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AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function Topics

Reproduction, growth, & development Structural, physiological, and behavioral adaptations Response to the environment

Textbook Correlations
Concepts: 29.2-29.4, 30.1-30-3, 35.1-35.5, 38.1 Concepts: 35.1, 35.2, 36.1-36.5, 38.1-38.3, 39.1-39.5 Concepts: 37.1, 37.4, 39.1-39.5

Key Terms
1. lateral meristem 2. primary growth 3. apical meristem 4. internodes 5. auxins 6. gibberellins 7. gravitropisms 8. photoperiodism 9. ethylene 10.zone of maturation 11.phototropism 12.xylem 13.phloem 14.tracheids 15.vessel elements 16.roots 17.root hairs 18.sieve tube members 19.companion cells 20.monocots 21.abscisic acid 22.cotyledon 23.vascular cambium 24.cork cambium 25.thigmotropism 26.cytokinins

Recommended work: Chapter section and review questions

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


The plant kingdom includes thousands of species, which have established themselves in every possible habitat. With such a wide range of habitats, plants naturally taken on a dazzling variety of forms. There are over 260,000 different species of flowering plants alone. You need to be familiar with the general characteristics, life cycles, and classifications of plants. We have already covered some of these characteristics in the last unit. You should recall that plants: Are ____________________, eukaryotic organisms. Have a __________________ made of __________________ for support. Are _________________________, meaning that they convert light energy to

________________ energy by means of chloroplast located primarily in their leaves. Take up ________________ via capillary action.

Plant Classification (review)


Describe each of the following groups. Green algal ancestor

Nonvascular Hornworts Liverworts Mosses

Seedless, Vascular Whisk ferns Horsetails Ferns

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Seeds, Vascular Gymnosperms Angiosperms

Describe the differences between bryophytes and tracheophytes.

Vascular tissues Describe the function and draw and label xylem (cells) tissue.

Describe the function and draw and label phloem (cells) tissue.

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function Gymnosperms and Angiosperms: The Seeded Plants
Contrast gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Angiosperms can be further divided into two classes: monocots and dicots Complete the following chart for monocots vs dicots. Monocots Floral Parts Number of Cotyledons Vascular bundles Root system Leaf veins Dicots

Plant Growth How do plants grow?


Explain the function of meristematic tissue.

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Describe primary growth and the function of apical meristem.

Describe secondary growth and the function of lateral meristem, including vascular cambium and cork cambium.

Special Structures in Plants Draw and label, and describe, a root, include the root tip, the zone of cell division, the zone of elongation, and the zone of maturation..

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Draw and label a cross section of a dicot root, include the epidermis, cortex, stele, pericycle, and the pith.

Describe water movement in roots. Apoplast pathway

Symplast pathway

Stem structure Draw and label a cross section of a dicot and monocot stem, include phloem, xylem, pith, cambium, cortex, and cork

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Leaves Draw and label a cross section of a leaf, include palisade and spongy layers, guard cells, stomata, location of chloroplasts.

Describe how guard cells control the opening and closing of the stomata, make sure you include the movement of K+.

Water movement Describe the different factors that control the movement of water through a plant.

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function Plant Hormones


The growth and development of plants are controlled by substances known as hormones. There are five classes of plant hormones, which affect division, elongation, and cell differentiation.

Complete the following chart: Functions of Plant Hormones Hormone Function Location in Plant
Auxin

Cytokinins

Gibberellins

Abscisic acid

Ethylene

Plant Movements
Define tropism:

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Describe Phototropism.

Describe gravitropism.

Describe thigmotropism.

Describe photoperiodism, include phytochrome, Pr and Pfr, red light, far red light.

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Essay #1 Describe the following processes in the plant life cycle and why they are important for the plant to complete, listing all of the plant hormones involved and describing their function: (a) elongation of the plant shoot. (b) the process by which plants orient themselves with respect to the sun. (c) photoperiodism.

AP Biology Unit 9 Plant Structure and Function


Essay #2 Describe and discuss plant form in a terrestrial environment as it relates to the physiological function listed below. Include in your discussion evolutionary comparisons with aquatic plants. (a) reproduction (b) seed disperal (c) water balance (d) structural support