ond

0/JJ< H'DGE NATIONAL LABORATORY LIBRARY
3 4i45b DDSllflfi 4
NUREG/CR-2182
(ORNL/NUREG/TM-455/V1)
Station Blackout at Browns
Ferry Unit One—Accident
Sequence Analysis
D. H. Cook S. R. Greene
R. M. Harrington S. A. Hodge
D. D. Yue
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
CENTRAL RESEARCH LIBRARY
CIRCULATION SECTION
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Prepared for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
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thereof.
NUREG/CR-2182, Vol. I
ORNL/NUREG/TM-455/VI
Dist. Category RX, IS
Contract No. W-7405-eng-26
Engineering Technology Division
STATION BLACKOUT AT BROWNS FERRY UNIT ONE
ACCIDENT SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
D. H. Cook S. R. Greene
R. M. Harrington S. A. Hodge
D. D. Yue
Manuscript Completed — October 6, 1981
Date Published — November 1981
Notice: This document contains information of a preliminary
nature. It is subject to revision or correction and therefore
does not represent a final report.
Prepared for the
U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research
Under Interagency Agreements DOE 40-551-75 and 40-552-75
NRC FIN No. B0452
Prepared by the
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY
Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830
operated by
UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION
for the
DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY
OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY LIBRARY
3 445b DDEllfifl 4
XXI
CONTENTS
Page
SUMMARY v
ABSTRACT 1
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. DESCRIPTION OF STATION BLACKOUT 5
3. NORMAL RECOVERY 7
4. COMPUTER MODEL FOR SYSTEM BEHAVIOR PRIOR TO LOSS OF
INJECTION CAPABILITY 17
5. INSTRUMENTATION AVAILABLE DURING STATION BLACKOUT AND
NORMAL RECOVERY 30
6. OPERATOR ACTIONS DURING STATION BLACKOUT AND NORMAL
RECOVERY 33
7. COMPUTER PREDICTION OF THERMAL-HYDRAULIC PARAMETERS FOR
NORMAL RECOVERY 36
7.1 Introduction 36
7.2 Conclusions 36
7.2.1 Normal recovery — conclusions 36
7.2.2 Loss of 250 vdc — conclusions 37
7.3 Normal Recovery 37
7.3.1 Normal recovery — assumptions 37
7.3.2 Normal recovery — results 38
7.4 Loss of 250 vdc Batteries 50
7.4.1 Loss of 250 vdc batteries —assumptions 50
7.4.2 Loss of 250 vdc batteries — results 50
8. FAILURES LEADING TO A SEVERE ACCIDENT 59
8.1 Induced Failure of the HPCI and RCIC Systems 62
8.2 Stuck-Open Relief Valve 65
8.3 Loss of 250-Volt DC Power 68
9. ACCIDENT SEQUENCES RESULTING IN CORE MELTDOWN 71
9.1 Introduction 71
9.2 Accident Phenomenology 71
9.2.1 Accident progression resulting in core
melt 71
9.2.2 Containment failure modes 72
9.3 Event Trees 74
9.3.1 Event trees for accident sequences resulting
in core melt 74
9.3.2 Core damage event tree 74
9.3.3 Containment event tree 74
9.4 Accident Sequences 78
9.4.1 MARCH computer code 78
9.4.2 Accident progression signatures 78
9.5 Containment Responses 123
9.5.1 Drywell responses 123
9.5.2 Wetwe11 responses 149
10. PLANT STATE RECOGNITION AND OPERATOR MITIGATING
ACTION 161
10.1 Introduction 161
10.2 Plant State Recognition 161
XV
10.3 Operator Key Action Event Tree
10.4 Operator Mitigating Actions
11. INSTRUMENTATION AVAILABLE FOLLOWING LOSS OF 250 VOLT
DC POWER
12. IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS
12.1 Instrumentation
12.2 Operator Preparedness
12.3 System Design
13. REFERENCES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
APPENDIX A. Computer Code used for Normal Recovery
APPENDIX B. Modifications to the March Code
APPENDIX C. March Code Input (TB')
APPENDIX D. Pressure Suppression Pool Model
D.l Introduction
D.2 Purpose and Scope
D.3 Description of the System
D.4 Identification of the Phenomena
D.5 Pool Modeling Considerations
APPENDIX E. A Compendium of Information Concerning the
Browns Ferry Unit 1 High-Pressure Cooling
Injection System
E.l Purpose
E.2 System Description
E.3 HPCI Pump Suction
E.4 System Initiation
E.5 Turbine Trips
E.6 System Isolation
E.7 Technical Specifications
APPENDIX F. A Compendium of Information Concerning the
Unit 1 Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System
F.l Purpose
F.2 System Description
F.3 RCIC Pump Suction
F.4 System Initiation
F.5 Turbine Trips
F.6 System Isolation
F.7 Technical Specifications
APPENDIX G. Effect of TVA-Estimated Seven Hour Battery
Life on Normal Recovery Calculations
Page
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199
205
205
205
206
207
211
217
217
217
219
220
221
221
222
223
223
223
225
225
226
227
228
229
SUMMARY
This study describes the predicted response of Unit 1 at the Browns
Ferry Nuclear Plant to a hypothetical Station Blackout. This accident
would be initiated by a loss of offsite power concurrent with a failure of
all eight of the onsite diesel-generators to start and load; the only re
maining electrical power at this three-unit plant would be that derived
from the station batteries. It is assumed that the Station Blackout occurs
at a time when each of the Browns Ferry units is operating at 100% power
so that there is no opportunity for use of the batteries for units 2 or 3
in support of unit 1.
The design basis for the 250 volt DC battery system at Browns Ferry
provides that any two of the three unit batteries can supply the electri
cal power necessary for shutdown and cooldown of all three units for a
period of 30 minutes with a design basis accident at any one of the units.
It is further provided that the system voltage at the end of the 30 minute
period will not be less than 210 volts, and that all DC equipment supplied
by this system must be operable at potentials as low as 200 volts.
It is clear that the 250 volt system was not designed for the case of
a prolonged Station Blackout, and the period of time during which the DC
equipment powered by this system could remain operational under these con
ditions can only be estimated. It would certainly be significantly longer
than 30 minutes since all three batteries would be available, the equip
ment is certified to be operable at 200 volts, and there would be no de
sign basis accident. In response to AEC inquiry in 1971, during the pe
riod of plant construction, TVA estimated that the steam-driven High Pres
sure Coolant Injection (HPCI) and Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC)
systems, which use DC power for turbine control and valve operation, could
remain operational for a period of four to six hours. A period of four
hours has been assumed for this study.*
Within 30 seconds following the inception of a Station Blackout, the
reactor would have scrammed and the reactor vessel would be isolated be
hind the closed main steam isolation valves (MSIV's). The initial phase
of the Station Blackout extends from the time of reactor vessel isolation
until the time at which the 250 volt DC system fails due to battery ex
haustion. During this period, the operator would maintain reactor vessel
water level in the normal operating range by intermittent operation of the
RCIC system, with the HPCI system available as a backup. Each of these
water-injection systems is normally aligned to pump water from the conden
sate storage tank into the reactor vessel via a feedwater line.
*It should be noted that the events subsequent to failure of the 250
volt DC system are relatively insensitive to the time at which this fail
ure occurs. This is because the only parameter affecting the subsequent
events which is dependent upon the time of failure is the slowly-varying
decay heat.
As part of a requested review of the results of this study, TVA per
formed a battery capacity calculation which shows that the unit batteries
can be expected to last as long as seven hours under blackout conditions.
In Appendix G, the effect of a battery lifetime of seven vice four hours
upon study results is shown to be limited to timing.
vx
The operator would also take action during the initial phase to con
trol reactor vessel pressure by means of remote-manual operation of the
primary relief valves; sufficient stored control air would remain avail
able to permit the desired remote-manual valve operations for well over
four hours. The Control Room instrumentation necessary to monitor reactor
vessel level and pressure and for operation of the RCIC and HPCI systems
would also remain available during this period.
There is no Emergency Operating Instruction for a Station Blackout at
Browns Ferry. However, the existing written procedure for operator action
following reactor isolation behind closed MSIV's provides for the reactor
vessel level control and pressure control described above. The primary
relief valves would actuate automatically to prevent vessel over pressuri-
zation if the operator did not act; the purpose of pressure control by
remote-manual operation is to reduce the total number of valve actuations
by means of an increased pressure reduction per valve operation and to
permit the steam entering the pressure suppression pool to be passed by
different relief valves in succession. This provides a more even spacial
distribution of the transferred energy around the circumference of the
pressure suppression pool.
The initial phase of a Station Blackout has been analyzed in this
study by use of a relatively simple computer code developed specifically
for this purpose. This coding uses the Continuous Systems Modeling Pro
gram (CSMP) language of the IBM computer system to simulate the response
of Browns Ferry Unit 1 to postulated operator actions. The analysis
shows, because of the loss of the drywell coolers, that it is necessary
for the operator to begin to reduce the reactor vessel pressure to about
0.791 MPa (100 psig) within one hour of the inception of the Station
Blackout. This depressurization reduces the temperature of the saturated
fluid within the reactor vessel and thereby decreases the driving poten
tial for heat transfer into the drywell, yet keeps the vessel pressure
high enough for continued operation of the RCIC system steam turbine.
With this action, the drywell average ambient temperature can be kept be
low 149°C (300°F) throughout the initial phase of a Station Blackout;
tests have shown that both the drywell structure and the equipment located
therein can be expected to survive temperatures of this magnitude.
The analysis also reveals an important second reason for operator ac
tion to depressurize the reactor vesel early in the initial phase of a
Station Blackout. This depressurization removes a great deal of steam and
the associated stored energy from the reactor vessel at a time when the
RCIC system is available to inject replacement water from the condensate
storage tank and thereby maintain the reactor vessel level. Subsequently,
when water injection capability is lost for any reason, remote-manual re
lief valve operation would be terminated and there would be no further
water loss from the reactor vessel until the pressure has been restored to
the setpoint [7.72 MPa (1105 psig)] for automatic relief valve actuation.
Because of the large amount of water to be reheated and the reduced level
of decay heat, this repressurization would require a significant period of
time. In addition, the subsequent boiloff* would begin from a very high
*The term "boiloff" is used to signify a monotonic decrease in re
actor vessel water level due to intermittent loss of fluid through the
primary relief valves without replacement.
vxx
vessel level because of the increase in the specific volume of the water
as it is heated and repressurized. Thus, an early depressurization will
provide a significant period of valuable additional time for preparative
and possible corrective action before core uncovery after injection capa
bility is lost.
One design feature of the HPCI system logic was brought into question
by the analysis. The existing logic provides for the suction of the HPCI
system pump to be automatically shifted from the condensate storage tank
to the pressure suppression pool upon high sensed suppression pool level.
During a Station Blackout, this would occur after about three hours when
the average suppression pool temperature has reached about 71°C (160°F).*
Since the lubricating oil for the HPCI turbine Is cooled by the water be
ing pumped, this would threaten the viability of the HPCI system.
The rationale for the automatic shift in HPCI pump suction on high
sensed pool level is not explained in the literature available to this
study. There is no corresponding provision for a shift of the RCIC pump
suction on high pool level, and a separate logic is provided for an auto
matic shift of the HPCI pump suction should the supply of water from the
condensate storage tank become exhausted. For these reasons, it is recom
mended that the desirabilty of the automatic shift of HPCI pump suction on
high sensed suppression pool level be reexamined.
The plant response during the initial phase of a Station Blackout can
be summarized as an open cycle. Water would be pumped from the condensate
storage tank into the reactor vessel by the RCIC system as necessary to
maintain level in the normal operating range. The injected water would be
heated by the reactor decay heat and subsequently passed to the pressure
suppression pool as steam when the operator remote-manually opens the re
lief valves as necessary to maintain the desired reactor vessel pressure.
Stable reactor vessel level and pressure control is maintained during this
period, but the condensate storage tank is being depleted and both the
level and temperature of the pressure suppression pool are increasing.
However, without question, the limiting factor for continued removal of
decay heat and the prevention of core uncovery is the available of DC
power.
The sequence of events used for the fission product release analysis
for a prolonged Station Blackout was established by this study under the
assumption that no independent secondary equipment failures would occur.
Dependent secondary failures, i.e., those caused by the conditions of a
Station Blackout, were included in the development of the sequence, but
with the assumption that the operator does take action to depressurize the
reactor vessel and thereby prevent drywell temperatures of the magnitude
that could severely damage the equipment therein. The point is important
because the operator would probably be reluctant to depressurize; current
training stresses concern for high suppression pool temperatures (based on
LOCA considerationst) and the operator would recognize that suppression
pool cooling is not available during a Station Blackout.
*It is expected that any accident sequence resulting in high sup
pression pool level would also produce an associated high pool tempera
ture.
tThere is currently no written procedure for the case of Station
Blackout.
viii
This study has established that the possible dependent secondary
failure of a stuck-open relief valve would not reduce the reactor vessel
pressure below that necessary for operation of the RCIC steam turbine dur
ing the period in which DC power would remain available. However, during
this period all of the energy transferred to the pressure suppression pool
would pass through the tailpipe of this one relief valve and would be con
centrated near its terminus. This would reduce the steam-quenching capac
ity of the pool to that provided by the effective volume of water sur
rounding this one tailpipe. Local boiling in this area would pass most of
the relief valve discharge directly to the pool surface and could result
in early containment failure by overpressurization.
The question of suppression pool effectiveness in quenching relief
valve steam discharge in cases which involve highly localized energy
transfer from the reactor vessel is important to a complete analysis of
any severe accident in which the pressure suppression pool is used as a
heat sink. This question has not been resolved, at least in the non-pro
prietary literature, and has been recently adopted as a dissertation topic
for a University of Tennessee doctorial candidate working with the Severe
Accident Sequence Analysis (SASA) project. Pending the results of this
work, pool-averaged temperatures are used in this study.
The MARCH code has been used in support of the analysis of the second
phase of a Station Blackout, i.e., the period after the 250 volt DC system
fails because of battery exhaustion. The existing versions of MARCH are
too crude to permit modeling plant response to a series of postulated op
erator actions such as those previously discussed for the initial phase of
a Station Blackout. Therefore, in the event sequence modeled by the MARCH
code, the reactor vessel remains pressurized with pressure control by
automatic relief valve actuation and level control by automatic operation
of the HPCI system. As before, averaged suppression pool temperatures are
used, and it is assumed that injection capability is lost after four
hours, when the unit battery is exhausted.
In the MARCH event sequence, the reactor vessel water level is in the
normal operating range and the vessel is pressurized at the four-hour
point when boiloff begins due to loss of injection capability.* The MARCH
results predict core uncovery 62 minutes after the beginning of boiloff,
followed by the inception of core melting 53 minutes later. The model
provides that the melted core slumps down to the bottom of the reactor
vessel and this results in a predicted failure of the reactor vessel bot
tom head at approximately three hours after injection capability is lost.
The subsequent breaching of the primary containment because of failure of
the electrical penetration modules by overtemperature is predicted at
about four and one-half hours after the inception of boiloff. The detailed
*These conditions at the beginning of boiloff are similar to those
predicted by the previously discussed sequence which models the plant re
sponse to operator actions during the initial phase because in that sequ
ence, the reactor vessel would have to repressurize before boiloff could
begin. The difference is in the timing. If injection capability were
lost at the four-hour point, the boiloff would begin immediately if the
vessel is pressurized, but would be delayed if the vessel were depressur-
ized.
ix
thermo-hydraulic parameters needed for the analysis of fission product re
lease from the fuel rods and the subsequent transport of fission products
to the environment were taken from the MARCH results for this sequence.
An estimate of the magnitude and timing of the release of the noble
gas, cesium, and iodine-based fission products to the environment is pro
vided in Volume 2 of this study. Under the conditions of a Station Black
out, fuel rod cladding failure would occur while the reactor vessel was
pressurized. The distribution of both solid and gaseous fission products
within the Browns Ferry Unit 1 core at the present time has been obtained
through use of the 0RIGEN2 code; the results show that internal gas pres
sure under Station Blackout conditions could not increase to the magni
tude necessary to cause cladding failure by rod burst. Accordingly, the
cladding has been assumed to fail at a temperature of 1300°C.
STATION BLACKOUT AT BROWNS FERRY UNIT ONE -
ACCIDENT SEQUENCE ANALYSIS
D. H. Cook S. R. Greene
R. M. Harrington S. A. Hodge
D. D. Yue
ABSTRACT
This study describes the predicted response of Unit 1 at
the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to Station Blackout, defined as
a loss of offsite power combined with failure of all onsite
emergency diesel-generators to start and load. Every effort
has been made to employ the most realistic assumptions during
the process of defining the sequence of events for this hypo
thetical accident. DC power is assumed to remain available
from the unit batteries during the initial phase and the oper
ator actions and corresponding events during this period are
described using results provided by an analysis code developed
specifically for this purpose. The Station Blackout is as
sumed to persist beyond the point of battery exhaustion and
the events during this second phase of the accident in which
DC power would be unavailable were determined through use of
the MARCH code. Without DC power, cooling water could no
longer be injected into the reactor vessel and the events of
the second phase include core meltdown and subsequent contain
ment failure. An estimate of the magnitude and timing of the
concomitant release of the noble gas, cesium, and iodine-based
fission products to the environment is provided in Volume 2 of
this report.
1. INTRODUCTION
The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) operates three nearly identical
reactor units at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant located on the Tennessee
River approximately midway between Athens and Decatur, Alabama. The Gen
eral Electric Company and the Tennessee Valley Authority jointly partici
pated in the design; TVA performed the construction of each unit. Unit 1
began commercial operation in August 1974, Unit 2 in March 1975, and Unit
3 in March 1977.
Each unit comprises a boiling water reactor steam supply system fur
nished by the General Electric Company. Each reactor is designed for a
power output of 3440 MWt, for a corresponding generated 1152 MWe; the
maximum power authorized by the operating license is 3293 MWt, or 1067
net MWe. The primary containments are of the Mark I pressure suppres
sion pool type; the drywells are light bulb shape and both torus and dry-
well are of steel vessel construction. The three units share a reactor
building-secondary containment of the controlled leakage, elevated release
type.
Safety systems for each unit include a Reactor Protection System, a
Standby Liquid Control System for Poison injection, and the Emergency Core
Cooling Systems: High-Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI), Automatic De
pressurization (ADS), Residual Heat Removal (RHR), and Core Spray (CS).
The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) system is also provided for the
removal of post-shutdown reactor decay heat as a consequence limiting sys
tem.
Several components and systems are shared by the three Browns Ferry
units. A complete description of these shared features is given in the
Final Safety Analysis Report;! the shared Safeguards systems and their
supporting auxiliary equipment are listed in Table 1.1. With the assumption
that the interfaces with the other two units do not interfere with the op
eration of any shared system as applied to the needs of the unit under
study, the existence of the shared systems does not significantly compli
cate the analysis of an accident sequence at any one unit.
The results of a study of the consequences at Unit 1 of a Station
Blackout (loss of all AC power) at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant are pre
sented in this report. Section 2 provides a description of the event and
discussion of the motivation for consideration of this event. The normal
recovery from a Station Blackout is described in Sect. 3, the computer
model used for the normal recovery analysis is discussed in Sect. 4, and
the instrumentation available to the operator is described in Sect. 5.
The actions which the operator should take to prolong the period of decay
heat removal are discussed in Sect. 6, and computer predictions of the be
havior of the thermal-hydraulics parameters during the period when a nor
mal recovery is possible are displayed in Sect. 7.
A Severe Accident by definition proceeds through core uncovery, core
meltdown, and the release of fission products to the surrounding atmo
sphere. The equipment failures which have the potential to extend a Sta
tion Blackout into a Severe Accident are discussed in Sect. 8, and the
Severe Accident sequences which would follow during a prolonged Station
Blackout are presented in Sect. 9. The consequences of each of these se
quences after the core is uncovered differ only in the timing of events;
the actions which might be taken by the operator to mitigate the conse
quences of the Severe Accident are discussed in Sect. 10. The instrumenta
tion available following the loss of injection capability during the pe
riod in which severe core damage occurs is described in Sect. 11.
The conclusions of this Station Blackout analysis and the implica
tions of the results are discussed in Sect. 12. This includes considera
tion of the available instrumentation, the level of operator training, the
existing emergency procedures, and the overall system design.
Appendix A contains a listing of the computer program developed to
model operator actions and the associated system response during the per
iod when normal recovery is possible. The MARCH code was used for analy
ses of the severe accident sequences; the modifications made to this code
are described in Appendix B and an input listing is provided in Appendix
C.
The pressure suppression pool is the key to the safe removal of decay
heat from an isolated Boiling Water Reactor, but no satisfactory method
Table 1.1 Shared safeguards systems and their auxiliary support systems
System
Quantity
Function
Standby AC Power Supply System
Four diesel generators each cou
pled as an alternate source of
power to four Independent shutdown
boards for Units 1 and 2. Four
additional dtesel generators serve
as alternate power sources to four
Unit 3 shutdown boards.
Three batteries, one per unit.
The 250V DC power supplies for the
DC-powered redundant services of
each unit are normally derived
from separate batteries. A fourth
battery is provided for common
station service.
A spare control rod drive hydrau
lic pump Is shared between Units 1
and 2.
Two pumps and two heat exchangers
per unit with one common spare
pump and heat exchanger for all
three units
System is unitized except for a
common discharge plenum, ducting,
and the 600-ft stack
One common drain header Into which
each of the three unit reactor
building floor drainage pumps dis
charge
Supply emergency power during loss of
offsite power conditions
250V DC Power Supply System
Control Rod Drive Hydraulic
System
Reactor Building Closed Cooling
Water System
Gaseous Radwaste System
Station Drainage System
Standby Coolant Supply System Completely shared system
RHR Service Water System
Emergency Equipment Cooling
Water System
Standby Gas Treatment System
Completely shared system
Completely shared system
Completely shared system used only
when an abnormal activity release
occurs
Supply DC power when battery chargers
are not functioning
Provide driving force for normal rod
movement
Provide cooling water to reactor
auxiliary equipment
Obtain elevated discharge from the
Standby Gas Treatment System
Pass reactor building drainage to re
ceiver tanks
Provide means for core cooling fol
lowing a complete failure of the Re
sidual Heat Removal (RHR) cooling
complex
Provide an assured heat sink for
long-term removal of decay heat when
the main condensers are not available
for any reason
Distribute raw cooling water to equip
ment and auxiliary systems which are
required for shutdown of all three
units
Filter and exhaust the air from a
unit zone and the refueling zone, the
refueling zone only, or the entire
secondary containment
for the analysis of the response of the torus and pool under severe acci
dent conditions currently exists, at least in the non-proprietary litera
ture. The nature of the problem and the measures being taken at ORNL to
improve the analysis capability are discussed in Appendix D.
In the event of a Station Blackout, the reactor vessel will be iso
lated behind the closed Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIVs) with pressure
maintained by periodic blowdowns through the relief valves to the pressure
suppression pool. Makeup water to maintain the reactor vessel level must
be injected either by the High Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) or the
Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) systems. The operation of these im
portant systems is discussed in Appendices E and F.
As a portion of their review of the draft of this report, the Elec
trical Engineering Branch at TVA performed a battery capacity calculation
which shows that the unit batteries at the Browns Ferry plant can be ex
pected to provide power for as long as seven hours under station blackout
conditions. Since a battery life of four hours was assumed for the calcu
lations of this work, a new Appendix G has been added in which all of the
possible failure modes other than battery exhaustion that were considered
in Sections 3, 7, and 8 are re-examined for applicability to the period
between four and seven hours after the inception of a Station Blackout.
The magnitude and timing of the release of the fission product noble
gases and various forms of iodine to the atmosphere are discussed in
Volume 2. This includes the development of release rate coefficients for
the escape of these fission products from fuel as a function of tempera
ture, specification of the various chemical forms, determination of the
optimum strategy for the modeling of precursor/daughter exchange, and the
study of the particular auxiliary systems involved to determine the appli
cable fission product release pathways. These results are incorporated
into a vehicle for the calculation of the transport of the individual fis
sion products from the reactor core, through the primary and secondary
containments to the atmosphere, control volume by control volume.
The primary sources of information used in the preparation of this
report were the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFNP) Final Safety Analysis
Report (FSAR), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission BWR Systems Manual, the
BFNP Hot License Training Program Operator Training Manuals, the BFNP Unit
1 Technical Specifications, the BFNP Emergency Operating Instructions, and
various other specific drawings, documents, and manuals obtained from the
Tennessee Valley Authority*. Additional information was gathered by means
of one visit to the BFNP and several visits to the TVA Power Operations
Training Center at Soddy-Daisy, Tennessee. The excellent cooperation and
assistance of Tennessee Valley Authority personnel in the gathering of in
formation necessary to this study are gratefully acknowledged.
*The setpoints for automatic action used in this study are the
safety limits as given in the FSAR. In many cases these differ slightly
from the actual setpoints used for instrument adjustment at the BFNP be
cause the instrument adjustment setpoints are established so as to provide
margin for known instrument error.
2. DESCRIPTION OF STATION BLACKOUT
A Station Blackout is defined as the complete loss of AC electrical
power to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses in a nuclear
power plant.2 At the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, a Station Blackout
would be caused by a loss of offsite power concurrent with the tripping of
the turbine generators and a subsequent failure of all onsite diesel gen
erators to start and load. After these events, the only remaining sources
of electrical power would be the battery-supplied 250 volt, 48 volt, and
24 volt DC electrical distribution systems; AC power would be limited to
the instrumentation and control circuits derived from the feedwater in
verter or the unit-preferred and plant-preferred motor- generator sets
which are driven by the DC systems.
The reliability of offsite power at Browns Ferry has been excellent.
There are two independent and separated sources of 161 KV offsite power to
the plant, each from a different nearby hydroelectric station. In the
near future, offsite power will become even more reliable. System modifi
cations will permit any of the three reactor units at Browns Ferry, in the
event of a generator trip, to receive reverse power from the TVA 500 KVA
grid which these units normally feed.
However, should all offsite power be lost together with the tripping
of the turbine generators, there remain eight diesel generators at Browns
Ferry which are designed to automatically start and load whenever normal
AC power is lost. By design, all equipment required for the safe shutdown
and cooldown of the three Browns Ferry units can be powered by six* of
these diesel units, even with the assumption of a design basis accident on
any one unit.3
Therefore, a Station Blackout is an extremely unlikely event. Never
theless, the consequences of a Station Blackout should be studied. It is
important to recall that one Browns Ferry unit suffered a loss of electri
cal power to all of its emergency core-cooling systems during the March
22, 1975 electrical cable tray fire.4* To determine if Browns Ferry and
similar nuclear plants can recover from the loss of other combinations of
AC powered machinery, it will prove most efficient to first consider the
plant response to a loss of all AC powered equipment, as in a Station
Blackout.
This study considers the effect on Unit 1 at Browns Ferry of a Sta
tion Blackout which begins with a loss of offsite power, associated tur
bine generator trip, and failure of all diesels to start. Barring further
equipment failures, the battery powered systems have the capability to
supply the power necessary to operate the high-pressure water injection
systems to maintain the reactor in a stable cooled state for several
hours. The first seven sections of this report pertain to the methods
which can be used to prolong this period of water injection capability and
decay heat removal for as long as possible.
*With operator action, any six diesel generators would be satisfac
tory. However, for adequate short term shutdown and cooldown response
without operator action, the six operable diesel generators would have to
comprise three of the four provided for the Unit 1/Unit 2 complex and
three of the four provided for Unit 3.
However, injection capability would ultimately be lost during an ex
tended Station Blackout, either through exhaustion of the installed bat
tery capacity or earlier, through secondary failures of vital equipment.
Once injection capability is lost, the Station Blackout would become a
Severe Accident with inevitable core uncovery. The remainder of this re
port proceeds from an assumption that the Blackout does develop into a
Severe Accident, involving core meltdown and subsequent fission product
release to the atmosphere.
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10
As in the case of reactor vessel level control, it is intended that
the most realistic assumptions concerning pressure control be used in this
study. Accordingly, it will be assumed that the operator does take the
actions in regard to pressure control as described above. However, it
should be noted that without operator action, the pressure would cycle be
tween the limits of 7.377 and 7.722 MPa (1055 and 1105 psig); unfortunate
ly, it is probable that this would occur through the repeated operation of
the same relief valve causing severe localized heating in the vicinity of
the tailpipe discharge in the suppression pool.
Short-term Plant Status. Within minutes after the inception of a
Station Blackout, both reactor vessel level control and pressure control
will be achieved with or without operator action. An open cycle will
exist, with water pumped from the condensate storage tank into the reactor
vessel, converted to steam there by reactor decay heat, and subsequently
passed to the pressure suppression pool and condensed. Satisfactory re
actor cooling is provided, but both the pressure suppression pool level
and temperature are increasing, as is the drywell ambient temperature due
to loss of the drywell coolers. The reserve DC power stored in the bat
teries is being dissipated.
There is a 250V DC battery for each unit at Browns Ferry, plus a sta
tion battery for common loads. Each unit battery is designed to provide a
guaranteed supply of direct current for the first 30 minutes of a design
basis accident. Under the less severe conditions of a Station Blackout,
and assuming prudent actions by the operator to conserve battery poten
tial, DC power should be available for the first 4-6 hours of a Station
Blackout.
Long-Term Considerations. Once DC power is lost, the HPCI and RCIC
systems will be inoperable and cooling water can no longer be injected
into the reactor vessel. With prudent and realistic operator actions,
this should not occur until 4-6 hours* after the inception of a Station
Blackout. However, there are other considerations which must be properly
addressed during this 4-6 hour period during which all efforts would be
made to accomplish the restoration of AC power.
First, since all plant ventilation is stopped during a Station Black
out, the ambient temperature near the RCIC turbine may reach 93.3°C
(200°F), causing an automatic isolation of the RCIC system. This is un
likely since the RCIC system will be operated only intermittently, and the
turbine is not located in a closely confined space. If isolation does oc
cur, the isolation signal can be overridden by the placing of rubber insu
lation between the appropriate relay contacts in the auxiliary instrumen
tation room, or the HPCI system can be used as a backup.
Second, a relief valve might stick open although it should be noted
that the currently installed two-stage Target Rock valves are much less
prone to this malfunction than their three-stage predecessors. A stuck-
open relief valve would produce difficulties with localized suppression
pool heating, but reactor vessel pressure would not decrease to the point
that the HPCI or RCIC system turbines could not be used. This eventuality
is discussed in more detail in Section 8.2.
*Recent battery capacity calculations have indicated that DC power
may remain available for as long as seven hours.
11
A third consideration would be the continued availability of conden
sate storage tank water for injection into the reactor vessel. As previ
ously discussed, there is a guaranteed minimum stored supply of 511.0 m3
(135,000 gallons) available to the HPCI or RCIC systems. As illustrated
in Section 7, only about 359.6 m3 (95,000 gallons) would be used during
the first five hours of a Station Blackout. It can be concluded that an
adequate supply of condensate storage tank water is provided for injection
during the period in which DC power will remain available.
A fourth consideration is the availability of sufficient stored dry-
well control air to permit the desired number of remote-manual relief
valve actuations during the period of Station Blackout. The accumulators
provided for the six relief valves associated with the ADS system are
sized to permit five operations per valve, or a total of 30 actuations.
As illustrated in Section 7, less than 25 relief valve actuations will be
required during the first five hours of a Station Blackout. It can be
concluded that there is enough stored air in the ADS relief valve accumu
lators alone to permit the desired number of relief valve operations dur
ing the period in which DC power is available. In addition, the stored
air in the Drywell Control Air system receivers provides an ample backup
to the accumulator supply.
A fifth consideration concerns the steady heatup of the pressure sup
pression pool water with no means of pool cooling available during Station
Blackout. The pressure suppression pool of approximately 3785 m3 (one
million gallons) of water is contained within a torus of 33.99 m (111.5
ft) major diameter and 9.45 m (31.0 ft) minor diameter. The torus sur
rounds the drywell and reactor vessel as shown in Fig. 3.1.
The large heat sink afforded by the pressure suppression pool water
can be effectively utilized during a Station Blackout only as long as the
steam being discharged into the pool via the relief valves is condensed.
If the local temperature of the water surrounding the relief valve
tailpipe terminus in the pool is excessive, condensation oscillations may
occur causing gross unstable vibrations of the torus assembly and pressu-
rization of the torus airspace due to the escape of saturated steam from
the water surface. This effect is discussed in detail in Appendix D. For
the "T-quencher" type of discharge header which is installed at the ter
minus of each relief valve tailpipe at Browns Ferry Unit 1, the condensa
tion oscillations are not expected to occur if the local pool temperature
is limited to 93.3°C (200°F) or equivalent to 87.8°C (190°F) average pool
temperature.6
The T-quencher dischargers on the tailpipes of the thirteen primary
relief valves are distributed approximately evenly around the torus, as
shown in Fig. 3.2. This diagram is posted on the Browns Ferry Unit 1 con
trol room panel which contains the relief valve operating switches. Dur
ing a Station Blackout, it would be incumbent on the operator in his ef
forts to manually control reactor vessel pressure to ensure that oppo
sitely located primary relief valves are operated in turn so that the
energy input to the pressure suppression pool is evenly distributed.
As illustrated in Section 7, the average pressure suppression pool
temperature will have reached approximately 82.2°C (180°F) five hours
after the inception of a Station Blackout. It can be concluded that with
operator action to alternate the relief valve discharges, the pressure
suppression pool temperature will not reach the point when condensation
12
ORNL-DWG 81-8602 ETD
REACTOR VESSEL
DRYWELL
Fig. 3.1 Arrangement of drywell and torus.
oscillations might occur during the first five hours of a Station Black
out.
As a related matter, the HPCI system is equipped with logic which
will automatically shift the suction of the HPCI pump to the pressure sup
pression pool if the indicated pressure suppression pool level increases
to a certain point, as discussed in Appendix E. Depending on the initial
water level in the pool, this will occur following an increase in pool
volume of between 257.4 and 370.9 m3 (68,000 and 98,000 gallons), or
sometime between two and four hours into the Station Blackout. As previ
ously discussed, the HPCI system is not expected to be utilized but merely
to serve as a backup to the RCIC system. However, to preserve the HPCI
259°
PCV 1-19 pcv l-»
PCV 1-22 KV 1-30
PCV 1-31
1
PCV 1-34
1
Pnl 9-3 Controls
13
191°
180°
ORNL-DWG 81-8603 ETD
RELIEF VALVE POSITIONS
OPPOSITE VALVES
PCV 1-42 PCV 1-18
PCV 1-41 PCV 1-22
PCV 1-34 PCV 1-4
PCV 1-30 PCV 1-5
PCV 1-31 PCV 1-2
PCV 1-19
PCV 1-180 PCV 1-179
Fig. 3.2 Unit 1 relief valve discharges.
system as a viable backup, the operator should take action to maintain the
pump suction on the condensate storage tank. This can be done by racking
out the motor-operated breakers for the suction valves, arid will prevent
the excessive HPCI system lubricating oil temperatures which would result
from the pumping of the hot pressure suppression pool water.
The sixth and most important consideration for long term stability
following a Station Blackout is the heatup of the drywell atmosphere. The
ten drywell coolers immediately fail on loss of AC power, while the rate
14
of heat transfer to the drywell at that instant from the hot [287.8°C
(550°F)] reactor vessel and associated piping is about 0.98 MW (3.35 x
10° Btu/h). Under this impetus, the drywell temperature rapidly in
creases. After a few minutes, the drywell temperature will have signifi
cantly increased so that the rate of heat transfer from the reactor vessel
is reduced while a substantial rate of heat transfer from the drywell at
mosphere to the relatively cool drywell liner has been established, as
discussed in Section 4.
The design temperature for the drywell structure and the equipment
located therein is 138.3°C (281°F). The response of this structure and of
certain safety components within the drywell to higher temperatures has
been previously investigated7 and the results are summmarized below:
It was determined that the drywell liner will not buckle under liner
temperatures as high as 171.1°C (340°F) nor would this temperature produce
higher than allowable stress intensity.
The drywell electrical penetrations were purchased with a specified
short term (15 min) temperature rating of 162.8°C (325°F) and a long term
rating of 138.3°C (281°F).
It was determined that the stresses in the drywell piping penetra
tions would not exceed the allowable stress intensities at a temperature
of 171.1°C (340°F).
A DC solenoid control valve used for the remote-manual operation of
the primary relief valves was tested at 148.9°C (300°F) for ten hours with
118 actuations during the test period. An AC-DC solenoid control valve
for the Main Steam Isolation valves was tested at 148.9°C (300°F) for 7
hours with 83 actuations each on AC, DC, and the AC-DC combination. The
maximum temperature achieved during each of these solenoid tests was
153.3°C (308°F).
The electrical cable which feeds the safety equipment inside the dry-
well has a 600-V rating with cross-linked polyethelene insulation. It has
seven conductors of number 12 wire with no sheath. It is estimated that
the ten-hour temperature rating is in excess of 160.0°C (320°F).7
The results of these tests and investigations indicate that it can be
confidently predicted that the primary relief valves will remain operable
and the drywell penetrations will not fail if the drywell ambient tempera
ture is prevented from exceeding 148.9°C (300°F) during the normal recov
ery phase of a Station Blackout.
With the operator acting to maintain reactor vessel level by use of
the RCIC system and to control vessel pressure between 7.688 and 6.309 MPa
(1100 and 900 psig) by remote-manual relief valve actuation as previously
discussed, the drywell ambient temperature would reach 148.9°C (300°F) in
one hour (curve A of Fig. 3.3). Before this occurs, the operator should
act to reduce the reactor vessel pressure by blowdown to the pressure sup
pression pool. This will reduce the temperature of the saturated liquid
within the reactor vessel and thereby reduce the driving potential for
heat transfer into the drywell.
The vessel pressure reduction would be by remote-manual actuation of
the primary relief valves, and should proceed at the Browns Ferry Techni
cal Specifications limit of a rate equivalent to a 55.6°C/h (100°F/h) de
crease in saturated liquid temperature. The response of the drywell ambi
ent temperature to such a reactor vessel depressurization begun at one
hour after the inception of a Station Blackout is shown by curve B of Fig.
3.3.
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16
The curves of Fig. 3.3 show that the maximum drywell average temper
ature can be kept below 148.9°C (300°F) provided that the operator takes
action to depressurize within one hour following the loss of drywell cool
ers concomitant with a Station Blackout.* A depressurization at the
Technical Specifications limit of 55.6°C/h (100°F/h) will produce a grad
ual reduction of the drywell ambient temperature; a rapid depressuriza
tion will produce a faster drywell temperature reduction, but is probably
not necessary. Certainly, if the operator perceives developing difficul
ties with the in-drywell equipment such as the relief valve solenoids, he
should convert an ongoing 55.6°C/h (100°F/h) depressurization into a more
rapid one.
Summary. Assuming no independent secondary failures of equipment,
reactor vessel level control and pressure control can be maintained during
a Station Blackout for as long as the DC power supplied by the unit bat
tery lasts. This is expected to be a period of from four to six hours,
and this portion of the Station Blackout severe accident sequence is
graphically displayed with commentary in Section 7. If AC power is re
gained at any time during this period, a completely normal recovery would
follow.
If AC power is not regained, and DC power is lost, remote-manual op
eration of the primary relief valves would no longer be possible and the
reactor vessel pressure would increase to 7.722 MPa (1105 psig), the low
est setpoint for automatic actuation of the relief valves. Thereafter,
the reactor vessel pressure would cycle between 7.722 and 7.377 MPa (1105
and 1055 psig) while the vessel level steadily decreased because injection
capability would be lost as well. The sequence of events following the
loss of injection capability is described in Sections 9 through 11.
*If the backup HPCI system were used for injection, the average re
actor vessel pressure after depressurization would have to be maintained
at about 1.14 MPa (150 psig), which corresponds to an average saturated
liquid temperature of 185°C (365°F). This is only 15°C (25°F) higher than
the average temperature associated with RCIC operation and would not
significantly increase the drywell temperatures shown in Fig. 3.3.
17
4. COMPUTER MODEL FOR SYSTEM BEHAVIOR
PRIOR TO LOSS OF INJECTION CAPABILITY
The purpose of this chapter is to describe the BWR-LACP (BWR-Loss of
AC Power) computer code that was developed to calculate the effects of
operator actions prior to loss of injection capability after Station
Blackout. Topics covered include: general features, simplifying assump
tions, solutions to more important modeling problems, and model validation
efforts.
BWR-LACP is a digital computer code written specifically to predict
general Browns Ferry thermal-hydraulic behavior following a Station Black
out event (defined in Sect. 2). The code consists of the differential and
algebraic equations of mass and energy conservation and equations of state
for the reactor vessel and containment. The code was written in the IBM
CSMP (Continuous System Modeling Program)8 Language to minimize program
ming and debugging time. The listing in Appendix A specifies all required
input parameters.
Some of the important variables calculated by the BWR-LACP code in
clude:
1. Reactor vessel levels (above the fuel as well as in the downcomer
annulus),
2. Reactor vessel pressure,
3. Total injected water volume,
4. Safety-relief valve (SRV) flow rates,
5. Containment pressures and temperatures, and
6. Suppression pool water level and temperature.
These variables may be calculated for arbitrary time periods follow
ing the loss of AC power — typically several hours. Run specific in
put includes:
1. Injection flow vs time or a law to represent operator control of re
actor vessel level with injection flow.
2. SRV opening(s) vs time or a law to represent operator control of re
actor vessel pressure with SRV opening,
3. Initialization parameters: initial time elapsed since reactor trip,
initial reactor vessel pressure and level, and initial containment
pressures, temperatures, and suppression pool level.
Specific characteristics of the Station Blackout event allowed sim
plifying assumptions to be made, or required specific assumptions for ade
quate description of system response. These assumptions are discussed be
low:
1. Reactor trip at time zero: heat input from the reactor is as
sumed to consist of decay heat and is calculated from the ANS standard9.
2. No fuel temperature calculation: the fuel remains covered for
transients considered here and 100% of the decay heat is assumed to be
transferred directly to water.
18
3. Density of steam-water mixture calculated by drift-flux correla
tion: the low steaming rate of decay heat operation requires a model,
such as the drift-flux model10 that can allow relative slip between
steam and water.
4. Phase separation is likely in the standpipes: the low steaming
rates of decay heat operation allow phase separation to occur11 if the
2-phase level is below the steam separators (in standpipes or core outlet
plenum).
5. Recirculation pumps trip at time zero: these pumps require AC
power for operation. During the loss of AC power transients, the water in
the recirculation piping is treated as an inactive volume.
6. Steam flow through the SRV's is calculated by ratioing the flc
Low
at rated conditions:
W =Wr ^(pP)/(pr Pr)
where,
Wr = rated SRV flow at pressure Pr and density pr
W = SRV flow at pressure, P, and density p.
This relationship is rigorously true for choked flow of an ideal gas with
constant Cp/Cv ratio12 and should give reasonable results for choked
flow of dry steam.
7. A realistic estimate of SRV relieving capacity is calculated by
taking into account the ASME code rule which requires nominal valve flow
to be only 90% of the flow measured at 103% of the nominal actuation pres
sure. For the two-stage Target Rock SRV's at Browns Ferry, the resulting
estimate of actual valve capacity is:
Wr = 121.2 kg/s @7.79 MPa
(= 960,000 lb/h @ 1115.0 psig).
8. Steam flowing to RCIC and HPCI turbines is calculated by ratio
ing the steam flowing at rated conditions;
W = Wr*(P/Pr)*(AHr/AH)
where,
Wr = turbine flow required at conditions Pr and Allr
(available enthalpy difference for isentropic expansion
between Pr and Pexhaust) Lo PumP rated injection flow.
W = turbine flow required at conditions P and AH (isen
tropic expansion between P and Pexhaust) to PumP the same
(rated) injection flow.
19
This equation predicts a. linear relationship between steam pressure and
turbine flow providing steam pressure is high enough to establish choked
flow across the turbine nozzles. Turbine steam flow is zeroed when the
turbine is tripped.
Several modeling problems had to be solved in order to adequately
simulate behavior of the system following loss of AC power:
1. Reactor vessel steaming rate,
2. Reactor vessel natural circulation flow,
3. Suppression pool water temperature(s), and
4. Drywell air temperature.
These particular problems are highlighted because of their importance in
determining the overall results and to point out approximations that were
made in formulating the solutions.
Reactor vessel steaming rate is defined here as the rate at which
steam flows from the liquid regions in the reactor vessel into the steam
volume in the upper part of the vessel. When pressure is constant the
steaming rate equals steam production rate in the reactor core which is a
function of core inlet enthalpy, flow, and pressure. However, when pres
sure is changing, the steaming rate is influenced by the significant
amount of water that normally exists in the steam-water mixture above the
core in the core outlet plenum, standpipes and steam separators. This
water adds to the steaming rate when pressure is decreasing by flashing.
It is assumed to subtract from the steaming rate when pressure is increas
ing by condensing part of the core steam production. In modeling this ef
fect, it was assumed that this water remains at saturation at all times.
The net effect on the steaming rate was calculated using the following re
lationship:
Wn = Wc - —- *
dP dhf M,
lf w
dt dP (hK - hf)
where
Wn = net steam production rate
Wc = core steam production rate
P = reactor vessel pressure
hf = saturated fluid enthalpy
hg = saturated vapor enthalpy
Mj, = mass of water in core boiling region and above the core in
outlet plenum, standpipes, and steam separators.
The inherent natural circulation capability of BWRs is an important
feature that should be considered even in calculation of thermal-hydraulic
transients at decay heat level. The natural circulation flow path is from
the area outside the standpipes and steam separators (referred to here as
the downcomer annulus), down through the jet pump diffusers into the lower
plenum and then into the reactor. As it flows up through the core the
fluid becomes saturated and begins to boil. The steam/water mixture flows
up through the outlet plenum and standpipes to the steam separators, where
the water is returned to the downcomer annulus and the steam flows through
20
the steam dryers to the steam dome. The natural circulation rate is de
pendent on a number of variables including: water level in the downcomer
annulus, water-steam level above the core, core steaming rate, and density
of the water-steam mixture in and above the core. One phenomenon that
makes the calculation more difficult is that when water level gets low
enough the recirculation of water from the steam separators ceases and
water flows from the downcomer annulus only as required to counter-balance
water lost by boil-off from the core.
The equation used to calculate core inlet flow is:
KfWci2 = Pdc*Ldc - Ptp * Ltp
where
Kf = empirically determined friction coefficient
wci = core inlet tiow
Pdc = downcomer water density
Ldc =downcomer water level (ref. to zero at bottom of active
fuel)
Jt =elevation-averaged density of water-steam mixture in and
above core
LtD =level of steam-water mixture above bottom of active fuel.
The value of the friction coefficient, Kf, was calculated from the
natural circulation curve on Fig. 3.7-1 of the BFNP FSAR by forcing agree
ment with the predictions of this equation at the 30% thermal power point.
This procedure resulted in a reasonably good approximation of the flow at
other points, as shown on Fig. 4.1. _
The rate of recirculation of water back to the downcomer annulus is
calculated as a function of the water-steam mixture level in the steam
separators:
wrecir = <wci ~ wn> * f<Ltp)
where
= water recirculated back to downcomer annulus
W
recir
f(Ltp) = empirical function of 2-phase level
Wn = net steam production rate
^ci = core inlet flow.
The function f(Lt ) is 1.0 at normal level in the steam separators,
decreasing to 0.0Pwhen level is below the lower edge of the steam separa
tors.
Calculation of local temperature of suppression pool water is neces
sary for simulation of those events that require the assumption of ex
tended SRV discharge into one local area of the pool. For the normal re
covery accident sequences discussed in this report it was assumed that the
operators would follow the Browns Ferry procedures for reactor vessel
isolation which require manual cyclic sequential operation of the SRVs
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ORNL-DWG 81-8604 ETD
T T
DIRECTLY FROM FSAR
FIGURE 3.7-1
A POINT USED FOR BWR-LACP —
INPUT PREPARATION
O RESULTING BWR-LACP FLOW —
CALCULATION
20 30 40 50
PERCENT RATED CORE FLOW
60 70
Fig. 4.1 Natural circulation flow.
such that the SRV discharge is distributed throughout the pool. There
fore, it wasn't necessary to calculate local temperatures, and the model
was programmed to calculate only the whole-pool volume-averaged tempera
ture. It was assumed that the pool would quench all of the SRV discharge
as long as the average pool temperature is below the boiling point. The
SRV T-quencher dischargers are located at a depth below the midpoint be
tween pool top and bottom and thus tend to "see" a temperature close to or
below the average temperature. The possible occurrence and consequences
of non-homogeneous suppression pool temperatures are discussed in Appendix
D.
During normal full power operation, plant measurements have shown
that the Browns Ferry Unit 1 drywell coolers remove about 1960 kW
[6.7(10)6 Btu/h] of thermal energy from the drywell atmosphere. This
heat comes from various sources, including heat transfer from the hot re
actor vessel and steam lines and from the operation of AC powered equip
ment inside the drywell. During a Station Blackout event, the AC powered
equipment is lost so only about half of the heat source remains; accord
ingly, the initial drywell heat load following loss of AC power was taken
to be 980 kW [3.35(10)6 Btu/h]. This heat load Qdw is assumed to be
22
proportional to the difference between reactor coolant temperature (Trc)
and drywell atmosphere temperature (Tdw). Therefore,
Qdw " 980*(Trc - Tdw)/(Trc - Tdw)0 .
To test the validity of the 980 kW heat load, an independent calcu
lation was performed under the following assumptions:
1. Total heated surface area is 1115 m**2 (12,000 sq ft). This includes
539 m**2 (5800 sq ft) for the reactor vessel, 372 m**2 (4000 sq ft)
for the steam lines, and 204 m**2 (2200 sq ft) for other heated pip
ing inside the drywell.
2. 90% of the heated surface is insulated. This is a rough estimate to
account both for uninsulated piping and for imperfectly installed
insulation.
3. Total heat loss through insulated surfaces is 0.25 kW/m**2 (80 Btu/h
sq ft). This is a good nominal estimate for MIRROR insulation when
total hot surface to ambient temperature difference is about 220°C
(400°F).
4. Radiant heat loss from uninsulated surface is figured using emmis-
sivity =0.8 (i.e., unpolished surface)
5. Convective heat loss from uninsulated surface figured using the rela
tion Nu = 0.13 (Gr*Pr)**0.3333 (as discussed in a following para
graph).
The results were as follows:
Qins,total " 281 kW
Qunins,convective = 170 kW
Qunins,radiant = 375 kW
Qtotal - 826 kW
This shows that the heat losses assumed here for Unit 1 are realistic and
perhaps slightly conservative. The Station Blackout analysis presented in
the Browns Ferry FSAR (response to AEC Question 14.2) assumes a much more
conservative heat loss of 2000 kW.
In addition to heat transfer from hot surfaces, the rate of steam es
caping directly to the drywell must be known in order to calculate dry-
well pressure and temperature. Figure 9.2-2 of the Browns Ferry FSAR
specifies a total drywell drain sump input during normal power operation
of 22 m**3 (5800 gallons) per day or 4 gpm as measured at the normal sump
temperature of about 38°C (100°F). Recirculation pump seals and control
rod drive flange seals are identified as the major source of this leakage.
This 4 gpm leak rate is believed to be realistic for Browns Ferry Unit 1
during a Station Blackout. The fraction of the leak that flashes to steam
was calculated in terms of saturation properties:
Xflash - <hf@Pr ~ nf@Pdw)/(hg@Pdw - hf@Pdw)
where hf and hg are saturated liquid and vapor enthalpies and Pr
and Pdw are reactor vessel and drywell pressures.
Drywell temperature was calculated using a very simple noding scheme
— the model assumes that the drywell atmosphere is at a uniform tem
perature. This is equivalent to assuming that effective natural circula
tion paths will develop for heat transfer from hot surfaces, to drywell
23
atmosphere, to cold surfaces (such as the drywell liner). Such natural
circulation probably exists in the lower part of the drywell where the
main steam isolation valves and drywell coolers are located. However it
is likely that temperatures in certain areas near the top of the drywell
could be much hotter than the single atmosphere temperature this model
calculates.
Heat transfer between drywell atmosphere and liner was calculated
using the relation
Nu = 0.13*(Gr*Pr)**0.333
where
Nu = Nusselt Number (hL/k)
Gr = Grashof Number (p2ggL3AT/p:,d)
Pr = Prandtl Number (u C /K) .
This formula is also used for the same purpose in the MARCH and CONTEMPT-
LT codes.13>1H
Internal heat transfer resistance of the steel drywell liner is low
relative to the resistance between liner and the atmosphere. This allows
the use of one temperature to represent the whole thickness and it also
means that the entire ~364,000 kg (800,000 lbs) of drywell metal is ef
fectively available as a heat sink during drywell heat-up. The heat sink
effect of the drywell liner is important because without this heat sink
the drywell atmosphere would very quickly approach primary coolant tem
perature after loss of the drywell coolers.
Various code comparison activities were pursued in order to test the
validity of the BWR-LACP simulation:
1. Comparisons of BWR-LACP results to calculations reported in the FSAR.
2. Comparison to results computed by the RELAP-IV computer code.
The first FSAR comparison was the "Loss of Auxiliary Power — All
Grid Connections" transient reported on Figs. 14.5—12 and 14.5—13
of the BFNP FSAR. Plant conditions assumed by the FSAR analysis include:
1. Loss of all external grid connections at time = 0.
2. All pumps tripped at time = 0.
3. Reactor trip and main steam isolation at about time = 2 s.
The BWR-LACP calculation was started at time equals 20 s with reactor
vessel level and pressure equal to those shown for t = 20 s on FSAR Figs.
14.5-12 and 14.5-13. Figure 4.2 compares the code and FSAR
predictions of reactor vessel pressure and core inlet flow between 20 and
50 s. During this period the core inlet flow is decreasing because steam
production is falling off rapidly; reactor vessel pressure is being con
trolled between the assumed 7.59 MPa (1100 psia) and 7.41 (1075 psia) SRV
set and reset points. Results are reasonably close. Figure 4.3 shows
BWR-LACP and FSAR calculations of reactor vessel level from 20 to 2200 s.
During this period, the vessel level decreases slowly until the mass addi
tion rate of the 0.0378 m**3/s (600 gpm) injection flow exceeds the mass
loss rate due to steam produced by decay heat. The results show similar
behavior. The FSAR minimum level is 11.76 m (463 in.) at time equals 1600
s and the BWR-LACP predicted minimum level is 11.56 m (455 in.) at time
equals 1200 s.
24
ORNL-DWG 81-8605 ETD
(MPa)
(psi)
100
UJ
O
< 0.6 i-
X
o
g 0.5
_ 75
Z3
$ 0.4
rr
a.
50
w 0.3
00
CO
UJ
> 0.2
rr 25
O
o 0.1
<
UJ
rr
0L 0
5 50
O
UJ
CURVE A
CURVE B
L
TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM FSAR
FIGURE 14.5-12
BWR-LACP RESULTS USING FSAR
INPUT ASSUMPTIONS
±
TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM FSAR FIGURE 14.5-12
BWR-LACP RESULTS USING FSAR INPUT
ASSUMPTIONS
TIME (s)
Fig. 4.2 Comparison of FSAR and BWR-LACP results for loss of
auxiliary power transients.
50
00
00
(m)
14
13
>
z 12
I"
LU 10
>
UJ
(in.)
570
520
470
420
370
320
ORNL-DWG 81-7858 ETD
I I |llll|—| I I Mill —
LEVEL REFERENCED TO BOTTOM OF VESSEL
| I I |llll| 1 I I | Mil
DIRECTLY FROM FSAR
FIGURE 14.5-13
O CALCULATED BY BWR-LACP
USING FSAR INPUT
TOP OF ACTIVE FUEL
I I I I Mill I I I I Mill I I I I Mill I I I I INI
10 5 100 2
TIME (s)
1000 2
Fig. 4.3 Comparison of FSAR and BWR-LACP results for reactor
vessel level.
5 10,000
ro
26
Comparison of FSAR and BWR-LACP calculations of drywell temperature
was performed for the "Loss of All AC Power" results shown on Fig.
Q.14.2-1 of the BFNP FSAR. Plant conditions assumed by the FSAR calcula
tions include:
1. Initial power = 100%.
2. Loss of all AC power at time = 0.
3. Drywell perfectly insulated on outside.
4. Heat capacity of interior equipment and structures is negligible.
5. Energy input from primary surfaces is initially 2000 kW.
6. Heat transfer coefficient between atmosphere and wall is 11.36
w/m**2°C (2 Btu/h ft2 °F) without steam condensation.
7. Drywell coolers lost at time = 0 and not restarted.
8. Steam leak = 0
The conditions assumed for this analysis are of the same order as those
assumed for the "Normal Recovery" part of the Station Blackout as dis
cussed in this report. Comparisons of various predictions of drywell
atmosphere temperature to the FSAR result are shown on Fig. 4.4. The dry-
well temperature climbs rapidly during the first 5 to 10 min, before heat
<°C)
200 I-
180
160
140
UJ
oc
D
l-
<
S5 120
100
80
60
40
100
ORNL-DWG 81-8606 ETD
CURVE 3
-L
DATA TAKEN DIRECTLY FROM
FSAR FIGURE Q14.2-1 (T-ATM
WITHOUT LEAK)
CALCULATED BY BWR-LACP
USING FSAR INPUT
SAME AS CURVE 2 EXCEPT DW
LINEAR AREA LARGER BY
FACTOR OF 1.4
J_ J_
15 30 45 60 75
TIME (min)
90 105 120
Fig. 4.4 Drywell atmosphere temperature: comparison of FSAR and
0RNL BWR-LACP results.
27
transfer to the drywell liner is established. After the first 10 min, the
temperature climbs much more slowly, with the metal liner acting as the
heat sink. Curve 2 on Fig. 4.4 was calculated using as input to the con
tainment model the FSAR assumptions as listed above. The resulting curve
is similarly shaped, but about 17°C (30°F) above the FSAR prediction. In
order to estimate the possible magnitude of input parameter difference,
the calculation was repeated with identical input except a 40% increase in
drywell liner area. Results are shown on Curve 3 and are very close to
the FSAR prediction.
A boil-off transient was selected for comparison to RELAP-IV and
BWR-LACP predictions. The RELAP-IV calculation was prepared and run by
Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. It starts at nominal full power
plant conditions. During the first several seconds the reactor trips and
the main steam isolation valves close. Initially, several SRVs are re
quired to control vessel pressure, but after about 40 seconds one SRV is
sufficient. Injection flow is zero throughout. The BWR-LACP calculation
was intialized at 30 seconds because it is programmed only for decay heat
operation. Figure 4.5 compares the results of the calculations of reactor
(m) (in.)
600
15 i—
14
13
12
>
ui
11
_i
Ui
OJ
CO
UI
> 10
— 550
500
450
400
350
300
250
500
ORNL-DWG 81-7859 ETD
STEAM/WATER ABOVE CORE
BWR-LACP
O RELAP-IV RESULTS
1000 1500
TIME (s)
2000 2500
Fig. 4.5 Comparison of RELAP-IV and BWR-LACP results for reactor
vessel level.
28
vessel level. The steam/water level above the core is shown for both
codes. Results are very similar, with RELAP predicting 33 minutes and
BWR-LACP predicting 30 minutes to begin uncovering active fuel. Figure
4.6 shows RELAP and BWR-LACP results for reactor steam pressure control.
Results are similar although RELAP predicts a longer SRV cycle (about 60
seconds) than BWR-LACP (about 38 seconds).
Results presented in this Section show that the BWR-LACP code is cap
able of providing reasonable predictions of overall thermal-hydraulic
(MPa) (psia)
760 r 1100
UJ
<r
V)
V)
UJ
cc
a.
2
<
UJ
t-
7.25 L 1050 -
7.60
7.25 •—
1050 -
1000
500 1000 1500
TIME (s)
ORNL-DWG 81-7860 ETD
2000 2500
Fig. 4.6 Comparison of RELAP-IV and BWR-LACP results for reactor
vessel pressure.
29
variables such as reactor vessel levels and pressure and containment tem
perature for extended periods after reactor trip prior to system damage
due to loss of injection capability. Features of the code that have con
tributed to its utility in the analysis of the Normal Recovery portion of
Station Blackout include:
1. The code is specifically designed for BWRs; therefore, parameter
changes are straightforward and easily made.
2. The code is designed for flexibility to model the plant response to
different operator actions.
3. It is locally available and has quick turnaround time.
30
5. INSTRUMENTATION AVAILABLE DURING STATION BLACKOUT
AND NORMAL RECOVERY
For some time following a Station Blackout, the reactor vessel water
level can be maintained in the normal range by operation of the HPCI and/
or RCIC systems, and the pressure can be maintained in any desired range
by remote-manual relief valve operation. Restoration of AC power at any
time during this period of stable level and pressure control would permit
complete and normal recovery without core damage. The Control Room in
strumentation available and necessary to monitor the plant status during
the period of stable control following the inception of a Station Blackout
is discussed in the following paragraphs.
1. Electrical system status. The Station Blackout would be clearly
discernible by the loss of much of the control room indication and the
loss of normal Control Room lighting. Emergency Control Room lighting is
available. Numerous instruments would indicate the loss of voltage, am
perage, and frequency on the electrical supply and distribution boards.
2. Reactor vessel water level. Two channels of Control Room instru
mentation would provide indication of the reactor vessel water level over
a range between 13.41 and 14.94 m (528 and 588 in.) above the bottom of
the vessel. This range includes the normal operating level of 14.15 m
(561 in.) and extends over the upper portion of the steam separators, a
distance of 4.27 to 5.79 m (14 to 19 ft) above the top of the active fuel.
Mechanical Yarway indication available outside of the Control Room would
provide an additional range from the low point of the Control Room indica
tion, 13.41 m (528 in.) above vessel zero down to a point 9.47 m (373 in.)
above vessel zero, which is 0.33 m (13 in.) above the top of the active
fuel in the core.
The level instrumentation derives the reactor water level by compar
ing the head of water within the downcomer region of the reactor vessel to
the head of water within a reference leg installed in the drywell. With
the loss of the drywell coolers, the drywell ambient temperature will in
crease significantly, heating the reference leg water to above-normal tem
peratures. This will reduce the density of the water in the reference
leg, causing an error in the indicated water level, which will be too
high. For example, if the drywell ambient temperature increases from its
normal range of 57.2 to 63.6°C (135 to 150°F) to 171.1°C (340°F), the in
dicated level can be as much as 0.76 m (30 in.) too high.15 As dis
cussed in Sect. 3, the drywell ambient temperature is expected to reach
about 148.9°C (300°F). However, the lower boundary of reactor vessel
level indication is 4.27 m (168 in.) above the top of the active fuel.
Therefore, if the operator maintains the level in the indicating range, a
0.76 m (30 in.) error is not significant as far as the goal of keeping the
core covered is concerned.
3. Reactor vessel pressure. Two channels of pressure instrumenta
tion would provide indication of reactor vessel pressure over a range of
8.274 MPa (0 to 1200 psig).
4. Main steamline flow. Two channels of steam flow instrumentation
with a range of 2016 kg/s (0 to 16 x 106 lbs/h) would provide verifica
tion that steam flow had ceased following Main Steam Isolation Valve
(MSIV) closure.
31
5. Feedwater flow. One channel of flow instrumentation with a range
of 1008 kg/s (0 to 8 x 106 lbs/h) for each of the three feedwater pumps
would indicate the decay of feedwater flow following loss of steam to the
feedwater turbines.
6. Neutron flux. The power range meters fail on loss of AC power.
The source range and intermediate range monitors remain operational, but
the detectors for these systems are withdrawn from the reactor core during
power operation and could not be reinserted under Station Blackout condi
tions. Nevertheless, the operator could verify the reactor scram which
occurs when the Station Blackout is initiated by observing the decay of
the indicated levels on these monitors.
7. Control rod position indication. The control rod position indi
cation system remains operational so that the operator could verify that
the control rods had inserted with the scram.
8. Relief valve position. There is no provision for direct indica
tion of the actual position of any primary relief valve, even under normal
operating conditions. Thus the operator has no indication of automatic
actuation of a specific relief valve other than the recorded tailpipe tem
peratures available on charts behind the control room panels, or the re
lief valve acoustic monitors, all of which would be inoperable under Sta
tion Blackout conditions. However, remote-manual actuation of a relief
valve is accomplished by energizing its DC solenoid operator; lights on
the control panel for each valve indicate whether or not these solenoids
are energized, and this capability is maintained during Station Blackout.
9. RCIC instrumentation and controls. The RCIC system can be oper
ated and monitored under Station Blackout conditions.
10. HPCI instrumentation and controls. The HPCI system can be oper
ated and monitored under Station Blackout conditions.
11. Condensate Storage Tank Level. The condensate storage tank
level indication [range: 9.75 m (0 to 32 ft)] remains operational so that
the operator can determine the remaining amount of water available for re
actor vessel injection via the RCIC (or HPCI) system.
12. Drywell Pressure. Drywell pressure instrumentation [range:
0.55 MPa (0 to 80 psia)] remains operational so that the operator can mon
itor the increase in drywell pressure due to the ambient temperature in
crease following loss of the drywell coolers.
13. Pressure Suppression Pool Water Level. Indication of torus
level [range: —0.63 to 0.63 m (—25 to +25 in.)] remains available allow
ing the operator to monitor the increasing pool level caused by both the
relief valve blowdowns and the increasing pool temperature.
The above instrumentation is powered during Station Blackout either
by DC power directly from the installed batteries or by AC power indi
rectly obtained from the battery systems. The sources of AC power during
Station Blackout are the feedwater inverter and the unit-preferred and
plant-preferred systems where single-phase 120V AC power is provided by
generators driven by emergency battery-powered DC motors.
It is important to note that Control Room temperature instrumentation
for the drywell and the pressure suppression pool does not remain opera
tional under Station Blackout conditions. However, the ambient tempera
tures at various points in the drywell would be available at an indicator-
meter and a recorder mounted on panel 9-47, which is located on the back
of the Control Room panels and is accessible from outside of the Control
32
Room. Also, Using a portable self-powered potentiometer, station person
nel can monitor local pressure suppression chamber and drywell tempera
tures which are sensed by installed thermocouple elements.
Following the restoration of normal AC power, either by recovery of
the offsite power sources or by the delayed but finally successful loading
of the onsite diesel-generators, the Instrumentation and Control buses
would be re-energized, restoring all normal Control Room instrumentation
for use in monitoring the normal recovery.
33
6. OPERATOR ACTIONS DURING STATION BLACKOUT
AND NORMAL RECOVERY
In the event of a Station Blackout, the immediate result would be a
turbine trip, reactor scram, and Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) clo
sure, which would all occur automatically with no operator action; the re
actor would be shut down and isolated behind the closed MSIVs within 30
seconds following the initiating loss of offsite power. Immediately fol
lowing the isolation, the reactor vessel pressure would increase to the
setpoints of as many relief valves as are required to terminate the pres
sure increase. The affected relief valves would open to pass steam di
rectly from the reactor vessel to a terminus beneath the water level in
the pressure suppression pool so that the released steam is condensed.
The core water void collapse caused by both the scram and the pres
sure increase following MSIV closure would result in a rapid drop in re
actor vessel water level to some point below the lower limit of level in
dication available in the Control Room under Station Blackout conditions
[13.41 m (528 in.) above vessel zero]. Standard Browns Ferry Emergency
Operating Instructions for immediate action following reactor scram and
MSIV closure call for the operator to manually initiate both the HPCI and
the RCIC systems. The combined injection flow of 0.353 m3/s (5600 GPM)
would rapidly restore the level into the indicating range and the operator
would secure the HPCI system when the indicated level reached a point
equivalent to about 13.72 m (540 in.) above vessel zero. The level would
then continue to increase due to the remaining 0.038 m /s (600 GPM) of
RCIC system flow and the heatup and expansion of the injected water, but
at a slower rate.
For pressure control, standard procedure is for the operator to
remote-manually operate the primary relief valves as necessary to cycle
the reactor vessel pressure between 7.69 and 6.31 MPa (1100 and 900 psig).
This prevents the automatic actuation of the relief valves [lowest set-
point: 7.72 MPa (1105 psig)], and since the pressure reduction following
automatic actuation is only 0.34 MPa (50 psi), greatly reduces the total
number of relief valve actuations. The purpose is to decrease the oppor
tunity for a relief valve to stick open, and to allow the operator to al
ternate the relief valves which are in effect passing the decay heat
energy to the pressure suppression pool; this more evenly distributes the
pool heatup.
Throughout the period of Station Blackout, the operator would operate
the RCIC system intermittently as necessary to maintain the reactor vessel
level in the indicating range, i.e., between 13.41 and 14.94 m (528 and
588 in.) above vessel zero. Thus, it is expected that the operator would
turn on the RCIC system at an indicated level of about 13.61 m (538 in.)
and turn the system off at about 14.68 m (578 in.). The periods of RCIC
system operation would become less frequent as the decay heat intensity
subsides during a prolonged Station Blackout; after the first hour, the
operator would find it necessary to run the RCIC system for only about
one-third of the time. This is illustrated in Sect. 7.
As previously discussed, the operator would control reactor vessel
pressure by remote-manual operation of the relief valves. It is important
that the operator take action to begin to lower the reactor vessel pres
sure to about 0.79 MPa (100 psig) within 60 min following the inception of
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36
7. COMPUTER PREDICTION OF THERMAL-HYDRAULIC
PARAMETERS FOR NORMAL RECOVERY
7.1 Introduction
The purpose of this chapter is to present the results of BWR-LACP
calculations (see Sect. 4) of system behavior for two different portions
of the Station Blackout:
1. Normal Recovery: DC power from the unit battery remains available
during this period; therefore RCIC and HPCI injection flows are assumed
available throughout, and
2. Loss of 250 vdc Batteries: The batteries are assumed to fail after
four hours, causing failure of RCIC and HPCI injection, ultimately leading
to uncovering of the core about eight hours after the blackout.
The normal recovery portion of the Station Blackout is discussed in
detail in Sects. 3 and 6. Operator actions assumed here are consistent
with those sections. Results were calculated to five hours* for normal
recovery in order to provide some overlap with the MARCH code severe ac
cident calculations (see Sects. 9 and 10), which assume that the boil-off
begins after four hours from a fully pressurized condition. The Loss of
250 vdc Batteries results are given in this section in order to provide an
estimate of system behavior possible after loss of dc power if the plant
is depressurized during the normal recovery period.
7.2 Conclusions
Major conclusions drawn from the calculated results are given below,
succeeded by a detailed discussion of code input assumptions and transient
results.
7.2.1 Normal Recovery — Conclusions
If power were recovered within five hours of the inception of the
Station Blackout, a normal recovery would be possible. System parameters
are within acceptable ranges after five hours:
1. The 250 vdc batteries, by assumption, last the full five hours.
2. Reactor vessel level is within the normal control range, about 5.08 m
(200 in.) above the top of active fuel.
3. Reactor vessel pressure is being controlled at about 0.69 MPa (100
psia).
4. About 354 m3 (93,500 gal.) of water have been pumped from the Con
densate Storage Tanks, which had an assured capacity of 511 m3
(135,000 gal.) before the blackout.
5. Suppression pool temperature is about 82°C (180°F), but this should
not be a problem for the T-quencher type of SRV discharge header pip
ing.
6. Containment pressures are elevated to about 0.17 MPa (25 psia), well
below the 0.53 MPa (76.5 psia) design pressure.
*These results are extended to seven hours in Appendix G.
37
7. Drywell atmosphere temperature is below the 138°C (281°F) design tem
perature.
7.2.2 Loss of 250 vdc Batteries — Conclusions
The results of this transient show very clearly how fuel damage is
postponed because the reactor vessel was depressurized early in the Sta-t
tion Blackout:
1. The repressurization time after loss of the 250 vdc batteries is
greater than one hour, during which time there is no significant
coolant loss from the reactor vessel.
2. When the boil-off does begin, it takes a much longer time to uncover
fuel because of the higher starting inventory of water.
Although fuel damage is significantly delayed, the ability to avoid
ultimate fuel damage is compromised because of the elevated drywell tem
perature experienced after loss of the 250 vdc batteries. As discussed in
Sect. 3, a containment temperature of 149°C (300°F) would not prevent nor
mal recovery. This temperature is reached about 40 min. after loss of the
batteries. At about four hours after the battery loss, the fuel is begin
ning to be uncovered, and the drywell temperature is above 191°C (375°F).
This elevated temperature may cause failure of the drywell electrical pen
etrations and may fail the solenoid operators necessary for operation of
the SRVs, inner isolation valves, and containment cooler dampers (which
fail closed on loss of AC power). Even if electrical power were fully re
stored at this point, considerable operator ingenuity would be required to
effect a normal recovery if the MSIV and SRV solenoid operators have
failed.
In addition, the chances for a normal recovery are compromised by the
elevated suppression pool temperatures experienced at the end of the tran
sient. Condensation oscillation during SRV discharge (see Appendix D),
which can damage the suppression pool pressure boundary, becomes more
likely at higher pool temperatures. Steam discharge without oscillation
from the Browns Ferry T-quencher type discharge piping is assured up to
88°C (190°F), but average pool temperature at the end of the Loss of 250
vdc Batteries calculation is above 93°C (200°F).
7.3 Normal Recovery
7.3.1 Normal Recovery — Assumptions
Assumptions specific to programming and input preparation for the
normal recovery calculation include:
1. The calculation begins 30 s following the Station Blackout initiation
with the reactor tripped and the main steam isolation valves closed.
Values for system parameters at the 30-s point are taken from the re
sults reported by Sect. 14.5.4.4 of the Browns Ferry FSAR. The cal
culation ends at the 5 hour point.
2. The RCIC system is used in an on-off mode to control vessel level be
tween 13.7 m (538 in.) and 14.7 m (578 in.) above vessel zero. The
38
HPCI system is actuated only when level is more than 0.25 m (10 in.)
below the 13.4-m (528-in.) lower limit of control room indication
under Station Blackout conditions. Suction for both systems is from
the condensate storage tank (CST). The operators actuate HPCI and
RCIC 1 min. after the blackout.
3. Following 1 min. of automatic SRV actuation, reactor pressure is con
trolled by remote-manual actuation of the SRVs. Control range dur
ing the first hour is 7.52 MPa (1090 psia) to 6.31 MPa (915 psia).
After 1 hour the reactor is depressurized to about 0.79 MPa (115
psia) at a rate consistent with the 55.6°C/h (100°F/h) cooldown rate
limit. After depressurization, pressure is controlled between 0.62
MPa (90 psia) and 0.86 MPa (125 psia).
Manual sequential SRV action is used to spread SRV discharge around
the suppression pool and thereby avoid localized heating of the pool.
4. The assumed reactor system leakage into the drywell is 0.0089 m /s
(4 gpm).
7.3.2 Normal Recovery — Results
Results for normal recovery are shown on Figs. 7.1 through 7.9.
Each system variable is discussed below.
7.3.2.1 Reactor vessel pressure. Figure 7.1 shows reactor vessel
pressure. During the first minute, reactor pressure cycles between 7.72
MPa (1120 psia) and 7.38 MPa (1070 psia) on automatic SRV actuation.
After 1 min. the operator opens one SRV to lower pressure to 6.31 MPa (915
psia). Since the HPCI is running, pressure continues to decrease to below
6.21 MPa (900 psia) until the HPCI is shut down. During the first hour a
single SRV is cycled open and shut seven times to keep pressure in the de
sired range.
After one hour, the depressurization begins. Initially, intermittent
operation of one SRV is sufficient to meet the target depressurization
rate [i.e., 55.6°C (100°F)/h], As pressure decreases, the rate of de
crease begins to slow until finally an additional SRV is opened. For
choked flow of dry steam, the mass flow rate is linearly proportional to
reactor pressure . Therefore an extra valve is required at the lower pre
ssure. When depressurization is complete, the operator controls pressure
between 0.62 and 0.86 MPa (90 and 125 psia).
After depressurization, the steam flow through one SRV is nearly
equal to the core steaming rate, resulting in much slower pressure change.
Under these conditions, the most rapid pressure change is caused by the
RCIC system. When RCIC comes on the 600 gpm injection of cold water tends
to lower the core steaming rate, causing pressure to decrease. This ef
fect can be seen in Fig. 7.1. At 256 min., the RCIC comes on, reducing
pressure until the open SRV is shut. When the RCIC is shut off 23 min.
later, pressure increases rapidly until the SRV is reopened.
Steam flow from the reactor vessel is shown in Fig. 7.2. The large
spikes are due to SRV actuation. Also included in the total steam flow
are the smaller amounts of steam flowing to the RCIC and HPCI turbines
when they are running.
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41
7.3.2.2 Reactor vessel level — normal recovery. Figure 7.3 shows
vessel water level (distance above vessel zero) in the region outside the
core outlet plenum, standpipes, and steam separators. This is the level
measured by vessel level instrumentation and available in the control
room. As discussed in Sect. 4, there is a corresponding level of two-
phase mixture in and above the core. For an undamaged core in a mild
transient such as Station Blackout, the level of steam/water mixture in
and above the core will be higher than the downcomer level whenever down
comer level is below the top of the steam separators.
Downcomer level is initialized at 12.7 m (500 in.) and, at first, de
creases rapidly until the operator initiates injection via the RCIC and
HPCI systems. When level recovers to 13.7 m (540 in.), the operator shuts
off the HPCI system, and when level reaches 14.7 m (578 in.), the RCIC
injection is shut off. Level continues to increase due to the continuing
heatup of the large quantity of cold water injected by the RCIC and HPCI
systems and due to formation of additional voids in and above the core as
the steaming rate increases. The level peaks at 15.2 m (600 in.). This is
about 0.30 m (12 in.) above the top of the range of level indication
available in the control room during Station Blackout.
Control Room level indication during a Station Blackout is limited to
a range of 3.66 m (0 to 60 in.) with instrument zero corresponding to
13.41 m (528 in.) above vessel zero, which is the bottom of the reactor
vessel. The basic cycle of RCIC actuation by the operator when level
reaches an indicated 0.25 m (10 in.) and shut-off when level reaches an
indicated 1.27 m (50 in.) is repeated eight times on Fig. 7.3. The fine
structure is caused by action of the SRVs. When the SRV opens, vessel
level first swells due to increased steaming, but then begins to decrease
due to inventory loss. When the SRV shuts, level at first continues to
decrease due to decrease in steaming rate, but then begins to recover due
to heatup of subcooled liquid still within the downcomer.
Injection flow from the CST to the reactor vessel is shown in Fig.
7.4. The operator controls the RCIC and HPCI systems in an off-on mode in
order to maintain vessel level within the desired control band as speci
fied in Para. 7.3.1.2. The HPCI system is only run during the initial few
minutes. The periods of RCIC system operation become less frequent as the
decay heat subsides with time. Total injected flow (i.e., total amount of
water taken from the CST) is shown in Fig. 7.5. The injected total in
creases rapidly at first during the brief period of combined HPCI and RCIC
operation; the increase is much slower during the subsequent intermittent
periods of RCIC operation.
7.3.2.3 Suppression pool level — normal recovery. When steam flows
from the reactor vessel to the suppression pool, it is condensed by the
colder pool water. Suppression pool level increases both because of the
extra mass of the condensed steam and because of the temperature increase
of the original pool water. Suppression pool level is shown in Fig. 7.6,
referenced to instrument zero of the torus. The torus has a 9.45 m (31
ft) inside diameter and instrument zero is 0.1 m (4 in.) below the mid-
plane. (A zero level indicates the torus is about half filled with
water.) The pool level is normally maintained between -0.051 and -0.152 m
(—2 and —6 in.) indicated; an initial pool level of -0.102 m (—4 in.)
was assumed for this analysis. The pool condenses steam both from the
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ORNL-DWG 81-8491 ETD
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Fig. 7.3 Normal recovery after station blackout - reactor vessel
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Fig. 7.6 Normal recovery after station blackout - suppression
pool level.
300
46
SRVs and the RCIC and HPCI turbine exhaust. The effect of RCIC turbine
exhaust shows up in Fig. 7.6 as a very slow background rate of increase
against the dominant effect of the SRVs.
7.3.2.4 Suppression chamber temperatures — normal recovery. Sup
pression chamber temperatures are shown in Fig. 7.7. For all practical
purposes, the average pool temperature responds solely to condensation of
reactor vessel steam. Therefore, this curve has almost the same shape as
the pool level curve. The pool atmosphere can be influenced by mass and
heat transfer from the pool water and by mass transfer from the drywell
atmosphere.
During the first 30 min. the suppression chamber atmospheric tempera
ture increases rapidly because of mixing with the inflow of hotter gases
from the expanding drywell atmosphere. Drywell temperature (Fig. 7.8) in
creases rapidly at first due to loss of the drywell coolers. As a result,
the drywell atmosphere expands into the suppression chamber atmosphere
through the pool water via the eight vent pipes, the single ring header,
and the 96 downcomer pipes.
In the long term, mass transfer from the drywell ceases and the sup
pression chamber temperature continues to increase due to heat transfer
and evaporation from the suppression pool surface.
7.3.2.5 Containment pressures — normal recovery. The suppression
chamber and drywell pressures are shown in Fig. 7.9. The drywell and sup
pression chamber atmospheres are coupled in the following manner:
1. When suppression chamber pressure exceeds drywell pressure by 0.00345
MPa (0.5 psi), the vacuum breaker valves will open and allow flow of
suppression chamber atmosphere into the drywell.
2. When drywell pressure exceeds suppression chamber pressure by more
than about 0.0121 MPa (1.75 psi), this will clear the 1.22 m (4 ft)
of water from the downcomer pipes and allow drywell atmosphere to
bubble up through the pool water into the suppression chamber.
Immediately after the Station Blackout, drywell pressure increases
rapidly due to the concurrent rapid heatup of the drywell atmosphere.
Even after the drywell atmosphere reaches its peak temperature and starts
down, the drywell pressure continues to increase under the influence of
the assumed 0.0089 m3/s (4 gpm) leak of hot reactor coolant, some of
which flashes to steam. Throughout the first 2 hours, conditions in the
drywell bring the suppression chamber pressure up at about the same rate
by expansion (via the downcomers) into the suppression chamber. After the
first two hours, suppression chamber pressure is increasing faster than
dictated by the drywell because of increasing rates of heat transfer and
evaporation from the overheated suppression pool. After about 190 min.
the pressure is high enough to open the vacuum breakers and cause expan
sion of suppression chamber atmosphere back into the drywell.
7.3.2.6 Drywell temperature — normal recovery. Drywell atmosphere
temperature response is shown in Fig. 7.8. The initial rate of increase
is very rapid because the drywell coolers are lost at time zero, and about
half of the 100% power drywell heat load is assumed to remain. The rate
of increase becomes much slower when drywell temperature is high enough
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Fig. 7.8 Normal recovery after station blackout - drywell
temperatures.
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Fig. 7.9 Normal recovery after station blackout - containment
pressures.
270 300
50
to establish natural convection heat transfer to the drywell liner (see
discussion in Sect. 4). Drywell temperature begins decreasing after about
60 min. because a reactor coolant system (RCS) depressurization is begun
at this point. The depressurization reduces saturation temperature within
the RCS, hence surface temperatures of the reactor vessel and piping.
7.4 Loss of 250 vdc Batteries
7.4.1 Loss of 250 vdc Batteries — Assumptions
Assumptions specific to programming and input preparation for the
Loss of 250 vdc Batteries calculation include:
1. When the batteries are lost, injection capability is lost; in addi
tion, the SRVs can be opened only by automatic actuation.
2. Under automatic actuation, the lowest set SRV will open at about 7.72
MPa (1120 psia) and close at about 7.38 MPa (1070 psia).
3. The calculation begins 4 h after the Station Blackout and proceeds to
about 8 h.
4. Initial values of system parameters, except reactor vessel level, are
equal to those calculated at the 4 h point in the normal recovery re
sults (see Figs. 7.1 through 7.9). Reactor vessel level is assumed
to begin at 14.2 m (558 in.), the midpoint of the control range as
sumed for the normal recovery calculation.
7.4.2 Loss of 250 vdc Batteries — Results
Results for the Loss of 250 vdc Batteries case are shown in Figs.
7.10 through 7.16. Each system variable is discussed below.
7.4.2.1 Reactor vessel pressure. Reactor vessel pressure is shown
in Fig. 7.10. During the first 90 min., pressure climbs slowly from the
0.86 MPa (125 psia) initial value to the 7.72 MPa (1120 psia) actuation
point of the lowest set SRV. The rate of increase is slow because the de
cay heat after 4 hours is small compared to the thermal inertia of liquid
water within the vessel.
After repressurization, the pressure is controlled between 7.72 MPa
(1120 psia) and 7.38 MPa (1070 psia) by one SRV, actuating automatically.
As shown in Fig. 7.11, no steam flows from the vessel until pressure re
aches the SRV automatic actuation setpoint.
7.4.2.2 Reactor vessel level. Reactor vessel level is shown in Fig.
7.12. No injection is provided at any time in this transient, since DC
power is assumed lost.
The initial response of level is a brief but rapid decrease caused by
closing of the previously open SRV at time zero. Within several minutes
level begins slowly rising and peaks at about 15.88 m (625 in.). Level
swells during repressurization because the large mass of water in the ves
sel is heated from about 165°C (330°F) to about 288°C (550°F) with about a
25% increase in specific volume, and there is no coolant loss (other than
the assumed leakage) during repressurization.
360 390 420
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8498 ETD
Fig. 7.10 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - reactor vessel pressure.
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REMOTE-MANUAL SRV
CAPABILITY
240 270
—I—
300
AUTOMATIC ACTUATION OF
LOWEST SET SRV
330 360 390 420
TIME (min)
450
ORNL-DWG 81-8499 ETD
CALCULATIONS
STOPPED
480 51C 540
Fig. 7.11 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - vessel steam flow.
ro
240 270 300 330 360 390 420
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8500 ETD
450 480 510 540
Fig. 7.12 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - vessel level.
OJ
54
After repressurization, the SRVs begin to discharge steam so level
decreases throughout the remainder of the transient. Fuel is beginning to
be uncovered at the end of the transient.
7.4.2.3 Suppression pool level. The suppression pool level is shown
in Fig. 7.13. During the first 90 min., there is no SRV discharge, so
pool level is constant. After SRV discharge resumes, the pool level be
gins increasing steadily.
7.4.2.4 Suppression chamber temperatures. Figure 7.14 shows sup
pression pool and suppression chamber atmosphere temperature. Pool tem
perature, like pool level, is constant for the first 90 min. and then be
gins a steady increase. Atmosphere temperature continues to rise during
the first hour due to heat transfer and evaporation from the pool sur
face. Atmosphere temperature rise accelerates slightly between the first
and second hours due to an influx from the expanding drywell atmosphere.
After about 2 hours, the mass interchange ceases, and the suppression
chamber atmosphere temperature is responding solely to the increasing pool
temperature.
7.4.2.5 Containment pressures. Figure 7.15 shows containment pre
ssures. During the first 90 min., drywell pressure increases rapidly due
to heatup of the drywell atmosphere during repressurization. This brings
drywell pressure from slightly below suppression chamber pressure to about
0.0125 MPa (1.8 psi) above, allowing some drywell atmosphere to expand
into the suppression chamber. After about 2 hours, the drywell and sup
pression chamber pressures are increasing independently at about the same
rate, with little mass interchange.
7.4.2.6 Drywell atmosphere temperature. Drywell atmosphere tempera
ture is shown in Fig. 7.16. During the repressurization, the coolant tem
perature within the reactor vessel increases by over 111 C° (200 F°),
thereby increasing the drywell heat source. Atmosphere temperature rises
to new quasi-equilibrium values, with increased natural circulation heat
transfer from the atmosphere to the drywell liner. After repressuriza
tion, the coolant temperature becomes approximately constant, and the tem
perature of the drywell atmosphere rises more slowly at a rate limited by
the thermal inertia of the liner.
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240 270 300 330 360 390 420 450
TIME (min)
460 510 540
Fig. 7.13 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - suppression pool level.
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ORNL-DWG 81-8502 ETD
-POOL TEMPERATURE INCREASES WHEN
SRV DISCHARGE RESUMES
HEATUP ACCELERATES DUE TO INFLUX
"OF HOTTER DRYWELL ATMOSPHERE
VIA DOWNCOMERS
8-
240 270 300 330 360 390 420
TIME (min)
450 480
Fig. 7.14 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - suppression chamber
temperatures.
510 540
Ln
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ORNL-DWG 81-8503 ETD
510 540
Fig. 7.15 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - containment pressures.
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450 480
Fig. 7.16 Loss of 250 VDC batteries - drywell atmosphere
temperature.
510 540
en
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59
8. FAILURES LEADING TO A SEVERE ACCIDENT
As discussed in Sect. 3, control can be maintained over reactor ves
sel pressure and water level at Browns Ferry Unit 1 for a significant
period of time during a Station Blackout provided the installed equipment
operates as designed and the operator takes the required actions. The
first objective of this Section is to briefly discuss the other sequences
which might occur given significant secondary independent equipment fail
ures or improper operator actions. Subsequently, the equipment failures
which have the potential to directly convert the relatively stable period
of level and pressure control of the isolated reactor vessel during the
early stages of a Station Blackout into a Severe Accident will be dis
cussed in detail.
The several sequences which are considered most probable in a Station
Blackout during the period in which DC power remains available are dis
played in the "event tree" of Fig. 8.1. Each of these sequences is dis
cussed below.
Sequence 1; Following the complete loss of AC power, the operator
takes remote-manual control of the RCIC system and maintains the reactor
vessel water level within the limits of the available Control Room indica
tion. Since the RCIC System is being used for level control, the status
of the HPCI system is not a factor in this sequence. The operator also
controls the reactor vessel pressure by remote-manual operation of the
primary relief valves and takes action to begin depressurization of the
reactor vessel within one hour; this lowers the temperature of the satu
rated liquid within the vessel and thereby decreases the driving potential
for heat transfer into the drywell atmosphere. As a result of this de
pressurization, the maximum average ambient temperature in the drywell is
limited to 148.9°C (300°F), as discussed in Sect. 3. The operator will be
able to maintain reactor vessel level and pressure control for as long as
DC power is available from the Unit Battery. This is considered to be the
most realistic sequence should a Station Blackout occur, and served as the
basis for the plots of thermohydraulic parameters as functions of time
which were presented in Sect. 7. This sequence will also serve as the
starting point for the degraded accident behavior discussed in Section 9
in which the Station Blackout develops into a Severe Accident when DC
power is lost so that cooling water can no longer be injected into the re
actor vessel.
Sequence 2; This sequence differs from Sequence 1 only in that the
operator does not act to depressurize the reactor vessel. The average
ambient drywell temperature continues to increase beyond the one-hour
point, reaching 176.7°C (350°F) about four hours after the inception of
the Station Blackout (cf. Curve A of Fig. 3.3). This excessive tempera
ture existing over a period of several hours can cause serious damage to
the equipment located within the drywell and a breaching of the primary
containment due to failure of the drywell electrical penetration assembly
seals. If the DC solenoid operators for the primary relief valves fail
because of the excessive temperature, the operator will lose remote-manual
relief valve control. If the solenoid operators for the inboard Main
Steam Isolation Valves also fail, the operator will be unable to depres
surize the reactor vessel through the primary relief valves even after AC
ORNL-DWG 81-1544A ETD
COMPLETE LOSS
OF AC POWER
OPERATOR ACTION
TO CONTROL LEVEL
AND RCIC OPERABLE
HPCI OPERABLE
OPERATOR ACTION
TO DEPRESSURIZE
WITHIN 1 h
HPCI SUCTION SHIFTS TO PSP AT
PSP LEVEL = +7"
Fig. 8.1 Event tree for initial phase of a station blackout in
which DC power remains available.
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
©
ON
o
61
power is restored. There is no reason to accept these risks to the dry-
well integrity and installed equipment; the operator should take action to
depressurize, as in Sequence 1.
Sequence 3; Either the RCIC system is inoperable or the operator
does not choose to employ it for long-term reactor vessel level control.
The HPCI System is operable, and either automatically functions as neces
sary to cycle the reactor vessel level between 12.1 and 14.8 m (476 and
582 in.) above vessel zero, or is remote-manually controlled by the oper
ator to maintain the water level within the indicating range, 13.4 to 14.9
m (528 to 588 in.). The operator controls the reactor vessel pressure by
remote-manual operation of the relief valves and takes action to begin de-
pressuration within one hour. Up to this point, this sequence is similar
to Sequence 1, except that the injection of condensate storage tank water
into the reactor vessel is by the HPCI System instead of the RCIC System.
When the indicated water level in the pressure suppression pool in
creases to 0.18 m (+7 in.), the HPCI pump suction is automatically shifted
from the condensate storage tank to the pressure suppression pool. De
pending on the initial suppression pool level, the necessary amount of
water to cause this shift will have been transferred from the reactor ves
sel via the primary relief valves at some time between two and four hours
after the inception of a Station Blackout. Since the lubricating oil for
the HPCI turbine is cooled by the water being pumped, and the average sup
pression pool temperature will be about 71.1°C (160°F) at this point, an
early failure of the HPCI system is threatened.
Sequence 4; This sequence is the same as Sequence 3, except that the
operator has recognized the difficulties with the elevated suppression
pool temperature and has taken action to prevent the shift in HPCI pump
suction. The operator will be able to maintain reactor vessel level and
pressure control for as long as DC power remains available from the Unit
Battery. The continuing increase in suppression pool level will not cause
any significant problems during the remaining period in which DC power
would remain available.
It should be noted that pressure suppression pool temperature instru
mentation would be inoperable during a Station Blackout. Operator train
ing and the Station Blackout Emergency Operating Instruction (which does
not now exist) must provide for operator understanding of the need to pre
vent a shift of the HPCI pump suction to the overheated pressure suppres
sion pool.
Sequence 5: This sequence represents the case of Station Blackout
with no operator action and no secondary independent equipment failures.
The HPCI System automatically cycles the reactor vessel water level be
tween the HPCI system initiation point of 12.1 m (476 in.) and the HPCI
turbine trip point of 14.8 m (582 in.) above vessel zero. Over the long
term, one primary relief valve would repeatedly operate as necessary to
maintain the reactor vessel pressure between about 7.722 and 7.377 MPa
(1105 and 1055 psig).
There are three problem areas with this case of no operator action:
1. the difficulties with high drywell ambient temperature as discussed in
connection with Sequence 2,
2. the increased probability of loss of injection capability after the
undesirable shift of the HPCI pump suction to the overheated pressure
suppression pool as discussed in connection with Sequence 3, and
62
3. the decrease in suppression pool effectiveness caused by the highly
localized heating of the pool water surrounding the discharge of the
one repeatedly operating relief valve. The possible consequences are
discussed in Appendix D.
Sequence 6: This sequence differs from Sequence 5 only in that the
HPCI pump suction is maintained on the condensate storage tank, either by
operator action, or by fortuitous failure of the pertinent HPCI system
logic. This reduces the probability of HPCI system failure due to inade
quate lube oil cooling during the period of Station Blackout in which DC
power is still available. The difficulties with high drywell ambient tem
perature and localized suppression pool heating as discussed in connec
tion with Sequence 5 remain.
Sequence 7: The RCIC system is not available because of equipment
failure, or lack of operator action. The HPCI system has failed because
of a system malfunction. The represents the worst case of loss of injec
tion capability while DC power remains available. A boiloff of the ini
tial reactor vessel water inventory begins immediately after the complete
loss of AC power, leading to a relatively quick core uncovery and subse
quent meltdown. In this sequence, the core uncovery is hastened by a de
pressurization of the reactor vessel either by means of a stuck-open re
lief valve or because of inappropriate operator action; the depressuriza
tion increases the rate of loss of the irreplaceable reactor vessel water
inventory.
Sequence 8: This sequence is the same as Sequence 7, except that
there is no reactor vessel depressurization. The uncovery of the core
would begin about one-half hour after the loss of AC power. The plant re
sponse to Sequences 7 and 8 will be discussed further in Section 9.
The preceding discussion of alternate sequences again shows that a
Station Blackout at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant will not evolve into a
Severe Accident as long as reactor vessel water injection capability is
maintained. The remainder of this section contains a discussion of the
methods by which this injection capability might be lost. There are three
main areas of concern for the viability of the injection systems: Station
Blackout induced direct failure of the HPCI and RCIC systems, a stuck-open
relief valve which might reduce reactor vessel pressure below that neces
sary for HPCI and RCIC turbine operation, and the ultimate loss of DC
power. Each of these will be discussed in turn.
8.1 Induced Failure of the HPCI and RCIC Systems
The design and the principles of operation of the HPCI and RCIC sys
tems are discussed in Appendices E and F, respectively. Each of these
systems has the capacity to provide the necessary reactor vessel water
level control during a Station Blackout; both must fail to cause a total
loss of injection capability.
The failure modes considered in this Section will be limited to those
induced by the conditions of a Station Blackout. Independent secondary
failures, whose occurrence during a Station Blackout would be purely coin
cidental, have been considered in other studies16 and will not be dis
cussed here.
63
The first threat to the continued operation of the HPCI and RCIC sys
tems under Station Blackout conditions is due to the loss of the Reactor
Building cooling and ventilation systems. The major components of the
HPCI and RCIC systems are located in the basement of the Reactor Building,
where the average temperatures during a Station Blackout would be signif
icantly affected by the temperature of the pressure suppression pool. The
HPCI and RCIC systems are designed for continuous operation at an ambient
temperature of 64.4°C (148°F). As was shown in Section 7, the average
pressure suppression pool temperature would reach 71.1°C (160°F) after
about three hours under Station Blackout conditions. However, it is ex
pected that the ambient temperature in the vicinity of the HPCI and RCIC
systems would significantly lag the increasing suppression pool tempera
ture; it is estimated that the design temperature of 64.4°C (148°F) would
not be exceeded for at least four hours. In any event, exceeding the de
sign ambient temperature would not assure failure of the HPCI and RCIC
systems.
A more probable cause of HPCI or RCIC system failure is the automatic
isolation of these systems due to the tripping of the temperature sensing
circuits designed to detect steam leaks in the system piping. As des
cribed in Appendices E and F, each of these systems has a set of four trip
logics with four temperature sensors per logic. The 16 sensors are physi
cally arranged in four groups placed near the HPCI or RCIC equipment, with
the four sensors in each group arranged in a one-out-of-two taken twice
trip logic. If the trip setpoint of 93.3°C (200°F) is reached, an auto
matic closure signal is sent to the RCIC or HPCI primary containment in
board and outboard steam supply valves, and the system turbine is tripped.
Since the inboard steam supply valve for each of these systems is AC-
motor-operated, it would not close, but the system would be effectively
isolated due to closure of the outboard (DC-motor-operated) steam supply
valve.
As shown in Section 7, it is expected that the RCIC turbine would be
operated only intermittently during a Station Blackout, while the HPCI
system would serve only as a backup in the event of RCIC system failure.
Also, the RCIC equipment is not located in a closely confined space, and
some natural convection within the reactor building will certainly occur.
Nevertheless, it is conceivable that the local temperature in the vicinity
of the steam leak detection sensors could reach 93.3°C (200°F) during RCIC
system operation after the average space temperature has increased to over
60°C (140CF). If this occurs, the resulting RCIC system isolation signal
can be overriden in the auxiliary instrumentation room and the steam sup
ply valves reopened and the turbine trip reset. Thereafter, the HPCI sys
tem and the RCIC system, which are located on opposite sides of the sup
pression pool torus, might be alternately used for reactor vesssel level
control so as to reduce the heatup in the vicinity of the RCIC system.*
Thus, the tripping of the temperature sensing circuits is not expected to
lead to a total loss of injection capability.
*The HPCI room has not been designed to permit natural circulation
and the HPCI system has much more surface area for heat transfer Into its
surrounding space. Therefore, it is expected that the heatup associated
with HPCI operation would be more severe than that associated with RCIC
operation.
64
Another challenge to the viability of the HPCI and RCIC systems would
be posed by the loss of control air pressure during a prolonged Station
Blackout. The plant control air system is supplied from three air receiv
ers with a combined capacity of 22.60 m3 (798.0 ft3). Under Station
Blackout conditions, the air compressors which normally run intermittently
as necessary to maintain the receiver pressure in the range of 0.66 to
0.86 MPa (80 to 105 psig) would be inoperable; the stored inventory of
pressurized air would gradually be lost due to valve operations and leak
age.
Control air is used in the HPCI and RCIC systems to operate the steam
supply line drain isolation valves. In each of these systems, the two
primary containment isolation valves in the steam line to the turbine are
normally open so that the steam supply piping is kept at elevated tempera
tures; this permits rapid turbine startup on demand. The water formed by
the steam which condenses in this line when the turbine is not operating
is removed to the main condenser via a thermostatic steam trap. The two
air-operated drain isolation valves close to prevent the flow of water
from the steam trap to the main condenser when the primary containment is
to be isolated; the closing signal is automatically generated on low re
actor water level [12.10m (476.5 in.) above vessel zero].
The steam supply line drain isolation valves fail closed on loss of
control air, which would eventually occur during a prolonged Station
Blackout. This should not cause serious difficulties for the RCIC system
which would be run intermittantly so that the accumulation of water in the
steam supply piping between runs would not be excessive. However, a sub
stantial amount of water would collect in the HPCI steam supply piping if
this system is not operated over a long period following the loss of con
trol air pressure. Subsequent initiation of the HPCI system might cause
turbine damage. However, it should be noted that the HPCI and RCIC tur
bines are two-stage, non-condensing Terry turbines, which are of very rug
ged construction and are designed for use under emergency conditions, and
the operator could take action to run the HPCI turbine for short periods
to clear the lines of water as necessary. Thus the loss of control air
during a prolonged Station Blackout should not lead to a total loss of in
jection capability.
A third challenge to the viability of the water injection systems
should affect the HPCI system only. This challenge would occur because of
the HPCI system logic which provides for an automatic shifting of the HPCI
pump suction from the condensate storage tank to the pressure suppression
pool when the indicated pressure suppression pool level reaches 0.18 m (+7
in.). As previously discussed, this would occur between two and four
hours after the inception of a Station Blackout, when the pressure sup
pression pool temperature has increased to about 71.1°C (160°F). Since
the turbine lubricating oil is cooled by the water being pumped, and the
oil cooler is designed for a maximum inlet water temperature of 60.0°C
(140°F), the oil would become overheated, possibly leading to failure of
the turbine bearings. This can be avoided if the operator takes action to
maintain suction on the condensate storage tank for any HPCI system oper
ation. There is an ample supply of condensate storage tank water avail
able for injection, and the continuing increase in pressure suppression
pool level will in no way threaten the continued operation of the
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69
Table 8.1 Unit preferred system loads
1. Containment Isolation panel
2. Feedwater Control panels
3. Reactor Manual Control panel
4. Drywell Ventilation and Reactor Building Closed
Cooling Water System Control panel
5. Feedpump Turbine Control panels
6. Rod Position Information System
7. EHC Control Unit
8. Unit Computer and Rodworth Minimizer panels
9. Reactor Water Cleanup panel
Table 8.2 Major unit 250-volt DC loads
1. Turbine Building Distribution Board
2. 480-volt Shutdown Board Control Power
3. Emergency DC Lighting
4. Unit Preferred AC Motor-Generator
5. Circuit Breaker Board 9-9 (Feedpump Turbine
Controls)
6. Reactor Motor-Operated Valve Boards
a) Primary Relief Valve DC Solenoids
b) Main Steam Isolation Valve DC Solenoids
c) Recirculation Motor-Generator Set Emergency Oil
Pumps
d) Backup Scram Valves
e) RHR Shutdown Isolation Valves
f) Engineered Safeguards Logic Power Supplies
g) HPCI System Controls, Valves, and Auxiliaries
h) RCIC System Controls, Valves, and Auxiliaries
70
"The engineered safeguards systems that are sup
plied from the 250 volt DC system shall be designed to
operate at a minimum of 200 volts."
It has previously been estimated5 that under the less severe con
ditions of a Station Blackout, with all unit batteries avaiable, and as
suming prudent actions by a well-trained operator to conserve battery po
tential by minimizing DC loads, the necessary 250 volt DC power for HPCI
or RCIC system operation would remain available during the first four to
six hours of a Station Blackout.
In summary, it is reasonable to expect that control can be maintained
over reactor vessel pressure and water level at each of the Browns Ferry
Units during a Station Blackout for as long as the 250 volt DC power re
mains available. This period will depend on the operator's ability to
conserve the unit battery potential by minimizing the DC loads, but is ex
pected to last from four to six hours.* During this period the operator
may have to take other actions to maintain the operability of the HPCI and
RCIC systems as -Hscussed in subsection 8.1.
*A battery life of seven hours is considered in Appendix G.
71
9.0 ACCIDENT SEQUENCES RESULTING IN CORE MELTDOWN
9.1 Introduction
This section deals with the various accident sequences which might
occur during a complete Station Blackout (CSB) at the Browns Ferry Nuclear
Plant which can lead to core meltdown.18 Event trees are presented for
what are considered to be the six most probable sequences. The character
istics and event timing for each of these sequences were determined by use
of the MARCH code, and include consideration of the operator's role in re
actor vessel pressure and level control. The progression of core damage
and containment failure following core uncovery will be discussed in this
section; an event tree for operator key actions in mitigating the accident
progression will be discussed in Sect. 10.
Of the sequences modelled by MARCH and presented in this section, the
sequence TB'* is deemed to be most representative of the events which
would occur after core uncovery following a four-hour period during which
the availability of DC power permitted reactor vessel level and pressure
control. For this analysis, it is assumed that no independent secondary
equipment failures occur, and this sequence was chosen to serve as the
basis for the fission product transport analysis discussed in Volume 2 of
this report.
9.2 Accident Phenomenology
9.2.1 Accident Progression Resulting in Core Melt
Upon a loss of offsite and onsite AC power, a number of reactor
safety systems respond immediately and automatically. First of all, a
full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of the turbine control valves) oc
curs, followed by the tripping of the recirculation pumps and the main
condenser cooling water pumps. With the load rejection, the scram pilot
valve solenoids are deenergized and the control rods start to move toward
the fully inserted position. The main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) be
gin to close, resulting in a rapid reactor vessel pressure increase. The
se events are closely followed by a main turbine trip (i.e., closure of
the turbine stop valves) and the tripping of the feedwater turbines.
After the automatic actions described above, core flow is provided by
natural circulation and excess reactor vessel pressure is relieved by
steam blowdown through the safety/relief valves (SRVs) into the pressure
suppression pool. If any SRV fails to reclose after actuation, the reac
tor vessel will continue to depressurize with an accompanying loss of
*The nomenclature TB' follows that used in the Reactor Safety
Study,19 where T denotes a transient event and B' denotes failure to
recover either offsite or onsite AC power within about 1 to 4 hours. In
effect, TB' is a loss of decay heat removal (TW) sequence with the loss
of both offsite and onsite AC power as an initiating event.
72
water inventory similar to that occurring in a small break LOCA. Accord
ing to the Reactor Safety Study,ly the probability of a stuck-open re
lief valve (SORV) event is estimated to be 0.10 with an error spread of 3.
However, this estimate was based upon consideration of three-stage SRVs
such as those originally installed at the Browns Ferry site, with the
two-stage relief valves of improved design which have a recently been in
stalled at the Browns Ferry Plant, the probability of a SORV event is sub
stantially reduced and is estimated to be less than 10-z. The occur
rence of a sequence involving a SORV, designated sequence TPB', is in
cluded in the event trees of this section.
The reactor vessel water level decreases rapidly during the initial
moments of a Station Blackout due both to the void collapse caused by the
increased pressure and to the water inventory lost through the SRVs. When
the water level sensed by the wide range detector reaches the low water
level setpoint (Level 2), the DC-powered HPCI and RCIC systems are auto
matically initiated, with their turbine-driven pumps supplied by steam
generated by the decay heat. The HPCI and RCIC systems are assumed to re
main operational until the unit battery is exhausted at four hours into
the Station Blackout. Following the loss of these injection systems, the
reactor vessel level decreases until the core is uncovered about one hour
later. Subsequently, the core begins to melt.
The failure probability for HPCI has been estimated19 to be 9.8 x 10~2
with an error spread of 3 and for RCIC has been estimated to be 8 x 10~2
with an error spread of 3. The overall failure probability of both HPCI
and RCIC to provide makeup water during the sequence TB', is designated
TUB' and has been estimated19 to be 2 x 10-3 with an error spread of about
4. The failure of both HPCI and RCIC together with a SORV occurrence is
designated TUPB'.* Sequences TUB' and TUPB' have been included in the
event trees of this section.
9.2.2 Containment Failure Modes
Any sequence resulting in core melt will eventually lead to contain
ment failure if electrical power is not restored before the reactor vessel
fails. According to the Reactor Safety Study,19 BWR containment failure
could occur in the following categories:
a — Containment failure due to steam explosion in vessel,
0 — Containment failure due to steam explosion in containment,
Y — Containment failure due to overpressure - release through reactor
building,
Y' — Containment failure due to overpressure-release direct to atmos
phere,
j — Containment isolation failure in drywell,
e — Containment isolation failure in wetwell,
5 — Containment leakage greater than 2400 volume percent per day.
Containment failure by overpressurization was considered to be the
dominant failure mode for a BWR inerted containment in the Reactor Safety
*TUB' and TUPB' are in effect TQUV and TPQUV sequences with the
loss of both offsite and onsite AC power as an initiating event.
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74
9.3 Event Trees
9.3.1 Event Trees for Accident Sequences Resulting in Core Melt
It has been concluded in this study that the sequence of events dur
ing a prolonged complete Station Blackout (CSB) at the Browns Ferry Nu
clear Plant (BFNP) would most probably be described by one of the follow
ing titles:
1. CSB + HPCI/RCIC (TB')
2. CSB + HPCI/RCIC + SORV (TPB')
3. CSB + Manual RCIC & SRV (TyB')
4. CSB + Manual RCIC & SRV + SORV (TVPB")
5. CSB + No HPCI/RCIC (TUB')
6. CSB + No HPCI/RCIC + SORV (TUPB')
As indicated in this listing, a stuck-open relief valve (SORV) corresponds
to a small break LOCA. The terminology "Manual RCIC & SRV" refers to the
assumption that the operator controls level and pressure by remote-manual
operation of the RCIC system and the relief valves, respectively. The
phrase "No HPCI/RCIC" means that both of these water-injection systems are
assumed to be unavailable due to mechanical failure.
The event tree identifying these six accident sequences is shown in
Fig. 9.1. Sequence No. 1, traced by the dotted line in this figure, is
the sequence TB' which involves no independent secondary equipment fail
ures and was selected as the basis for the fission product transport anal
ysis discussed in Volume 2. Other possible but much less likely sequences
such as failure of reactor scram are shown on Fig. 9.1 but were not con
sidered in this study.
9.3.2 Core Damage Event Tree
Without restoration of offsite or onsite AC power and with the con
sequent inevitable loss of DC power, any of the numbered sequences shown
on Fig. 9.1 will lead to core uncovery and subsequent core melting, reac
tor vessel failure, and corium-concrete interaction. A tree for the
events subsequent to core uncovery is shown in Fig. 9.2, with the path
used for the fission product transport analysis of Vol. 2 identified by a
dotted line.
9.3.3 Containment Event Tree
A containment event tree for the occurrences following core melt is
given in Fig. 9.3. The particular path which has been chosen for the fis
sion product transport studies is again indicated by the dotted line path.
It should be noted that if AC power is restored after core, melt, but
before a failure of the reactor vessel occurs, the low-pressure Emergency
Core Cooling Systems (ECCS) would function and a breach of the containment
in the drywell or wetwell areas may be averted.
INITIATING EVENT
LOSS OF OFFSITE
AND ONSITE
ac POWER
YES
A
V
NO
SYSTEM
AUTOMATIC
RESPONSES
r-
I
STUCK OPEN
RELIEF VALVE
HPCI AND
RCIC
OPERABLE
MANUAL SRV
DEPRESSURIZATION
WITHIN 15 min.
LOSS OF dc POWER -
HPCI/RCIC INOPERABLE
ORNL-DWG 81-8164A ETD
SEQUENCE CONSEQUENCE
•© ITVPB') CORE MELT
POTENTIAL DELAYED
CORE DAMAGE
•(?) (TPB'l CORE MELT
POTENTIAL DELAYED
CORE DAMAGE
.(6)(TUPB) CORE MELT
•(5) <TVB') CORE MELT
POTENTIAL DELAYED
CORE DAMAGE
.-Q(TB') CORE MELT
POTENTIAL DELAYED
CORE DAMAGE
•©(TUB') CORE MELT
POTENTIAL CORE
DAMAGE - ATWS
Fig. 9.1 Event tree for accident sequences resulting in core melt.
-J
INITIATING EVENT -
CORE UNCOVERY
YES
REACTOR VESSEL
DEPRESSURIZED
dc POWER RESTORED
BEFORE EXTENSIVE
CORE DAMAGE -
HPCI/RCIC OPERABLE
ORNL-DWG 81-8200 ETD
OFFSITE ac POWER RESTORED
BEFORE EXTENSIVE
CORE DAMAGE-
LOW PRESSURE ECCS
OPERABLE
dc POWER RESTORED
AFTER SIGNIFICANT
CORE MELT, BUT
BEFORE VESSEL
FAILURE -
HPCI/RCIC OPERABLE
OFFSITE ac POWER RESTORED
AFTER SIGNIFICANT
CORE MELT, BUT
BEFORE VESSEL
FAILURE-
LP ECCS OPERABLE
OFFSITE ac POWER RESTORED AFTER VESSEL
FAILURE - LP ECCS OPERABLE
Fig. 9.2 Core damage event tree.
SLIGHT CORE DAMAGE,
LITTLE OR NO CORE MELT
CORE MELT, DEBRIS
CONTAINED IN VESSEL
CORE MELT, RPV
FAILURE, NO CONCRETE
ATTACK
CORE MELT, RPV
FAILURE, AND CONCRETE
ATTACK
SLIGHT CORE DAMAGE,
LITTLE OR NO CORE MELT
CORE MELT, DEBRIS
CONTAINED IN VESSEL
CORE MELT, RPV
FAILURE, NO CONCRETE
ATTACK
CORE MELT, RPV
FAILURE, AND CONCRETE
ATTACK
C*
INITIATING EVENT
-CORE MELT
YES
A
LARGE AMPLITUDE
CONOENSTION
OSCILLATIONS IN
WETWELL
T-QUENCHER
FAILURE
WETWELL
RUPTURE
FAILURE
77
VESSEL
FAILURE
DRYWELL
EPA VENTING
DRYWELL
EPA FAILURE
DRYWELL
RUPTURE
FAILURE
ORNL-DWG 81-0201 ETD
HIGH RELEASE (WETWELL FAILUREl
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
SOME RELEASE (DRYWELL VENTINGI
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
NO CONTAINMENT FAILURE
NO VESSEL FAILURE. NO CONTAINMENT
FAILURE
HIGH RELEASE (WETWELL FAILUREl
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
SOME RELEASE (ORYWELL VENTING I
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
NO CONTAINMENT FAILURE
NO VESSEL FAILURE, NO CONTAINMENT
FAILURE
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
SOME RELEASE (DRYWELL VENTINGI
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
NO CONTAINMENT FAILURE
NO VESSEL FAILURE. NO CONTAINMENT
FAILURE
VERY HIGHRELEASE IDRYWELL FAILUREl
SOME RELEASE (DRYWELL VENTINGI
VERY HIGH RELEASE (DRYWELL FAILUREl
NO CONTAINMENT FAILURE
— NO VESSEL FAILURE, NO CONTAINMENT
FAILURE
Fig. 9.3 Containment event tree.
78
9.4 Accident Sequences
9.4.1 MARCH computer code
Detailed calculations for the accident sequences have been performed
with the MARCH computer code , version 1.4B. This version is based on
version 1.4 at Brookhaven National Laboratory, but contains a different
subroutine ANSQ for the decay heat power calculations and modifications to
the subroutine HEAD which were necessary to improve the prediction of ves
sel failure time. 18
In the MARCH code, the fission product decay heat source term is
based on ANS Standard ANS-5.1 (1973)za which does not account for the
decay of U-239 or Np-239. The new standard ANS-5.1 (1979) zl* provides
decay parameters for U-239 and Np-239, but does not account for the decay
power generated from these or the numerous other heavy nuclides (acti-
nides) which exist in power reactors. The new subroutine ANSQ used in
this study (Cf. Appendix B) is based on the actinide decay heat source in
a BWR following a depletion of 34,000 MWd/t. The actinide heating calcu
lations Zb were performed using the EPRI-CINDER code and include all sig
nificant actinides from Tl-208 through Cm-246. Furthermore, the initial
fission energy release from the fuel is assumed to last 3 seconds rather
than 5 seconds as used originally in the MARCH code. This has been found
to yield better agreement with test data in implementing the REDY code at
GE.2b
A comparison of MARCH calculations for the sequence TB" as per
formed by versions 1.4 and 1.4B are given in Figs. 9.4 through 9.11 for
the time- dependence of (1) the maximum core temperature, (2) the water-
steam mixture level, (3) the containment wall temperature, and (4) the
containment volumetric leak rate. It should be noted that the times pre
dicted by version 1.4B for core uncovery and core melt are less by approx
imately 18 and 26%, respectively, and that the maximum containment wall
temperature is increased by more than 120%. Other comparisons have shown
that the 1.4B version produces results in better agreement with the core
uncovery time calculated by the RELAP4/Mod 7 Code for the sequence TUB "
at INEL. 2/
9.4.2 Accident progression signatures
This section contains the accident progression signatures for the
six most probable sequences following complete station blackout (CSB).
The early part of the plant transient characteristics follow that con
tained in the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Final Safety Analysis Report.
All other accident signatures have been based on the results calculated by
the MARCH computer code.13
9.4.2.1 CSB + HPCI (TB'). The accident progression signature for
the sequence TB' is given in Table 9.1. This sequence has been chosen
for the fission product transport studies presented in Volume 2.
9.4.2.2 CSB + HPCI + SORV (TPB'). The accident progression signa
ture for the sequence TPB' is given in Table 9.2. The SORV event has
the same effect as a small break LOCA, ensuring that the reactor vessel
3000.0
2500.0-
3 2000.0
\-
<
cc
H 1500.0
UJ
cc
o
o
I 1000.0
<
2
500.0-
0.0
0.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8515 ETD
CORE MELTING BEGINS
DECREASE FOLLOWING SCRAM
CORE UNCOVERY BEGINS
50.0
dc POWER LOST
—I 1 I
100.0 150.0 200.0
TIME (min)
1
250.0 300.0
Fig. 9.4 Maximum core temperature (MARCH/MOD 1.4B).
I
350.0 400.0
3000.0
2500.0-
LU
3 2000.0
<
rr
LU
a.
2
h 1500.0
UJ
cc
O
o
1000.0
<
500.0-
0.0
0.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8516 ETD
CORE MELTING BEGINS
DECREASE FOLLOWING SCRAM
CORE UNCOVERY BEGINS
dc POWER LOST
T T
1
T T
50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0
TIME (min)
350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0
Fig. 9.5 Maximum core temperature (MARCH/MOD 1.4)
os
o
12.0
10.0
3 8.0-
>
UJ
_J
UJ
cc
6.0
9 4.0-
2
<
UJ
k
i
tr
UJ
h-
<
2.0-
0.0-
-2.0-
-4.0
0.0 50.0
T T
100.0 150.0
1
200.0
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8517 ETD
LOSS OF dc POWER
BOILOFF BEGINS
CORE SLUMPS-
—I 1 1
250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0
Fig. 9.6 Water-steam mixture level (MARCH/MOD 1.4B)
oo
12.0-1
10.0
1 8.0-
>
UJ
_l
UJ
cc
r-
* 4.0
6.0-
<
UJ
fc 2.0
i
cc
UJ
•<
5 0.0
-2.0-
-4.0 | | 1 I i 1 1 r
0.0 50.0 100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0
TIME (min)
LOSS OF dc POWER
BOILOFF BEGINS
Fig. 9.7 Water-steam mixture level (MARCH/MOD 1.4)
ORNL-DWG 81-8518 ETD
CORE SLUMPS-
T T
oo
t-o
1400.0
•—
1200.0
«—
Q
O
Z
UJ
cc
1000.0
D
r-
<
CC
UJ
O.
2
UJ 800.0
r-
-1
_l
<
5
r-
Z 600.0
UJ
2
Z
<
H
Z
o 400.0
o
200.0-
0.0
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
T
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
Fig. 9.8 Containment wall temperature (MARCH/MOD 1.4B).
GROSS EPA FAILURE
EPA VENTING
T 1 1
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
I I
700.0 800.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8519 ETD
—I 1^ 1
900.0 1000.0 1100.0
oo
600.0 -r
£ 550.0-
o
o
z
cc 500.0-
D
r-
<
CC
UJ
a.
uj 450.0
<
z 400.0
UJ
2
z
<
r-
o 350.0-
300.0 H 1 1 1 I 1 I i i 1 1 r
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0 1200.0
TIME (min)
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
Fig. 9.9 Containment wall temperature (MARCH/MOD 1.4)
ORNL-DWG 81-8520 ETD
HEATUP DURING
CORIUM-CONCRETE
REACTION
oo
400.0
350.0-
"E 300.0-
<
QC
250.0
*
<
UJ
-1
o
200.0
CC
r-
UJ
2
Z>
_l
150.0
o
>
1-
o 100.0
o
50.0-
0.0-
0.0
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8521 ETD
700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.10 Containment leak rate (MARCH/MOD 1.4B)
00
400.0-1
350.0-
E
300.0
UJ
r-
<
CC 250.0
<
LU
_l
o 200.0
cc
K-
LU
2
-J
O
>
150.0
1-
o
o
100.0
50.0-
0.0 -J
0.0 100.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8522 ETD
200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0 1200.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.11 Containment leak rate (MARCH/MOD 1.4).
oo
o>
87
Table 9.1
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Complete Station Blackout
Sequence of Events
CSB + HPCI/RCIC
(TB')
Time
(sec) Event
0.0 Loss of all AC power and diesel generators. The plant
is initially operating at 100% power.
Initial drywell temperature = 66°C (150°F)
Initial wetwell temperature = 35°C (95°F)
0.2 Full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of turbine
control valves) occurs.
0.2 Recirculation pumps and condenser circulatory water
pumps trip off. Loss of condenser vacuum occurs.
Core flow is provided by natural circulation.
0.2 Reactor pressure increases suddenly due to load rejec
tion.
0.3 Scram pilot valve solenoids are deenergized due to
load rejection. Control rod motion begins.
0.5 Turbine bypass valves start to open due to load rejec
tion.
1.0 Neutron flux starts to decrease after an initial in
crease to over 100% rated power level.
1.0 Reactor power starts to decrease slowly after an ini
tial rise.
2.0 Control rods are 40% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
2.0 Main steamline isolation valves (MSIVs) start to close
(relay-type reactor trip system), resulting in a rapid
steam-line pressure rise.
2.0 Turbine bypass valves are tripped to close.
3.0 Control rods are 75% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
88
Time
(sec) Event
3.0 Turbine trips off (turbine stop valves fully closed).
3.5 Power generation due to delayed neutrons and fission
product decay drops to 10% of initial rated power gen
eration.
4.0 Feedwater turbines trip off.
5.0 MSIVs are fully closed, resulting in a momentary 0.69
MPa (100 psi) pressure increase and 1.02 m (40-in.)
drop of water-steam mixture level due to collapsing of
voids.
5.0 All control rods are fully inserted.
5*0 Reactor vessel pressure exceeds the lowest setpoint at
7.52 MPa (1090 psi) of safety/relief valves (S/RVs).
5.0 Seven (7) out of thirteen (13) S/RVs start to open in
response to pressure rise above the setpoint.
5.2 Water-steam mixture level recovers 0.51 m (20 in.)
from the previous momentary 1.02 m (40-in.) drop.
5.5 S/RV steam blowdowns into the pressure suppression
pool through the T-quenchers begin.
7.5 Feedwater flow drops below 20%.
9.0 Feedwater flow decreases to zero.
10.0 Power generation due to fission product decay drops to
approximately 7.2% of rated power generation.
15.0 All 7 S/RVs are completely closed.
15.7 Four out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
17.0 Neutron flux drops below 1% of initial full power
level.
21.0 Narrow range (NR) sensed water level reaches low alarm
(Level 4), i.e., 5.98 m (235.50 in.) above Level 0, or
5.00 m (196.44 in.) above TAF.
22.0 Suppression pool water average temperature rises
to 35.13°C (95.24°F) in response to the first S/RV
pops.
29.0 All 4 S/RVs are completely closed.
89
Time
(sec) Event
29.7 Two out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
47.0 All 2 S/RVs are completely closed.
47.7 One out of 13 S/RVs starts to open.
56.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approxi
mately 35.3°C (95.54°F).
56.0 NR sensed water level reaches low level alarm (Level
3), i.e., 5.50 m (216.00 in.) above Level 0, or 4.50 m
(176.94 in.) above TAF.
90.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approxi
mately 35.4°C (95.72°F).
101.0 The S/RV is completely closed. The same S/RV contin
ues to cycle on and off on setpoints throughout the
subsequent cyclings of HPCI and RCIC injections.
625 Wide range sensed water level reaches low water level
setpoint (Level 2), i.e., 4.18 m (164.50 in.) above
Level 0 at 2/3 core height, or 2.96 m (116.50 in.)
above TAF.
625 HPCI and RCIC systems are automatically turned on.
The HPCI and RCIC turbine pumps are driven by steam
generated by decay heat. System auxiliaries are
powered by the 250 V dc system.
655 HPCI and RCIC flows enter the reactor pressure vessel
at 315 Jt/s (5000 gpm) and 38 £/s (600 gpm), re
spectively, drawing water from the condensate storage
tank.
12.5 min. Narrow range sensed water level reaches Level 8 set-
point, i.e., 6.86 m (270.00 in.) above Level 0, or
5.64 m (222.00 in.) above TAF.
Time
(sec)
12,>5 min.
20 min.
26..5 min.
90
Event
HPCI and RCIC trip off.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures exceed 70°C (158°F) and
42°C (108°F), respectively.
Wide range sensed water level reaches Level 2 setpoint and
HPCI automatically restarts. (RCIC does not automatically
restart.)
27.0 min. HPCI flow enters the RPV.
29.0 min. Narrow range sensed water level reaches Level 8 setpoint and
HPCI trips off again. The HPCI system, driven by steam gen
erated by decay heat, turns on and off automatically between
sensed Levels 2 and 8 until the batteries run out.
80 min. Auto-isolation signal initiates as increase of drywell
pressure exceeds 13.8 KPa (2.0 psi). The HPCI/ RCIC systems
are not isolated.
240 min. The HPCI pump stops when the batteries run out.
260 min. Wide range sensed water level reaches Level 2 setpoint.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 85°C (185°F) and 87°C
(188°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 27.82 3.68 * 103 7.68 * 107 4.37 x 106
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
302 min. Core uncovery time. Steam-water mixture level is at 3.58 m
(11.73 ft) above bottom of the core.
320 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 485°C (904°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 101°C
(213°F) and 0.21 MPa (31 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 18.75 2.48 x io3 5.40 * 107 3.07 x io6
Hydrogen 6.65 x io"7 8.80 x i(f5 3.34 1.90 x io"1
91
Time
(sec) Event
340 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 821°C (1509°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 103°C
(218°F) and 0.23 MPa (33 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 11.75 1.56 x 103 3.76 x IO7 2.14 x ify*
Hydrogen 1.52 x io"3 2.00 x io"1 1.10 x io*1 6.25 x io2
355 min. Core melting starts.
389 min. Water level in vessel drops below bottom grid elevation.
390 min. Bottom grid fails and temperature of structures in bottom
head is above water temperature.
392 min. The corium slumps down to vessel bottom.
394 min. Debris starts to melt through the bottom head.
426 min. Vessel bottom head fails, resulting in a pressure increase
of 0.34 MPa (49 psia).
426.04 min. Debris starts to melt the concrete floor of the containment
building. Temperature of debris is 1433°C (2611°F) initial
ly. Internal heat generation in metals and oxides are 1.05
x IO7 and 1.95 x io' watts, respectively.
503.27 min. Drywell electric penetration assembly seals have failed as
the containment temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F) and start
to vent through the primary containment at a leak rate of
118 SL/s (250 ft3/min).
513.59 min. Containment failed as the containment temperature exceeds
260°C (500°F) and all electric penetration modules are blown
out of the containment. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 4.61 610 1.59 x io5 9052
Hydrogen 0.11 15 0 0
C02 1.01 133
CO 2.35 311
The leak rate through the drywell penetration seals is
-3.04 x io1* jt/s (6.44 x 104* ft3/min).
92
Time
(sec) Event
613 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (~14.7 psia)
and temperatures are 661°C (~1222°F) and 98°C (~209°F),
respectively. The leak rate through the containment failed
area is ~2.96 x 101* A/s (~6.27 x io** ft3/min).
695 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 623°C (1154°F) and 97°C
(207°F), respectively. The leak rate through the contain
ment failed area is ~6.47 x io1* i/s (~1.37 x io5
ft3/min).
1028 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 614°C (~1138°F) and
97°C (~207°F), respectively. The leak rate through the
containment failed area is ~1.34 x io3 l/s (~2.83 x
IO3 ft3/min).
93
Table 9.2
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Complete Station Blackout
Sequence of Events
CSB + HPCI/RCIC + SORV (Small Break LOCA)
(TPB')
Time
(sec) Event
0.0 Loss of all AC power and diesel generators. The plant
is initially operating at 100% power.
Initial drywell temperature - 66°C (150°F)
Initial wetwell temperature - 35°C (95°F)
0.2 Full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of turbine
control valves) occurs.
0.2 Recirculation pumps and condenser circulatory water
pumps trip off. Loss of condenser vacuum occurs.
Core flow is provided by natural circulation.
0.2 Reactor pressure increases suddenly due to load rejec
tion.
0.3 Scram pilot valve solenoids are deenergized due to
load rejection. Control rod motion begins.
0.5 Turbine bypass valves start to open due to load rejec
tion.
1.0 Neutron flux starts to decrease after an initial in
crease to over 100% rated power level.
1.0 Reactor power starts to decrease slowly after an ini
tial rise.
2.0 Control rods are 40% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
2.0 Main steamline isolation valves (MSIVs) start to close
(relay-type reactor trip system), resulting in a rapid
steam-line pressure rise.
2.0 Turbine bypass valves are tripped to close.
3.0 Control rods are 75% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
94
Time
(sec) Event
3.0 Turbine trips off (turbine stop valves fully closed).
3.5 Power generation due to delayed neutrons and fission
product decay drops to 10% of initial rated power gen
eration.
4.0 Feedwater turbines trip off.
5.0 MSIVs are fully closed, resulting in a momentary 0.69
MPa (100 psi) pressure increase and 1.02 m (40-in.)
drop of water-steam mixture level due to collapsing of
voids.
5.0 All control rods are fully inserted.
5.0 Reactor vessel pressure exceeds the lowest setpoint at
7.52 MPa (1090 psi) of safety/relief valves (S/RVs).
5.0 Seven (7) out of thirteen (13) S/RVs start to open in
response to pressure rise above the setpoint.
5.2 Water-steam mixture level recovers 0.51 m (20 in.)
from the previous momentary 1.02 m (40-in.) drop.
5.5 S/RV steam blowdowns into the pressure suppression
pool through the T-quenchers begin.
7.5 Feedwater flow drops below 20%.
9.0 Feedwater flow decreases to zero.
10.0 Power generation due to fission product decay drops to
approximately 7.2% of rated power generation.
15.0 All 6 S/RVs are completely closed. One S/RV is stuck
open (SORV); this has the same effect as a small break
LOCA of equivalent break area of 0.015 m2 (0.1583
ft2).
15.7 Four out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
17.0 Neutron flux drops below 1% of initial full power
level.
21.0 Narrow range (NR) sensed water level reaches low alarm
(Level 4), i.e., 5.98 m (235.50 in.) above Level 0, or
5.00 m (196.44 in.) above TAF.
95
Time
(sec) Event
22.0 Suppression pool water average temperature rises
to 35.13°C (95.24°F) in response to the first S/RV
pops.
29.0 All 4 S/RVs are completely closed.
29.7 Two out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
47.0 All 2 S/RVs are completely closed.
47.7 One out of 13 S/RVs starts to open.
56.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approxi
mately 35.3°C (95.54°F).
56.0 NR sensed water level reaches low level alarm (Level
3), i.e., 5.50 m (216.00 in.) above Level 0, or 4.50 m
(176.94 in.) above TAF.
90.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approxi
mately 35.4°C (95.72°F).
101.0 The S/RV is completely closed. The same S/RV contin
ues to cycle on and off on setpoints throughout the
subsequent cyclings of HPCI and RCIC injections.
625 Wide range sensed water level reaches low water level
setpoint (Level 2), i.e., 4.18 m (164.50 in.) above
Level 0 at 2/3 core height, or 2.96 m (116.50 in.)
above TAF.
625 HPCI and RCIC systems are automatically turned on.
The HPCI and RCIC turbine pumps are driven by steam
generated by decay heat. System auxiliaries are
powered by the 250 V dc system.
655 HPCI and RCIC flows enter the reactor pressure vessel
at 315 l/s (5000 gpm) and 38 l/s (600 gpm), re
spectively, drawing water from the condensate storage
tank.
12.5 min. Narrow range sensed water level reaches Level 8 set-
point, i.e., 6.86 m (270.00 in.) above Level 0, or
5.64 m (222.00 in.) above TAF.
12.5 min. HPCI and RCIC trip off.
96
Time
(sec) Event
20 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures exceed 70°C (158°F) and
50°C (122°F), respectively.
Mass and energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 35.04 4.63 x io3 9.87 x io7 5.61 x io6
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
25.5 min. Auto-isolation signal initiates as increase of drywell pres
sure exceeds 13.8 KPa (2.0 psi). The HPCI/ RCIC systems are
not isolated.
26.5 min. Wide range sensed water level reaches Level 2 setpoint and
HPCI automatically restarts. (RCIC does not automatically
restart.)
27.0 min. HPCI flow enters the RPV.
29.0 min. Narrow range sensed water level reaches Level 8 setpoint and
HPCI trips off again. The HPCI system, driven by steam gen
erated by decay heat, turns on and off automatically between
sensed Levels 2 and 8 until the batteries run out.
240 min. The HPCI pump stops when the batteries run out.
261 min. Wide range sensed water level reaches Level 2 setpoint.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 100°C (212°F) and 96°C
(205°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 10.45 1.38 x io3 2.92 x io7 1.66 x io6
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
315.07 min. Core uncovery time. Steam-water mixture level is at 3.53 m
(11.58 ft) above bottom of the core.
321.5 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 211°C (412°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 106°C
(223°F) and 0.24 MPa (35 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 22.66 3.00 x io3 6.33 x io7 3.60 x io6
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
97
Time
(sec) Event
384 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 1046°C (1915°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 1148C
(237°F) and 0.28 MPa (41 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 2.46 325.0 8.30 x io6 4.72 x IO5
Hydrogen 0.021 2.78 1.14 x io5 8.19 x io3
387.77 min. Core melting starts.
418.77 min. Water level in vessel drops below bottom grid elevation.
420.77 min. Bottom grid fails and temperature of structures in bottom
head is above water temperature.
421.67 min. The corium slumps down to vessel bottom.
422.12 min. Debris starts to melt through the bottom head.
515.18 min. Vessel bottom head fails, resulting in a pressure increase
of 0.34 MPa (49 psia).
515.20 min. Debris starts to boil water from containment floor.
515.20 min. Drywell electric penetration assembly seals have failed as
the containment temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F) and start
to vent through the primary containment at a leak rate of
105 i/a (222 ft3/min).
515.21 min. Debris starts to melt the concrete floor of the containment
building. Temperature of debris is 1771°C (3219°F) initial
ly. Internal heat generation in metals and oxides are 1.01
x IO7 and 1.86 x IO7 watts, respectively.
579.24 min. Containment failed as the containment temperature exceeds
260°C (500°F) and all electric penetration modules are blown
out of the containment. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 0.63 83.33 1.59 x io5 9052
Hydrogen 0.22 29.10 0 0
C02 2.08 275.13
CO 4.63 612.44
The leak rate through the drywell penetration seals is
~2.53 x 105 i/s (5.35 x IO5 ft3/min).
98
Time
(sec) Event
681.88 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (~14.7 psia)
and temperatures are 674°C (~1245°F) and 98°C (~209°F),
respectively. The leak rate through the containment failed
area is ~3.61 x IO4 n/s (-7.65 x 10^ ft3/min).
810 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 1006°C (1843°F) and
97°C (207°F), respectively. The leak rate through the
containment failed area is ~3.10 x io1* SL/s (~6.57 x
IO4 ft3/min).
1128 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 591°C (~1095°F) and
97°C (~207°F), respectively. The leak rate through the
containment failed area is ~1.27 x io3 X./s (~2.70 x
103 ft3/min).
99
is depressurized during core uncovery and melt. However, the pressure re
mains high enough so that the HPCI turbine can be operated for as long as
the battery lasts. Compared with the sequence TB', the SORV results in
a ~30 min. delay in the core melt, ~90 min. delay in vessel failure, and
~65 min. delay in the containment failure.
9.4.2.3 CSB + Manual RCIC & SRV (TVB'). The accident progression
signature for the sequence TVB' is given in Table 9.3. In this sequ
ence, it is assumed that the HPCI system is inoperable. The operator re-
mote-manually opens one SRV after 15 minutes of Station Blackout to de
pressurize the vessel in order to lower the vessel temperature and to pre
pare for use of the low pressure ECCS injection systems upon restoration
of AC power. At the same time, the operator attempts to maintain a con
stant vessel water level by manually controlling the RCIC injection. It
is noted that the fluid loss through the SRV causes the core to become
momentarily uncovered, but it refloods immediately with the continued RCIC
water injection. This short period of core uncovery is believed not to
cause any core damage at that stage.
9.4.2.4 CSB + Manual RCIC & SRV + SORV (T„PB"). The accident pro
gression signature for the sequence TVPB' is given in Table 9.4. In
this sequence, it is assumed that an SORV event occurs at the beginning of
the transient, and the operator remote-manually opens a SRV which causes
the reactor vessel to depressurize at a faster rate. Compared with the
sequence TVB', the two sequences have produced very similar results
with respect to the times of core melt, vessel failure, and containment
failure.
9.4.2.5 CSB + No HPCI/RCIC (TUB"). The accident progression signa
ture for the sequence TUB' is given in Table 9.5. The events of this
sequence as calculated by MARCH have been compared with results from the
RELAP4/MOD7 code2/ up to the time of core uncovery. With the modifica
tions incorporated in MARCH version 1.4B, the core uncovery times pre
dicted by the two codes are in agreement.
9.4.2.6 CSB + No HPCI/RCIC & SORV (TUPB"). The accident progression
signature for the sequence TUPB' is given in Table 9.6. This is the
severest of the six Station Blackout signatures studied, and includes a
prediction of core uncovery at 17 minutes after the initiating loss of AC
power. The mitigating action which might be taken by the operator in re
sponse to this and the other accident progression signatures will be dis
cussed in Section 10.
9.4.2.7 Summary of key events. A comparison of the predicted times
to key events following core uncovery for each of the six sequences as
calculated by MARCH version 1.4B is given in Table 9.7.
9.4.2.8 Key results for sequence TB '. Key results from the MARCH
calculations for the sequence TB1 which is used as the base case for the
fission product transport calculations in Volume 2 are presented in Figs.
9.12 through 9.21.
100
Table 9.3
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Complete Station Blackout
Sequence of Events
CSB + Manual RCIC & SRV
(TVB-)
Time
(sec) Event
0.0 Loss of all AC power and diesel generators. The plant
is initially operating at 100% power.
Initial drywell temperature - 66°C (150°F)
Initial wetwell temperature - 35°C (95°F)
0.2 Full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of turbine
control valves) occurs.
0.2 Recirculation pumps and condenser circulatory water
pumps trip off. Loss of condenser vacuum occurs.
Core flow is provided by natural circulation.
0.2 Reactor pressure increases suddenly due to load rejec
tion.
0.3 Scram pilot valve solenoids are deenergized due to
load rejection. Control rod motion begins.
0.5 Turbine bypass valves start to open due to load rejec
tion.
1.0 Neutron flux starts to decrease after an initial in
crease to over 100% rated power level.
1.0 Reactor power starts to decrease slowly after an ini
tial rise.
2.0 Control rods are 40% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
2.0 Main steamline isolation valves (MSIVs) start to close
(relay-type reactor trip system), resulting in a rapid
steam-line pressure rise.
2.0 Turbine bypass valves are tripped to close.
3.0 Control rods are 75% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
101
Time
(sec) Event
3.0 Turbine trips off (turbine stop valves fully closed).
3.5 Power generation due to delayed neutrons and fission
product decay drops to 10% of initial rated power gen
eration.
4.0 Feedwater turbines trip off.
5.0 MSIVs are fully closed, resulting in a momentary 0.69
MPa (100 psi) pressure increase and 1.02 m (40-in.)
drop of water-steam mixture level due to collapsing of
voids.
5.0 All control rods are fully inserted.
5.0 Reactor vessel pressure exceeds the lowest setpoint at
7.52 MPa (1090 psi) of safety/relief valves (S/RVs).
5.0 Seven (7) out of thirteen (13) S/RVs start to open in
response to pressure rise above the setpoint.
5.2 Water-steam mixture level recovers 0.51 m (20 in.)
from the previous momentary 1.02 m (40-in.) drop.
5.5 S/RV steam blowdowns into the pressure suppression
pool through the T-quenchers begin.
7.5 Feedwater flow drops below 20%.
9.0 Feedwater flow decreases to zero.
10.0 Power generation due to fission product decay drops to
approximately 7.2% of rated power generation.
15.0 All 6 S/RVs are completely closed. One S/RV is stuck
open (SORV); this has the same effect as a small break
LOCAL of equivalent break area of 0.015 m2 (0.1583
ft2).
15.7 Four out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
17.0 Neutron flux drops below 1% of initial full power
level.
21.0 Narrow range (NR) sensed water level reaches low alarm
(Level 4), i.e., 5.98 m (235.50 in.) above Level 0, or
5.00 m (196.44 in.) above TAF.
22.0 Suppression pool water average temperature rises
to 35.13°C (95.24°F) in response to the first S/RV
pops.
102
Time
(sec) Event
29.0 All 4 S/RVs are completely closed.
29.7 Two out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
47.0 All 2 S/RVs are completely closed.
47.7 One out of 13 S/RVs starts to open.
56.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approximately
35.3°C (95.54°F).
56.0 NR sensed water level reaches low level alarm (Level 3),
i.e., 5.50 m (216.00 in.) above Level 0, or 4.50 m (176.94
in.) above TAF.
90.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approximately
35.4°C (95.72°F).
101.0 The S/RV is completely closed. The same S/RV continues to
cycle on and off on setpoints throughout the subsequent RCIC
injections.
625 Wide range sensed water level reaches low water level set-
point (Level 2), i.e., 4.18 m (164.50 in.) above Level 0 at
2/3 core height, or 2.96 m (116.50 in.) above TAF.
625 Operator manually controls RCIC injection to maintain con
stant vessel water level. The RCIC turbine pump is driven
by steam generated by decay heat. System auxiliaries are
powered by the 250 V dc system.
655 RCIC flows enter the reactor pressure vessel at 38 H/s
(600 gpm) drawing water from the condensate storage tank.
15 min. Operator manually opens one SRV to depressurize the vessel.
20 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures exceed 76°C (169°F) and
50°C (122°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates
into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 829.75 1.10 x 105 2.32 x IO8 1.32 x IO7
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
103
Time
(sec) Event
21.14 min. Core uncovery time.
22.0 min. Core refloods.
30 min. Auto-isolation signal initiates as increase of drywell
pressure exceeds 13.8 KPa (2.0 psi). The RCIC system is not
isolated.
240 min. The RCIC pump stops when the batteries run out.
266.3 min. Wide range sensed water level reaches Level 2 setpoint.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 99°C (210°F) and 100°C
(212°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 19.16 2.53 x IO3 5.20 x IO7 2.96 x io6
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
347 min. Core uncovers again.
366 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 491°C (916°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 113°C
(236°F) and 0.28 MPa (40 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 9.26 1.22 x 103 2.97 x IO7 1.69 x io6
Hydrogen 4.09 x io"5 5.41 x io"3 222.28 12.64
386 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 855°C (1571°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 115°C
(239°F) and 0.29 MPa (41 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 5.05 6.68 x io2 1.81 x IO7 1.03 x IO6
Hydrogen 1.68 x IO-2 2.23 1.35 x IO5 7.70 x 103
Time
(sec)
395.3 min.
449.3 min.
451,.2 min.
452 min.
452.,9 min.
539..3 min.
539.,3 min.
539.,3 min.
104
Event
Core melting starts.
Water level in vessel drops below bottom grid elevation.
Bottom grid fails and temperature of structures in bottom
head is above water temperature.
The corium slumps down to vessel bottom.
Debris starts to melt through the bottom head.
Vessel bottom head fails, resulting in a pressure increase
of 0.0047 MPa (0.68 psia).
Debris starts to boil water from containment floor.
Drywell electric penetration assembly seals have failed as
the containment temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F) and start
to vent through the primary containment at a leak rate of
118 Z/s (250 ft3/min).
539.3 m^n. Debris starts to melt the concrete floor of the containment
building. Temperature of debris is 1750°C (3182°F) initial
ly. Internal heat generation in metals and oxides are 9.99
x 10° and 1.84 x io7 watts, respectively.
601.05 min. Containment failed as the containment temperature exceeds
260°C (500°F) and all electric penetration modules are blown
out of the containment. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 4.70 621.51 1.59 x io5 9052
Hydrogen 0.14 18.27 0 0
C02 1.29 170.23
CO 2.88 381.21
The leak rate through the drywell penetration seals is
-5.33 x io* X,/s (1.13 x io5 ft3/min).
718.8 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (-14.7 psia)
and temperatures are 700°C ( 1293°F) and 98°C (~209°F),
respectively. The leak rate through the containment failed
area is -5.18 x io4 l/s (-1.10 x io5 ft3/min).
105
Time
(sec) Event
821.5 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 737°C (1359°F) and 93°C
(199°F), respectively. The leak rate through the contain
ment failed area is -4.23 x io4* Jl/s (-8.96 x io1*
ft3/min).
1127.5 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 468°C (~875°F) and
86°C (~188°F), respectively. The leak rate through the
containment failed area is -4.79 x io1* SL/b (-1.02 x
IO1* ft3/min).
0.0
106
Table 9.4
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Complete Station Blackout
Sequence of Events
CSB + Manual RCIC & SRV + SORV (Small Break LOCA)
(TVPB')
Time
(sec) Event
Loss of all AC power and diesel generators. The plant
is initially operating at 100% power.
Initial drywell temperature - 66°C (150°F)
Initial wetwell temperature = 35°C (95°F)
°«2 Full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of turbine
control valves) occurs.
0.2 Recirculation pumps and condenser circulatory water
pumps trip off. Loss of condenser vacuum occurs.
Core flow is provided by natural circulation.
0*2 Reactor pressure increases suddenly due to load rejec
tion.
0.3 Scram pilot valve solenoids are deenergized due to
load rejection. Control rod motion begins.
0.5 Turbine bypass valves start to open due to load rejec
tion.
1*0 Neutron flux starts to decrease after an initial in
crease to over 100% rated power level.
1«° Reactor power starts to decrease slowly after an ini
tial rise.
2.0 Control rods are 40% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
2*0 Main steamline isolation valves (MSIVs) start to close
(relay-type reactor trip system), resulting in a rapid
steam-line pressure rise.
2.0 Turbine bypass valves are tripped to close.
3.0 Control rods are 75% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
107
Time
(sec) Event
3.0 Turbine trips off (turbine stop valves fully closed).
3.5 Power generation due to delayed neutrons and fission
product decay drops to 10% of initial rated power gen
eration.
4.0 Feedwater turbines trip off.
5.0 MSIVs are fully closed, resulting in a momentary 0.69
MPa (100 psi) pressure increase and 1.02 m (40-in.)
drop of water-steam mixture level due to collapsing of
voids.
5.0 All control rods are fully inserted.
5.0 Reactor vessel pressure exceeds the lowest setpoint at
7.52 MPa (1090 psi) of safety/relief valves (S/RVs).
5.0 Operator manually opens one S/RV to depressurize the
vessel.
5.5 S/RV steam blowdowns into the pressure suppression
pool through the T-quenchers begin.
7.5 Feedwater flow drops below 20%.
9.0 Feedwater flow decreases to zero.
10.0 Power generation due to fission product decay drops to
approximately 7.2% of rated power generation.
15.0 All 6 S/RVs are completely closed. One S/RV is stuck
open (SORV). This has the same effect as a small
break LOCA of equivalent break area of 0.0147 m
(0.1583 ft2).
17.0 Neutron flux drops below 1% of initial full power
level.
30 Operator manually controls RCIC injection to maintain
constant vessel water level. The RCIC turbine pump is
driven by steam generated by decay heat. System
auxiliaries are powered by the 250 V dc system.
60 RCIC flows enter the reactor pressure vessel at 38
l/s (600 gpm) drawing water from the condensate
storage tank.
108
Time
(sec) Event
10.52 min. Core uncovery time. Steam-water mixture level is at 3.56 m
(11.68 ft) above bottom of the core.
11.52 min. Core refloods.
20 min. Auto-isolation signal initiates as increase of drywell
pressure exceeds 13.8 KPa (2.0 psi). The RCIC system is
not isolated.
240 min. The RCIC pump stops when the batteries run out.
270 min. Wide range sensed water level reaches Level 2 setpoint.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 100°C (212°F) and 102°C
(216°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 19.50 2.58 x io3 5.29 x io7 3.01 x io6
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
337 min. Core uncovers again.
356 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 313°C (595°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 113°C
(236°F) and 0.28 MPa (40 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 12.25 1.62 x io3 3.64 x io7 2.07 x io6
Hydrogen 3.05 x io~8 4.03 x io~6 0.115 6.53 x io"3
376.4 min. Average gas temperature at top of core is 650°C (1202°F).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures and pressures are 115°C
(239°F) and 0.29 MPa (41 psia), respectively. Mass and
energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 7.20 9.52 x io2 2.43 x io7 1.38 x io6
Hydrogen 1.60 x io~3 0.21 1.07 x up 6.09 x io2
109
Time
(sec) Event
396.36 min. Core melting starts.
450.4 min. Water level in vessel drops below bottom grid elevation.
452.3 min. Bottom grid fails and temperature of structures in bottom
head is above water temperature.
453.1 min. The corium slumps down to vessel bottom.
454. min. Debris starts to melt through the bottom head.
542.5 min. Vessel bottom head fails, resulting in a pressure increase
of 0.005 MPa (0.7 psia).
542.5 min. Debris starts to boil water from containment floor.
542.5 min. Drywell electric penetration assembly seals have failed as
the containment temperature exceeds 240°C (400°F) and start
to vent through the primary containment at a leak rate of
104 i/s (221 ft3/min).
542.5 min. Debris starts to melt the concrete floor of the containment
building. Temperature of debris is 1766°C (3210°F) initial
ly. Internal heat generation in metals and oxides are 1.00
x IO7 and 1.83 x io' watts, respectively.
596.4 min. Containment failed as the containment temperature exceeds
260°C (500°F) and all electric penetration modules are blown
out of the containment. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass
(kg/s
Rate
(lb/min)
Energy
(w)
Rate
(Btu/min)
Steam
Hydrogen
co2
CO
7.69
0.038
2.58
0.80
1017
5.08
342
160
1.59 x io5
0
9052
0
The leak rate through the drywell penetration seals is
-9.20 x io1* SL/s (1.95 x io5 ft3/min).
0.0
110
Table 9.5
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Complete Station Blackout
Sequence of Events
CSB + No HPCI/RCIC
(TUB*)
Time
(sec) Event
Loss of all AC power and diesel generators. The plant
is initially operating at 100% power.
Initial drywell temperature = 66°C (150°F)
Initial wetwell temperature - 35°C (95°F)
0*2 Full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of turbine
control valves) occurs.
0*2 Recirculation pumps and condenser circulatory water
pumps trip off. Loss of condenser vacuum occurs.
Core flow is provided by natural circulation.
0*2 Reactor pressure increases suddenly due to load rejec
tion.
0*3 Scram pilot valve solenoids are deenergized due to
load rejection. Control rod motion begins.
0*5 Turbine bypass valves start to open due to load rejec
tion.
!*0 Neutron flux starts to decrease after an initial in
crease to over 100% rated power level.
i'O Reactor power starts to decrease slowly after an ini
tial rise.
2.0 Control rods are 40% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
2.0 Main steamline isolation valves (MSIVs) start to close
(relay-type reactor trip system), resulting in a rapid
steam-line pressure rise.
2.0 Turbine bypass valves are tripped to close.
3.0 Control rods are 75% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
3.0 Turbine trips off (turbine stop valves fully closed).
Ill
Time
(sec) Event
3»5 Power generation due to delayed neutrons and fission
product decay drops to 10% of initial rated power gen
eration.
4.0 Feedwater turbines trip off.
5.0 MSIVs are fully closed, resulting in a momentary 0.69
MPa (100 psi) pressure increase and 1.02 m (40-in.)
drop of water-steam mixture level due to collapsing of
voids.
5.0 All control rods are fully inserted.
5.0 Reactor vessel pressure exceeds the lowest setpoint at
7.52 MPa (1090 psi) of safety/relief valves (S/RVs).
5.0 Seven (7) out of thirteen (13) S/RVs start to open in
response to pressure rise above the setpoint.
5.2 Water-steam mixture level recovers 0.51 m (20 in.)
from the previous momentary 1.02 m (40-in.) drop.
5.5 S/RV steam blowdowns into the pressure suppression
pool through the T-quenchers begin.
7.5 Feedwater flow drops below 20%.
9.0 Feedwater flow decreases to zero.
10.0 Power generation due to fission product decay drops to
approximately 7.2% of rated power generation.
15.0 All 7 S/RVs are completely closed.
15.7 Four out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
17.0 Neutron flux drops below 1% of initial full power
level.
21.0 Narrow range (NR) sensed water level reaches low alarm
(Level 4), i.e., 5.98 m (235.50 in.) above Level 0, or
5.00 m (196.44 in.) above TAF.
22.0 Suppression pool water average temperature rises to
35.13°C (95.24°F) in response to the first S/RV pops.
29.0 All 4 S/RVs are completely closed.
29.7 Two out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
112
Time
(sec) Event
47.0 All 2 S/RVs are completely closed.
47.7 One out of 13 S/RVs starts to open.
56.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approximately
35.3°C (95.54°F).
56.0 NR sensed water level reaches low level alarm (Level 3),
i.e., 5.50 m (216.00 in.) above Level 0, or 4.50 m (176.94
in.) above TAF.
90.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approximately
35.4°C (95.72°F).
101.0 The S/RV is completely closed. The same S/RV continues to
cycle on and off on setpoints throughout the sequence.
625 Wide range sensed water level reaches low water level
set-point (Level 2), i.e., 4.18 m (164.50 in.) above Level 0
at 2/3 core height, or 2.96 m (116.50 in.) above TAF.
625 HPCI and RCIC systems are not turned on because they are
assumed to be unavailable.
20 min. Suppression pool water average temperature reaches 46°C
(114°F).
33 min. Core uncovery time. Steam-water mixture level is at 3.54 m
(11.61 ft) above bottom of the core.
40 min. Auto-isolation signal initiates as increase of drywell
pressure exceeds 13.8 KPa (2.0 psi). The HPCI/RCIC systems
are not affected. Drywell and wetwell temperature are 72°C
(162°F) and 55°C (130°F), respectively. Mass and energy
addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 33 4.36 x io3 9.25 x io7 5.26 x io6
Hydrogen 6 x 10 9 8.62 x io-7 2.92 x io~2 1.66 x io"3
60 min. Mass and energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 15.6 2.07 x io3 5.06 x 107 2.88 x 106
Hydrogen 2.8 x io~3 3.76 x io"1 2.15 x iq1* 1.22 x io3
Time
(sec)
70
80
min.
min.
113
Event ^^^^
Core melting starts.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 75°C (167°F) and 63°C
(145°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are:
Mass Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min)
Energy Rate
(w) (Btu/min)
Steam 5.68 7.51 x io2
Hydrogen 0.19 2.53 x io1
2.22 x io7 1.26 x io6
2.29 x io6 1.30 x io5
96 min. Water level in vessel drops below bottom grid elevation.
97 min. Bottom grid fails and temperature of structures in bottom
head is above water temperature.
99 min. The corium slumps down to vessel bottom.
101 min. The debris is starting to melt through the bottom head.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 97°C (207°F) and 71°C
(159°F), respectively. Meanwhile, local pool water tempera
ture at the discharging bay exceeds 149°C (300°F). Steam
condensation oscillations could accelerate due to the con
tinuous discharge of superheated noncondensable gases into
the suppression pool. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are;
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 18.6 5.46 x io3 5.42 x io7 3.08 x io6
Hydrogen 6.8 x io-2 8.93 3.59 x io5 2.04 x io**
129 min. Vessel bottom head fails, resulting in a pressure increase
of 0.34 MPa (49 psia).
129.03 min. Debris starts to melt the concrete floor of the containment
building. Temperature of debris is 1546°C (2815°F) ini
tially. Internal heat generation in metals and oxides are
1.36 x 107 and 2.50 x io7 watts, respectively.
114
Time
(sec) Event
165 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 141°C (286°F) and 74°C
(166°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 5.46 722.83 1.59 x io5 9052
Hydrogen 3.3 x io-2 4.38 0 0
CO2 2.58 341.88
CO 0.69 91.35
190 min. Drywell electric penetration assembly seals have failed as
the containment temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F) and start
to vent through the primary containment.
193 min. Containment failed as the containment temperature exceeds
260°C (500°F) and all electric penetration modules are blown
out of the containment.
219 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (14.7 psia).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 598°C (1109°F) and 78°C
(173°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass
(kg/s)
Rate
(lb/min)
Energy Rate
(w) (Btu/min)
Steam
Hydrogen
CO2
CO
0.70
0.24
2.32
5.03
92
32
307
666
1.59 x IO5 9052
0 0
The leak rate through the containment failed areas is
-2.90 x io5 X./b (-6.15 x io5 ft3/min).
250 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 675°C (1247°F) and 78°C
(173°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass
(kg/s)
Rate
(lb/min)
Energy Rate
(w) (Btu/min)
Steam
Hydrogen
C02
CO
6.84
0.25
1.53
5.25
905
33
203
695
1.59 x 105 9052
0 0
115
Time
(sec) Event
The leak rate through the containment failed area is
-4.91 x io4* l/s (-1.04 x io5 ft3/min).
309 min. Rate of concrete decomposition is -4.65 x io1* gm/s.
Rate of heat added to atmosphere is -1.20 x 10* kW.
367 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (-14.7 psia)
and temperatures are 854°C (1570°F) and 77°C (171°F), re
spectively. The leak rate through the containment failed
area is -3.94 x \if i/s (~8.35 x io4* ft3/min).
733 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 546°C (~1014°F) and
77°C (170°F), respectively. The leak rate through the con
tainment failed area is -2.12 x io3 A/s (-4.50 x
103 ft3/min).
116
Table 9.6
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant: Complete Station Blackout
Sequence of Events
CSB + No HPCI/RCIC & SORV (Small Break LOCA)
(TUPS' )
Time
(sec) Event
0.0 Loss of all AC power and diesel generators. The plant
is initially operating at 100% power.
Initial drywell temperature =• 66°C (150°F)
Initial wetwell temperature =• 35°C (95°F)
0.2 Full load rejection (i.e., fast closure of turbine
control valves) occurs.
0.2 Recirculation pumps and condenser circulatory water
pumps trip off. Loss of condenser vacuum occurs.
Core flow is provided by natural circulation.
0.2 Reactor pressure increases suddenly due to load rejec
tion.
0.3 Scram pilot valve solenoids are deenergized due to
load rejection. Control rod motion begins.
0.5 Turbine bypass valves start to open due to load rejec
tion.
1.0 Neutron flux starts to decrease after an initial in
crease to over 100% rated power level.
1.0 Reactor power starts to decrease slowly after an ini
tial rise.
2.0 Control rods are 40% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
2.0 Main steamline isolation valves (MSIVs) start to close
(relay-type reactor trip system), resulting in a rapid
steam-line pressure rise.
2.0 Turbine bypass valves are tripped to close.
3.0 Control rods are 75% inserted from fully withdrawn
position.
3.0 Turbine trips off (turbine stop valves fully closed).
117
Time
(sec) Event
3.5 Power generation due to delayed neutrons and fission
product decay drops to 10% of initial rated power gen
eration.
4.0 Feedwater turbines trip off.
5.0 MSIVs are fully closed, resulting in a momentary 0.69
MPa (100 psi) pressure increase and 1.02 m (40-in.)
drop of water-steam mixture level due to collapsing of
voids.
5.0 All control rods are fully inserted.
5.0 Reactor vessel pressure exceeds the lowest setpoint at
7.52 MPa (1090 psi) of safety/relief valves (S/RVs).
5.0 Seven (7) out of thirteen (13) S/RVs start to open in
response to pressure rise above the setpoint.
5.2 Water-steam mixture level recovers 0.51 m (20 in.)
from the previous momentary 1.02 m (40-in.) drop.
5.5 S/RV steam blowdowns into the pressure suppression
pool through the T-quenchers begin.
7.5 Feedwater flow drops below 20%.
9.0 Feedwater flow decreases to zero.
10.0 Power generation due to fission product decay drops to
approximately 7.2% of rated power generation.
15.0 All 6 S/RVs are completely closed. One S/RV is stuck
open (SORV); this has the same effect as a small break
LOCA of equivalent break area of 0.015 m2 (0.1583
ft2).
15.7 Four out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
17.0 Neutron flux drops below 1% of initial full power
level.
21.0 Narrow range (NR) sensed water level reaches low alarm
(Level 4), i.e., 5.98 m (235.50 in.) above Level 0, or
5.00 m (196.44 in.) above TAF.
22.0 Suppression pool water average temperature rises to
35.13°C (95.24°F) in response to the first S/RV pops.
29.0 All 4 S/RVs are completely closed.
29.7 Two out of 13 S/RVs start to open.
118
Time
(sec) Event
47.0 All 2 S/RVs are completely closed.
47.7 One out of 13 S/RVs starts to open.
56.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approximately
35.3°C (95.54°F).
56.0 NR sensed water level reaches low level alarm (Level 3),
i.e., 5.50 m (216.00 in.) above Level 0, or 4.50 m (176.94
in.) above TAF.
90.0 Suppression pool water average temperature is approximately
35.4°C (95.72°F).
101.0 The S/RV is completely closed. The same S/RV continues to
cycle on and off on setpoints throughout the sequence.
625 Wide range sensed water level reaches low water level
set-point (Level 2), i.e., 4.18 m (164.50 in.) above Level 0
at 2/3 core height, or 2.96 m (116.50 in.) above TAF.
625 HPCI and RCIC systems are not turned on because they are
assumed to be unavailable.
17.2 min. Core uncovery time. Steam-water mixture level is at 3.62 m
(11.88 ft) above bottom of the core.
20 min. Auto-isolation signal initiates as increase of drywell
pressure exceeds 13.8 KPa (2.0 psi). The HPCI/RCIC systems
are not affected. Drywell and wetwell temperature are 73°C
(163°F) and 55°C (130°F), respectively. Mass and energy
addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 60 7.94 x io3 1.69 x io8 9.61 x io6
Hydrogen 8.53 x io-13 1.13 x io~10 3.19 x io"6 1.81 x io~7
40 min. Mass and energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 10.30 1.36 * 103 3.41 x io7 1.94 x io6
Hydrogen 2.38 x IO-1* 3.15 x io"2 1.61 x io3 91.56
119
Time
(sec) Event
56.6 min. Core melting starts.
60 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 75°C (167°F) and 63°C
(145°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 2.73 3.61 x io2 1.23 x io7 6.99 x io5
Hydrogen 0.49 6.48 x io1 7.05 x io6 4.01 x io5
78 min. Water level in vessel drops below bottom grid elevation.
79 min. Bottom grid fails and temperature of structures in bottom
head is above water temperature.
81 min. The corium slumps down to vessel bottom.
81.5 min. The debris is starting to melt through the bottom head.
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 82°C (180°F) and 71°C
(159°F), respectively. Meanwhile, local pool water tempera
ture at the discharging bay exceeds 149°C (300°F). Steam
condensation oscillations could accelerate due to the con
tinuous discharge of superheated noncondensable gases into
the suppression pool.
101 min. Mass and energy addition rates into the wetwell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 1.25 165.35 3.47 x io6 1.97 x io5
Hydrogen 4.45 x io"* 0.06 1.03 x io3 58.58
142.5 min. Vessel bottom head fails, resulting in a pressure increase
of 0.34 MPa (49 psia).
152.5 min. Debris starts to boil water from containment floor.
162.5 min. Debris starts to melt the concrete floor of the containment
building. Temperature of debris is 2013°C (3655°F) ini
tially. Internal heat generation in metals and oxides are
2.43 x io7 and 1.26 x io7 watts, respectively.
120
Time
(sec) Event
162.5 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 128°C (262°F) and 74°C
(166°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 0.057 7.54 1.59 x io5 9052
Hydrogen 0 0 0 0
167.8 min. Drywell electric penetration assembly seals have failed as
the containment temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F) and start
to vent through the primary containment.
175.2 min. Containment failed as the containment temperature exceeds
260°C (500°F) and all electric penetration modules are blown
out of the containment.
185.3 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (14.7 psia).
Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 314°C (598°F) and 78°C
(173°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
Steam 1.65 218.26 1.59 x io5 9052
Hydrogen 0.025 3.31 0 0
C02 5.79 765.88
CO 0.526 69.58
The leak rate through the containment failed areas is
~3.00 x io* A/s (-6.36 x io* ft3/min).
206 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 610°C (1130°F) and 78°C
(173°F), respectively. Mass and energy addition rates into
the drywell are:
Mass Rate
Energy Rate
(kg/s) (lb/min) (w) (Btu/min)
C02 1.83 242
Hydrogen 0.20 26 0 0
Steam 1.36 180 1.59 x io5 9052
CO 4.15 549
121
Time
(sec) Event
The leak rate through the containment failed area is
-2.94 x 10* A/s (-6.24 x io* ft3/min).
222.5 min. Rate of concrete decomposition is -4.46 x io* gm/s.
Rate of heat added to atmosphere is -3.71 x 10* kW.
254.5 min. Drywell and wetwell pressures are at 0.10 MPa (-14.7 psia)
and temperatures are 746°C (1375°F) and 77°C (171°F), re
spectively. The leak rate through the containment failed
area is -5.54 x io* A/s (-1.17 x io5 ft3/min).
501 min. Drywell and wetwell temperatures are 815°C (-1500°F) and
77°C (170°F), respectively. The leak rate through the con
tainment failed area is -2.34 x io* A/s (-4.96 x
10* ft3/min).
Table 9.7. Predicted times to key events
Sequence Event
1 CSB + HPCI/RCIC
2 CSB + HPCI/RCIC + SORV
3 CSB + Manual RCIC/SRV
4 CSB + Manual RCIC/SRV + SORV
5 CSB + iNo HPCI/RCIC
6 CSB + No HPCI/RCIC + SORV
Core Core
uncover reflood
302
315
21 22
11 12
33
17
Core
uncover
again
347
337
Accident progression time
(min)
Start
melt
355
388
395
396
69
57
Core
slump
392
419
449
453
95
78
Vessel
failure
426
515
539
543
128
143
Wetwell
failure
130
145
'/
Drywell
EPA vent
503
515
539
543
190
168
Drywell
failure
514
580
601
596
193
175
e
Wetwell failure is due to forces of steam jet impingement and condensation oscillations resulting from excessive thermal
stratification in the suppression pool.
Drywell electric penetration assembly seals start to vent when the ambient temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F).
Drywell electric penetration assembly seals become decomposed and are blown out of the containment when the ambient tem
perature exceeds 260°C (500°F).
TJest estimate value.
/,
Containment would fail at 288 min. using WASH-1400 failure criterion of static pressurization at 190 psia.
Best estimate value.
to
ro
123
Figure 9.12 shows the reactor vessel pressure distribution; it re
mains approximately constant during the first 240 minutes when the steam
mass flow through the SRV discharge into the suppression pool (Fig. 9.13)
is balanced by HPCI injection (Fig. 9.14). The pressure increases after
the HPCI injection has stopped upon the assumed loss of dc power at 4 h
into the transient.
The mass of water and the mass of steam within the reactor vessel are
shown in Figs. 9.15 and 9.16 respectively. The relatively rapid decrease
in steam inventory beginning at about 305 minutes as shown in Fig. 9.16 is
due to depletion in the production of hydrogen (Fig. 9.17) by the
Zirconium-water reaction (Fig. 9.18) before the onset of core melting
(Fig. 9.19). The large amount of energy released by the Zr-H20 reaction
(Fig. 9.20) before the core slumps into the lower head causes an increase
in the steaming rate and the reactor vessel pressure.
The large amount of energy release in the predicted corium-water in
teraction after reactor vessel failure would cause a significant contain
ment pressure spike. The vertical concrete penetration resulting from
corium attack is shown in Fig. 9.21.
9.5 Containment Responses
As previously discussed, containment failure could occur either in
the drywell or in the wetwell if a core meltdown accident were to occur at
the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. The radiological consequences of a wet
well failure would be less severe than those of a drywell failure, because
a significant fraction of the released fission products would be dissolved
or deposited in the suppression pool.
9.5.1 Drywell Response
Drywell failure would occur in the EPA when the elastomeric sealing
materials undergo degradation and lose sealing integrity at ambient tem
peratures greater than 204°C (400°F)i8» 22. This does not preclude the
possibility of an earlier failure of the wetwell by overpressurization.
An EPA typical of those installed in the Browns Ferry unit 1 drywell liner
is shown in Fig. 9.22.
The masses of steam and hydrogen accumulated in the drywell and wet
well following core melt in the base case TB' are shown in Figs. 9.23
through 9.26. For this case, wetwell failure by overpressurization is not
preducted to occur.
The drywell temperature responses for the sequences TB' and TUB ' are
shown in Figs. 9.27 and 9.28 respectively; the general trends are very
similar in the two sequences, except that high temperatures are reached
much sooner in sequence TUB', as would be expected.* The corresponding
drywell pressure responses for these two sequences are shown in Figs. 9.29
through 9.36.
*In sequence TUB', it is assumed that the HPCI and RCIC systems
are unavailable from the inception of the Station Blackout. Thus boiloff,
core uncovery, and the subsequent events would occur sooner.
(x 105)
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50.0 100.0
dc POWER LOST ,
150.0
I
200.0
TIME (min)
250.0
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ORNL-DWG 81-8523 ETD
r-CORE UNCOVERY
300.0
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CORE SLUMPS INTO LOWER PLENUM
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HPCI INJECTION STOPS-,
SRV FLOW AND HPCI INJECTION
BECOME BALANCED
100.0
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150.0 200.0
TIME (min)
250.0
CORE UNCOVERY
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200.0
TIME (min)
250.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8525 ETD
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300.0 350.0
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LOSS OF dc POWER
BOILOFF BEGINS
CORE SLUMPS-
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300.0
I
350.0 400.0
Fig. 9.15 Mass of water in primary system.
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ORNL-DWG 81-8527 ETD
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350.0 400.0
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100.0 150.0
Fig. 9.17 Hydrogen mass in primary system.
CORE UNCOVERY
1
200.0
TIME (min)
I
250.0 300.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8528 ETD
CORE-J
SLUMPS
350.0 400.0
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ORNL-DWG 81-8529 ETD
o
300.0 350.0 400.0
00 50.0
100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.19 Fraction of core melted.
300.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8530 ETD
00
350.0 400.0
(x 107)
10.0
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HIGH INITIAL REACTION RATE
200.0
TIME (min)
CORE UNCOVERY
250.0 300.0
Fig. 9.20 Energy generated from Zr-^O reaction.
ORNL-DWG 81-8531 ETD
350.0 400.0
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to
800.0 -T
700.0-
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HEAD FAILS-
CORE UNCOVERY-
T T
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8532 ETD
CONCRETE PENETRATION COMPLETED
I I
700.0 800.0
—I 1 !
900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.21 Vertical concrete penetration.
OJ
OJ
END SHIELD
FOR RADIATION
PROTECTION
FIELD WELD
PRIOR TO
INSTALLATION
SHIELD
SUPPORT
FIELD WELD
CONTAINMENT
HEADER PLATES
ORNL-DWG 81-8533 ETD
CONNECTOR
MOUNTING
HOLES
FIELD WELD
VALVE AND
PRESSURE TAP
Fig. 9.22 Typical electrical penetration assembly canister.
OJ
(x 103)
18.0
16.0
14.0
_ 12.0 H
O)
25 looH
r-
S 80H
CO
<
6.0-
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
CORE UNCOVERY
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8534 ETD
DRYWELL EPA SEALS FAIL
DRYWELL VENTING THROUGH
FAILED EPA SEALS
—\r\l\
JL
T T
700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.23 Mass of steam in drywell.
H
OJ
On
250.0
200.0-
5 150.0
o
o
cc
Q
>-
CO
CO
<
100.0-
50.0
DRYWELL H2 SWEPT INTO WETWELL
AS VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS-
0.0-
T T
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8535 ETD
-SPIKE DUE TO H2 RETURN FROM WETWELL
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
i
700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.24 Mass of hydrogen in drywell.
OJ
ON
9000.0
8000.0
7000.0
_ 6000.0-
< 5000.0
H
C/3
O 4000.0-
co
CO
<
3000.0-1
2000.0-
1000.0
0.0
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
CORE SLUMPS
CONTINUED RELIEF
VALVE ACTUATION
I CORE UNCOVERY
ORNL-DWG 81-8536 ETD
-FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
-n
1000.0 1100.0 0.0 100.0 200.0
I I
300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0
TIME (min)
—I 1
800.0 900.0
Fig. 9.25 Mass of steam in wetwell.
OJ
^J
800.0
700.0-
600.0-
UJ
O
O
CC
Q
500.0
>
I 400.0
u.
o
CO
< 300.0
200.0-
100.0-
0.0
DRYWELL H2 SWEPT INTO
WETWELL AS VESSEL
BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS-
1 I
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
M
T
500.0
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8537 ETD
H, RETURNED TO DRYWELL AS EPA
SEALS FAIL AND CONTAINMENT VENTS
I I
600.0 700.0
—I I
800.0 900.0
1
1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.26 Mass of hydrogen in wetwell.
OJ
oo
1600.0
•1400.0-
~ 1200.0
cc
D
r-
<
£ iooo.o
s
UJ
UJ
S
800.0-
cc
<
| 600.0
o
o
400.0-
200.0-
0.0
INCREASE DURING
CORIUM-CONCRETE
REACTION
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
T T
ORNL-DWG 81-8538 ETD
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
T T T T T
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.27 Drywell temperature distribution (TB').
r-1
OJ
VO
1600.0-1
1400.0-
uT 1200.0 H
cc
I-
<
£ 1000.0-1
UJ
UJ
GC
<
o.
800.0-
1 600.0-
o
o
400.0-
200.0-
INCREASE DURING CORIUM
CONCRETE REACTION
h-vT
VESSEL BOTTOM
HEAD FAILS-
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
0.0
T
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.28 Drywell temperature distribution (TUB')
T I
600.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8539 ETD
700.0 800.0
o
(x 105)
10.0
9.0-
• 80
s.
cc
UJ
cc
Q.
r-
Z
UJ
cc
<
S
o
o
7.0-
6.0-
5.0
^ 4.0-
<
i-
o
3.0-
2.0-
ORNL-DWG 81-8540 ETD
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS-
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
100.0
ORE UNCOVERY
—T r 1 i ^ 1 1—
200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.29 Drywell total pressure (TB'),
T T
800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
(x 105)
8.0
CO
0.
UJ
CC
3
CO
CO
UJ
cc
Q.
7.0-
6.0-
5.0-
< 4.0-
cc
<
Q.
<
UJ
r-
CO
3.0-
2.0-
1.0-
0.0
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
100.0
i r i i^ i r
200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.30 Drywell steam partial pressure (TB').
CORE UNCOVERY
T
ORNL-DWG 81-8541 ETD
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
I I I
900.0 1000.0 1100.0
ro
ORNL-DWG 81-8542 ETD
(x 104)
10.0
CO
Q.
8.0-
uj 6.0-
rr
a.
r-
CC
<
Q.
o
o
cc
Q
>-
I
4.0
2.0
0.0
H, SWEPT INTO WETWELL AS
VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS-
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS-
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
0.0 1000 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.31 Drywell hydrogen partial pressure (TB').
1000.0
-I
1100.0
H>
OJ
(x 104)
30.0-
« 25.0
0-
0.0
NON-CONDENSABLES SWEPT INTO WETWELL
AS VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
ORNL-DWG 81-8543 ETD
•FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
I 1 I I
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
I I
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.32 Drywell non-condensables partial pressure (TB')

*•
0
0
O 5 Q
I
r
r
O
i
n O
O
"
~
r
-
*
X
I
I
I
I
q
o
o
o
«
b
i
o
-
^
o
(
e
d
)
s
a
n
s
s
s
a
d
i
N
s
w
i
a
v
d
w
o
o
n
v
i
o
i
c
o
_
i
< U
J
C
O
< o
.
U
J
U
J
c
c
Q c
c
3
1
4
5
V
E
S
S
E
L
B
O
T
T
O
M
H
E
A
D
F
A
IL
S

o I
O
O
8
c
1
c
u
u 3 C
O
c
o
O
J
M f-
H
J
l u
r
H
C
O
C
O
0
0
f
r
j
(x 105)
6.0
5.0-
CO
uj 4.0
cc
3
CO
CO
UJ
cc
-J 3.0-1
<
i-
oc
<
Q.
< 2.0
UI
co
1.0-
0.0
0.0
VESSEL
BOTTOM
HEAD
FAILS-
^
100.0 200.0
-FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
300.0 400.0
TIME (min)
500.0 600.0
Fig. 9.34 Drywell steam partial pressure (TUB'),
ORNL-DWG 81-8545 ETD
700.0 800.0
H>
ON
(x 104)
8.0
ro
Q_
UJ
CC
3
UJ
IX
a.
7.0-
6.0
5.0-
3 4.0
cc
<
a.
Z
UJ
a
o
cc
a
>-
x
3.0-
2.0-
1.0-
0.0-f
H2 SWEPT INTO
WETWELL AS
VESSEL BOTTOM
HEAD FAILS-
Zr-H20
REACTION
BEGINS
200.0
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
300.0 400.0
TIME (min)
500.0 600.0
Fig. 9.35 Drywell hydrogen partial pressure (TUB').
ORNL-DWG 81-8546 ETD
•vj
700.0 800.0
(x 104)
25.0
£ 20.0-
3
CO
CO
UJ
cc
Q.
^ 150
Zr-H20
REACTION/
BEGINS-
cc
<
CO
UJ
_l
<
CO
z
10.0-
o
u
I
z
o
z
V
ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
5.0
0.0 -f
0.0 100.0
-NON-CONDENSABLES SWEPT INTO WETWELL
AS VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD FAILS
I
200.0
FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
300.0 400.0
TIME (min)
I
500.0
—T
600.0
Fig. 9.36 Drywell non-condensables partial pressure (TUB'),
ORNL-DWG 81-8547 ETD
I
700.0 800.0
oo
149
As the drywell ambient temperature exceeds 204°C (400°F), the EPA
elastomeric sealing materials start to deteriorate and venting of the
drywell begins. When the ambient temperature has exceeded 260°C (500°F),
the EPA elastomeric sealing materials have decomposed to such an extent
that the EPA seals are blown out of the containment wall by the elevated
pressure within the drywell. This greatly increases the containment leak
age (Fig. 9.10).
9.5.2 Wetwell response
The condensation of the SRV steam discharge within the pressure sup
pression pool is generally accomplished without undue pressure stresses on
the containment wall. If, however, conditions are such that complete con
densation of the steam discharge does not occur, pressure loads signifi
cantly in excess of design limits can result, leading eventually to wet
well rupture.
Relief valve steam discharge into the pressure suppression pool is
accompanied by pressure oscillations of varying characteristics which are
functions of the steam mass flux and local pool water temperatures as well
as the type of sparger device installed at the discharge line terminus.
It has been observed that condensation instability can occur when a
submerged pipe vent discharges steam at flow rates higher than critical
(sonic discharge) with a sufficiently high ambient pool temperature- the
so-called "Wurgassen effect". The threshold of instability is character
ized by an increase in the amplitude of pressure oscillations which nor
mally accompany condensation at supercritical flow rates.
At present, ramshead-type sparger devices are installed on the relief
valve tail pipe discharge lines at the Browns Ferry Plant. The ramshead
device consists of two 90° elbows welded back-to-back to form a modified
T-junction, and provides an improvement in condensation performance over
that of a straight vertical pipe. The horizontal discharge from the ram
shead allows the rising convection currents and induced secondary flows to
circulate cooler water around the steam plumes rather than stagnate
against a downward flow of steam. However, small scale tests have shown
that it also has the potential to produce unstable condensation and con
comitant large pressure stresses when sufficiently high pool water temper
ature is reached during supercritical (sonic) discharge. For this reason,
certain limitations on plant operation are established in the Browns Ferry
Technical Specifications to preclude any possible steam discharge through
the ramshead devices at pool temperatures greater than 77°C (170°F).
In the near future, the ramshead devices at the Browns Ferry Plant
will be replaced by T-quencher sparger devices similar to that shown in
Fig. D-2 of Appendix D. Tests have shown that the T-quencher spargers
produce lower loads during the initial air-clearing upon relief valve ac
tuation and permit smooth condensation of the steam discharge at pool tem
peratures up to 93°C (200°F). For this study, it was assumed that the SRV
discharge lines terminate in T-quencher spargers.
Although the use of T-quenchers considerably improves the steam con
densation characteristics related to SRV steam discharges, the constricted
flows introduced by the T-quencher have caused insufficient thermal mixing
in the suppression pool. The resultant thermal stratification in the pool
150
can produce much higher local water temperature in the vicinity of the T-
quenchers although the average pool temperature remains quite low.
The problem of thermal stratification has been found to be signific
ant for the sequences TUB' and TUPB', in which the HPCI and RCIC sys
tems are assumed inoperative. Without injection capability, core uncovery
and subsequent degradation occur early in the Station Blackout when the
level of decay heat is relatively high so that a large amount of super
heated steam and noncondensibles is discharged from the T-quenchers into
the suppression pool in a short period of time. The average suppression
pool temperature is plotted as a function of time for sequences TB' and
TUB* in Figs. 9.37 and 9.38 respectively.
In sequence TUB', it is realistically assumed that without operator
action, reactor vessel pressure control over the long term would be by re
peated cycling of the same relief valve.* Because of the high steam mass
flux into the suppression pool bay in which the discharging T-quencher is
located, significant thermal stratification would be expected. MARCH com
putations show that the difference between the local and average suppres
sion pool temperatures can be estimated to increase from about 5°C at the
beginning of the transient to about 40°C 100 minutes later. This means
that the suppression pool would lose its condensation effectiveness; the
resulting pressure loads from the SRV discharge of steam and noncondensi
bles would rapidly increase, leading to a possible rupture of the wetwell
which could occur before the overtemperature-induced failure of the dry-
well.
The drywell pressure signatures for the sequences TB' and TUB' are
shown in Figs. 9.29 through 9.36. The general trends are again very sim
ilar, except for the timing of events. The pressure peaks for the sequence
TB' are generally higher than those for the sequence TUB'; this is attri
buted to the presence of a larger water inventory as a result of the four-
hour period of HPCI injection during sequence TB'.
The wetwell temperature signatures are given in Figs. 9.37 and 9.38,
and the average pressure distributions are given in Figs. 9.39 through
9.46 for sequences TB-* and TUB'. The plotted pressures do not include the
effect of pressure waves resulting from condensation instabilities or the
vapor jet plumes emanating from the T-quencher spargers.
*A1though four of the thirteen SRVs share the lowest nominal set-
point of 7.72 MPa (1105 psig), practical considerations dictate that there
would be one lowest-set valve.
550.0
500.0-
UJ
cc
3
r-
cc 450.0
ui
a.
UJ
r-
2 400.0 H
r-
CC
<
a.
O
o
350.0-
300.0
FAILURE OF VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS
CORE UNCOVERY
-VENTING BY FAILURE OF
DRYWELL EPA SEALS
-i 1 1 1 1 I 1
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8548 ETD
900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.37 Wetwell temperature distribution (TB').
550.0 -r
500.0
UJ
cc
3
r-
cc 450.0
UJ
o.
UJ
UJ
H
CC
<
a.
O
O
400.0-
350.0-
300.0
0.0
FAILURE OF VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD
-VENTING BY FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS
100.0 200.0
—1
300.0
1
400.0
TIME (min)
500.0
—I
600.0
Fig. 9.38 Wetwell temperature distribution (TUB').
ORNL-DWG 81-8549 ETD
to
700.0 800.0
(x 105)
10.0-
9.0
« 8(H CD
Q.
UJ
CC
3
CO
CO
UJ
cc
Q.
UJ
5
r-
cr
<
o.
5
O
o
7.0-
6.0-
5.0-
4.0-
3.0-
2.0-
1.0-
FAILURE OF VESSEL BOTTOM HEAC
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
-VENTING BY FAILURE OF
DRYWELL EPA SEALS
T
ORNL-DWG 81-8550 ETD
T T
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.39 Wetwell total pressure (TB'),
0/1
OJ
(x 104
25.0-1
CD
Q.
20.0-
UJ
CC
| 15.0
UJ
cc
Ol
r-
CC
<
Q.
<
UJ
I-
10.0-
5.0-
0.0
FAILURE OF VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD-
VENTING BY FAILURE OF
DRYWELL EPA SEALS
ORNL-DWG 81-8551 ETD
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
CORE UNCOVERY
T
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
—I I
500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
—I 1
700.0 800.0
Fig. 9.40 Wetwell steam partial pressure (TB')
1 I
900.0 1000.0 1100.0
On
(x 104)
25.0
20.0-
CD
Ch
oi
cc
3
CO
£ 15.0-
cc
r-
0C
<
CL
UJ
o
O
cc
a
>-
x
10.0-
5.0-
0.0
FAILURE OF VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS
400.0 500.0
-VENTING BY FAILURE OF
DRYWELL EPA SEALS
ORNL-DWG 81-8552 ETD
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0
T
600.0
TIME (min)
—I 1 I I
700.0 800.0 900.0 1000.0 1100.0
Fig. 9.41 Wetwell hydrogen partial pressure (TB'),
On
(x 105)
7.0
CD
Ql
6.0
CC
w 5.0
CO
UJ
cc
CL
<4.0
cc
<
OL
CO
UJ
J 3.0-1
CO
<
CO
z
UJ
z 2.0-1
o
u
I
z
o
1.0-
0.0
FAILURE OF VESSEL BOTTOM HEAD
Zr-H20 REACTION BEGINS-
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
ORNL-DWG 81-8553 ETD
VENTING BY FAILURE OF
DRYWELL EPA SEALS
ALL NON-CONDENSABLES
REPLACED BY STEAM
i 1 1 1 I I I I
0.0 100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0 900.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.42 Wetwell non-condensables partial pressure (TB').
—I
1000.0 1100.0
On
o>
200.0 300.0 400.0
TIME (min)
500.0
Fig. 9.43 Wetwell total pressure (TUB').
ORNL-DWG 81-8554 ETD
600.0 700.0 800.0
(x 104)
6.0
5.0-
CO
Q.
m 4.0
cc
3
CO
CO
UJ
cc
Q.
3.0-
r-
cc
<
< 2.0 H
UJ
r-
co
1.0-
0.0
FAILURE OF
VESSEL
BOTTOM
HEAD
0.0 100.0 200.0
VENTING BY FAILURE
OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
ORNL-DWG 81-8555 ETD
WETWELL ATMOSPHERE IS NOT PURE STEAM
T T I
500.0 300.0 400.0 500.0 600.0
TIME (min)
Fig. 9.44 Wetwell steam partial pressure (TUB').
I
700.0 800.0
on
CO
(x 104)
20.0
£ 15.0-
UJ
cc
3
UJ
cc
Cl
j* 10.0-
oc
<
CL
z
UJ
(J
O
CC
Q
£ 5.0-1
FAILURE OF
VESSEL
BOTTOM
HEAD
ORNL-DWG 81-8556 ETD
VENTING BY FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
SOME HYDROGEN REMAINS IN WETWELL ATMOSPHERE
0.0
0.0
• •II
100.0 200.0 300.0 400.0
TIME (min)
500.0 600.0
Fig. 9.45 Wetwell hydrogen partial pressure (TUB')
I
700.0 800.0
On
(x 105)
6.0
_ 5.0-
CO
Cu
CC
3
CO
J2 4.0
cc
CL
r-
cc
<
a.
CO
CO
<
CO
z
UJ
Q
z
o
o
I
z
o
z
3.0-
2.0-
1.0-
0.0
FAILURE OF
VESSEL
BOTTOM
HEAD
0.0 100.0 200.0
ORNL-DWG 81-8557 ETD
VENTING BY FAILURE OF DRYWELL EPA SEALS
SOME NON-CONDENSABLES REMAIN IN WETWELL ATMOSPHERE
300.0
I
400.0
TIME (min)
500.0 600.0 700.0 800.0
Fig. 9.46 Wetwell non-condensables partial pressure (TUB')
o>
o
161
10. PLANT STATE RECOGNITION AND OPERATOR MITIGATING ACTIONS
10.1 Introduction
The accident signatures developed in Sect. 9 provide baseline infor
mation for six possible sequences leading to core meltdown that might oc
cur during a Station Blackout. The objectives of this chapter are to ex
amine these same sequences from the operator's standpoint in order to
identify and evaluate potential preventive and corrective actions keyed to
the time windows available.
As discussed in Sect. 9, a number of plant safety systems would func
tion automatically during a Station Blackout. The automatic safety system
responses include reactor scram, vessel pressure control by SRV operation,
and level control through cycling of the HPCI system. Thus, assuming no
independent secondary failures, the reactor could be maintained in a safe
stable state without operator action until DC power is lost at an assumed
four hours into the blackout. After the loss of DC power, operator action
would be crucial in attempting to avert the impending core degradation.
10.2 Plant State Recognition
To enable the operator to better identify and evaluate potential
mitigating actions during a Station Blackout, the accident progression is
categorized into a number of plant states. The available time windows for
each plant state are determined from the baseline information provided in
Sect. 9. The location of the plant states within each sequence is shown
in Fig. 10.1, with the sequence chosen for the fission product transport
analysis of Volume 2 indicated by a dashed line.
Plant State 1 (0-s). This is the initial state at the moment of loss of
offsite and onsite power, and is common to all of the blackout sequences.
Plant State 2 (0-625 s). This state represents the period of automatic
plant safety system response and is common to the six sequences considered
in detail in this report.
Plant State 3 (625 s-240 min). This state is applicable to sequences
TB-* and TPB'. It is characterized by the availability of adequate de
cay heat removal by relief valve operation and the HPCI and RCIC injection
systems, which are dependent on DC power from the unit battery.
Plant State 3A (625 s-240 min). This state is applicable to' sequences
TVB' and TVPB'. It is characterized by operator action to control level
by operation of the RCIC system (only) and to rapidly depressurize the re
actor vessel by remote-manual relief valve actuation. The loss of fluid
through the relief valve exceeds the capacity of the RCIC system for a
short period of time, which causes a momentary core uncovery early in these
sequences.
Plant State 3B (625 s-28 min). This state is applicable to sequences TUB'
and TUPB'. In these sequences, the HPCI and RCIC systems are assumed to be
inoperable from the inception of the blackout, because of equipment fail
ure. This state is characterized by decreasing water level.
Plant State 4 (240-295 min). This state is applicable to sequences TB' and
TPB'. This is the period immediately following the loss of DC power,
INITIATING EVENT -
LOSS OF OFFSITE
AND ONSITE
ac POWER
YES
A
V
NO
SYSTEM
AUTOMATIC
RESPONSES
HPCI AND
RCIC
OPERABLE
ONLY RCIC
OPERABLE
MANUAL SRV
DEPRESSURIZATION
WITHIN 15 min.
LOSS OF dc POWER -
HPCI/RCIC INOPERABLE
SRV
DEPRESSURIZATION
BEFORE LP ECCS
RESTORATION
| STATE 4
I
I
STATE(
LOW PRESSURE ECCS
OPERABLE - OFFSITE
ac POWER RESTORED
STATE 8A
STATE 4A
STATE 7A
STATE 3A
STATE 8B
STATE 5B
STATE 3B
Fig. 10.1 Operator key action event tree.
ORNL-DWG 81-8163 ETD
NO CORE DAMAGE (TPB')
CORE MELT ITPB)
CORE MELT (TB'l
NO CORE DAMAGE
NO CORE DAMAGE (T,B' AND T,PB')
CORE MELT IT„B' ANDTVPB')
NO CORE DAMAGE
POTENTIAL CORE DAMAGE
NO CORE DAMAGE (TUPB')
CORE MELT (TUPB'I
CORE MELT (TUB')
POTENTIAL CORE DAMAGE
163
power, characterized by the unavailability of the HPCI and RCIC systems
and a steadily decreasing reactor vessel water level.
Plant State 4A (240-305 min). This state is applicable to sequences
TVB' and TVPB', and follows the loss of DC power. This state is char
acterized by a depressurized reactor vessel, unavailability of the HPCI
and RCIC systems, and a steadily decreasing vessel water level.
Plant State 5 (295-305 min). This state is applicable to sequence TPB'
and is characterized by a stuck-open relief valve, so that the reactor
vessel is depressurized.
Plant State 5B (28-38 min). This state is applicable to sequence TUPB'.
This sequence involves the combined secondary failures of inoperative HPCI
and RCIC systems and a stuck-open relief valve (SORV) from the inception
of the blackout. It is characterized by a rapidly decreasing water level.
Plant State 6 (295-355 min). This state is applicable to sequence TB'
only. It is characterized by boiloff of the reactor vessel water inven
tory due to automatic relief valve actuation with the reactor vessel fully
pressurized, and terminates with the beginning of core melt.
Plant State 6B (28-70 min). This state is applicable to sequence TUB'.
It is characterized by a pressurized reactor vessel, core uncovery, and
the beginning of core melt.
Plant State 7 (305-360 min). This state is applicable to sequence TPB'.
It is characterized by a depressurized reactor vessel, unavailability of
the low pressure ECCS injection systems, decreasing water level, core un
covery, and the beginning of core melt.
Plant State 7A (305-360 min). This state is applicable to sequences
TVB' and TVPB' is identical to state 7.
Plant State 7B (38-360 min). This state is applicable to sequence TUPB'
and is identical to state 7.
Plant State 8 (305-360 min). This state is applicable to sequence TPB'.
It is characterized by a depressurized reactor vessel and the recovery of
AC power, which permits the restoration of normal vessel water level.
Plant State 8A (305-360 min). This state is applicable to sequences
TVB' and TVPB' and is identical to state 8.
Plant State 8B (38-360 min). This state is applicable to sequence TUPB'
and is identical to state 8.
10.3 Operator Key Action Event Tree
For sequences TUB' and TUPB', and after the loss of DC power in the
case of sequences TB', TPB', TVB', and TVPB', mitigating action by the
operator is essential if core degradation is to be avoided and the plant
brought to a safe stable state.
Upon restoration of AC power, the operator's primary responsibility
is to ensure vessel depressurization and operation of the low pressure in
jection systems.
The operator key action event tree is shown in Fig. 10.1.
10.4 Operator Mitigating Actions
In addition to continued efforts to restore electrical power, the
recommended actions after the loss of water injection capability when
164
boiloff and core damage become inevitable include the use of portable
pumps, perhaps provided by fire engines, to flood the drywell in an at
tempt to preclude melt-through of the reactor vessel. If successful, this
would keep the degraded core inside the vessel and prevent gross contain
ment failure and the corresponding major releases of radioactivity. For
the sequences TUB' and TUPB', in which injection capability is assumed lost
at the inception of the blackout, a drywell flooding rate of 3,200 H/s
(50,000 gpm) would be necessary to flood the drywell to the level of the
reactor vessel core prior to reactor vessel melt-through.
165
11. INSTRUMENTATION AVAILABLE FOLLOWING
LOSS OF 250 VOLT DC POWER
Reactor vessel level and pressure control can be maintained during a
Station Blackout for as long as 250 volt DC power from the unit battery
remains available, as discussed in Sect. 8. The instrumentation available
during this initial phase of a Station Blackout was discussed in Sect. 5.
It is the purpose of this section to discuss the instrumentation which
would remain operational after the unit battery is exhausted; this final
phase of a Station Blackout would constitute a Severe Accident because
there would be no means of injecting water into the reactor vessel to
maintain a water level over the core.
In addition to the 250 volt unit battery system, there are two smal
ler battery systems which supply power to Control Room instrumentation and
alarm circuits. The first of these is a 24 volt DC system which supplies
power to the Source Range and Intermediate Range neutron flux monitors as
well as radiation monitors for the off-gas, RHR Service Water, Liquid Rad-
waste, Reactor Building Closed Cooling Water, and Raw Cooling Water sys
tems, none of which would be operational during a Station Blackout. The
24 volt batteries for this system are designed to supply the connected
loads for a period of 3 hours without recharging. Since the 250 volt sys
tem batteries are expected to last for a period of four to six hours, it
is unlikely that the 24 volt system would remain available after the 250
volt DC unit distribution system has failed.
The second of the smaller battery systems is a 48 volt DC power sup
ply and distribution system for the operation of the plant's communication
and annunciator systems. This system comprises three batteries, one of
which supplies the plant communications system while the remaining two
batteries are for the annunciator system. However, the system design pro
vides that the total station annunciator load can be supplied from one
battery. The 48 volt DC system batteries are capable of supplying the
connected loads for a period of eight hours without recharging. This is
well beyond the period of expected operation of the 250 volt DC systems
and assures continued availability of the plant communications system.
The efficacy of the annunciator system depends upon the availability of
the power supplies to the signal transmission systems of the various sen
sors as well as the 48 volt DC system. Most of the alarm annunciator cap
ability will be lost when the unit battery fails.
There is reason to believe that plant preferred 120 volt AC single
phase power would remain available for a significant period of time after
failure of the unit battery. Plant preferred power is obtained from the
plant 250-volt DC system during a Station Blackout by means of a DC-motor,
AC generator combination. The plant battery is similar to each of the
unit batteries, but would be more lightly loaded during a Station Black
out. The major loads on the plant battery are the turbo-generator oil
pumps and seal-oil pumps for the three Browns Ferry Units. These pumps
could be stopped within one hour after the inception of a Station Blackout
since the turbo-generators will have stopped rolling and there is no jack
ing capability under Station Blackout conditions.
Assuming that plant preferred power does remain available during the
period of core uncovery following the loss of the unit battery, two
166
sources of valuable information powered by this system and located outside
of the Control Room would remain. The first is an indication of the tem
peratures at various points within the drywell provided both by a recorder
and an indicator-meter for which the displayed drywell temperature can be
selected by a set of toggle-switches. *
The second information source provided by plant-preferred power
consists of the temperatures at various points on the surface of the re
actor vessel as provided by 46 attached copper-constantan thermocouples.
Unfortunately, the indicating range for the instruments reporting the
thermocouple responses is only 315.6°C (0-600°F). However, when the in
strument responses for the thermocouples attached near or on the bottom of
the reactor vessel are pegged at the high end, the operator can be sure
that the core is uncovered, and the only fluid within the vessel is super
heated steam. Both the drywell temperature indication and the reactor
vessel thermocouple recorder are mounted on panel 9—47, which is located
on the back of the Control Room Panels.
Information concerning the reactor vessel water level would also be
available outside the Control Room from the mechanical Yarway indication
(which requires no electrical power) located at the scram panels on the
second floor of the reactor building; this would provide direct indication
of the reactor vessel water level over the range from 14.94 to 9.47 m (588
to 373 in.) above vessel zero. The lower boundary of this Yarway indicat
ing range is 0.33 m (13 in;) above the top of the active fuel in the
core.
There would be no indication of reactor vessel pressure after loss of
the unit battery. However, it is expected that the vessel pressure would
be maintained in the range of 7.722 to 7.377 MPa (1105 to 1055 psig) by
repeated automatic actuation of a primary relief valve for as long as the
reactor vessel remains intact.
It should be noted that the emergency lighting for the Control Room
is supplied from the 250 volt DC system; after failure of this system
hand-held lighting for the Control Room would be necessary. The door se
curity system is supplied by plant preferred power and would remain oper
able as long as the plant 250 volt DC system is functional. The area
radiation monitors located throughout the plant are powered from the
Instrumentation and Control buses and would not be operational from the
inception of a Station Blackout.
167
12. IMPLICATIONS OF RESULTS
The purpose of this section is to provide a discussion of the pre
sent state of readiness at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant to cope with a
Station Blackout. The discussion will include consideration of the avail
able instrumentation, the level of operator training, the existing emer
gency procedures, and the overall system design.
12.1 Instrumentation
The availability of Control Room instrumentation during the period of
a Station Blackout in which 250 volt DC power remains available has been
discussed in Sect. 5. The most important parameters while injection cap
ability remains are the reactor vessel level and pressure, and these would
be adequately displayed in the Control Room during this period. This in
strumentation available after the loss of DC power was discussed in Sect.
11.
The existing instrumentation at Browns Ferry Unit 1 which would be
important during a Station Blackout is summarized below, with additional
information concerning the power supplies. The instrumentation is discus
sed in the order given in reference 28, and is located in the Control Room
unless otherwise indicated.
I. Core
A. Core Exit Temperature — not available at Browns Ferry.
B. Control Rod Position— the rod position indicating system is
powered by the 120V AC unit-preferred system, which would be
available during a Station Blackout for as long as 250V-CC
power remains available from the unit battery.
C. Neutron Flux _ The Source Range and Intermediate Range moni
tors are powered by the 24 volt DC battery system, which is de
signed to supply the connected loads for a period of 3 hours
under the conditions of a Station Blackout. The Source and In
termediate Range detectors are withdrawn from the core during
power operation to a point 0.61 m (2 ft) below the bottom of the
active fuel to increase their active life, and these detectors
could not be reinserted during a Station Blackout. However, the
relative changes in neutron flux following reactor scram will
produce a proportional change in Source Range meter (range: 0.1
to IO6 CPS) response when the detector is fully withdrawn.
II. Reactor Coolant System
A. RCS Pressure — one channel of reactor vessel pressure powered
by the feedwater inverter and another channel powered by the
unit-preferred system, each with a range of 8.274 MPa (0 to 1200
psig), would be available during a Station Blackout for as long
as the unit battery continues to supply 250 volt DC power.
B. Coolant Level in the Reactor — two channels of reactor vessel
level instrumentation, one each powered by the feedwater in
verter and the unit-preferred system would be available during
Station Blackout for as long as the 250 volt DC unit battery
168
system remains functional. These two channels each have a range
of 1.524 M (0 to 60 in.) and provide indication of the reactor
vessel water level between 13.41 and 14.94 m (528 and 588 in.)
above the bottom of the vessel, a range which extends over the
upper portion of the steam separators. Additional level infor
mation would be available outside of the Control Room, as fol
lows:
o Two channels of Yarway level indication over the range from
9.47 to 14.94 m (373 to 588 in.) above the bottom of the ves
sel are available at the backup control panel located in the
Backup Control Room. This instrumentation is powered from
the unit-preferred system; the lower limit of this indication
is 0.33 m (13 in.) above the top of the active fuel in the
core.
o The Yarway instruments are located at the scram panel on the
second floor of the reactor building and mechanically display
the reactor vessel water level over the same range as that
electrically transmitted to the backup control panel. This
level indication at the Yarway instruments requires no elec
trical power, and would remain available even after all DC
power was lost.
C. Main Steamline Flow — two channels of steam flow instrumenta
tion powered by the feedwater inverter would provide an indica
tion of total steam flow [range: 2016 kg/s (0 to 16 x IO6
lbs/h)] during a Station Blackout while the unit battery remains
functional.
D. Main Steamline Isolation Valves' Leakage Control System Pressure
— not applicable to Browns Ferry.
E. Primary System Safety Relief Valve Positons, Including ADS —
There is no provision for indication of the actual position of
any primary relief valve, including those assigned to the ADS
system. Under normal operating conditions, the operator can
identify a leaking relief valve by means of the recorded tail
pipe temperatures available on charts behind the Control Room
panels, or by the recently installed (December, 1980) acoustic
valve monitors. Both of these leakage detection systems would
be inoperable under Station Blackout conditions.
On the other hand, remote-manual actuation of a relief
valve is accomplished by energizing the associated DC solenoid
operator, and each valve has lights on the control panel which
indicate whether or not the solenoid for that valve is ener
gized. The capability for this indirect indication of success
ful remote-manual valve actuation is maintained during the per
iod of a Station Blackout in which 250 volt DC power is avail
able from the unit battery.
F. Radiation Level in Coolant — not available at Browns Ferry.
III. Containment
A. Primary Containment Pressure — Drywell pressure instrumenta
tion with a range of 0.55 MPa (0-80 psia) powered by the
unit-preferred system will be available during a Station
169
Blackout while the unit battery remains functional. A set of 12
vacuum breakers ensures that the pressure in the pressure sup
pression pool torus cannot exceed the drywell pressure by more
than 0.003 MPa (0.5 psi).
B. Containment and Drywell Hydrogen Concentration — Instruments
for this purpose are provided for each Browns Ferry Unit, but
would not be available during a Station Blackout.
C. Containment and Drywell Oxgyen Concentration — Instruments
for this purpose are provided, but as in the case of the hydro
gen monitors, are powered from the Instrumentation and Control
buses which would not be available during a Station Blackout.
D. Primary Containment Isolation Valve Position — During a Sta
tion Blackout, valve position indication is maintained for the
Main Steam Isolation Valves (MSIV's) and for the systems which
remain operable, i.e., the HPCI and the RCIC systems. However,
valve position indication for the primary containment isolation
valves in the low-pressure injection systems which are powered
by sources not available during a Station Blackout would be
lost.
E. Suppression Pool Water Level — This instrument, powered by
the unit-preferred system, would indicate the water level in the
torus with a range of 1.27 m (—25 to +25 in.) as long as the
unit battery is functional.
F. Suppression Pool Water Temperature — This instrumentation
would not be available during a Station Blackout.
G. Drywell Pressure — This is synonymous with "Primary Contain
ment Pressure" — see "A" above.
H. Drywell Drain Sumps Level — not indicated. The frequency of
drain pump operation for each of the two 1.893 m^ (500 gal.)
drain sumps in the drywell is indicated in the Control Room
under normal conditions, but would not be operable during a Sta
tion Blackout.
I. High-Range Containment Area Radiation — not available at
Browns Ferry.
IV. Power Conversion Systems
A. Main Feedwater Flow — one channel of flow instrumentation
with a range of 1008 kg/s (0 to 8 x IO6 lbs/h) and powered
by the unit-preferred system is provided for each of the three
feedwater pumps. This instrumentation would remain operable as
long as the unit battery is functional.
B. Condensate Storge Tank Level — The condensate storage tank
level indication [range: 9.75 m (0 to 32 ft)] is powered by the
unit-preferred system and would remain operational until the
unit battery is exhausted.
V. Auxiliary Systems
A. Steam Flow to RCIC — This instrumentation is powered by the
Instrumentation and Control buses and would not be available
during a Station Blackout.
170
B. RCIC Flow — The RCIC pumped flow is indicated over a range
of 0.044 m3/s (0-700 GPM) on the flow controller, which is
powered by the unit-preferred system and would be available as
long as the unit battery is functional.
VI. Radiation Exposure Rates — The permanently-installed radiation
monitors located throughout the plant are powered from the Instrumentation
and Control buses and would not be operational during a Station Blackout.
The available Control Room instrumentation is adequate to monitor the
plant response to a Station Blackout during the estimated four-hour period
during which 250 volt DC power would remain available from the unit bat
tery. After the unit battery is exhausted, virtually all Control Room in
strumentation would be lost and water could no longer be injected into the
reactor vessel to make up for that lost to the pressure suppression pool
through relief valve actuation. Consequently, the reactor vessel water
level would slowly decrease until the core became uncovered.
The most important single parameter during the period of decreasing
water level following loss of the unit battery is the reactor vessel
level, which could be monitored at the Yarway instruments on the second
floor of the Reactor Building as described in part III B above. In addi
tion, the drywell ambient temperatures and the reactor vessel surface tem
peratures would remain available as long as the plant-preferred 250 volt-
DC system is functional, as described in Sect. 11.
12.2 Operator Preparedness
There is currently no specific training provided Browns Ferry Oper
ators in regard to plant response or required operator actions in the ev
ent of a complete Station Blackout.
A Station Blackout casualty can be run at the TVA Browns Ferry Unit 1
simulator by selecting the pre-programmed loss-of-offsite-power casualty
and then having the simulator operator immediately punch the diesel-gener-
ator manual trips in the control room. Since the instrumentation in the
simulated control room is powered from several diverse sources representa
tive of those at the actual plant, the resulting effect closely models a
Station Blackout. This procedure was developed and tested by TVA simula
tor operating personnel as an effort in cooperation with this study, but
has not been used for operator training.
There is no Emergency Operating Instruction to cover a Station Black
out at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, but there are Emergency Operating
Instructions for the loss of individual subsections of the overall AC sys
tem.
With two exceptions, the current level of operator training and the
existing Emergency Operating Instructions are believed adequate to prepare
the operator to cope with a Station Blackout during the initial phase in
which 250 volt-DC power would remain available. The first exception in
volves the need to depressurize the reactor vessel within the first hour.
The Technical Specifications provide that the reactor vessel must be de
pressurized to less than 1.48 MPa (200 psig) if the pressure suppression
pool temperature exceeds 48.9°C (120°F); this is based on a maximum per
missible temperature of 76.7°C (170°F) for the pool so that complete con
densation of steam is ensured in the event of a LOCA. The Emergency
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172
recommended order of removal of loads if the loss of AC power is per
ceived to be long-term.
3. Recovery procedures should be developed to provide a detailed method
for recovery of vital power supplies and equipment in a safe, effi
cient manner upon restoration of AC power following a Station Black
out.
12.3 System Design
The existing system design provides sufficient instrumentation and
equipment to maintain decay heat removal capability for several hours dur
ing a Station Blackout. The only questionable feature of the existing de
sign with regard to the Station Blackout sequence is the provision for
automatic shifting of the HPCI pump suction to the pressure suppression
pool on high sensed pool level. As discussed in Sect. 8.1, this can lead
to failure of the HPCI system because of the high temperature of the pre
ssure suppression pool water at the time the shift in pump suction oc
curs.
Separate provision is made for an automatic shift of the HPCI pump
suction if the normal condensate storage tank water source becomes ex
hausted. Thus it appears that the automatic high pool water level shift
must have been straight-forwardly based on a concern for the effect of
high water level in the pressure suppression pool. The basis is not given
in the Technical Specifications, and it should be noted that there is no
corresponding provision for the RCIC system. It is recommended that the
desirability of an automatic shift in HPCI pump suction on high suppres
sion pool water level be reexamined and if found necessary, that the basis
be included in operator training.
173
13. REFERENCES
1. Browns Ferry FSAR, Appendix F.
2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Memorandum from H. R. Denton to Chair
man Ahearne, dated September 26, 1980: Subject: STATION BLACKOUT.
3. Browns Ferry FSAR, Paragraph 8.5.2.
4. R. L. Scott, "Browns Ferry Nuclear Power-Plant Fire on March 22,
1975," Nuclear Safety, 17-5, 592-611 (1976).
5. Browns Ferry FSAR, Response to AEC Question 4.8.
6. Staff Report, Anticipated Transients Without Scram for Light Water
Reactors, NUREG-0460, Vol. 2, p. XVI-74.
7. Browns Ferry FSAR, Response to AEC Question 12.2.16.
8. Continuous System Modeling Program III (CSMP III) Program Reference
Manual, IBM Corporation, 4th Ed. (December 1975).
9. "Decay Energy Release Rates Following Shutdown of Uranium-Fueled
Thermal Reactors," ANS-5.1, American National Standards Institute
(1971).
10. R. T. Lahey, Jr. and P. S. Kamath, "The Analysis of Boiling Water Re
actor Long-Term Cooling," Nuclear Technology, Vol. 49 (June 1980).
11. J. F. Wilson, R. J. Grenda, and J. F. Patterson (A-C), "Steam-Water
Separation Above a Two-Phase Interface," Trans, Am Nucl. Soa.,
4,356 (1961).
12. R. T. Lahey, Jr. and F. J. Moody, "The Thermal Hydraulics of a Boil
ing Water Nuclear Reactor," American Nuclear Society (1977).
13. R. 0. Wooton and H. I. Avci, MARCH Code Description and User's Man
ual, Battelle Columbus Laborataories/USNRC Report NUREG/CR-1711 (Oc
tober 1980).
14. D. W. Hargroves and L. J. Metcalfe, CONTEMPT-LT/028: A Computer
Program for Predicting Containment Pressure-Temperature Response to a
Loss of Coolant Accident, EG&G Idaho, Inc./USNRC Report NUREG/CR-
0255 (TREE-1279) (March 1979).
15. Browns Ferry Emergency Operating Instruction No. 36, Loss of CooTs-
ant Accident inside Drywell*
16. S. E. Mays, et al, Second IREP Status Report, Risk Assessment for
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1, January 1981 (Preliminary).
174
17. Browns Ferry FSAR, Section 8.6.
18. D. D. Yue and W. A. Condon, "Severe Accident Sequence Assessment of
Hypothetical Complete Station Blackout at the Browns Ferry Nuclear
Plant," 1981 International ANS/ENS Topical Meeting on Probabilistic
Risk Assessment, Port Chester, N.Y., September 20-24, 1981.
19. Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400 (NUREG-75/014), U.S. Nuclear Regu
latory Commission, 1975.
20. F. E. Haskin, et al, "Analysis of a Hypothetical Core Meltdown Acci
dent Initiated by Loss of Offsite Power for the Zion I PWR," NUREG/
CR-1988, Sandia National Laboratories, 1981.
21. M. L. Corradini, "Analysis and Modelling of Steam Explosion Experi
ments," NUREG/CR-2072, Sandia National Laboratories, April 1981.
22. D. D. Yue, "Electric Penetration Assembly," U.S. Patent 4, 168, 394,
September 1979.
23. American Nuclear Society Proposed Standard ANS-5.1, "Decay Energy
Release Rates Following Shutdown of Uranium — Fueled Thermal
Reactors," October 1971, revised October 1973.
24. ANSI/ANS-5.1 (1979), "Decay Heat Power in Light Water Reactors,"
August 1979.
25. W. B. Wilson, et al, "Actinide Decay Power," LA-UR 79-283, Los Alamos
Scientific Laboratory, June 1979.
26. T. E. Lobdell, "REDYV01 User Manual," NEDO-14580, August 1977.
27. D. D. Christensen, "Interim Browns Ferry RELAP4/MOD7, Station Black
out Calculation," DDC-2-80 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory,
October 31, 1980.
28. Table 3, BWR VARIABLES, of Revision 2 to Regulatory Guide 1.97, "In
strumentation for Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants to Access
Plant and Environs Conditions During and Following an Accident"
(December 1979).
29. Browns Ferry FSAR, Paragraph 5.2.1.
30. Safety Evaluation Report — Mark I Containment Long-Term Program,
NUREG-0661, July 1980.
31. Three Dimensional Pool Swell Modeling of a Mark I Suppression System,
EPRI NP-906, October 1978.
32. H. Nariai, I. Aya, M. Kobayaski, "Thermo-Hydraulic Behavior in a
Model Pressure Suppression Containment During Blowdown," Topics in
Two-Phase Heat Transfer and Flow, pp. 89-98, Winter ASME Meeting,
1978.
175
33. W. G. Anderson, P. W. Huber, A. A. Sonin, "Small Scale Modeling of
Hydrodynamic Forces in Pressure Suppression Systems," NUREG/CR-0003,
March 1978.
34. B. D. Nichols, C. W. Hirt, "Numerical Simulation of Boiling Water
Reactor Vent-Clearing Hydrodynamics," Nucl. Sci. &Engr., 73,
196-209.
35. D. Brosche, "Model for the Calculation of Vent Clearing Transients in
Pressure Suppression'System," Nucl, Engr. &Des., 38, 131-141,
1976.
36. J. S. Marks, G. B. Andeen, "Chugging and Condensation Oscillation
Tests," EPRI NP-1167, September 1979.
37. L. E. Stanford, C. C. Webster, "Energy Suppression and Fission Pro
duct Transport in Pressure-Suppression Pools," ORNL-TM-3448, April
1972.
38. M. Okazaki, "Analysis for Pressure Oscillation Phenomena Induced by
Steam Condensation in Containment with Pressure Suppression System,"
Nucl. Sci. and Tech. iA» PP« 30-42, January 1979.
39. J. S. Marks, G. B. Andeen, "Chugging and Condensation Oscillation,"
Condensation Heat Transfer, pp. 93-102, 18th National Heat Transfer
Conference, San Diego, California, August 1979.
40. W. Kowalchuk, A. A. Sonin, "A Model for Condensation Oscillations in
a Vertical Pipe Discharging Steam into a Subcooled Water Pool,"
NUREG/CR-0221, June 1978.
41. D. A. Sargis, J. H. Stubhmiller, S. S. Wang, "A Fundamental Thermal
Hydraulic Model to Predict Steam Chugging Phenomena," Topic in Two-
Phase Heat Transfer and Flow, pp. 123-133, Winter ASME Meeting,
1978.
42. P. A. Sargis, et al., "Analysis of Steam Chugging Phenomena, Vol. 1,"
EPRI-NP-1305, Janauary 1981.
43. B. J. Patterson, "Mark I Containment Program: Montice-llo T-Quencher
Thermal Mixing Test Final Report," NEDO-24542, August 1979.
44. "TRAC-P1A An Advanced Best-Estimate Computer Program for PWR LOCA
Analysis," Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, NUREG/CR-0665, LA-7777-
MS, May 1979.
45. U.S. Rohatgi and P. Saha, "Constitutive Relations in TRAC-P1A,"
Brookhaven National Laboratory, NUREG/CR-1651, BNL-NUREG-51258,
August 1980.
176
46. "Application of the Coupled Fluid Structure Code PELE-IC to Pressure
Suppression Analysis — Annual Report to NRC for 1979," Lawrence
Livermore Laboratory, NUREG/CR-1179, UCRL-52733.
47. C. W. Hirt, B. D. Nichols, and N. C. Romero, "SOLA — A Numerical
Solution Algorithm for Transient Fluid," Los Alamos Scientific
Laboratory, LA-5852 (1975).
48. Browns Ferry Startup Test Instruction No. 15, High Pressure Injec
tion System.
49. Flow Diagram Condensate Storage and Supply System, DWG No. 47W818-1
RIO.
50. Browns Ferry System Operating Instruction No. 64, Primary Contain
ment Unit I, II, or III.
51. Browns Ferry FSAR Section 7.3, Primary Containment and Reactor
Vessel Isolation Control System.
52. Browns Ferry System Operating Instruction No. 73, High Pressure
Coolant Injection System Unit I, II, or III.
53. Browns Ferry Startup Test Instruction No. 14, Reactor Core Isolation
Cooling System.
54. Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Hot License Training Program, Volume 4,
Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System.
55. Browns Ferry FSAR Section 4.7, Reactor Core Isolation Cooling Sys
tem.
56. Browns Ferry FSAR Figure 4.7-3, Reactor Core Isolation Cooling Sys
tem Process Diagram.
57. Browns Ferry System Operating Instruction No. 71, Reactor Core Iso
lation Cooling Unit I, II, or III.
58. B. J. Patterson, "Mark I Containment Program: Monticello T-Quencher
Thermal Mixing Test Final Report," NEDO-24542, August 1979.
177
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Mr. William A Condon made a significant contribution to this report by
performing the MARCH code calculations and preparing the associated
plots for the six station blackout accident sequences discussed in
Chapters 9 and 10. This accomplishment is especially noteworthy because
all MARCH computer runs in support of this project were by necessity
made remotely on the CDC computer facilities at Brookhaven National
Laboratory. Mr. Condon's work was in partial fulfillment of the re
quirements for the degree of Master of Science with major in Nuclear
Engineering at the University of Tennessee, and his lone hours of
dedicated effort are gratefully acknowledged.
179
APPENDIX A
LISTING OF PLANT RESPONSE CODE BWR-LACP
181
**$CONTINUOUS SYSTEM MODELING PROGRAM III V1M3 TRANSLATOR OUTPUT$*$
LABEL BWR-LACP CCJOE
LABEL CONTAINMENT MODEL WITH i-NOOE POOL
*
* MACRO SUBPROGRAM FOR POOL WATER TEMP CALCULATION
MACRO XNQI,TI,WEI.MWI,LWI-«W(TL,TRILWL,LWR,TWIO,FWI,FSVI,FTEItFOI,FSIJ
* MACRO TC CALCULATE MASS ENERGY BALANCES FOR SP WATER NOOE I
* INPUTS :
* TL»TR«TEMPS OF WATER IN ADJACENT NODES
* LWL,LWR=LEVELS OF ADJACENT NODES
* TWIO-INITIAL WATER TEMP CF NCDE I
* FWl-FRACTION OF TOTAL SP WATER VOL IN NCDE I(CONSTANT)
* FSVI-FRACTION OF SAFETY VALVE FLOW DIRECTED TO NODE I
* FTEI"FRACTION OF TURBINE EXHAUST DIRECTED TO NOOE I
* FDI-*FRACTION OF PUMP OUSCHARGE DIRECTED TG NODE I
* FSI*FRACTlON OF PUMP SUCTION TAKEN FROM NODE I
* MASS BALANCE
*
* WSSPW*PUMP SUCTION FLCWCTOTAL FROM SP)
* WOSPW-PUMP OISCHARGE FLOWCTOTAL TO SP)
* OUTPUTS:
* XNQI»FRACTIN
* XNQI-FRACTGON OF STM DISCH TC NOOE I NOT QUENCHED
* XNQINFRACTION OF STM DISCH TO NOOE I NOT QUENCHED
* TI*AVG. WATER TEMP OF NODE I (DEG-F)
* WE I-RATE OF EVAPORATION FROM NOOE I (LB/SEC)
* MWI»MASS OF WATER IN NODE I (LB)
* LWI-WATER LEVEL OF NODE I (IN)
*
* VWSPOINITIAL TOTAL SP WATER VOLUME (CU. FT. )
MWIO-»FWI*VWSPO*(63.9-.019*TWI0)
CMWI-MNTGRL(0.,XQI*(FSVI«WSSV*FTEI*WSTE)*FINI-F$I*WSSPW-WEI)
FINI*ta£CL+WEQR+FWI*WCSPG+FDI*WOSPW
MWI-*MWIO+CMWI
VWI*MWI/(63.9-.0l9*TI)
LWI*AFGEN(SPLEV,VWI/FWI)
*
* CALC. QUENCH FRACTION FROM ASSUMPTION OF NO QUENCH WHEN NOOE VAPOR
* PRESSURE EQUAL TC TOTAL GAS PRESSURE
PVAPI-NLFGEN(SPFOT.TI)
XQI*LIMIT(0.,l.,(PTSPG-PVAPI-OPQZ)/DPQR)
XNQIM1.-XQI)
* SPFOT(TI)=SAT. PRESS AS F OF Tl
* DPQZ*DIFFERENCE(PSI) OF PTSPG OVER PVAPI REQUIRED FOR ANY
* QUENCHING TO TAKE PLACE
* DPZR»RANGE(PSI) CF PTSPG OVER PVAPI CVER WHICH QUENCHING
* GOES FROM 0.0 TO 100PERCENT
*
* EVAPORATION RATE BASED ON ECUN.13-33, KREITH'S 'HEAT TRANSFER'
* PSSPG=STM. PART PRESSURE ON SP GAS
* ASSPW-SURF AREA OF SP WATER(FT.SQ)
WEI*(WEIN/WEID>*CCMPAR(PVAPI,PSSPG)
WEIN*ASSPW*FWI*HSI*12.3*(PVAPI-PSSPG)*PTSPG*VGSP
WEID-(PNSPG*2.-PVAPI)*TGSPR*(MSSPG+MNSPG)
HSI»5.83E-05*((ABS(TI-TGSP))**.333)
*
* EQUALIZATION FLOWS FROM ACJACENT NODE(S)
* FWE«EQ. FLOW CONSTANT (LB/SEC/(INCH LEVEL DIFF) )
WEQL~FWE*(LWL-LWI)
WEQR-»FWE*(LWR-LWI )
* ENERGY BALANCE
* HEAT TRANSF RATES TO METAL ANO ATMCSPHERE NEGLEGIBLE
182
* WITH RESPECT TO MASS-MIXING ENERGY TRANSFER
CMHWI=INTGRL{0.,X«I*<FSVI*WSSV*HST+WSTE*FTEI*HSTE)*E1I+E2I>
EII*(TLX-32.)*WEQL+(TRX-32.)*WECR+WML*(TL-TI)*WMR*(TR-TI)
E2I=FWI*WCSPG*HFGSP+FDI*WOSPW*HD-FSI*WSSPW*(TI-32.)-WEI*1105.
TLX=TL*COMPAR(LWL,LWI)*TI*COMPAR(LWI,LWL)
TRX=TR*C OMPAR(LWR,LWI) +TI*COMPARILWI,LWR)
* CALC OF MIXING FLOWStTHEY DID NOT APPEAR IN THE MASS BALANCE BECAUSE
* ZERO NET MASS TRANSFER IS ASSUMED
WML*KMIX*SQRT(ABS(TL-TI))
WMR*KMIX*SQRT(A8S(TR-TI)>
*
* TEMPERATURE CALCULATION ASSUMES CONSTANT SPECIFIC HEAT=1.3 FOR WATER
TI=32. ♦ UTWI0-32.)*MWI0 ♦ CMHWI)/MWI
*
ENDMACRO
*
INITIAL
*
* INITIALIZATION FOR REACTOR VESSEL CALCULATION
*
* CONSTANTS FOR REACTOR MODEL
*
* ACOP*CORE OUTLET PLENUM FLOW AREA(FT**2)
* ACOR=CORE FLOW AREA(FT**2)
» ART-RISER TUBE FLOW AREA(FT**2)
* CPO-PRE-TRIP CORE POWER(TOTAL) (MWTH)
* EQXO-FRACTION OF WAY TO SATURATION THAT STEAM CONTACT RAISES
* INJECTION WATER IF DC LEVEL IS AT LEVEL OF JET PUMP SUCTION
* FFLASH-FRACTION FLASHED/SEC PER BTU/LB ABOVE SATURATION
* HCIO-INITIAL CORE INLET ENTHALPY(BTU/LB)
* HINJIN-ENTHALPY OF INJECTION FLUID(BTU/LB)
* LBOT-HEIGHT OF STM SEP BOTTOH(FT)
* LOCO-INITIAL DOWNCOMER LEVELIFT) (HEIGHT ABOVE BOT. OF ACT. FUEL)
* LHEDER-HEIGHT OF FW HEADER ABOVE BOAF(FT)
* LOP»AVG. LENGTH OF CORE OUTLET PLENUM(FT)
* LRT*AVG. LENGTH OF RISER TUBES(FT) (STANDPIPES)
* PCOR-CORE HEAT TRANSFER PERIMETER(FT)
* PO-INITIAL REACTOR VESSEL PRESSURE(PSIA)
* RCICfX=NCMINAL RCIC FULL FL0WIL8/SEC)
* TAULEN-STABILITY TIME CONSTANT FOR REGICN AVERAGE HEAT FLUX CALC(SEC)
* TCFUEL*TIME CONSTANT TO ACCOUNT FOR RESIDUAL HEAT IN CORE FOR
* INITIALIZATION CLOSELY FOLLOWING SCRAM
* TO-TIME AFTER TRIP THAT TRANSIENT INITlATES(SEC)
* VOLP*LOWER PLENUM VOLUME(FT**3J
* V1DC-VOLUME OF DOWNCOMER BETWEEN BOAF AND PUMP DIFFUSER EXIT(FT**3)
* WINJO'INITIAL INJECTION FLOWUB/LEC)
*
* REFERENCE PARAMETERS FOR NATURAL CIRC LOSS COEFF CALCULATION
* CPR-RATEC CORE POWER(MWTH)
* HREF»REFERENCE CORE INLET ENTHALPYIBTU/LB)
* LDCR-REFERENCE CCWNCCMER LEVELd.E. NORMAL LEVEL AT STM SEP MIDDLE)
* PRELR-REFERENCE RELATIVE CORE PCWER
* PRR*REFERENCE REACTOR VESSEL PRESSURE
* RHOO-DENSITY OF STEAM!LB/FT**3) IN R.V. AT INITIAL PRESSURE=PO
* WGUESS*GUESS ON FLCWUB/SECJ FOR ITERATIVE SOLUTION FOR INITIAL FLOW
* WREF-REFERENCE FLOW(LB/SEC)
* XREF«REFERENCE FRACTIONAL QUALITY
*
* PARAMETERS FCUNO IN FUNCTION SUBPROGRAMS
* VOIFF-JET PUMP VOL BELOW BOAF(FT**3)
* VFREE*TOTAL STM. VOL. IN R.V.(LESS LOWER PLENUM,CORE,CORE OUTLET PLENUM
* AND STM. SEPARATORS) AND MAIN STEAMLINES TO ISOLATION VALVES (FT*->3)
* VJET-VOL BETWEEN JP SUCTION ANO BOAF(FT**3)
* VANN-VOL BETWEEN TOP OF CORE OUTLET PLENUM AND JP SUCTION(FT**3)
* VSSOP-VOL BETWEEN TOP OF CO PLENUM AND BOTTOM OF STM SEP(CU.FT.)
* WRATED-STM. FLOW THUR 1 SRV (LB/SEC) WHEN PRESSURE»PRATED (PSIA)
* XKVGJ-EMPIRICLE CONSTANT USEO IN CALCULATION OF DRIFT VELOCITY
183
* XL1=0=ZER0 PCINT FOR DC HEIGhT(FT ): COINCODES WITH BOAF
* XL2=HEIGHT AT JET PUMP SUCTICN(FT)
* XL3=HE1GHT AT TOP OF CORE OUTLET PLENUM(FT)
* XL4-HEIGHT AT BOTTOM OF STEAM SEPARATORS!FT)
CONSTANT ACCR=82., AC0P=234., ART=42.3
CONSTANT CP0=3293., EQXO=.5, FFLASH=.001
CONSTANT LHEDER=23.4, LOP=5.58, LRT=1C0
CONSTANT LB0T=24.85
CONSTANT PC0R=5518., PRATED=1095.
CONSTANT TAULEN=.75, TCFUEL=9.5
CONSTANT VFREE=13000., VCLP=3350., V1DC=192.,WRATED=259.
*
* CARD TO INITIALIZE AT ARBITRARY TIME POINT
CONSTANT HC10=312.05,LDC0=28.63,PO=125.,T0=14430.,RH0G0=.2788
* INITIAL CORE FLOW GUESS DEPENDS ON LCCO AND PRELO
CONSTANT WGUESS=8310.
* REFERENCE PARAMETERS FOR CALCULATION OF NATURAL CIRCULATION
* FLOW RESISTANCE COEFFICIENT
CONSTANT CPREF=3293., PRELR=.32, PRR=1020
LDCR=27.58, XREF=.133, WREF=9111., HREF=522.
* RUN CONTROL PARAMETERS
CCNSTANT HINJIN=58.,RC ICMX=82.9876
*
* FUNCTION SUBPROGRAMS
* CAVOID(XIN,XCUT,WTOTAL,TSAT,RHOF,RHOG)
* DKFUN(T)=P/PO AS A FUNCTION OF TIME AFTER SHUTDOWN
* QREGAVJBCTTGM,TOP,KAPPA,PEKAVG)=(AVG HT. FLUX FROM A TO B)/(CORE AVG)
* RH0TP(RH0F,RHOG,V0ID)=2-PHASE DENSITY
* XLENDC(V0L0CI=00WNC0MER LEVEL AS FUNCTICN OF LIQUID VOLUME
* VOID(QUALITY,TOTAL FLOW,FLOW AREA,TSAT.RHOF,RHOG)=POINT VOID FRACTION
* VOLDC(LCC)=DCWNCCMER HEIGHT ABOVE BOT CF ACT. FUEL
*
* STEAM TABLE CSMP INTERPOLATION FUNCTIONS
* VSATF(PRESS)=SAT FLUIO SPECIFIC VOL(FT**3/LB )
FUNCTICN VSATF=15.,.0167, 50.,.0173, 100.,.0177, 200.,.0184,...
400.,.0193, 600.,.0201, 800.,.0209, 1000.,.0216, 1203 ., .0223,.. .
1400.,.0231
*
* VSATG(PRESS)=SAT GAS SPECIFIC VCL(FT**3/LB)
FUNCTION VSATG=15.,26.3, 50.,8.51, 75.,5.81,100.,4.43,...
150.,3.01,200.,2.29,400.,1.16, 600.,.77,800.,.569,...
1000.,.446,1200.,.362,1400...302
*
* HSATF(PRESSURE)-SAT FLUID ENTHALPY(BTU/LB)
FUNCTION rSATF=15.,181., 50.,250., 100.,298., 2C0.,355.,...
400. ,424., 600.,472., 800.,510., 1000.,543., 1200.,572.,...
1400.,599.
*
* HSATG(PRESSURE) =SAT GAS ENTHALPY IBTU/LB)
FUNCTION HSATG=15.,U51., 50.,1174., 100.,1187., 200.,1198. ,...
400. ,1205., 600.,1204., 800.,1199., 1000.,1193., 1203 .»1185 . , . ..
1400.,1175.
*
* TSATM(PRESSUREJ=SAT MIXTURE TEMPERATURE(DEG-F)
FUNCTION TSATM=15.,213., 50.,281., 100.,328., 2C0.,382.,...
400.,445., 600.,486., 800.,518., ICOO.,545., 1200.,567.....
1400.,587.
*
* VSC(ENTHALPY)=SUBCOOLED FLUIC SPECIFIC VOL(FT**3/LB )
FUNCTICN VSC=21.4,.016, 121.,.0163, 221., .0169, 272.,.0174,...
376.,.0185, 431.,.0193, 488.,.0203, 549.,.0217, 562. , .0221,.. .
575.,.0224
* CALCULATION CF INITIAL SATURATION PROPERTIES
RH0F0=1./(AFGEN(VSATF,P0))
HFO=AFGEN1HSATF,PO)
HGO=AFGEN(HSATG, PO)
TSAT0=FUNGEN(TSATf,2,P0)
* SUBCOOLED WATER DENSITY
RHOSC0=l./(AFGEN(VSC,HCI0))
184
* CALCULATION OF FLOW RESISTANCE COEFFICIENT
* NEEDS: REFERENCE CONDITIONS FOR NATURAL CIRCULATION:CPREF,PRELR,PRR,XREF,
* WREF, HREF, LDCR
* RETURNS: LOSS COEFFICIENT: KLOSSU
* CALCULATION OF REFERENCE DENSITIES AND SATURATION PROPERTIES
HFR*AFGEN <HSATF,PRR)
TSATR«FUNGEN(TSATM,2,PRR)
RHOFR=l./(AFGEN(VSATF,PRR))
RhOGR=l./(FUNGEN(VSATG,2,PRR)>
RHOSCR=l./(AFGEN(VSC,HREF))
QT0TR=CPREF*PRELR*947.8
* THIS EXP FOR LSC ASSUMES AVG POWER=CORE AVG IN SC REGION
LSCR*12.*WREF*(HFR-HREF)/QT0TR
LBR«12.-LSCR
RSCAVR=RHOFR/2.+RHOSCR/2.
* FUNCTION SUBPROGRAM CAVOIO RETURNS AVERAGE CORE BOILING REGION
* VOID FRACTION FRCM THE GIVEN INPUTS
CAVR-CAVOID(0..XREF,WREF,TSATR,RHOFR,RHOGR)
RHOBR=RHOTP(RHOFR,RHOGR,CAVR)
RCC0RR=RSCAVR*LSCR/12.+RHCBR*L8R/12.
RHOPR=RHOTP(RHOFR,RHOGR,OPVR)
* FUNCTION VOID RETURNS POINT VOID FRACTION FROM GIVEN INPUTS
OPVR=»VCID(XREF,WREF, ACOP.TSATR, RHOFR, RHOGR)
RGRTR=RHOTP(RHOFR,RHOGR,RTVR)
RTVR* VOIDUREF, WREF, ART, TSATR, RHOFR, RHOGR)
RDP*LCCR*RH0SCR/144.-R0RTR»LRT/144.-...
RH0PR*L0P/144.-R0C0RR*12./144.
KLOSSU=ROP/(WREF*WREF)
*
* INITIAL RELATIVE POWER
*
PREL0=(DKFUN(T0)*.94*EXP(-T0/TCFUEL))
QT0T0=PREL0*CP0*947.8
*
* CALCULATION CF INITIAL TOTAL FLOW BY ITERATIVE SOLUTION, WITH
* STARTING FLOW GUESS INPUT BY USER
WCIQ-IMPHWGUESS, .OOl.WCAL)
XOU»(CTOTO/WCIO+HCIO-HFO)/(HGO-HFO)
XO*LIMIT(0.001,1.00O,X0U)
* THIS EXP FOR LSC ASSUMES AVG POWER=CORE AVG IN SC REGION
LSC0»LIMIT(0.,12.,12.*WCI0*IHF0-HCI0)/QT0T0)
LBO-12.-LSCO
* CALCULATION OF INITIAL DENSITIES
RSCAV0=RHCFO/2.+RHOSCO/2.
waoo~wcio*xo
* VOID AT BOTTOM AND TOP OF BOILING REGION CALC. BY DFVOID
* FUNCTION SUBPROGRAM, THEN AVERAGED TO GIVE CORE AVERAGE VOID
CAVINO=DFVOID(ACOR,WCIO,0.,TSATO,RHOFO,RHOGO)
CAVEXO=DFVOIO(ACOR,WCIO-WBOC,WBOO,TSATO,RHOFO,RHOGO)
CAVO=(CAVINO+CAVEXO)/2.
RHOBO=RHOTP(RHCFO,RHOG0,CAVO)
ROC0RO=RSCAV0*LSC0/l2.'>RHCBO*LBO/12.
ROPO-RHOTP(RHOFO.RHOGO.OPVO)
OPVO=CFVOIO(ACOP,WCIO-WBOO,WBOO,TSATO,RHOFO,RHOGO)
RCRT0=RHQTP(RHOFO,RHOGO,RTVO)
RTVO-DFVOID(ART,WCIO-WBOO,WBOO,TSATO.RHOFO,RHOGO)
* NET GRAVITY PRESS DROP!PSI) AVAILABLE FOR UNRECOV. DROP ACROSS CORE
LDCX=LIMIT(0.,LOCR,LDCO)
UNREC0=LDCX*RH0SC0/144. + (12.+LRT+L0P-LDCX)*RH0G0/144.-...
RORT0*LRT/144.-R0P0-»LOP/l44.-ROCORC*12./l44.
DPO=LIMIT(.0001,1000..UNRECO)
WCAL-»SQRT(DP0*RHOB0/( KLOSSU*RHOBR) )
* ENO ITERATIVE LOOP
* OOWNCOMER AND LOWER PLENUM INITIALIZATION
* VOLUME CF WATER IN DOWNCOMER NODE GIVEN BY FUNCTION
185
* VOLDCl ) AS A FUNCTICN OF WATER LEVEL
MOCO» VOLDC(LDCO)*RHOSCO
MHOCO=MDCO*HCIO
MLPO*VOLP*RHCSCO
MHLPO=MLPO*HCIO
*
G=4.75*ART*RH0G0
MTOTO*(LSCO*RSCAVO+LBO*RHOBO)*ACOR-t-LCP*ACCP*ROPO+LRT*ART*RORTO*G
*
* PRESSURE CALCULATION INITIALIZATION
RHOSVR=l./FUNGEN(VSATG,2,PRATED)
UCSRV»WRATED/SQRT(PRATED*RHOSVR)
MSTO-IVFREE-VOLDCUDCO) )*RHOGO
UMST0»MST0*(HG0-P0*144./(778.*RH0G0))
*
* INITIALIZATION FOR SUPPRESSION PCOL CALCULATION
*
*
* CONSTANTS FCR CONTAINMENT MODEL
*
* AOMET=HEAT TRANS AREA BET DW MET AND CW ATMOS(FT**2J
* APMET=HEAT TRANSF AREA BET SP MET AND SP ATMOS
* ASSPW=AREA OF POOL WATER SURFACE(SQ.FT.)
* BDWSPO*CU.FT/SEC/PSI FLOW WHEN DOWNCCMERS CLEARED
* BSPDWOCU.FT/SEC/PSI OF FLOW WHEN VALVE OPEN
* CDMET=MASS*SPEC HEAT OF OW METAL(BTU/DEG-F)
* CPAIR=MASS*SPEC HEAT OF AIR IN SP CHAMBER ROOM
* CPMET=MASS*SPEC HEAT OF SP METAL IN CONT WITH GAS
* DM-AMOUNT OF STM. QUENCHED!UNIFORMLY ARCUNO POOL) IF THERE
* IS ELAPSED TIME BETWEEN NOMINAL START AND INITIALIZATION OF THE RUN
* DPQR=RANGE(PSI) OVER WHICH QUENCH FRACTION GOES FROM 1 TO 0.
* WITH INCREASING VAPOR PRESSURE
* DPQZ=MARGIN(PSI) ABOVE SATURATION FOR COMPLETE QUENCHING
* FDI,FSI=FRACTION OF POOL COOLING DISCHARGE AND SUCTION TO POOL NODE I
* FWE=FLOW BETWEEN S.P. NODES(LB/SEC) PER INCH OF WATER LEVEL OIFFEKENCE
* FW INFRACT ION OF POOL WATER CONTAINED IN POOL NODE I
* FSVI*FRACTIQN OF TOTAL SRV FLOW DISCHARGED TO POOL NODE I
* FTEI=FRACTION OF TURBINE EXHAUST DISCHARGED TO POOL NODE I
* FLSPG, FLOWG=FRACTION OF ATM. LEAKED TO RX-BLDG. PER SECOND
* GCH=GAS CONSTANT OF H2
* GCM*GAS CONSTANT OF MIMISC.)
* GCN~GAS CONSTANT OF N2
* GCS-GAS CONSTANT OF H20 VAP(PSI*FT**3/LB*DEG-R)
* HSRREF=OELTA TO REREFERENCE STM ENTHALPY FROM ASME STEAM TABLES
* TO PERFECT GAS EXP. THAT HAS H=0.0 AT 0 DEG-R
* HSTE=ENTH OF TURBINE EXHAUSTIBTU/LB)
* HJMDWO- INITIAL DW GAS HUMIDITY (PERCENT)
* HUMSPO-INITIAL SP GAS HUMIDITY (PERCENT)
* KMIX-EMPIRICLE CONSTANT FOR NAT. CIRC MIXING FLOW BET. POOL NODES
* LBASE=»NCMINAL STARTING LEVEL OF POOLdN. FROM INST. 0.)
* MHSPGO,MHOWGO=INITIAL MASSES OF H(LBS)
* MMSPGO,MMOWG0=INITIAL MASSES OF M (LBS)
* POCVP*PRESS. DIFF NECESSARY TO CLEAR THE VENT
* PIPES FOR FLOW FRCM DW TO SP
* PTDWGO- INITIAL TOTAL PRESS OF DW GAS (PSIA)
* PTSPGO-INITIAL TOTAL PRESS OF SP GAS (PSIA)
* QRVHLO=REACTCR(+PIPING) HEAT LOSSES (MW) FOR TEMP DIFF=OTRVHL(DEG-F)
* TAUFDW=AVERAGE RESIDENCE TIME OF FOG IN DW(SEC)
* TAUFSP=AVERAGE RES. TIME OF FOG IN SP
* TAUVRV=TIME CONSTANT FOR SP VAC RELIEF VALVE TO LIFT(SEC)
* TBASE-NCMINAL STARTING TEMP CF POOL(CEG-F)
* TBII-PROVISION FOR BIASING STARTING TEMP CF POOL NODE I
* TD=OISCH. TEMP(F) OF POOL COOLING FLOW
* TDMETO-INITIAL DRYWELL METAL TEMP IF)
* TGDWO*INITIAL DW GAS TEMPtDEG-F)
* TGSPO*INITIAL SP GAS TEMP (DEG-F)
* TPAIROMNITIAL SP CHAMBER ROOM TEMP
186
* TPMETO=INITIAL TEMP : SP METAL IN CONTACT WITH SP GAS
* VGOW=TOTAL FREE VOLUME OF DW (FT**3)
* VTSP=TOTAL FREE VOLUME OF SP (FT**3)
* WOLEAK=LEAK RATE(LB/SEC) OF SAT. WATER FROM RV TO DRYWELL
* WDSPW=DISCHARGE FLOW OF POOL COOLING(LB/SEC)
* WSSPW=SUCTION FLOW OF POOL COOL ING!LB/SEC)
*
*
* GEOMETRY AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
CONSTANT ACMET=1.65E04,APMET=1.7E04,ASSPW=10860.
CONSTANT BDWSP0=2500.,BSPDWO=2000.
CONSTANT CDMET=8.33E04,CPAIR=3200.,CPMET=5.82E04
CONSTANT DPQR=2. ,DPQZ=2.
CONSTANT GCH=5.361,GCM=.2436,GCN=.3829,GCS=.5955
CONSTANT HSTE=915.,HSRREF=-854.5,P0CVP=1.75
CONSTANT TAUVRV=3.,TAUFDW=30.,TAUFSP=15.
CONSTANT VGDW=159000.,VTSP=267600.
*
* POOL NQDALIZATICN
CONSTANT FD1=1.,FS1=1.,FWI =1.,FSV1=1.,FTE1=1.,FWE=>5000.,KMIX=950.
*
* INITIALIZATION
CONSTANT DM=0. ,HUMDW0=18. 4,HUMSP0=79.4 ,LBASE=1C23
CONSTANT MHSPGO=0.,MHDWGO=0.,MMSPGO=0.,MHDWG0=0.
CONSTANT PTDWG0=23.15,PTSPG0=23.65,TBASE=169.1,TBI1=0.
CONSTANT TGDV«0=268. ,TGSP0=161.,TDMET0=212.,TPMET0=145.1,TPAIRO=155.
»
* RUN CONTROL
CONSTANT FLDWG=0.,FLSPG=0.,TD=90.,GRVHL0=1.,DTRVHL=404.
CONSTANT W0LEAK=.68,WSSPW=C.,W0SPW=0.
HD=TC-32.
* INITIALIZATION CALC. FOR DW AND SP MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES
* ASSUME ZERO INITIAL HYDROGEN AND MISC. GAS
*
* FUNCTION TABLES
* FUNCTION SPLEV : SP LEVEL!INCHES FROM INSTRUMENT ZERO) AS A FUNCTION A
* FUNCTION CF VOLUME(CU.FT)
FUNCTION SPLEV=0.,-182.,20222.,-134.,74646.,-62.,...
117344.,-14.,130129.,0.,139300.,10
182563.,58.,242176.,130.,267611.,190.
*
* FUNCTION STFOSV: SATURATION TEMP AS A FUNCTION OF SPECIFIC
* VOLUME
FUNCTION STF0SV=2.83,363.5,4.65 ,324.1,7.65,288.2,12.2,257.6, ...
20.1,228.,31.2,204.,44.7,185.6,76.4,160.5,158.9,129.6,. ..
333.6,101.7,641.5,79.6,1235.,59.3
* FUNCTION SPFOT : SATURATION PRESSURE AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE
FUNCTICN SPF0T=59.3,.25,79.6,.5,1C1.7,1.0,132.9,2.4,...
160.5,4.8,18 5.6,8.5,203.9,12.5, ...
228.,20.,250.34,30.,288.2,56.,324.1,95.,363.5,160.,...
381.8,200.,417.3,300.,444.6,400.,467.,500.,486.,600.,...
503.,700.,525.,850.,544.6,1000.,556.,1100.,567.,1200.
* PRELIMINARY CALCULATIONS
SPDWO=NLFGEN(SPFOT,TGDWO)
SPSPO=NLFGEN(SPFOT,TGSPO)
PSDWGO=(HUMDWO/100.)*SPDWO
PSSPG0=(HUMSP0/100.)*SPSPO
PNSPGO=PTSPGO-PSSPGO
PNOWGO=PTDWGO-PSDWGO
MNSPG0=PNSPG0*!VTSP-VWSP0)/(GCN*(TGSP0+460.) )
MNDWG0=PNOWG0*(VG0W)/(GCN*(TG0W0+460.))
187
*
* VWSPO=INITIAL TOTAL WATER VOL IN SP
MSSPG0=PSSPG0*(VTSP-VWSPO)/(GCS*(TGSPO+46O.))
MSDWG0=PSDWG0*VGDW/(GCS*(TGDW0+460.))
*
UMSPG0=(TGSPO+460.)*(MNSPGO*(.2475-.1851*GCN)+...
MSSPG0*(.45-4.89/(TGSP0+460.)-.1851*GCS) )
UMDWGO=(TGOWO*460.)*(MNDWGO*(.2475-.1851*GCN)+...
MSDWGO*(.45-4.89/(TGDWO+460.J-.1851*GCS) )
*
* DEPTH LBASE SPECIFIED: INCHES FROM INST ZER0(4 IN BELOH CENTER)
* TBASE IS NOMINAL STARTING TEfP CF PCOL
* TBKI) PROVIDES FOR BIASING INITIAL TEMPS IN MULTI-NODE MODEL
VII=2.462*AII
AII=(LBASE-4.)*SQRT(34580.-LBASE*LBASE+8.*LBASE)*...
34596.*ARSIN( (LBASE-4. )/186. ) + 54343.
MW1II=FW1*VII*(63.9-.019*(TBASE*TBU))
MII=MW1II
DTBASE=(1190.-(TBASE-32.))*0M/(MII+0M)
TIC1=TBASE+0TBASE+TBI1
VWSP0=(MWlII+FWl*0M)/(63.9-.019*TICl)
VGSPO=VTSP-VWSPO
DYNAMIC
* DYNAMIC PORTION OF REACTCR VESSEL CALCULATION
#
* RUN CONTROLS FOR INJECTION CONTROL
LDCVZ=L0C*12.+216.
LDDEL=REALPL(500.,2.OO.LDCVZ)
RCICC=0.0
HPCID=0.0
WINJ=RCICMX*(RCICD*8.33*HPCID)*STEP(30.)
* RUN CONTROLS FOR VESSEL PRESSURE CONTROL
P0PEN=1120.
PSHUT*1080.
* CALCULATION OF DYNAMIC SATURATION PROPERTIES
RH0F=1./(AFGEN(VSATF.P))
RhOG=l./(FUNGEN(VSATG,2,P)»
HF=AFGEN(HSATF,P)
HG=AFGEN(HSATG,P)
TSAT=FUNGEN(TSATM,2,P)
* INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS: AVERAGE HEAT FLUXES
* 'DKFUN' RETURNS DECAY HEAT AS A FUNCTION OF TIME SINCE SCRAM
* 'QREGAV RETURNS AVERAGE NORMALIZED POWER, GIVEN LOCATION OF TOP
* AND BOTTCM OF REGION
T=TO+TIME
TMIN=T/60.
PREL=(DKFUN(T)+.94*EXP(-T/TCFUEL) )
QT0T=PREL*CP0*947.8
QFCCR=QTOT/(12.*PCOR1
AVMSC=QREGAV(0.,LSCD)
AVMB=QREGAV(LSCD,LSCD+LBD)
QFSC=AVMSC*QFCOR
QFB=AVMB*QFCOR
LSCD=REALPL!LSCO,TAULEN,LSC)
L8D=REALPL(LB0,TAULEN,LB)
* DOWNCOMER ANNULUS CALCULATION
* NEEDS: CENSITIES: RHCOCRHOLP
* FLOWS INTO DCWNCOMER: WINJ, WRECIR, WINJAS
* INJECTION ENTHALPY: HINJIN
* FLOWS OUT OF DOWNCOMER: WCI, WFLDC, WFLLP
* REACTCR VESSEL PRESSURE: P
188
* RETURNS: DOWNCOMER HEIGHT!ABOVE BOTTCM CF ACTIVE FUEL) : LDC
* ENTHALPY INTO LOWER PLENUM: HDC
* INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS: MASS RATE OF ASPIRATION FROM STEAM SPACE
* DUE TO INJECTION FLOW; FLASHING RATE FRCM DC MASS; RECIRC FLOW RATE
EQXX=EQXO*(LHEDER-LDC)/LHEDER
EQX=LIMIT(0.,1.,ECXX)
HINJFI*HINJIN+(HF-HINJIN)*EQX
GP=7.23*WINJ
WINTCT=INTGRL(0.,WINJ)
GT=(WINT0T*7.481)/62.11
WINJAS=(HF-HINJIN)*EQX*WINJ/(HG-HF)
WFLDCX=MOC*FFLASH*(HDC-HF)
WFLDC=LIMIT(0.,9999..WFLDCX)
*
* MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES(81 IS A LOGIC SIGNAL TO STOP THE
* INTEGRATION WHEN LDC.LT.O(BELOW BCTTCM OF ACTIVE FUEL)
CMDC=INTGRL(0.,DMOC)
MOC=MCCO*CMOC
DMDC*Bl*(WRECIR*WINJ+WINJAS-RHOCC*(WCI*WFLLP)/RHOLP-WFLDC)+WEXPC
CMHDC=INTGRL(0.,DMHOC)
MHDC=MHDCO*CMHDC
DMHOC*Bl*(HF *WRECIR*W INJ*HINJIN+HG*WINJAS-...
HDC*(WCI+WFLLP)*RHODC/RHOLP-WFLCC*FG)
HDC=MHDC/MDC
RHOOC=l./AFGEN(VSC,HDC)
* DC LEVEL IS CALCULATED BY FUNCTION SUBPROGRAM XLENOCIVOLUME)
VOC-»MCC/RK)OC
LDC=XLENDC(VOC)
LDL=LIMIT!0.,LDCR,LDC)
* LOWER PLENUM CALCULATION
* NEEDS: SAME AS DCWNCCMER
* RETURNS: ENTHALPY AT CORE INLET(HLP)
* INTERMEDIATE CALCULATIONS: LOWER PLENUM FLASHING RATE, LP WATER VOL
* (VOLPW—USED FOR LOGIC CONTROL ONLY SINCE THE LOWER PLENUM IS
* MODELED AS A CONSTANT VOLUME UNLESS COWNCOMER IS EMPTY) :
HLP=MHLP/MLP
VOLPW=MLP/RHOLP
RHOLP=l./AFGEN(VSC,HLP)
XWFLLP*(HLP-HF)*MLP*FFLASH
WFLLP=LIMIT(0.,9999.,XWFLLP)
* LOGIC CCNTROL
*
X1B1=LDC-.001
X2Bl"«V0LPW-l.01*VCLP
B1N=N0R(X1B1.X281)
B1=N0T(B1N>
*
* MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES
*
DMLP-*(WCI +WFLLP)*{RHOCC/RhOLP)*(Bl)-WCI-WFLLP*...
B1N*(WINJ+WINJAS>
CMLP*INTGRL(0., OMLP)
MLP=MLPO+CMLP
DMHLP=H0C*(WCI+WFLLP)*RH0DC*B1/RH0LP+...
BlN*(WINJ*HINJIN*HG*WINJAS)-WCI*HLP-WFLLP*HG
CMHLP=INTGRL(0.,DMHLP)
MHLP=MHLPO+CMHLP
* CORE INLET FLOW CALC.(FORCE BALANCE)
* NEEDS: DENSITIES: RHODC,RHOLP,RSCAV,RHCB,ROP, RORT
* REACTOR VESSEL PRESSURE : P
* FLOW OUT OF BOILING REGION: W80
* REGION LENGTHS: LDC,LSC,LB
* RETURNS: FLOW INTO CCRE: WCI
*
CMTOT«INTGRL(0. ,(WCI-WRECIR-WTOST+WFLLP))
MTOT-MTOTO+CMTOT
WB0=(QFB*PCOR*LBD)/(HG-HF)
189
WRECIR=L ♦
WCOLL-LIMIT(0.,10000.,(LINT-30.)*3000.)
FRECIR=LIMIT(C.,10.,(LINT-LB0T)/(LDCR-LB0T))
LINT=LSCD*LB+LOPTPH.RTTP
WFLOP=0.0
WFLBR=0.0
WFLRT=0.0
MC0REM=12.*ACCR*RHOG
MOPEM=LOP*ACOP*RHCG
MRTEM =(LR T+4.75)*ART*RHOG
WBRAV=WCIG
RSCAV»(RH0F+RH0LP)/2.
WCIG*REALPL(WCI0,3.0,WCI)
* CALCULATE DENSITIES
CAVIN*DFVOID(ACOR,WCIG,0.0 ,TSAT.RHOF,RHOG )
CAVEX=DFVOID(ACOR,WCIG-W8G,HBO ,TSAT,RHOF,RHOG)
CAV=(CAVIN+CAVEX)/2.
RHOB=RHOTP(RHOF,RHOG,CAV)
OPV=0FVOID(ACCP,WCIG-WBO,WB0 ,TSAT.RHOF,RHOG)
RHOOP=RHOTP(RHOF,RHOG,0PV)
RTV»CFVOID(ART,HClG- WBO.WBO .TSAT.RHOF,RHOG)
RHORT=RHOTP(RHOF,RHOG.RTV)
BUVIN=DFVCI0(ACOR,WCIG.WFLLP.TSAT.RHCF,RHOG)
BUVEX-«0FVOID(AC0R,WCIG-WB0,WT0ST, TSAT.RHOF,RHOG)
BUAVG-*(BUVIN+BUVEX)/2.
ROBUB=RHOTP(RHOF,RHOG,BUAVG)
*
DELHl=LIMIT(l.,400.,HF-HLP)
DLSCX=(-2.)*(LSCX*QFSC*PCCR-WCI*LIMIT(0.,400.,HF-HLP) )/...
(RH0LP*AC0R*DELH1)
LSCX-»INTGRL(LSCO,CLSCX)
LSC=LIMIT(0.,12.,LSCX)
MSC»RSCAV*LSCD*ACOR
*
* FINO THE TWO PHASE LENGTHS AND REGION MASSES
LB*LINITIO.,12.-LSCD.LBU)
LBU=(MT0T-MC0REM+MSCDUM-M0PEM-MRTEM-MSC)/(AC0R*(RH08-RH0G))
LC0V=LIMIT(0.,12.,LBC0VU+LSCD)
LBCOVU=LBU*(RHOB-RHOG)/(ROBUB-RHOG)
MSCDUM=ACCR*RHOG*LSCD
MB«LB*RHOB*ACOR
MC0R*MSC*MB*(12.-LB-LSCD)*RH0G*AC0R
LOPTP-LIMITIO..LOP.(MTOT-MCCR-MRTEM-MOPEM)/(ACOP*(RHOOP-RHOG)))
M0P-(RHOOP*L0PTP*(L0P-LOPTP)*RHCG)*ACCP
MRT=MTOT-MOP-MCOR
LRTTP=(MRT-MRTEM)/(ART*(RhORT-RHOG))
MPOO=(LB*(1.-CAV)*ACOR+LOPTP*(1.-CPV)*ACOP+...
LRTTP*(l.-RTV)*ART)*RHOF
*
* TABULATE PRESS DROPS AND CALCULATE WCI
*
PC0B0T-«(MC0R/AC0R+M0P/AC0P-!-LRTLIM*RHCRT-i-(10.-LRTLIM)*RH0G)/144.
LRTLIM=LIMIT(0.,10.,LINT-17.52)
L0SSIN=tDL*RH0DC/144.+(L0CR-LDL)*RH0G/l44.-PCOBOT
X0UM=LIMIT(1.E-9,5.,L0SSIN)
WCI=SCRT(XDUM*RH08/(KL0SSU*RH0BR) )
WCIO-REALPL!WCI0,10.,WCI)
*
* REACTOR VESSEL PRESSURE CALCULATION
*
* STEAM MASS BALANCE
CMST*INTGRL(0.,OMST)
MST=MSTO+CMST
OMST=WTOST*WEVAP«-WFLDC-WEXPC-WCCNO-WINJAS-HSTC
HTOST*LIMIT(0.,10C0.,HBO*WFLLP-WP0O)
WCONO»0.0
WEVAP*0.0
WEXPC=LIMIT(0.,100.,1.67E-04*MST*(HGST-HST>)
HGST*AFGEN(HSATG,PST)
190
WPOO=MPOO*DHF/(HG-HF)
HFD=REALPL(HF0,2.0,HF)
DHF=(hF-HFD)/2.
*
VST=VFREE-V0C
DVST=CERIV(O..VST)
VSVST=VST/MST
* VST=T0TAL VAPOUR SPACE VOLUME
* VSVST=SPECIFIC VOLUME OF STEAM
*
*
* TOTAL ENERGY BALANCE
CUMT 0= IN T GRL 10 .. DUMTO )
UMT0=UMST0+CUMTO
DUMTO=WTOST*HG+(WFLDC+WEVAPJ*HG-...
WEXPC*HF-WC0N0*HG-WINJAS*HST-WSTC*HST-0VST*P*144./778.
HST=UMT0/MST+PSTG*VSVST*144./778.
* STEAM PRESSURE CALCULATED BY FUNCTICN SUBPROGRAM PFVH--STEAM PRESSURE
* AS A FUNCTION OF SPECIFIC VOLUME AND ENTHALPY
* PFVH REQUIRES AN INITIAL GUESS OF PRESSURE, PSTG
PST=PFVH(HST,VSVST,PSTG)
PSTG=REALPL(P0,2.0,PST)
P=PST
*
* SAFETY RELIEF VALVE MODEL—TWO VALVES MCDELED~WSSV=TOTAL SRV FLOW
L0GREL=L0GV1+L0GV2
LOGVl=REALPLI0.,.62,L0GPVl)
L0GV2=REALPL(0.,.62,L0GPV2)
LCGPV1=RST(X1V1,X2V1,0.)
LCGPV2=RST(X1V2,X2V2,0.)
XIV1=C0MPAR(PSHUT, P)
X1V2=C0MPAR(P0PEN-25.,P)
X2V1-CCMPAR1P.P0PEN)
X2V2=C0MPAR(P,P0PEN*25.)
WSSV=UCSRV*SQRT(PSTG/VSVST)*LOGREL
* WSTE=STEAM TURB EXHAUST FLOW(RCIC)
* ENTHALPY IS ASSUMED=915. BUU/LB
WSTE=(RCICD*(.00613*PST+1.1)+HPCI0*(.0387*PST*7.81))*STEP130.)
* WSTC IS TOTAL STEAM FLOW RATE FROM REACTOR VESSEL TO CONTAINMENT
WSTC=WSTE*WSSV
* CYNAMIC PORTION OF CONTAINMENT CALCULATION
*
* CALLS TO SP WATER MACRO—ONLY ONE NECESSARY FUR THE SINGLE NOOE PCOL MODEL
XNQ1 ,TP1 ,WE1 ,MWl ,LW1 =W(TP1,...
TP1 ,LW1,LW1 ,TIC1 ,FW1 ,FSV1 ,FTE1 ,FD1 ,FS1 I
VWSP=MWl/(63.9-.019*TPl)
MWSP=MW1
GWSP=7.481*VWSP
TWSPAV=(63.9-MWSP/VWSP)/.019
LWSPAV=AFGEMSPLEV,VWSP)
* INTERFACE THE SP WATER TO THE SP GAS
XNQDW=XNQ1
WSSVNQ=WSSV*FSV1*XNQ1
WSTENC=WSTE*FTE1*XNQ1
WTESPW=WE1
*
*
* INTERFACE VARIABLES : RV TO SUPPRESSION POOL
* WSSV=STM. FLOW FROM RV THRU RELIEF VALVES(LB/SEC)
* WSTE=STM FLOW FROM RV THRU TURBINES!RCIC+HPCI)
* WHSV=HYDROGEN FLOW FROM RV ThRU RELIEF VALVES!LB/SEC)
* HHM=HYDRCGEN ENTHALPY AT MIXED RV TEMP(BTU/LB) (REF TO 0. DEG R)
* HSTE=ENTHALPY OF TURBINE EXHAUSE(ASME)
* TM=MIXTURE TEMP OF RV STEAM SPACE
*
*
*
191
INTERFACE VARIABLES : RV TO DRYWELL
WSDWR=STEAM FLOW, RELEASE TO DRYWELL(LB/SEC)
HSDWR=ENTHALPY OF WSDWR(ASME)
WHDWR-HYDROGEN FLOW, RELEASE TO DRYWELL!LB/SEC)
HHDWR-ENTHALPY OF WHOWRIREF TO 0.0 DEG R)
WMDWR=MISC. FLOW RELEASEO TO DRYWELL
HMDHR-*ENTHALPY OF WMDWRIO.O DEG R)
INTERFACE VARIABLES : SP WATER TO SP GAS
WSSVNQ-TCTAL NCN-QUENCHED RELIEF VALVE FLOW FROM RV TO SP VIA RV'S
WSTENQ-TOTAL NON-QUENCHED TURBINE EXHAUST FLOW
WCSPG=TCTAL CONSECSATE FLOW, SPG TO SPW
WTESPW-TOTAL EVAPORATION RATE, SPW TC SPG
HSTSPW-ENTHALPY OF STEAM(REF 0. AT 0. OEG) AT MASS-WEIGHTED SP WATER
TEMP, TWSP
HCSPG*ENTHALPY OF CONDENSED SP STEAM(ASME)
MASS BALANCES FOR SP GAS AND DW GAS
INPUT FROM OTHER CALCULATIONS:
VWSP*SP TITAL WATER VOL (FT**3> (VARIABLE)
WSSNQ* TCTAL NON-QUENCHED STEAM FLOW (LE/SEC)
WHSV- H FLOW FROM THE RV (THROUGH RELIEFS)
WSOWR* FLOW RATE OF STEAM RELEASED DIRECT TO DRYWELL
WHDWR- FLOW RATE CF HYDROGEN RELEASED TO DRYWELL
WMDWR* FLOW RATE UF MISC. RELEASED OIRECT TO DRYWELL
DEFINITIONS
MS SPG
MHSPG
MNSPG= MASS N IN SPG
MMSPG'MASS M IN SPG
MASS STM IN SPG
MASS H IN SPG
FLOWS » LB/SEC UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED
WSSVNG* TOTAL NON-QUENCHED STM FROM SV'S ANT TURB, EXHAUST
WHSV- TCTAL HYDRCGEN FLOW FRCM RELIEF VALVES
DWSP* DESIGNATES FLOW FROM DW TO SP
SPOW- DESIGNATES FLOW FROM SP TO DW
SPL» SP GAS LEAKAGE
B* BULK FLOW RATE (FT**3/SEC)
WCSPG- TOTAL CONDENSATE FLOW FROM SP GAS
WCOWG* TOTAL CONDENSATE FLOW FROM DW GAS
SP GAS MASS BALANCE:
MSSPG«INTGRL(MSSPGO,WSSVNQ+WSDWSP*WSTENQ+WTESPW-WSSPDW-WSSPL-WCSPG)
MHSPG=INTGRL (MHSPGO.WHSV+WHOWSP-WHSPDW-WHSPL)
MNSPG- INTGRL(MNSPGO.WNDWSP-WNSPL-WNSPDW)
MMSPG=INTGRL (MMSPGO.WMDWSP-WMSPL-WMSPDW)
BSPL=VGSP*FLSPG
WSSPL *BSP L*(MSS PG/VGSP)
WHSPL'BSPL*(MHSPG/VGSP)
WNSPL=BSPL*(MNSPG/VGSP)
WMSPL=BSPL*(MMSPG/VGSP)
BSPL*BULK LEAKAGE FRCM SP GAS
FLSPG-FRACTION OF TOTAL SP GAS VOLUMES LEAKED PER SECONO
VGSP»VOLUME OF SP GAS, VWSP-SP WATER VOLUME
VGSP-VTSP-VHSP
NOTE: 0.5 PSI IS NECESSARY TO OPEN VAC RELIEF VALVE
BSPCWX=LIMIT(0.,1.E06,BSPDW0*(PTSPG-PTDWG-.5)I
8SPDW-<REALPL(0.,TAUVRV,BSPDWX)
WSSPDW=BSPDW*(MSSPG/VGSP)
WHSPDW-BSPDW*(MHSPG/VGSP)
WNSPCW=BSPDW*(MNSPG/VGSP)
WMSPDW=BSPDW*(MMSPG/VGSP»
BSPOWO* (FT**3/SEC)/PSI OF PRESS DIFFERENCE WHEN
192
* VAC RELIEF VALVE IS OPEN
BOWSPX=LIMIT (0.,l.E06,BDWSPO*(PTOWG-PTSPG-PDCVP))
BOWSP-«REALPL(0.,TAUVRV,BOwSPX)
WSDHSP»BDWSP*(MSDWG/VGDH)*XNQDW
WHDWSP=BDWSP*(MHOWG/VGDH)
WNDWSP-BOWSP*(MNDWG/VGDH)
WMDWSP=BDWSP*(MMDWG/VGDW)
* 80WSP0»(FT**3/SEC)/PSI WHEN DW PRESS IS GREAT ENOUGH
* TO CLEAR THE VENT PIPE DOWNCOMERS
* POCVP«PRESS DIFF. NECESSARY TO CLEAR THE VENT PIPES
*
WCSPG«WWCSPG+WVCSPG
WVCSPG»(MSSPG/TAUFSP)*(1.-100./HUMSP)*C0MPAR(HUMSP,100.)
* WWCSPG'RATE OF CQND. ON SPG WALL
* WVCSPG-RATE OF COND. FROM SPG VOLUME
*
* DRYWELL MASS BALANCE:
MSOWGMNTGRL(MSDWGO,WSDWR+WSSPDW-WSDWSP-WSDWL-WCDWG)
MHOWG-INTGRL(MHOWGO.WHOWR-tWHSPCW-WHDWL-WHDWSP)
MNDWG-*INTGRL(MNOWGO.WNSPOW-WNOWSP-WNDWL>
MMDWG*INTGRL(MMDWGO,WMDWR*WMSPOW-WMDWSP-WMDWL)
*
WCDWG*WWCDWG*HVCDWG
WVCDWG»(MSDWG/TAUFDW)*(1.-100./HUMOW)*COMPAR(HUMOW,100.)
*
* HYDROGEN AND MISC RELEASES SET TO ZERO
* FFRACT=FRACTION OF HOT LIQUID LEAK THAT FLASHES TO STEAM
FFRACT-{AFGEN(HSATF.PST)-AFGEN(HSATF,PTOWG))/...
(AFGEN(HSATG,PTDWGI-AFGEN(HSATF.PTDWG))
WSDWR»WDLEAK*FFRACT
HSDWR*AFGEN(HSATG,PTDWG)
WHDWR=0.
WMDWR«0.
HHOWR-0.
HMDWR-O.
WWCDW&*RATE OF COND. ON DWG WALL
WVCOWG-fRATE OF VOLUME COND. IN DRYWELL
ENERGY BALANCES FOR CW AND SP GAS
INPUT FRCM OTHER CALCULATIONS:
HMDWR=ENTHALPY OF MISC. RELEASED DIRECT TO DRYWELL
HHOWR'ENTHALPY OF HYOROGEN RELEASED OIRECT TO DRYWELL
HHRV=ENTHALPY OF HYDROGEN IN REACTOR VESSEL
HSRV*ENTHALPY OF STEAM IN REACTOR VESSEL
HSDWR-ENTHALPY OF STEAM RELEASED DIRECT TO DRYWELL
HSTE=ENTHALPY OF STEAM FROM TURBINE EXHAUST
NOTE THAT THE ABOVE 3 ARE REF. TO ZERO AT 32.F WATER
(ASME STM TABLES), BUT ARE RE-REF TO ZERO
AT ZERO DEG-R FOR CONTAINMENT CALC.
QVSPG,QVCWG*VOLUME HEAT SOURCE (FROM F.P.'S)
QRVHL-HEAT LOSS (THROUGH INSULATION) FRCM RV TO SP GAS
QLSPG=HEAT LOSS FROM SP GAS TO SP LINER
QLDWG-HEAT LOSS FROM OW GAS TO DW LINER
DEFINITIONS:
TGSP-TEMF OF HOMOGENIZED SP GAS (DEF-F)
TGDW«TEMP OF HOMOGENIZED DW GAS (DEG-F)
UMSPG"TOTAL INTERNAL ENERGY OF SP GAS (BTU)
UMDWG=TCTAL INTERNAL ENERGY OF DH GAS (BTU)
MASS FLOWS DEFINED IN MASS BALANCE SECTION
SP GAS ENERGY BALANCE:
CUMSPG=INTGRL(0.0,DUMSPG)
UMSPG»UMSPGO->CUMSPG
193
DUMSPG-EPSSP-t-EPHSP+EPNSP-e-EPMSP+QVSPG-QLSPG-MWORK-t-QSSPG
EPSSP*WSSVNQ*(HSSVNQ)*WSTENQ*(HSTE+HSRREF)+...
WSOWSP*! HSTGDW )-( WSSPDW-t-WSSPL )*HSTGSP-. . .
WCSPG*(HFGSP*HSRREF)+WTESPW*HSTSPW
MWORK«DVOTPG*PTSPG*.1851
DVDTPG-»(VGSP-VGSP0)/5.
VGSPD«REALPL(VGSP0,5.,VGSP)
* WSSVNQ-TQTAL SRV FLOH THAT EXITS SURFACE OF POOL
* WSTENQ-TOTAL NON-QUENCHED STM FROM TURBINE EXHAUST
* HSRREF»OELTA-H TO REREF. STEAM ENTHALPY
* HFGOW»SAT FLUID ENTH AT DW TEMP(ASME)
* HFGSP»SAT FLUID ENTH AT SP TEMPIASME)
* HSSVNQ*ENTHALPY OF NON-QUENCHED STEAM ENTERING SP GASJREF TO 0.
* AT 0. CEG-R)
HSSVNC-HST+HSRREF
HSTGSP».45*TGSPR-4.89
HSTSPW*.45*(TWSPAV->460.)-4.89
HSTGDW-.45* TGDWR-4.89
*
HFGSP-TGSP-32.
HFGDW-TGDW-32.
*
EPHSP«WHDWSP*HHTGCW+WHSV*HHRV-(HHSPOW->WHSPL)*HHTGSP
HHTGSP-«3.466*TGSPR-40.
HHTGDH«3.466*TGDWR-40.
*
EPNSP«HNTGDW*WNDWSP-(WNSPCW+WNSPL)*HNTGSP
HNTGSP-.2475*TGSPR
HNTG0W«.2475*TGDWR
*
EPMSP«HMTGOW*WMDWSP-(WMSPOW-i-WMSPL)*HMTGSP
HMTGSP«.21*TGSPR-20.8
HMTGDW».21*TGCWR-20.8
*
* DRYWELL ENERGY BALANCE
CUMDWG»INTGRL(0.0,OUMDWG)
UMDWG«CUMDWG*UMOWGO
DUMDWG-EPSDW+EPHDW+EPNDW+EPMOW+QVOWG*...
QRVHL-QLOWG
*
QSSPG»(TWSPAV-TGSP)*ASSPW*5.3E-05*((ABS(TWSPAV-TGSP))**.33>
QLSPG-QPMWET+QPHORY
QVDWG=0.
QVSPG»0.
QRVHL«QRVHL0*948.*(TSAT-TGDW)/DTRVHL
QLDWG»CDM
EPSDW»(HSOWR*HSRREF)*WSDWR+HSTGSP*WSSPOW-HSTGOW*(WSDWSP-fWSOWL>-
HFGOW*WCOWG
*
EPHDW=HHDWR*WHDWR+HHTGSP*WHSPDW-HHTGDW*!WHDWSP*WHOWL)
EPNDW«HNTGSP*WNSP0W-HNTGDW*(WNCWSP->WNOWL)
EPMDW*HMDWR*W.-'DWR-t-HMTGSP*WMSPOW-HMTGCW*(WMDWSP+WMDWL)
*
* SOLUTION FOR DW AND SP GAS TEMPERATURES
* ITERATION IS NOT NECESSARY SINCE THE S,N,H,ANO M
* ENTHALPIES ARE ASSUMED LINEAR WITH TEMP:
* H(N2)*.2475T, H(H20)*.45T-4.89, H(M)».21T-20.8, H(H)*3.466T-40.
*
TGSPR*(UMSPG+4.89*MSSPG+20.8*MMSPG+40.0*MHSPG)/...
(MNSPG*(.2475-.1851*GCN)*MSSPG*(.45-.1851*GCS)<-...
MMOWG*(.21-.1851*GCM)+MHSPG*( 3.466-.1851*GCH) )
TGDWR»(UMDWG+4.89*MSDWG*20.8*MMOWG*40.*MHOWG)/...
(MNDWG*(.2475-.185l*GCN)*MS0HG*(.45-.18 51*GCS)*...
MMDWG*(.21-.1851*GCM)+MHDHG*(3.466-.1851*GCH)>
194
TGSP=TGSPR-460.
TGDW=TG0WR-460.
* TOTAL AND PARTIAL PRESSURES(PS I A) CALC. FROM TEMP(F)
PNSPG=MNSPG*GCN*TGSPR/VGSP
PHSPG=MHSPG*GCH*TGSPR/VGSP
PSSPG=MSSPG*GCS*TGSPR/VGSP
PMSPG=MMSPG*GCM*TGSPR/VGSP
PTSPG=PNSPG+PHSPG+PSSPG+PMSPG
*
PNDWG=MNDWG*GCN*TGDWR/VGDW
PHDWG=MHDWG*GCH*TGDWR/VGDW
PSDWG=MSDWG*GCS*TGDWR/VGOW
PMDWG=MMDWG*GCM*TGOWR/VGDW
PTDWG=PNDWG+ PHOWG*PSDWG+Pf<DWG
*
* HUMIDITIES AND DEHPOINTS
HUMSP=100.*PSSPG/NLFGEN(SPFOT,TGSP)
HUMDW=100*PSOWG/NLFGEN(SPFOT,TGDW)
TDEWSP=NLFGEN(STFCSV,VGSP/MSSPG)
TDEWOW=NLFGEN(STFCSV,VGDW/MSOWG)

8DWL=VGDW*FLCWG
WSDWL=BOWL*(MSDWG/VGDW)
WHDWL=BDWL*(MHDWG/VGDW)
WNOWL=BOWL*(MNOWG/VGDW)
WMOWL=BDWL*tPfOWG/VGOW)
* CALCULATION CF SP ANC DW WALL METAL TEMP ASSUMPTIONS:
* 1.CONSIDER ONLY METAL SURFACE IN CONTACT WITH GAS
* 2.N0 CONDENSING UNLESS METAL TEMP BELOW DEwPOINT
* STM. CONDENSATION ON WALLS IS AIR-LIMITED AND IS CALCULATED
* FROM ECUN. III.8.26 CF MARCH MANUALtNUREG/CR-17UJ
QPM=QPMDRY+QPMWET-QPGAIR
QPMDRY=(TGSP-TPMET)*5.3E-05.*( I ABS( TGSP-TPMET) )**. 3333)* APMET
QPMWET=CCMPARITCEWSP,TPMET)*(TDEWSP-TPMET)*APMET*...
•0185*(1MSSPG/MNSPG)**.707)
TPMET=INTGRL< TPMETO.QPM/CPMET)
QDM=CDMORY+QCMWET
QDMDRY=!TGDW-TDMET)*5.3E-5*((ABS(TGDW-TDMET))**.3333)*ADMET
QDMWET=COMPAR!TDEWDW,TDMET)*(TOEWOW-TDMET)*AOMET*...
•0185*((MS0WG/MNDWG)**.707)
TCMET=INTGRL(TDMETO,QDM/CCMET)
*
* CALC OF CONDENSATION RATE ON DW AND SP WALLS. APPROXIMATE VALUE
* OF 9C0 BTU/LB IS USED FOR (HG-HF)
WWCSPG=«PMWET/900.
WWCDWG=QDMWET/900.
*
* CALCULATION OF POOL ROOM AIR TEMP
QPAIR=CPGAIR+GPWAIR
QPWAIR=5.3E-05*((ABS(TWSPAV-TPAIR))**.3333)*APMET*(TWSPAV-TPAIRJ
QPGAIR=5.3E-5*((ABS!TPMET-TPAIR))**.333)*APMET*!TPMET-TPAIR)
TPAIR=INTGRL(TPAIRO,QPAIR/CPAIR)
*
* NOTE THAT THE TERM APMET IS THE SAME IN BOTH EQUATIONS
* BECAUSE IT IS FOR ONE HALF OF TOTAL METAL SURFACE AREA
*
* THESE CALCULATIONS ARE TC BE USED FOR AVERALL THERMO
* CONSERVATION CHECK
OMSP=INTGRL(0.,WSTC)
HEATIN=INTGRL!0.,GTOT)
OMHRV»lNTGRL!0.,WINJ*HINJIN-WSTC*HST)
*
LINTVZ=LINT*12.+216.
PRINT L0CVZ,LSC,LB,P,WTOST,WSTC,TWSPAV,LWSPAV,GP,TGSP,TGDW,WCID
TIMER DELT=.25, FINTIM=2C.0C0, PRDEL=10.
METHCC RECT
NOSCRT
END
STOP
CALL DEBUG!1,0.0)
CALL CEBUGd,3600.)
CALL DEBUG(1,7600.)
CALL DEBUG!1.1C80C.)
CALL DEBUG!1,14400.)
CALL CEBUGd,17999.)
195
197
APPENDIX B
MODIFICATION TO MARCH SUBROUTINE ANSQ
In the MARCH code, the calculation of decay heating is carried
out in subroutine ANSQ. For this study, the calculation was modified
to include the actinide decay heat source in a BWR following a burnup
of 34,000 MWd/x. A listing of the revised subroutine follows:
Subroutine ANSQ (ANS-TIME-TAP)
C
C ANSQ calculates the decay heat using ANS correla-
C tions.
ANS1=ANS2=0.0
TVAR=TIME*60.0
IF (TVAR-GT-10.0) GO TO 10
ANS1=0.06950-0.001592*(ALOG(TVAR))
IF (TVAR-LT-3.) ANS1=1.
GO TO 40
10 IF (TVnAJi.GT. 150.0) GO TO 20
ANS1=0.069241-0.0069355*(ALOG(TVAR))
GO TO 40
20 IF (TVAR-GT.4.E6) GO TO 30
ANS1=4.0954E-2-2.8324E-3*(ALOG(TVAR))
GO TO 40
30 ANS1=4.6893E-3-2.3800E-4*(ALOG(TVAR))
40 TVAR=(TIME+TAP)*60.0
IF (TV.AJi-GT-10.0) GO TO 50
ANS2=6.950E-2-1.592E-3*(ALOG(TVAR))
GO TO 80
50 IF (TVhAhR-GT-150.0) GO TO 60
ANS2=6.9241E-2-6.9355E-3*(ALOG(TVAR))
GO TO 80
60 IF (TVAR.GT-4.E6) GO TO 70
ANS2=4.0954E-2-2.8324E-3*(ALOG(TVAR))
GO TO 80
70 ANS2=4.6893E-3-2.3800E-4*(ALOG(TVAR))
80 ANS-ANS1-ANS2
RETURN
END
199
APPENDIX C
MARCH INPUT FOR ACCIDENT SEQUENCE TB'
201
BROWHS FERRY CSB ♦ HPCI/RCIC
SNLMAR
ITRAN-1,
IBRK=0,
ISPRA=1,
IECC=2,
IBURN=0,
NINTER*100,
IPDTL=7,
IPLOT=3,
I0«3,
VOLC-=416700.0,
DTIHIT-0.01,
TAP*2.62E06,
SEND
SNLIBTL
SEND
STEEL COICBETE
DBTHELL1 OBTHELL2 CONC SHELLHISC STBELHISC CONC.
C
SNLSLAB
HNAT*2,
NSLAB=3,
NOD*1,4,13,
DEN(1)=486.92*.157.481,
HC<1)=. 1137,.23817,
TC{1)=25.001,.80024,
ITL*1,1,2,
IYR*1,1,2,
NH01*3,9,4,
HATI-1,2,1,
MAT2*1 2 1
SAREA=18684.,5358., 15982.,
X(1)*0...01,.02083, U«)«0.,.01,.03,.07,.15,.31,.63,1.27,2.5,
X(13)=0. ,.01,.03,.0625,
TEHP»12*150.,»*95.,
SEND
SNLECC
PDHIO*0.001,
0HIO*3.11E04,
PACHO*0.001,
ACHO-3.11E04.
PHH~1120.,
WHH1 —5000.0,
PSIS~1120.,
WSIS1*0.0,
PLH*1120.,
WLH1*0.0,
STPHH*240..
RtJSTH*3.11E06,
BCCRC*0.64,
CSPRC*1.0,
DTSOB«-100.,
HTCAT*100.,
TRWST«95.0,
SEND
SNLECX
SEND
SNLCSX
SEND
202
SNLCOOL
SEND
INDUCE
NC0B*2,
NHPV1=2,
NRPV2*1,
ICEC0B*-1,
DTPNT=20.0,
IDRY=-1,
I«ET*2,
RPOOL*7.801E06,
TPOOL*95.0,
VDRX=3.839E03,
VTOROS=257700.0,
BVNAX=5. 146E05,
HSHP=-2,
NSHP2*2,
NCAV=-1,
VCAV*4789.1,
VFLR=15.0,
AVBRK*292.0,
CVBRK*4.04,
VC(1)*159000.0,257700.0,
AREA{1)=1.6399E03,1.098E04,
HOH(1)*0.2.1.0,
TEHPO(1)*150.,95.,
N=10,
NS<1)=1,1,1,3,3,2.2.2,2,2.
NC(1)*1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,2.2,
NT<1)=1.2,3,-7,-7,-7,-7,-7.-7,-7,
C1(1)*1.E6,1.E6,0. ,400.,500., 139.7,189.7, 139.7,189.7, 159.7,
C2(1)=0.,1.333E5,7.59106,5.9297,.5 83.5.9297,.583.5.92 97,.583,.583,
C3{1)=95.,0..1192.5..00694,20.97,.00694,20.97.6.94E-»,.0833,6.94E-3,
C4(1)-0.0,0.0,0.0.14.7,0.0,14.7,0.0,14.7,14.7.14.7,
KT(1,2)=1,
KT(2,1)=1,
STPECC*240..
SEND
SNLBOIL
NNT*37436,
MF=35908,
NDZ=50,
ISTF=3,
ISG=0,
iim-o,
IHR*1,
WDED*3.50E04,
Q2ER0=1.1242E10,
H*12,
HO*28.,
DC*15.59,
ACOR*104.833,
ATOT=287.898.
HATBH*97000.,
D=.04692.
DF*.04058,
DH=0.056,
CLAD*.005594,
XOO=8.33E-06,
RHOCD=68.783,
TGOO*546.,
PSET*1050.0,
CSRV=3380.»
FDCR=-.5.
203
DP ART=0.0208333,
FZHCR*0.05,
FZOCR*0.08.
FZOS1=0. 1,
WFE2*7992.,
TFEO0=546.,
FOLSG*0.0,
PVSL=1000.,
TCAV=1210.,
ABRK*0.0,
TBRK=45.0,
DTPNTB*5.0,
DTPN=-5.,
VOLP*2.459E04,
VOLS=9.638E03,
WCST*3.11E06,
F<1|»0.1,0.25,0.47,0.65,0.84,0.96,1.13,1.27,1.295,1.27.1.24,1.21,1.195,
F(14)=1.15,1.11,1.08,1.05,1.03,1.02.1.016,1.017,1.05,1.06,1.061,1.062,
F(26) =1.061,1.06,1.059,1.059,1.06,1.07,1.075,1.095,1.11,1.12,1.185,1.215,
F(38)*1.25,1.26,1.24,1.21,1.15.1.09,1.0,0.87,0.76,0.6,0.41,0.21,0.1,
PF(1)=1.017,1.087,1.093,1.095,1.096,1.094,1.0875,1.128,0.9665,0.408,
TF(1)=10*0.1,
TT=6*546.,
CM=1824.,7992.,8760.,2460.,5550.,24900.,
AH=740..263.,9225.,400-,7000.,700.,
DD=1.,1.,1.,.17,.02,.546,
AB*150.,263.,165.,0.,-10.,-20.,
tEND
SNLHEAD
WZRC=140397.0,
NFBC*30447.73,
B002*361837.0,
HGBID=66750.,
MHEAD=175927.08,
DBH=20.915,
THICK-0.52198,
COND=8.0005,
E1*.8,
E2*.5,
SEND
SNLHOT
IHOT=100,
DP=0.25,
FLBNC=3360..
SEND
SNLINTB
CAYC=0.01524,
CPC=1.30,
DENSC=2.375,
TIC=308.16,
FC1=0.441,
FC2=0.108,
FC3=0.357,
FC4=0.027,
BBR=0.135,
R0=322.6,
R=6000.0,
HIN=0.2,
HIO=0.09,
«ALL=1000.,
SEND
205
Appendix D
PRESSURE SUPPRESSION POOL MODEL
D.l Introduction
The primary containment of each of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant
units is a Mark I pressure suppression pool system. The safety objective
of the Mark I containment is to provide the capability, in the event of an
accident, to limit the release of fission products to the environment.29
The key to the safety objective of this system lies in the performance
of the pressure suppression pool (PSP). The PSP is designed to rapidly
and completely condense steam released from the reactor pressure vessel,
to contain fission products released from the vessel, and to serve as a
source of water for the emergency core cooling systems. If the PSP should
fail to properly perform during an accident sequence, then there is a high
probability that fission products will be released to the environment.
In the past few years, a major concern of the NRC, the BWR vendor,
and the utilities who operate the early generation BWRs has been scenar
ios30 where it has not been conclusively shown that the PSP will meet
the performance requirements stated above. Specifically, there is a lack
of information on condensation oscillations and the resulting loads they
place on the PSP. In addition, there is the question of pressure suppres
sion pool thermal stratification and the resulting impact of this phenome
non on the condensing ability of the PSP.
The problem of condensation oscillations* includes the analysis of
both loads which originate at the downcomer exit during a large break loss
of coolant accident (LOCA) and loads derived from the safety relief valve
(SRV) discharge during normal blowdown to the PSP. The condensation os
cillation problem involves coupling an analysis of the momentum trans
port within the PSP to a stress analysis of the torus walls.
The problem of pool thermal stratification is of interest because
thermal layering of the water near a SRV discharge point can limit the
ability of the PSP to condense the steam. Subsequently, this can lead to
increased intensity of the condensation oscillation loads and possibly to
overpressurization of the torus. Furthermore, the temperature distribu
tion in the torus determines (to some extent) the distribution of fission
products in the PSP during an accident. Thus, an analysis of fission pro
duct transport to the environment will depend on an analysis of the tem
perature distribution in the PSP.
D.2 Purpose and Scope
The purpose of this work is to study the dynamics of the Mark I pre
ssure suppression pool (PSP). Knowledge of the response of the PSP is
*In the literature, when the condensation instability occurs outside
the relief valve tailpipe it is termed "condensation oscillation." If it
occurs inside the pipe, the phenomenon is called "chugging." Here, "con
densation oscillations" includes both of these effects.
206
desired for transients ranging from a normal SRV discharge to a full
blown, large break LOCA. The primary objective of this study is to im
prove the available BWR pressure suppression pool analysis techniques. A
secondary objective is to learn as much as possible about the complex
phenomena involved in each of the transients (phenomena such as pool
swell, condensation oscillation, chugging, and thermal stratification).
An analysis of the PSP dynamics will necessarily involve accounting
for the two phase flow of steam jets into subcooled water and the ensuing
transport of mass, momentum, and energy by the mechanism of condensation.
Because of the complex geometry of the PSP, (toroidal geometry plus large,
submerged, complicated flow obstructions plus an air-water interface) the
analysis tool used in this study will be a state-of-the-art, 3-D thermal
hydraulics code.
Pending completion of this work, it will be necessary to assume
pool-averaged conditions for accident analyses.
D.3 Description of the System
The Mark I containment system consists of the drywell, the pressure
suppression pool, the vent system connecting the drywell and PSP, a con
tainment cooling system, isolation valves, and various service equipment.
Figure D-l shows the arrangement of the drywell, PSP, and vent system
within the Reactor Building.
The drywell is a steel pressure vessel with a spherical lower portion
and a cylindrical upper portion. It is designed for an internal pressure
of 0.531 MPa (62 psig) at a temperature of 138°C (281°F). Normal environ
ment in the drywell during plant operation is an inert atmosphere of ni
trogen at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of about 57°C (135°F).
The vent system consists of 8 circular vent pipes which connect the
drywell to the PSP. The vent pipes are designed to conduct flow from the
drywell to the PSP (in the event of a LOCA) with minimum resistance, and
to distribute this flow uniformly in the pool. The vent pipes are de
signed for an internal pressure of 0.531 MPa (62 psig) with a temperature
of 138°C (281°F); they are also designed to withstand an external pressure
of 0.014 MPa (2 psi) above internal pressure.
The pressure suppression pool is a toroidal shaped steel pressure
vessel located below the drywell. The PSP contains about 3823 m3
(135,000 ft3) of water and has an air space above the water pool of 3370
m3 (119,000 ft3). Inside the PSP, extending around the circumference
of the torus, is a 1.45 m (4.75 ft) diameter vent header. The 8 drywell
vents connect to this vent header. Projecting down from the vent header
are 96 downcomer pipes which terminate 1.22 m (4 ft) below the surface of
the water. At 13 unevenly distributed positions around the PSP, discharge
lines from the safety relief valves extend through the vent pipes and ter
minate in a T-quencher device located near the bottom of the pool. Figure
D-2 shows a cross section of the PSP and the relative locations of the
vent pipe, vent header, downcomer, SRV discharge line, and the T-quencher,
which has been rotated 90° for the purpose of illustration. Near the
bottom of the PSP, a 0.762 m (30-in.) suction header (ring header) cir
cumscribes the torus and connects to the pool at four locations. At
Browns Ferry, the RHR, HPCI, core spray, and RCIC systems are supplied
from this header.
SUPPRESSION
CHAMBER
TOROIDAL
HEADER
207
ORNL-DWG 79-7611A ETD
DRYWELL
REACTOR VESSEL
REACTOR BUILDING
Fig. D.l BWR reactor building showing primary containment system
enclosed.
The torus which contains the pressure suppression pool is designed to
essentially the same requirements as the drywell liner, i.e., a maximum
internal pressure of 0.531 MPa (62 psig) at 138°C (281°F), but neither the
drywell nor the torus is designed to withstand the stresses which would be
created by a significant internal vacuum. To ensure that a significant
vacuum can not occur in the drywell, vacuum breaker valves are installed,
which will open to permit flow from the PSP airspace into the drywell
whenever the suppression pool pressure exceeds the drywell pressure by
more than 3447 Pa (0.5 psi). Additional vacuum breaker valves with the
same setpoints are installed to permit flow from the Reactor Building into
the PSP airspace, to prevent a significant vacuum there.
D.4 Identification of the Phenomena
The thermal hydraulic phenomena associated with a BWR pressure sup
pression pool are mainly those dealing with the PSP response during two
RING GIRDER
ECCS
SUCTION
LINE
pool.
t = 0.756 in.
Fig. D.2 Browns Ferry Mark I containment pressure suppression
MAIN VENT-
BELLOWS
ORNL-DWG 81-8567 ETD
SAFETY RELIEF VALVE
DISCHARGE LINE
ro
o
oo
209
types of transients: (1) LOCA-related phenomena and (2) SRV-discharge
phenomena.
A. LOCA — Related Phenomena
Immediately following the pipe break in a LOCA, the drywell pressure
and temperature increase very quickly. The pressure increase forces water
standing in the downcomer to accelerate rapidly into the PSP and impinge
on the torus wall. Following the slug of water, air that was in the vent
pipes and drywell is forced into the PSP. This forms a bubble of air at
the downcomer exit which expands into the suppression chamber and causes
the pool to swell. As the air bubble rises into the torus airspace, the
water will experience a gravity-induced fallback and phase separation will
again occur.
The pool swell transient described above lasts on the order of 3 to 5
s.30 It has been studied by several authors, both experimentally31-33 and
numerically.3•+,35 The consensus is that pool swell impingement and drag
loads induced during a LOCA are conservatively estimated and acceptable.
Immediately following the pool swell transient, an air/steam mixture
will flow into the PSP. Early in this process, when the mass flow rate is
high, the injected steam condenses at an unsteady rate causing periodic
oscillations in the pressure and flow. However, since the mass flux is
high enough to maintain the steam/water interface outside the downcomer,
the overall condensation proceeds at a regular rate. This phenomenon is
known as condensation oscillation. It is characterized by a steady, peri
odic variation in the pressure which forces local structures within the
torus to vibrate in phase with the oscillations. Condensation oscillation
has been studied experimentally36»37 and analytically;37>38 however,
the basic driving mechanism for the pressure resonance has not been iden
tified.39
When the air/steam flow through the downcomer decreases to the point
where the condensation rate outside the pipe exceeds the steam flow exit
ing the pipe, the steam bubble collapses very rapidly. This results in a
large drop in the steam pressure and the steam-water interface rushes up
into the downcomer. Once there, the interface is warmed by condensing
steam and the condensation rate begins to decrease. At some point, the
steam pressure will rise, and the interface is pushed out of the downcomer
to form an irregularly shaped bubble at the pipe exit. The bubble begins
to collapse; and the entire process, known as chugging, repeats. Chugg
ing is characterized by rapid, irregular interface accelerations and pres
sure oscillations that cause large loads on the torus structure.
The chugging phenomenon is very similar to the condensation oscilla
tion problem. It has also been studied in detail, with analysis methods
which range from manometer-like models that attempt to predict the gross
motion of the interface, to probabilistic models that attempt to predict
internal chugging."40"1*2 The central problems which plague analysis of
the chugging phenomenon are (1) high uncertainty in the basic condensation
rates involved and (2) lack of understanding of the triggering mechanism
for bubble collapse.
Both of the condensation phenomena (chugging and condensation oscil
lation) involve transient, stochastic, turbulent, two phase flow. Because
210
of the complexity of these problems, no accurate assessment has been made
of the loads involved.30 Consequently, the analysis of PSP response to
condensation oscillations must rely on data from experiments which model
plant behavior. Thus, there is a need for improvement of the analysis
capability in this area.
B. SRV — Discharge Phenomena
When a SRV actuates, water and air initially in the discharge line
are immediately accelerated into the PSP. This results in air-clearing
loads much the same as the pool swell loads discussed earlier. These
loads are of no major consequence because they can be adequately "scaled"
from the results of laboratory experiments.
Following the air-clearing phase, steam is injected at high velocity
into the PSP. Experience has shown that, depending on the discharge de
vice used, condensation oscillations can occur as steam bubbles exit the
pipe and collapse in the bulk fluid. As the steam bubbles collapse,
severe pressure oscillations are induced on the surrounding structures.
Current practice is to limit the severity of these oscillations by using a
T-quencher device.^3 The T-quencher is a section of pipe (in the form
of a "T") with holes strategically drilled in the arms to enhance local
mixing. The T-quencher has been shown to be very effective in eliminating
the severity of the pressure pulses, provided the local bulk fluid temper
ature is sufficiently low.
This is the factor that establishes a limit on the effectiveness of
the T-quencher — the local fluid temperature. If it becomes too high,
the PSP will not be able to rapidly condense all the steam. Some of it
will escape into the air space above the pool and pressurize the torus.
When the suppression pool pressure becomes 3447 Pa (0.5 psi) greater than
the drywell, the vacuum breakers will open and steam will escape into the
drywell (forcing the temperature and pressure up). As more steam is dis
charged to the PSP, the drywell and torus pressure will continue to in
crease.
It is concern for this increase in drywell pressure (possibly result
ing in overpressurization) that has led to the establishment of strict
procedures for the sequential ordering of SRV blowdowns to the PSP. Cur
rent practice involves sequentially venting SRVs on opposite sides of the
torus; this prevents excessive local temperatures near any discharge
point.
More recently, concern has been expressed over the long term response
of the PSP during a prelonged Station Blackout. During part of this
scenario, the operator loses manual control of the SRVs. The long term
result is that a single SRV will continually open into the PSP. The local
fluid temperature will monotonically rise, resulting in pressurization of
the torus and possible condensation oscillations. The potential exists
for rupture of the torus due to overpressure coupled with violent pressure
oscillations.
For example, this potential exists in the particular case of a Sta
tion Blackout with loss of the HPCI and RCIC systems. At about 100 min
into the transient, local pool temperatures at the discharge bay are post
ulated (c.f. Section 9) to be greater than 149°C (300°F). At that time,
211
steam condensation oscillations are expected to accelerate due to the ex
cessive temperature and the continuous discharge of superheated, non-con-
densible gases (from hydrogen generated in the melting core) into the PSP.
These extreme conditions in the PSP yield a high probability for rupture
of the torus.
Along with the temperature rise assocated with SRV discharge comes a
gravity induced thermal stratification of the pool. This phenomenon is of
interest because the layering tends to remain long after SRV discharge is
complete. Since the stratification remains for a significant period of
time, the validity of the current design basis for Mark I PSPs becomes
questionable. This is because a fundamental assumption in virtually all
the transient analyses is that the pool is thoroughly mixed and at a uni
form temperature following SRV blowdown. The impact of thermal stratifi
cation on the performance of the PSP remains to be evaluated.
Thermal stratification is also of interest because the temperature
distribution in the PSP affects the fission product distribution in the
torus. Should a breach of primary containment occur, transport of the fis
sion products to the environment will depend, to some extent, on the the
rmal stratification in the torus. Thus, an analysis of fission product
transport is coupled with the thermal stratification problem.
To the best of our knowledge, no information is available in the open
literature concerning systematic analysis of the thermal stratification
problem. There is therefore the need for research in this area.
D.5 Pool Modeling Considerations
Model requirements
The prediction of suppression pool system behavior during the course
of a Severe Accident is an exceedingly difficult task. The previously de
scribed phenomena comprise a complex set of physical processes for which
few detailed analytical models currently exist. These phenomena can be
roughly divided into two types, i.e., thermal hydraulic phenomena and
fluid-structure interaction phenomena. The initial efforts at ORNL are
directed toward the development of the thermal hydraulic model. A brief
survey was conducted to identify existing multi-dimensional thermal hy
draulic analysis codes which might be applied to the problem. The re
sults of the survey are shown in Table Dl which presents a brief summary
of the candidate codes.
Due to the nature of the previously described phenomena, it was felt
that any model employed for suppression pool analysis should possess the
following characteristics:
1. Appropriate hydrodynamics
a. two phase
b. non-equilibrium
c. free field format (equations and constitutive relationships
independent of hydraulic diameter)
d. incorporate a non-condensable gas field
e. employ multi-dimensional geometry (3 dimensions desirable)
2. Employ appropriate constitutive relationships
3. Utilize efficient solution techniques
4. Readily accessable to ORNL staff.
212
Table Dl. Candidate suppression pool analysis codes
Code Developer Geometry T-H characteristics
TRAC LANL 3D cylindrical 2 fluid
(PIA, PD2) nonequilibrium
COBRA-TF BPNL 3D cartesian 3 field
nonequlibrium
CCMMIX-2 ANL 3D 2 fluid
nonequilibrium
BEAC0N/Mod2 INEL 2D cartesian
cylindrical
spherical
2 component vapor
2 phase
nonequilibrium
Requirements l.a and l.b are imposed by the complex nature of the conden
sation processes involved in SRV discharge and LOCA blowdown transients.
Requirement l.c is a result not only of the nature of the SRV discharge
process, but of the geometric dimensions of the suppression pool. The en
ormous size and complex structural design of the suppression pool system
virtually mandates that free field hydrodynamics be employed. Requirement
l.d is imposed because significant amounts of non-condensable gases will
be released from the fuel and generated in metal-water reactions during
Severe Accidents. Requirement I.e. is imposed by the nature of the hy-
drodynamic phenomena and the complex structural relationship of the SRV
discharge lines, vent downcomers, and ring header suction system. Appro
priate constitutive relationships (requirement 2) are needed for closure
of the hydrodynamic field equations. Many of the relationships employed
in existing thermo-hydraulic codes may be invalid for use in the present
problem. Requirement 3 is imposed by the fact that it will be necessary
to predict the behavior of the suppression pool for periods of time rang
ing from a few minutes to several hours. It is, therefore, important that
all codes employ fast solution techniques in order to minimize computing
costs. The fourth characteristic is desired because the computer code
selected for the analysis will require local modification as necessary to
reflect the unique characteristics of the suppression pool problem.
We are unaware of any existing computer code or model which pos
sesses all of the desirable characteristics outlined above. The initial
effort at ORNL is directed toward development of a pool model utilizing
the TRAC-PIA"*1* vessel module. TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code)
— PIA is a best estimate computer code developed at Los Alamos Na
tional Laboratory for analysis of large break PWR loss of coolant acci
dents. Although more recent versions of TRAC are available (i.e., PD2,
PF1, and BD1), TRAC-PIA was chosen for this application because it is in
stalled and operational on ORNL's computer system.
While TRAC-PIA does employ a full three dimensional, two fluid, non
equlibrium approach to reactor vessel hydrodynamics, it does not account
for free flow or non-condensable gas fields. Additionally, the constitu
tive relationships employed In TRAC-PIA are based upon data which was
213
originally developed for vertical pipe flow and may not be valid for ap
plication to steam jet discharge phenomena.1*5 Though these limitations
are significant, it is felt that our access to TRAC-PIA will allow us to
implement any changes in the constitutive relationship package which might
be necessary to reflect the characteristics of the suppression pool
phenomena. LANL is currently modifying TRAC to include non-condensable
gas field hydrodynamics (TRAC-PF1). ORNL's utilization of TRAC-PIA will
allow us to quickly implement this modified version when it becomes avail
able.
We have tentatively chosen the PELE-IC1*6 code for future use in an
alysis of the fluid-structure interaction within the suppression pool.
PELE-IC (developed by LLL) couples a two dimensional Eulerian fluid dy
namics algorithm to a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm. The code
can couple either a one dimensional or a lumped parameter description of
compressible gases, and can employ either cartesian or cylindrical coordi
nates. PELE-IC employs the basic semi-implicit solution algorithm con
tained in the SOLA code.1*7 The movement of free surfaces is treated in
a full donar cell fashion based on a combination of void fractions and
interface orientation. The structural motion is calculated by a finite
element method, from the applied fluid pressure at the fluid structure in
terface. The finite element shell structure algorithm uses conventional
thin shell theory with transverse shear and provides the fluid module with
the resultant position and velocity of the interface. The code is capable
of analyzing both vent clearing and condensation related phenomena.
TRAC suppression pool model description
A block diagram of the ORNL-TRAC suppression pool model is shown in
Fig. D-3. The model is comprised of the TRAC VESSEL module which repre
sents the pool hydrodynamics, and two FILL and PIPE modules, which repre
sent the SRV discharge flow and T-quencher assembly. A detailed view of
ORNL-DWG 81-8150 ETD
FILL
PIPE PIPE
1
1
VESSEL
Fig. D.3 Suppression pool model block diagram.
214
the pool model is shown in Figs. D-4 and D-5. The pool is represented as
112 cells in cylindrical geometry, located at five axial, four azimuthal,
and eight radial regions. SRV discharge is assumed to occur as shown in
Figs. D-4 and D-5. Half of the SRV discharge flow is directed radially
inward from the fifth radial zone, while the other half is directed ra
dially outward. It should be noted that the T-quencher is not modeled in
a strictly physical fashion, since the discharge is assumed to occur
through a single open ended pipe with a flow area approximately equal to
that of the T-quencher device. This approach was chosen for the initial
model due to the significant reduction in input preparation time and
model complexity associated with this approach. The initial water level
is assumed to be 4.47 meters above the pool bottom (i.e., at level 4 in
ORNL-DWG 81-8151 ETD
0, =0.0165689 rad
62 =2.1053743 rad
03 =4.1942798 rad
04 = 6.2831853 rad
Fig. D.4 Suppression pool model top view.
TOP VIEW
R, = 12.3901 m
R2 = 12.9311 m
R3 = 13.5239 m
R4 = 14.7035 m
16.9926 m
19.2877 m
R7 = 20.4643 m
R8 = 21.0601 m
R9 = 21.6011 m
VESSEL
CENTER
R6 R7 R8 Rg
ORNL-DWG 81-8152 ETD
HALF CROSS SECTION VIEW AT AA
B8 NO FLOW REGION
• INITIAL FLUID CELLS
M INITIAL VAPOR CELLS
Fig. D.5 Suppression pool model cross section.
|S3
H
216
Fig. D-5) with all cells in level 5 occupied by vapor. Internal struc
tures (vent header, down comers, etc.) are not modeled.
Current status of suppression pool model
Several preliminary computer runs have been made in which TRAC data
base errors have been identified and eliminated. We are currently exper
iencing problems related to the limitations of TRAC-PIA in accounting for
the simultaneous existence of steam (vapor) and perfect gas (nitrogen)
within the vessel. The TRAC user must specify that either vapor or air
properties be used everywhere within the code. In terms of the pressure
suppression pool, this means that the nitrogen gas (which is located in
the space above the pool) must be treated as subcooled vapor if one is to
inject steam into the pool. It is also possible that the constitutive re
lationships within TRAC are producing instabilities in the solution due to
their dependence upon hydraulic diameter and fluid property information.
We are currently working closely with the TRAC User Liaison Section at
LANL in an effort to determine whether these problems can be overcome. In
the event these problems prove to be insurmountable, we will re-evaluate
the remaining code candidates and select an alternative program for the
suppression pool thermal hydraulic analysis.
217
APPENDIX E
A COMPENDIUM OF INFORMATION CONCERNING THE BROWNS FERRY
UNIT 1 HIGH-PRESSURE COOLANT INJECTION SYSTEM
E.1 Purpose
The High-Pressure Coolant Injection (HPCI) System is designed to en
sure adequate core cooling to prevent damage to fuel in the event of a
loss of coolant accident that does not result in rapid depressurization of
the reactor vessel. The HPCI System provides water to make up for that
which is lost through steam generated by decay heat.1*8
E.2 System Description
The HPCI System (Fig. E-l) consists of a steam turbine driven booster
pump — main pump combination and the associated piping and valves.
The booster pump can take suction from either the condensate storage tank
or the pressure suppression pool. The HPCI pumped flow enters the reactor
vessel feedwater line "A" via a thermal sleeve connection. A test line
permits testing of the HPCI System at full flow while the reactor is at
power, with the main pump discharge routed to the condensate storage tank.
A minimum flow line connects the main pump discharge to the pressure sup
pression pool, as a means of ensuring a flow of at least 0.038 m3/s (600
GPM) through the pumps. The normal setpoint for HPCI pumped flow is
18.93 m3/s (5000 GPM).
The HPCI turbine is driven by steam extracted from main steam line
"B" upstream of the main steam line isolation valves. The two primary
containment isolation valves in the steam line to the HPCI turbine are
normally open to keep the piping to the turbine at elevated temperatures
to permit rapid system startup (within 25 s of receipt of an initiation
signal). The normally closed DC-motor-operated steam supply valves up
stream of the HPCI turbine will open against full system pressure within
20 s after receipt of a system initiation signal. Signals from the con
trol system open or close the turbine stop valve. The turbine control
valve is physically attached to the HPCI turbine and is positioned by the
turbine governor as necessary to maintain the pumped flow at the level set
by the operator, normally 0.315 m3/s (5000 GPM). The turbine exhaust
steam is discharged to the pressure suppression pool. The turbine gland
seals are vented to a gland seal condenser. A small water flow diverted
from the booster pump discharge is used to cool both the turbine lubricat
ing oil cooler and the gland seal condenser. This cooling flow is re
turned, together with the gland seal condensate, to the booster pump suc
tion. Noncondensible gases from the gland seal condenser are removed via
a DC-motor-operated blower to the Standby Gas Treatment System.
A vacuum breaker line (not shown on Fig. E-l) is installed between
the torus airspace and the HPCI turbine exhaust line. Its purpose is to
prevent water from the pressure suppression pool from being drawn up into
the turbine exhaust line as the steam condenses in this line following
turbine operation.
ELEVATION 577 ft
CONDENSATE
STORAGE
TANK
218
CONDENSATE
RETURN
HEADER
6
CONDENSATE
SUPPLY O
HEADER ^
MAIN STEAM
SUPPRESSION
POOL
WATER
LEVEL
ELEVATION
536 ft
•hJvi-
SUPPRESSION
CHAMBER
HEADER
PUMP <t ELEVATIONJS24 ft
BOOSTER
PUMP
MINIMUM FLOW LINE
SYSTEM TEST LINE
H^-
lA-
TURBINE
MAIN PUMP
A
nnncTto Y J
'X
ORNL-DWG 81-8591 ETD
NORMAL WATER
LEVEL
ELEVATION 625 ft
THERMAL
SLEEVE
rELEVATION 574 ft
FEEDWATER
TOTAL
LEAKOFF
FROM
yy-TURBINE
-LUBE OIL
COOLER
TO STAND-BY GAS
TREATMENT SYSTEM
_t
-GLAND SEAL
CONDENSER
Fig. E.l High pressure coolant injection system.
All components required for operation of the HPCI System are com
pletely independent of AC power, control air systems, or external cooling
water systems, requiring only DC power from the unit battery. On loss of
control air, the HPCI steam line drains to the main condensers will fail
closed; this is their normal position when the HPCI system is in opera
tion.
The principal HPCI equipment is installed in the reactor building, at
a level below that of the pressure suppression pool. The turbine-pump as
sembly is located in a shielded area so that personnel access to adjacent
areas is not restricted during HPCI System operation. The only operating
component located inside the primary containment is the normally open AC-
motor-operated inboard HPCI steam line isolation valve, which will remain
open on loss of power.
219
E.3 HPCI Pump Suction
The HPCI pump can take suction either from the condensate storage
header or from the pressure suppression pool via the suppression pool ring
header. The normal lineup is for suction of the reactor-grade water in
the condensate storage header.
Each Browns Ferry unit is provided with a 1419.4 m3 (375,000 gal
lon) condensate storage tank, which provides a water head to the storage
header for that unit. The storage header, which taps into the bottom of
the storage tank, feeds the suctions of the high-pressure ECCS Systems,
specifically, the pumps for the HPCI and the RCIC systems. The core spray
pumps and the RHR pumps can be fed from this source, but are not normally
aligned to it. All other demand for condensate storage tank water is fed
via a standpipe within the tank; the standpipe height is such that 511.0
m3 (135,000 gallons) of water is reserved for the ECCS Systems.
It is important to note that the local-manual opening of one normally
locked-shut valve will cross-connect the Unit 3 and the Unit 1 condensate
storage header; the opening of a second such valve will cross-connect all
three condensate storage headers.1*9 Thus the Unit 1 ECCS Systems have a
minimum of 511.0 and a maximum of 1419.4 m3 (135,000 to 375,000 gallons)
available through normally open valves from the Unit 1 storage tank and
these limits can be increased three-fold by manually opening two normally
locked-closed valves. Two additional condensate storage tanks, each of
1892.5 m3 (500,000 gallon) capacity, have recently been installed at the
Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. Thus it is unlikely that HPCI System opera
tion will ever be limited by the availability of condensate storage header
water.
The HPCI booster pump suction will be automatically shifted from the
condensate storage header to the suppression pool ring header if either:
1. The water level above the booster pump suction falls to an elevation
of 168.4 m (551 ft). This would mean that the condensate storage tank
had completely drained and there remained just sufficient water in the
condensate storage header to effect a transfer before losing net posi
tive suction head (NPSH).
or
2. The pressure suppression pool level increases to an indicated level of
0.18 m (+7 in). Since the normal pool level is maintained between
0.05 and 0.15 m ( 2 and 6 in.),50 this implies the addition of
between 257.4 and 371.0 m3 (68,000 and 98,000 gallons) of water to
the pool.
The 0.76 m (30 in.) diameter suppression pool ring header lies parallel to
and beneath the suppression pool. Water flow from the suppression pool to
the ring header is via four 0.76 m (30 in.) diameter downcomer pipes
spaced at irregular intervals around the torus. Each downcomer is capped
with strainers at the torus end.
The change in HPCI pump suction lineup is accomplished by the opening
of two DC-motor-operated valves in the line from the pressure suppression
pool to the HPCI booster pump suction followed by the closing of the DC-
motor-operated valve in the suction line from the condensate storage
header. A check valve in the line from the suppression pool prevents
backflow from the condensate storage tank into the suppression pool during
the change.
220
Two pressure switches are used to determine the water head from the
condensate storage tank above the booster pump suction and two level
switches monitor the suppression pool level. In either case, just one of
the two available signals is sufficient to initiate the shift in HPCI
booster pump suction. Once the booster pump suction has been automati
cally shifted to the pressure suppression pool, the operator cannot re
position the valves back to the condensate header suction lineup.
The minimum required net positive suction head (NPSH) for the HPCI
booster pump is 6.40 m (21 ft). This requirement is easily satisfied when
suction is taken from the condensate storage header which is at an eleva
tion of approximately 8.69 m (28 1/2 ft) above the booster pump center-
line.
When the HPCI booster pump suction is shifted to the pressure sup
pression pool due to a high indicated pool level of 0.18 m (+7 in.), the
pool water level is 4.04 m (13.25 ft) above the booster pump centerline.
Therefore, the NPSH requirement of 6.40 m (21 ft) can be met as long as
the temperature of the pumped water is below 85.0°C (185°F), assuming no
containment back pressure.
E.4 System Initiation
Either of two signals will cause an automatic start of the HPCI Sys
tem. These are:
1. Low reactor water level [12.09 m (476 in.) above vessel zero].
2. High drywell pressure [0.12 MPa (2 psig)].
With either of these conditions, both the suction valve to the con
densate storage header and the minimum flow bypass valve will open if they
were closed. The pump discharge valve between the main HPCI pump and
feedwater header "A" will open, and the two test line isolation valves
will close if they were open. The steam supply valve to the turbine will
open.*
The DC-motor-driven auxiliary oil pump starts and as the oil pressure
increases, the turbine stop and control valves open. Above 1800 rpm, the
main oil pump which is driven on the turbine shaft takes over and main
tains the oil pressure while the auxiliary oil pump shuts down. The mini
mum flow bypass valve closes automatically when the increasing HPCI System
pump flow exceeds 0.076 m3/s (1200 GPM).
The time from actuating signal to full flow is less than 25 seconds.
The turbine control system will act to maintain a pumped flow of 0.315
m /s (5000 GPM) into the feedwater line over a reactor pressure range of
from 1.14 to 7.83 MPa (150 to 1120 psig). If desired, the operator in the
Control Room can operate the system in the manual or automatic mode at a
different controlled flow.
The HPCI turbine operates at between 0.746 to 3.356 MW, (1000 and
4500 horsepower) with a steam demand of between 6.17 to 23.18 kg/s (49,000
and 184,000 lbs/h). System steam and pumped water flows at operating con
ditions are given in tabular form on Fig. 6.4.1 of the Browns Ferry FSAR.
*The two normally-open primary containment isolation valves in the
steam supply line will not reopen, if closed.
221
E.5 Turbine Trips
On an HPCI turbine trip, the turbine stop valve closes and the mini
mum flow bypass valve to the pressure suppression pool closes to preclude
drainage from the condensate storage header into the suppression pool.
The following conditions will cause turbine trip:
1. High reactor vessel water level [14.78 m (582 in.) above vessel zero].
2. High HPCI turbine exhaust pressure [1.14 MPa (150 psig)].
3. Low HPCI booster pump suction pressure [—0.381 m (—15 in.) Hg].
4. HPCI turbine mechanical overspeed (5000 rpm).
5. Any HPCI isolation signal.
6. Remote manual trip from Control Room.
7. Manual trip lever on the HPCI turbine.
All turbine trips except high reactor water level and HPCI isolation will
reset automatically when the initiating condition clears. The high reac
tor water level signal can be reset manually, or will reset automatically
when the reactor water level decreases to the low reactor water level HPCI
initiation point, 12.09 m (476 in.) above vessel zero. The HPCI isolation
signal must be manually reset.
E.6 System Isolation
The Primary Containment and Reactor Vessel Isolation Control System
initiates automatic isolation of appropriate pipelines which penetrate the
primary containment whenever certain monitored variables exceed their pre
selected operational limits. The system is designed so that, once initi
ated, automatic isolation continues to completion. Return to normal oper
ation after isolation requires deliberate operator action.
An automatic isolation signal for the HPCI System causes the inboard
and outboard HPCI steam line isolation valves to close, trips the HPCI
turbine, and closes the two motor-operated valves in the suction line from
the pressure suppression pool. The inboard steam line isolation valve is
AC-motor-operated, the outboard DC-motor-operated. The maximum closing
time for these valves is 20 s.
The following conditions cause a HPCI System isolation signal:52
1. HPCI System equipment space high temperature. Since high temperature
in the vicinity of the steam supply line or other HPCI equipment could
indicate a break in the turbine steam supply line, an isolation signal
is generated if this temperature exceeds 93.3°C (200°F). This temper
ature is sensed by four sets of four bimetallic temperature switches.
These 16 temperature switches are arranged in four trip systems with
four temperature switches in each trip system. The four temperature
switches in each trip system are arranged in one-out-of-two taken
twice logic.
2. HPCI turbine high steam flow. Since high steam flow could indicate a
break in the turbine steam supply line, an isolation signal is gener
ated if the measured steam flow exceeds 150% of design maximum steady
state flow. The steam line flow is sensed by two differential pres
sure switches which monitor the differential pressure across a mechan
ical element installed in the HPCI turbine steam pipeline. The trip
ping of either switch at a differential pressure of 0.62 MPa (90 psi)
initiates HPCI System isolation.
222
3. Low reactor pressure. After steam pressure has decreased to such a
low value that the HPCI turbine cannot be operated, the steam line is
isolated so that steam and radioactive gases will not escape from the
HPCI turbine shaft seals into the reactor building. The steam pres
sure is sensed by four pressure switches from the HPCI turbine steam
line upstream of the isolation valves. The switches are arranged in a
one-out-of-two taken twice logic. The set point for this isolation
signal is 0.793 MPa (100 psig).
4. High turbine exhaust diaphragm pressure. A line tapping off the tur
bine exhaust line contains two rupture diaphrams in series, with the
space between vented to the HPCI equipment space through a flow re
stricting orifice. The diaphrams are designed for 1.138 MPa (150
psig). If the pressure in the space between the diaphrams exceeds
0.172 MPa (10 psig), a system isolation signal is generated.
5. Manual Isolation. If a HPCI initiation signal is present, the opera
tor can cause HPCI system isolation by pushing a control panel push
button.
The low reactor pressure isolation will be automatically reset if re
actor pressure is restored; all other isolation signals seal in and the
operator must push the HPCI auto isolation circuit reset push-button after
the condition has cleared.
E.7 Technical Specifications
1. The HPCI System shall be operable
a. Prior to startup from cold condition
b. Whenever there is irradiated fuel in the reactor vessel and the
reactor vessel pressure is greater than 0.945 MPa (122 psig), ex
cept
c. If the HPCI System is inoperable the reactor may remain in opera
tion for a period not to exceed 7 days provided ADS, core spray,
LPCI mode of RHR and RCIC are all operable.
If these conditions are not met, an orderly shutdown shall be initi
ated and the reactor vessel pressure reduced to 0.945 MPa (122 psig)
or less within 24 hours.
2. HPCI testing shall be performed as follows:
a. Simulated automatic actuation test — once per operating cycle
b. Pump operability — once per month
c. Motor operated valve operability — once per month
d. Flow rate at normal reactor operating pressure — once per
three months
e. Flow rate at 1.138 MPa (150 psig) — once per operating cycle
3. Whenever HPCI is required to be operable the piping from the pump dis
charge to the last flow blocking valve shall be filled. Water flow
from the high point vent must be observed monthly. (Purpose is to
prevent water hammer when the system is started.)
223
APPENDIX F
A COMPENDIUM OF INFORMATION CONCERNING THE BROWNS FERRY
UNIT 1 REACTOR CORE ISOLATION COOLING SYSTEM
F.1 Purpose
The Reactor Core Isolation Cooling (RCIC) System is designed to en
sure that the core is not uncovered in the event of loss of all AC power.
The RCIC System provides water to make up for that lost through steam gen
erated by decay heat during reactor isolation.53 RCIC is a consequence
limiting system rather than an ECCS System; the system design is not pred
icated on any loss of structure accident.51*
F.2 System Description
The RCIC System (Fig. F-l) consists of a steam-turbine driven pump
unit and the associated piping and valves. The RCIC pump can take suction
from either the condensate storage tank or the pressure suppression pool
and discharges to the reactor vessel feedwater line "B" via a thermal
sleeve connection. A full flow system test line permits testing of the
RCIC System while the reactor is at power, with the pump discharge routed
to the condensate storage tank. A minimum flow line connects the RCIC
pump discharge to the pressure suppression pool, as a means of ensuring a
flow of at least 0.004 m3/s (60 GPM) through the pump. The minimum flow
bypass valve closes at a system flow of greater than 0.008 m3/s (120
GPM). The normal setpoint for RCIC pumped flow is 0.038 m3/s (600 GPM).
The RCIC turbine is driven by steam extracted from main steam line
"C" upstream of the main steam line isolation valve. The two primary con
tainment isolation valves in the steam line to the RCIC turbine are nor
mally open to keep the piping to the turbine at elevated temperatures so
as to permit rapid system startup (within 30 seconds of an initiation sig
nal). The normally closed DC-motor-operated steam supply valve just up
stream of the RCIC turbine will open against full system pressure within
15 seconds after receipt of a system initiation signal.
The RCIC turbine exhaust steam is discharged to the pressure suppres
sion pool. The turbine gland seals are drained to a barometric condenser,
in which the steam is condensed by a water spray. The water spray is pro
vided by a flow diverted from the RCIC pump discharge to pass through the
turbine lube oil cooler and subsequently form the spray. The condensate
from the barometric condenser is pumped back to the RCIC pump suction. A
vacuum pump removes the non-condensibles from the barometric condenser and
inserts them into the pressure suppression pool.
A vacuum breaker line (not shown on Fig. F-l) is installed between
the torus airspace and the RCIC turbine exhaust line. Its purpose is to
prevent pressure suppression pool water from being drawn up into the tur
bine exhaust line when the remaining exhaust steam condenses after turbine
operation and shutdown.
All components normally required for initiating operation of the RCIC
System are completely independent of AC power, plant service air, and ex
ternal cooling water systems, requiring only DC power from a unit battery
224
TO SUPPRESSION POOL<-
ORNL-DWG 81-8592 ETD
NORMAL WATER
LEVEL
ELEVATION 625 ft
ELEVATION 574 ft
FEEDWATER
Fig. F.l Reactor core isolation cooling system.
to operate the valves, vacuum pump, and condensate pump.55 On loss of
control air, the RCIC drain lines to the main condensers will fail closed;
this is their normal position when the RCIC System is in operation. The
drain functions of these valves is transferred to overseat drain ports in
the turbine stop valves.
The principal RCIC equipment is installed in the reactor building at
a level below that of the pressure suppression pool. The turbine-pump
assembly is located in a shielded area so that access to adjacent areas of
the reactor building is not restricted during RCIC System operation. The
only operating component located within the Primary Containment is the
225
normally open AC-motor-operated RCIC inboard steam line isolation valve,
which will remain open on loss of power.
F.3 RCIC Pump Suction
The RCIC pump can take suction either from the condensate storage
header through a single normally-open DC-motor-operated valve or from the
pressure suppression pool via the suppression pool ring header.
Each Browns Ferry Unit is provided with a 1419.4 m3 (375,000 gal
lon) condensate storage tank, which provides a water head to the storage
header for that unit. The storage header, which taps into the bottom of
the storage tank, feeds the suctions of the high-pressure ECCS Systems,
specifically, the pumps for the HPCI and the RCIC systems. The core spray
pumps and the RHR pumps can be fed from this source, but are not normally
aligned to it. All other demand for condensate storage tank water is fed
via a standpipe within the tank; the standpipe height is such that 511.0
m3 (135,000 gallons) of water is reserved for the ECCS Systems.
There is no provision for an automatic shifting of the RCIC pump suc
tion from the condensate storage header to the pressure suppression pool.
However, if condensate storage tank water is unavailable for any reason,
the control room operator can shift the RCIC pump suction to the pressure
suppression pool ring header. This is done by remote-manually opening the
two DC-motor-operated suction valves to the pool ring header; when these
two valves are fully open, the suction valve to the condensate storage
header will automatically close.
The minimum required net positive suction head (NPSH) for the RCIC
System is 6.10 m (20 ft), which is readily available with suction taken
from the condensate storage tank. With suction from the pressure suppres
sion pool, the required NPSH is available for suppression pool tempera
tures up to 85.0°C (185°F) with no containment back pressure.
F.4 System Initiation
An automatic start of the RCIC System is initiated by low reactor
vessel water level at 12.10 m (476.5 in.) above vessel zero. The single
normally-closed valve in the steam supply line opens, and steam is ad
mitted to the turbine. (The turbine stop valve and control valve are nor
mally open when the RCIC System is in standby.) The barometric condenser
vacuum pump starts, and the condensate pump will act to automatically con
trol the water level in the condenser. The RCIC turbine speed and pump
flow are automatically maintained by the steam flow controller. Turbine
lube oil is supplied by a shaft-driven oil pump. The single .normally-
closed valve in the pump discharge line to feedwater header "B" automati
cally opens, and the minimum flow bypass valve closes automatically when
pump flow exceeds 0.008 m3/s (120 GPM).
If the RCIC System is in an abnormal lineup when an initiation signal
is received, the system will realign:
a. If the normally open pump discharge valve is closed, it will open.
b. If the normally open pump suction valve from the condensate storage
header Is closed, it will open provided at least one of the suppres
sion pool suction valves is not fully open.
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227
F.6 System Isolation
The Primary Containment and Reactor Vessel Isolation Control System
initiates automatic isolation of appropriate pipelines which penetrate the
primary containment whenever certain monitored variables exceed their pre
determined operational limits. The system is designed so that once initi
ated, automatic isolation goes to completion. Return to normal operation
after isolation requires deliberate operator action.
An automatic isolation for the RCIC System causes the normally-open
inboard and outboard steam supply isolation valves to close, the turbine
to trip, and the two RCIC suction valves from the pressure suppression
pool to close (if they were open). The minimum flow bypass valve to the
suppression pool is interlocked to close whenever the turbine is tripped.
The following conditions cause a RCIC system isolation signal:
!• RCIC System equipment space high temperature. Since high temperature
in the vicinity of the RCIC equipment could indicate a break in the
turbine steam supply line, an isolation signal is generated if this
temperature exceeds 93.3°C (200°F). This setpoint is based on the
calculated AT with a 0.001 m3/s (15 GPM) steam leak in the space.
There are 16 temperature sensors arranged in four trip logics with
four sensors in each logic. The 16 sensors are physically arranged in
four groups with four sensors in each group. One sensor in each group
is in each of the four one-out-of-two taken twice trip logics.
2. RCIC System high steam flow. Since high steam flow could indicate a
leak in the turbine steam supply line, an isolation signal is gener
ated if the measured steam flow exceeds 150% of design maximum steady
state flow. The steamline flow is sensed by two differential pressure
switches which monitor the differential pressure across an elbow in
stalled in the RCIC turbine steam supply pipeline. The tripping of
either trip channel at a differential pressure of 11.43 m (450 in.)
H20 initiates RCIC System isolation.
3. Low reactor pressure. After steam pressure has decreased to such a low
value that the RCIC turbine cannot be operated, and there is no cool
ant spray to the barometric condenser, the steam line is isolated to
protect against continuous gland seal leakage to the RCIC equipment
space. The set point for this isolation signal is a reactor vessel
pressure of 0.345 MPa (50 psig). The pressure is sensed by four pres
sure switches at the RCIC turbine steam line upstream of the isolation
valves. The switches are arranged in a one-out-of-two taken twice
logic.
4. High turbine exhaust diaphragm pressure. A line tapping off the tur
bine exhaust line contains two rupture diaphrams in series, with the
space between vented to the RCIC equipment space through a flow re
stricting orifice. The diaphrams are designed for 1.138 MPa (150
psig). If the pressure in the space between the diaphragms exceeds
0.172 MPa (10 psig), a system isolation signal is generated.
5. Manual Isolation. If an RCIC initiation signal is present, the oper
ator can cause RCIC System isolation by pushing a control panel push
button.
All isolation signals are sealed in and must be manually reset after
the condition causing them has cleared. A control panel pushbutton is
provided for this purpose.
228
F.7 Technical Specifications
1. The RCIC System must be operable prior to startup from a cold condi
tion or whenever there is irradiated fuel in the reactor and the re
actor vessel pressure is above 0.945 MPa (122 psig).
If the RCIC System is inoperable, the reactor may remain in operation
for a period not to exceed seven days if the HPCI System is operable
during such time.
If these conditions are not met, an orderly shutdown of the reactor
must be initiated and the reactor depressurized to less than 0.945 MPa
(122 psig) within 24 hours.
2. RCIC testing shall be performed as follows
a. Simulated automatic actuation test — once per operating cycle
b. Pump operability — once per month
c. Motor operated valve operability — once per month
d. Flow rate at normal reactor operating pressure — once per three
months
e. Flow rate at 1.138 MPa (150 psig) — once per operating cycle
3. Whenever RCIC is required to be operable the piping from the pump dis
charge to the last flow blocking valve shall be filled. Water flow
from the high point vent must be observed monthly. (Purpose is to
prevent water hammer when the system is started.)
229
APPENDIX G
EFFECT OF TVA-ESTIMATED SEVEN HOUR BATTERY LIFE ON
NORMAL RECOVERY CALCULATIONS
Section 7, Computer Prediction of Thermal Hydraulic Parameters for
Normal Recovery, is based on the assumption that the 250 vdc unit batter
ies will fail in four hours under the conditions of Station Blackout.
After review of the draft results presented in Sect. 7, the Electrical En
gineering Branch at TVA performed a battery capacity calculation to deter
mine how long the Browns Ferry 250 vdc batteries would last under these
conditions, and arrived at an estimate of seven hours. This appendix ex
amines the impact of the newly estimated seven hour battery failure time
on the results and conclusions of Sect. 7.
Two basic conclusions are presented in Sect. 7.
1. If AC power is recovered any time in the first five hours, then
a normal recovery will be possible if the 250 vdc batteries have
not failed.
2. If the 250 vdc batteries fail at four hours and the AC power
remains unavailable then the time between battery failure and
first uncovering of fuel will be at least three hours if the re
actor has been previously depressurized as recommended by this
report.
If the unit batteries were to last seven instead of four hours, there
would be a slight lengthening of the time interval from battery failure to
core uncovery due to the slightly lower decay heat. The most important
question to be answered regarding the extension of the estimated battery
failure time from four to seven hours is whether there is some other sys
tem failure caused by the increased temperatures and/or pressures during
this period that would complicate or make impossible a normal recovery if
AC power were restored.
To answer this question calculations similar to those shown in Figs.
7.1 through 7.9 of Sect. 7 were performed. These new calculations start
at an initial point four hours after station blackout and extend to seven
hours. The batteries are assumed to last throughout this period and oper
ator actions are the same as detailed in Sect. 7.3.1, Normal Recovery-
Assumptions.
Due to the elevated pool temperatures experienced during the period
from four to seven hours, it has been necessary to modify the calculation
of the fraction of relief valve (SRV) discharge that is quenched in the
suppression pool. When the pool temperature is within its normal opera
tional range, the SRV discharge is completely condensed (quenched) in the
cool water surrounding the submerged SRV discharge nozzle (T-quencher).
However, if the temperature of the water around the T-quencher is suffi
ciently close to saturation, then the condensation will be less than 100%
and some of the steam will reach the suppression pool atmosphere. Monti
cello tests58 showed that an approximately 28°C (50°F) difference be
tween bulk and local pool temperature can exist during extended discharge
through a single SRV. In this case, one would expect less than 100%
quenching to begin at a bulk pool temperature of about 74°C (165°F), cor
responding to 100°C (212°F) near the SRV discharge point (provided the
230
pool is at atmospheric pressure). For the purposes of the calculations
reported in this appendix, the following provisions were made for the cal
culation of quench fraction in the pool:
1. The temperature of the water surrounding the T-quencher during
SRV discharge is assumed to be 28°C (50°F) higher than the bulk
pool temperature.
2. If the vapor pressure of the water surrounding the T-quencher is
equal to or greater than the static pressure then 0% of the SRV
discharge is quenched; if the vapor pressure is 5.0 psi or more
below the static pressure then 100% of the discharge is
quenched. Variation of quench fraction is linear between these
two points.
This should provide a reasonable upper limit estimate of containment pres-
surization due to non-quenched SRV discharge. Consideration of this ef
fect was not necessary for the zero to five hour results reported in Sect.
7 because bulk pool temperature does not exceed 82°C (180°F) during the
first five hours of a Station Blackout.
Results of the four to seven hours after blackout calculations are
shown in Figs. G.1 through G.9. From these results it is concluded that
system parameters remain within acceptable ranges during this period:
1. The 250 vdc batteries by TVA estimate last the full seven hours.
2. Reactor vessel level is within the normal control range, about
5.08 m (200 in.) above the top of active fuel.
3. Reactor vessel pressure is being controlled by operator action
at about 0.69 MPa (100 psia).
4. At the seven-hour point, about 414 m3 (109,265 gal) of water
have been pumped from the condensate storage tank, which had an
assured capacity of 511 m3 (135,000 gal) before the blackout.
5. At the seven-hour point, average suppression pool temperature is
about 92°C (198.2°F), but this should not be a problem for the
T-quencher type of SRV discharge header piping.
6. Containment pressures would be elevated to about 0.23 MPa (33
psia), well below the 0.53 MPa (76.5 psia) design pressure.
7. Drywell atmosphere temperature is about equal to the 138°C
(281°F) design temperature.
These results show that if power were recovered within seven hours of
the Station Blackout a normal recovery would be possible.* The 92°C
(198°F) bulk pool temperature after seven hours may cause elevated air
temperature in the RCIC and HPCI spaces, but this would not be expected to
lead to failure of the HPCI or RCIC, because the lube oil of both units is
cooled by the water being pumped — in this case, water from the conden
sate storage tank which would not exceed 32°C (90°F). The periods of RCIC
operation are very infrequent after the first four hours of Station Black
out, with about an hour between actuations.
The supply of control air for remote-manual operation of the SRVs is
sufficient for the full seven hours. As discussed in Chap. 3 of this re
port, the accumulators provided for the six relief valves associated with
the ADS system are sized to permit five operations or a total of 30 actua
tions. As illustrated in Sect. 7 and this appendix, less than 30 actua
tions are required during the first seven hours of the Station Blackout.
*With the assumption of no independent secondary equipment failures.
a.
2
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ORNL-DWG 81-8593 ETD
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— 0
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co
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in
1
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REACTOR PRESSURE CONTROLLED BY OPERATOR BETWEEN 90 AND 11!
I
5 psia
co •£
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a
SRVSrHUT SRV OPENED SRV SHUT SRV OPENED
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i ^- 1 ^
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0-
t Tn
RCIC ON RCIC OFF RCIC ON RCIC OFF
1 1
240 270 300 330
TIME (min)
360 390
Fig. G.l Reactor vessel pressure - four to seven hours after
station blackout.
420
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ORNL-DWG 81-8594 ETD
i—RCIC TURBINE STEAM FLOW
•NO STEAM FLOW FROM REACTOR VESSEL
-1 SRV OPEN- 1 SRV OPEN-
O-l o-
-1-
300
I
330
TIME (min)
240 270 360 390
Fig. G.2 Vessel steam flow - four to seven hours after station
blackout.
420
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ORNL-DWG 81-8595 ETD
t—
> 2-
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TOP OF CONTROL ROOM INDICATION
-OVERSHOOT DUE TO HEATUP OF SUBCOOLED
WATER AFTER RCIC TURNED OFF
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BOTTOM OF CONTROL ROOM INDICATION
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to I
240 270
Fig. G.3
blackout.
OPERATOR CONTROLS LEVEL BY REMOTE-MANUAL
ACTUATION OF RCIC SYSTEM
TOP OF ACTIVE FUEL
300 330
TIME (min)
360 390
Vessel level - four to seven hours after station
420
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Fig. G.4
blackout.
ORNL-DWG 81-8596 ETD
330
TIME (min)
Injected flow - four to seven hours after station
420
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ORNL-DWG 81-8597 ETD
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00 100000 120(
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o-
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-RCIC OFF
D VOLUME (m3)
250 300 350
1 1•._!_
— RCIC OFF
a
TOTAL INJECTED VOLUME (
20000 40000 60000 800
i i 1
t
LRCIC ON
L- RCIC ON
TOTAL INJECTE
100 150 200
i i i
m
o-" o-
40 2 70 3 00 3
TIME
30
: (min)
360 390 42
Fig. G.5 Total injected flow (pumped by RCIC from condensate
storage tank) - four to seven hours after station blackout.
NJ
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On
E
"»•«•* -~*
o
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^
X
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a.
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ORNL-DWG 81-8598 ETD
-"""i
— c
ICIC TURBINE EXHAUST ONLY
'—RAPID INCREASE DUE TO QUENCHING OF
SRV DISCHARGE AND RCIC TURBINE
EXHAUST IF OPERATING
240 270 300 330
T.ME (min)
360 390 420
Fig. G.6 Suppression pool level - four to seven hours after
station blackout.
ro
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240
RAPID INCREASE DUE TO DIRECT
MIXING WITH UNQUENCHED
STEAM FROM SRV DISCHARGE
LESS THAN 100%, QUENCHING—J
OF SRV DISCHARGE BEGINS
270 300 330
TIME (min)
ORNL-DWG 81-8599 ETD
SUPPRESSION CHAMBER
ATMOSPHERE
CONDENSATION AND HEAT TRANSFER
FROM ATMOSPHERE ARE DOMINANT
WHEN SRV NOT DISCHARGING
360 390 420
Fig. G.7 Suppression chamber temperatures - four to seven hours
after station blackout.
ro
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o
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cc
< ~
rr
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a.
5
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ORNL-DWG 81-8600 ETD
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DRYWELL DESIGN TEMPERATURE
ft 1
jL_
o
Ol
H^
-TEMPORARY DECREASE DUE TO DECREASE IN
DRYWELL ATMOSPHERE TEMPERATURE — REACTOR COOLANT TEMPERATURE (CAUSED
INCREASES GRADUALLY TOWARD BY DECREASE IN REACTOR PRESSURE -
o
REACTOR COOLANT TEMPERATURE SEE FIG. G.1)
Ol
o
•-.
o
""^
240 270 300 330
TIME (min)
360 390
Fig. G.8 Drywell temperatures - four to seven hours after station
blackout.
420
ro
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(T CM.
§
x
CO
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cc
D
UJ ts.
tr -
Ol
H
Z
UJ
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o
Z °
o
"—DRYWELL
SUPPRESSION CHAMBER PRESSURE GOES
DOWN BECAUSE OF CONDENSATION
AND HEAT TRANSFER (SEE FIG. G.7)-
ORNL-DWG 81-8601 ETD
MORE RAPID PRESSURE BUILDUP BEGINS
WHEN LESS THAN 100% OF QUENCHING
OF SRV DISCHARGE BEGINS
240 270 300 330
TIME (min)
360 390 420
Fig. G.9 Containment pressures - four to seven hours after
station blackout.
rO
OJ
VO
1. W. J. Armento
2. T. E. Cole
3. W. A. Condon
4. D. H. Cook
5. W. B. Cottrell
6. W. G. Craddick
7. G. F. Flanagan
8. S. R. Greene
9. R. M. Harrington
10-14. S. A. Hodge
15. T. S. Kress
16. R. A. Lorenz
241
Internal Distribution
NUREG/CR-2182, Vol. I
ORNL/NUREG/TM-455/VI
Dist. Category RX, IS
17. A. L. Lotts
18. T. W. Robinson, Jr.
19. H. E. Trammell
20. B. J. Veazie
21. C. F. Weber
22. R. P. Wichner
23. D. D. Yue
24. Patent Office
25. Central Research Library
26. Document Reference Section
27-28. Laboratory Records Department
29. Laboratory Records (RC)
External Distribution
30-31. Director, Division of Accident Evaluation, Nuclear Regulatory
Commission, Washington, DC 20555
32-33. Chief, Severe Accident Assessment Branch, Nuclear Regulatory Com
mission, Washington, DC 20555
34. Director, Reactor Division, DOE, 0R0, Oak Ridge, TN 37830
35. Office of Assistant Manager for Energy Research and Development,
DOE, 0R0, Oak Ridge, TN 37830
36-40. Director, Reactor Safety Research Coordination Office, DOE,
Washington, DC 20555
41-42. D. B. Simpson, Tennessee Valley Authority, W10C126 C-K, 400 Com
merce Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902
43-44. Wang Lau, Tennessee Valley Authority, W10C126 C-K, 400 Commerce
Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902
45-46. R. F. Christie, Tennessee Valley Authority, W10C125 C-K, 400 Com
merce Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902
47-48. J. A. Raulston, Tennessee Valley Authority, W10C126 C-K, 400 Com
merce Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902
49-50. H. L. Jones, Tennessee Valley Authority, 253 HBB-K, 400 Commerce
Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37902
51-52. Technical Information Center, DOE, Oak Ridge, TN 37830
53-552. Given distribution as shown under categories RX, IS (NTIS-10)
*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1981-740-062/291

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