian or Arabic which usually describes b attles or written in praise of kings; princes or the poet's patron. There is no limit of verses; it may even go beyond hundred lines. Qata (Fragments). It has two SHE'RS (lines) and has a complete one subject. Radeef (End rhyme). Each SHE'R of GHAZAL in addition to QAFIA may also have RADEEF whic h is rhyming of more than the last two or three words. Rubai'ee Contains only 4 lines, the third one being different from the other three as it should not have QAFIA and RADEEF. RUBAI'EE deals with social, philosophical and romantic subjects. In Persian language Umar Khayyam is supposed to be a great po et of RUBAIYY A T whereas in Urdu Yagana, Firaq and Josh are leading poets of th is time and Anis, an old time poet. Salam (Literal meaning Salutation) It is a kind of poem in which the incidents of Karb ala i.e. hardships of Hazarat Imam Husain and his followers are described It is also written in Praise of Holy Prophet, and is recited by standing up. Sehra A song sung at the time of tying Sehra during wedding ceremony, praising the bri de or the bridegroom and their relatives. Sher Ashob

Poem describing a ruined city. Tah-Tul-Lafz The manner of reciting a poem; like rhythmic prose i.e. without singing; word fo r word. Takhallus A name adopted by a poet, by which he is known in the literary world. Tarannum The manner of reciting a poem in the form of a song. Wasokht Literal meaning 'displeasure' or 'disgust'. A kind of poem in which the displeas ure and carelessness of a lover is narrated; while relinquishing the beloved. Geet Song or hymn. Mushaira A symposium of poets; a poet's gathering. Qawwali Devotional song expressing the love and oneness with God sung by a group _of peo ple to the accompaniment of musical instruments. Now-a-days, it has taken popula r form covering subjects of romance, liquor, etc