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Domain 1.0: Network Technologies
Domain 1.1: Common Networking Protocols
• • • • • • • • • • • • •
TCP - TCP breaks data into manageable packets and tracks information such as source and destination of packets. It is able to reroute packets and is responsible for guaranteed delivery of the data. IP - This is a connectionless protocol, which means that a session is not created before sending data. IP is responsible for addressing and routing of packets between computers. It does not guarantee delivery and does not give acknowledgement of packets that are lost or sent out of order as this is the responsibility of higher layer protocols such as TCP. UDP - A connectionless, datagram service that provides an unreliable, best-effort delivery. ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol enables systems on a TCP/IP network to share status and error information such as with the use of PING and TRACERT utilities. SMTP - Used to reliably send and receive mail over the Internet. FTP - File transfer protocol is used for transferring files between remote systems. Must resolve host name to IP address to establish communication. It is connection oriented (i.e. verifies that packets reach destination). TFTP - Same as FTP but not connection oriented. ARP - provides IP-address to MAC address resolution for IP packets. A MAC address is your computer's unique hardware number and appears in the form 00-A0-F1-27-64-E1 (for example). Each computer stores an ARP cache of other computers ARP-IP combinations. POP3 - Post Office Protocol. A POP3 mail server holds mail until the workstation is ready to receive it. IMAP - Like POP3, Internet Message Access Protocol is a standard protocol for accessing e-mail from your local server. IMAP (the latest version is IMAP4) is a client/server protocol in which email is received and held for you by your Internet server. TELNET - Provides a virtual terminal or remote login across the network that is connectionbased. The remote server must be running a Telnet service for clients to connect. HTTP - The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is the set of rules for exchanging files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. It is the protocol controlling the transfer and addressing of HTTP requests and responses. HTTPS - Signifies that a web page is using the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) protocol and is providing a secure connection. This is used for secure internet business transactions. NTP - Network Time Protocol is a protocol that is used to synchronize computer clock times in a network of computers. SNMP - Stands for Simple Network Management Protocol and is used for monitoring and status information on a network. SNMP can be used to monitor any device that is SNMP capable and this can include computers, printers, routers, servers, gateways and many more using agents on the target systems. The agents report information back to the management systems by the use of “traps” which capture snapshot data of the system. This trap information could be system errors, resource information, or other information. The SNMPv2 standard includes enhancements to the SNMPv1 SMI-specific data types, such as including bit strings, network addresses, and counters. In SNMPv3 security was addressed. Because all of the trap information sent was in clear text, any monitoring information being sent and collected for operational purposes could also be pulled off the wire by a malicious person SIP – Stands for Session Initiation Protocol and is a signaling protocol, widely used for controlling multimedia communication sessions such as voice and video calls over Internet Protocol (IP). Other feasible application examples include video conferencing, streaming multimedia distribution, instant messaging, presence information and online games. The protocol can be used for creating, modifying and terminating two-party (unicast) or multiparty (multicast) sessions consisting of one or several media streams. The modification can involve changing addresses or ports, inviting more participants, adding or deleting media streams, etc.
RTP – Real-time Transport Protocol is the audio and video protocol standard used to deliver content over the Internet. RTP is used in conjunction with other protocols such as H.323 and RTSP. IGMP – Internet Group Management Protocol is used to manage Internet Protocol multicast groups. IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers use IGMP to establish multicast group memberships. IGMP is only needed for IPv4 networks, as multicast is handled differently in IPv6 networks. TLS - Transport Layer Security is a cryptographic protocol that provides security for communications over networks such as the Internet. TLS and SSL encrypt the segments of network connections at the Transport Layer end-to-end. Several versions of the protocols are in wide-spread use in applications like web browsing, electronic mail, Internet faxing, instant messaging and voice-over-IP (VoIP).
Domain 1.2: Identify Commonly Used TCP/UDP Ports
Ports are what an application uses when communicating between a client and server computer. Some common ports are: Protocol FTP SSH TELNET SMTP DNS DHCP TFTP HTTP POP3 NTP IMAP4 SNMP HTTPS Type TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP/UDP UDP UDP TCP TCP TCP TCP UDP TCP Number 20,21 22 23 25 53 67 69 80 110 123 143 161 443
Domain 1.3: Identify the Following Address Formats
IPv4 - Every IP address can be broken down into 2 parts, the Network ID(netid) and the Host ID(hostid). All hosts on the same network must have the same netid. Each of these hosts must have a hostid that is unique in relation to the netid. IP addresses are divided into 4 octets with each having a maximum value of 255. We view IPv4 addresses in decimal notation such as 22.214.171.124, but it is actually utilized as binary data. IP addresses are divided into 3 classes as shown below: Class A B C Range 1-126 <128-191 192-223
NOTE: 127.x.x.x is reserved for loopback testing on the local system and is not used on live systems.
The following address ranges are reserved for private networks: 10.0.0.0 - 10.254.254.254 172.16.0.0 - 172.31.254.254 192.168.0.0 - 192.168.254.254 IPv6 - The previous information on TCP/IP has referred to IPv4, however, this addressing scheme has run out of available IP addresses due to the large influx of internet users and expanding networks. As a result, the powers that be had to create a new addressing scheme to deal with this situation and developed IPv6. This new addressing scheme utilizes a 128 bit address (instead of 32) and utilizes a hex numbering method in order to avoid long addresses such as 126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11. The hex address format will appear in the form of 3FFE:B00:800:2::C for example. MAC Addressing - Also known as hardware address or ethernet address, A MAC address is a unique code assigned to most networking hardware. The hardware is assigned a unique number by the manufacturer and the address is permanently assigned to the device. MAC Addresses are in a 48-bit hexidecimal format such as 00:2f:21:c1:11:0a. They are used to uniquely identify a device on a network, and for other functions such as for being authenticated by a DHCP server. For more information, read MAC Addressing Formats And Broadcasts.
Domain 1.4: Proper Use of Addressing Technologies
Subnetting - IP addresses can be class A, B or C. Class A addresses are for networks with a large number of hosts. The first octet is the netid and the 3 remaining octets are the hostid. Class B addresses are used in medium to large networks with the first 2 octets making up the netid and the remaining 2 are the hostid. Class C is for smaller networks with the first 3 octets making up the netid and the last octet comprising the hostid. The Network ID and the Host ID are determined by a subnet mask. The default subnet masks are as follows: Hosts Per Subnet 16,777,214 65,534 254
Class Class A Class B Class C
Default SubnetSubnets 255.0.0.0 255.255.0.0 255.255.255.0 126 16,384 2,097,152
What if you wanted more than 1 subnet? Subnetting allows you to create multiple logical networks that exist within a single Class A, B, or C network. If you don't subnet, you will only be able to use one network from your Class A, B, or C network. When subnetting is employed, the multiple networks are connected with a router which enables data to find its way between networks. On the client side, a default gateway is assigned in the TCP/IP properties. The default gateway tells the client the IP address of the router that will allow their computer to communicate with clients on other networks. Classful versus Classless addressing – the original TCP/IP addressing method described above was called classful addressing which worked by dividing the IP address space into chunks of different sizes called classes. Classless addressing is referred to as Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) and is done by allocating address space to Internet service providers and end users on any address bit boundary, instead of on 8-bit segments. So 172.16.50.0 does not have to use the standard subnet mask of 255.255.0.0 which makes a Class B address space and which also puts it on the same network as 172.16.51.0 using the subnet mask of 255.255.0.0. (With classful addressing, our example has 172.16 as the network name and the 50.0 and 51.0 ranges are both part of the same host naming convention). Instead, by using classless addressing 172.16.50.0/24 puts these systems on a different network than 172.16.51.0/24 because the network names here are 172.16.50 and 172.16.51 which are different. NAT - NAT stands for Network Address Translation and is a commonly used IP translation and mapping technology. Using a device (such as a router) or piece of software that implements NAT allows an entire home or office network to share a single internet connection over a single IP address. A single cable modem, DSL modem, or even 56k modem could connect all the computers to the internet simultaneously. Additionally, NAT keeps your home network fairly secure from hackers. NAT is built in to the most common Internet Connection Sharing technologies.
255 and the traffic would reach all available nodes on the subnet.255.1 through 169. a client system may make the request for streaming content from the single source and the responding system may leverage unicast as part of the response to the session request to deliver the content.168.254. the single source address may need to send the data to multiple clients. • Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) – is a dynamic routing protocol and is used on Internet Protocol (IP) based networks of all sizes – large to small. SNAT is done through one to one IP address translation of one internal IP address to one external IP address where NAT is effectively one external address to many internal IP addresses. When the DHCP server is unavailable the service on the client will automatically configure the system with an APIPA IP address in the 169. The network node that is sending the traffic will use the broadcast address for that subnet and every device in that broadcast domain will receive the broadcast information. Broadcast – traffic sent out from a network node that will reach every other node on the subnet / broadcast domain because the message is sent with the intent of reaching all nodes.0. Prevents incorrect gateway or subnet masks from being entered. The server will then issue a "lease" and assign it to that client. DHCP . If it is not the client does not receive the data. Generally the broadcast address is the last IP address of that segment. As an example. Domain 1. Decreases amount of time spent configuring computers especially in environments where computers get moved around all the time.255 could be used which is the broadcast address of the zero network (0.168.0 this broadcast address would be 192. it does this by sending the data with multiple destination IP addresses.254 address range with a subnet mask of 255. where every routing node constructs a map of the connectivity to the network by showing which nodes are connected to each other. This type of network transmission is used where a private or unique resource such as media servers are being requested for two way connections that are needed to complete the network communication.0.PAT – Port Address Translation is a feature of a network device that translates TCP or UDP communications made between hosts on a private network and hosts on a public network.255.255. Multicast – a single source address responding to multiple destination addresses with information to be sent. in the IP address range of 192. Some of the benefits of DHCP include the following: • • • Prevents users from making up their own IP addresses. Internet Protocol standards outline that the zero network stands for the local network so only those node on the local network would hear the broadcast traffic across the 255. It will send out a broadcast to the DHCP server requesting an address. Additionally 255. OSPF is an interior gateway protocol . When a client is configured to receive an IP address automatically.255. All the clients that “see” this network traffic will check to see if it is meant for them with the supplied information.5: Common IPv4 and IPv6 Routing Protocols Link State routing protocols – are one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet switching networks and includes protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS).0. So in the media server example.255. Each router calculates the next best logical hop from it to every possible known destination which forms the node's routing table. Unicast .Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol provides a solution that automatically assigns IP addresses to computers on a network.0. In a media server example.0).the sending of information packets to a single network node. If a network node does see that the data is intended for them the device will respond by receiving the packet.255.255 address.0. It allows a single public IP address to be used by many hosts on a private network. The link-state protocol is performed on every router on the network. SNAT – Secure Network Address Translation an extension of the standard Network Address Translation (NAT) service. Client systems that are configured for automatic IP address assignment / dynamic IP assignment will attempt to use DHCP to make a request for an IP address lease for a given network.0.255. APIPA – Stands for Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing.254.
due to the need of the manual administration.• (IGP) that routes IP packets within a single routing domain and was designed to support variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) and Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) addressing. the Neighbor Table which stores the information about neighboring routers. • • • • Routing Information Protocol (RIPv1) – RIP is a distance-vector routing protocol using “hop count” as a routing metric. The 30 second proactive broadcast has been eliminated in favor of multicast advertisements for its updates. Static routers are not fault tolerant because when another network device goes down the manually input information may not necessarily provide alternate pathing to a destination which makes it unreachable (unless quick. Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) and Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP). Static Router Updates – a router with manually configured routing tables. Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) – a proprietary hybrid protocol from Cisco that is a distance vector routing protocol that functions like a link state routing protocol. manual administrative updates are made.6: The Purpose and Properties of Routing Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) – routing protocol that is used within an autonomous system which is sometimes referred to as an administrative domain. Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocols for IP and RIP for IPX are some of examples of . Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) – is the core routing protocol of the Internet. IS-IS is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) typically used on larger networks. It maintains a table of IP networks and the data that designates where and how to reach each network through autonomous systems (AS). they do not scale well to large networks where routing information is often changed. Another type are the Linkstate routing protocols such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS) Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP) – routing protocol that is used across different autonomous systems / administrative domains. Routers using the distance-vector routing protocol will update other routers of topology changes periodically when a change is detected in the topology of a network. The maximum number of hops allowed for RIP is 15 which effectively limits the size of networks that RIP can support. Routing Information Protocol (RIPv2) – improved upon RIPv1 by having the ability to include subnet information with its updates which allows for Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) support. updated and appended. EIGRP collects information and stores it in three tables. Distance-vector routing protocols – are one of the two main classes of routing protocols used in packet switching networks and includes Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP). Domain 1. Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) – a link state protocol that operates by forwarding network topology information throughout a network of routers. network policies and / or rule sets. This change is then disseminated to other routers so that all the routers “learn” of the network changes. Dynamic routing is fault tolerant. It was the routing protocol leveraged for Internet connected devices in the early 1980s. a network administrator will manually build and make updates to the routing table for all routes in the administrative domain. uses distance as one factor and the vector as the other to determine against the known routing tables to deliver data to source and destination locations. if a router or link goes down. the routers sense the change in the network topology when the “learned route” expires in the routing table and cannot be renewed due to the outage. Static routers are best suited for small internetworks. the Topology Table which contains only the information and data regarding the routing tables from directly connected neighbors and the Routing table which stores the actual routes to all destinations. Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is the replacement standard for Internet routing over EGP. The 15 hop count limit remains so that the devices are backwards compatible with RIPv1 devices.) Dynamic Router Updates – A router with dynamically configured routing tables. For these types of devices. BGP makes routing decisions based on path. This type of automatic configuration is made up of routing tables that are built and maintained by ongoing communication between the routers only (by default – this does not include initial setup and configuration or administrative needs for a persistent route configuration). One type of Interior Gateway Protocol are the Distance-vector routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP). Each router then independently builds a picture of the network's topology based on the data received and the best topological path through the network to the destination.
Network Route.11 standards. and wireless networks. and Accounting (AAA) management for computers to connect and use a network service. Routing Tables – sometimes referred to as a Routing Information Base (RIB). Convergence – achieved when all of the available topology information from routing devices have been passed along to all of the other deceives in totality and all when the information gathered is not in a contradiction state to any other router's informed topology information. Authorization. Microsoft's answer to corporate wireless security is the use of RADIUS authentication through its Internet Authentication Services (IAS) product. WPA . Domain 1.11b 802. and an Access Point (AP).Temporal Key Integrity Protocol was designed as a solution to replace WEP without requiring the replacement of legacy hardware. The routing table holds the route information regarding the topology of the network immediately around the device to other network destinations and it will often include the metric / cost associated for the route.11g 802. but was later replaced by WPA2 which uses a more secure AES-based algorithm. When all of the network routing devices "agree" on what the network topology looks like it is said to have full convergence.11 wireless network adapter can operate in two modes. It is susceptible to brute force attacks when a weak passphrase is used. Host Route and the Default Route. it has been replaced by other technologies. For this reason.4 GHz 5 GHz and/or 2. A connection is made from a device. RADIUS is often used by ISPs and enterprises to manage access to the Internet or internal networks. which acts as a bridge between the wireless stations and Distribution System (DS) or wired networks. which is usually a PC or a Laptop with a wireless network interface card (NIC).7: Characteristics of Wireless Standards Wireless networks allow computers to comunicate without the use of cables using IEEE 802. .The original WPA standard used TKIP. The table below shows the various standards. In most cases. Next Hop – defined as the next place that a data packet needs to go.protocols that can be used for these dynamic updates. In Ad-hoc mode your computers talk directly to each other and do not need an access point.Remote Authentication Dial In User Service (RADIUS) is a networking protocol that provides centralized Authentication. Standard 802.4 GHz • • • • WEP . The Network Route is route to a specific Network ID on the network. all your traffic passes through a wireless ‘access point’. An 802. TKIP suffered from similar flaws as WEP and has been replaced by more secure encryption schemes. WPA uses a 256 bit key to encrypt data. is the database information that stores all the rout information for the routing network devices. The Host Route is a route to a specific network address. TKIP . routers do not need all of the information regarding where the originating source of the data transmission was. also known as Wi-Fi. Ad-Hoc and Infrastructure. In infrastructure mode. This key may be entered either as a string of 64 hexadecimal digits. There are three main route entries that are generally found in the routing tables .4 GHz 2. If that router is the last hop and can deliver it to the specified IP address it does otherwise it refers to its routing tables to figure out which router to hand it off to in the effort to get the data packet where it needs to go. or as a passphrase of 8 to 63 characters.11a 802.11n Authentication and Encryption: Speed 54 mbps 11 mbps 54 mbps 540 mbps Distance 100 ft 300 ft 300 ft 600 ft Frequency 5 GHz 2. In most cases routers just need to know where there data needs to go next and the “next” referred to as the “next hop” because all they are trying to do is deliver it to the specified destination IP address that is included in the header information of the data being sent. RADIUS . A Default route is the path used if a physical router or other network routing device cannot find a route for the specified destination.Wired Equivalent Privacy is a security encryption algorithm that is easily cracked.
Domain 2. although shielding cables may reduce electrical noise radiated by the cable. Improved distance over previous categories from 100m to 350m. Plenum grade cabling is resistant to fire and does not emit poisonous gasses when burned.Full duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction simultaneously. and television monitors can be sources of electromagnetic interference. air conditioning units. CAT5e CAT6 Multimode Fiber Single Mode fibers have a small glass core. A rotating ring outside the tube locks the cable to the female connector. a four or six-wire connector used . Cables are often unshielded.Electrical devices such as printers. May be used for 10Base-T. and 100Base-T2 Ethernet. Can transmit data up to 220m at gigabit speeds. It has improved specifications for NEXT (Near End Cross Talk). Unshielded twisted pair capable of speeds up to 100Mbit/s. A serial cable is a cable that can be used to transfer information between two devices using serial communication. Full Duplex . but exceeds its performance.2: Common Connector Types BNC . Standard UTP cable has minimal resistance to EMI. EMI . Single Mode fibers are used for high speed data Single Mode transmission over long distances. Half Duplex . May be used with 10Base-T. They are able to carry more data than single mode fibers though they are best for shorter distances because of their higher attenuation levels. while fiber optic cable is highly resistant. Enhanced Cat 5 is similar to CAT5.Short for Registered Jack-11. or EMI. 100BaseTX and 1000Base-T Ethernet.This connector has found uses with both broadcast television equipment and computer networks. Multimode fibers have large cores.Signals can be passed in one direction only. With regards to networking. They are less susceptible to attenuation than multimode Fiber fibers. 100Base-T4. Used with 10Base-T. Used with 10Base-T.Half duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction. 100Base-T4. It has a center pin connected to the center coaxial cable conductor and a metal tube connected to the outer cable shield. this connector was used on early 10Base-2 (Thinnet) Ethernet networks. often using the RS-232 standard. Plenum grade cabling . and Attenuation. RG59 and RG6 These are both shielded coaxial cables used for broadband networking. cable television.0: Network Media and Topologies Domain 2. but not in both simultaneously. 100Base-T2. Domain 2. Cross talk is signal overflow from an adjacent wire. Cat 6 is backward compatible with lower Category grades and supports the same Ethernet standards as Cat 5e.is required if the cabling will be run between the ceiling and the next floor (this is called the plenum). Not widely used. and other uses.1: Standard Cable Types and Their Properties Cable Types: Type CAT3 CAT4 CAT5 Description Unshielded twisted pair capable of speeds up to 10Mbit/s. 100BaseT2. 100Base-T4. and 100Base-TX Ethernet. Typically use D-subminiature connectors with 9 or 25 pins. Some types of network media have more resistance to EMI than others. Simplex . Serial Shielded twisted pair (STP) . and 100Base-T2 Ethernet. Unshielded twisted pair capable of speeds up to 20Mbit/s.differs from UTP in that it has a foil jacket that helps prevent cross talk. 100Base-T4. RJ-11 . PSELFEXT (Power Sum Equal Level Far End Cross Talk).
The disadvantage is that the hub is a single point of failure. SC . Like SC connectors. Advantages are centralized monitoring.The LC connector is just like a SC connector only it is half the size. However if any part of the ring goes down. Packets must pass through all computers on the bus. Many of these uses are being replaced with USB enabled devices.The ST connector is a fiber optic connector which uses a plug and socket which is locked in place with a half-twist bayonet lock. A full mesh provides redundancy in case of a failure between links. Any station can send a packet around the ring but only the station with the token can do so. ST Connectors are half-duplex. The token is passed around the ring giving all stations an opportunity to communicate.Short for Registered Jack-45.A standard for serial binary data interconnection between a DTE (Data terminal equipment) and a DCE (Data communication equipment). the entire LAN goes down. LC connectors are half-duplex. This type is cheap. and problems are difficult to troubleshoot. or Pt2Pt.This topology generally refers to a connection restricted to two endpoints.This topology is an old one and essentially has each of the computers on the network daisy-chained to each other. Point-to-point is sometimes referred to as P2P (not the same as peer-to-peer file sharing networks). a failure may affect many users. Bus .A ring topology has a physical and logical ring and is used on SONET and FDDI networks (note that Token Ring networks are actually a hybrid star ring topology). or variations of this. RS-232 .In a true mesh topology every node has a connection to every other node in the network. and failures do not affect others unless it is the hub.The star topology uses twisted pair (10baseT or 100baseT) cabling and requires that all devices are connected to a hub. Ring . RJ-45 connectors look similar to RJ-11 connectors used for connecting telephone equipment. If there is a problem at a station. it is an eight-wire connector used commonly to connect devices on Ethernet LANs. and laboratory instruments are designed to interface to a computer using a standard RS232 serial cable connection. . Domain 2. but is impractical due the complexity and the expensive amount of cabling required. Ring networks are not very common. but causes excess network traffic. ST . RJ-45 .primarily to connect telephone equipment in the United States (POTS). Point-to-point . The connector is a DB-9 or DB-25 connector.3: Common Physical Network Topologies Star . it may be difficult to locate it. SC Connectors are half-duplex. LC . If it goes down. The cable itself is called category 1 (Cat 1) and is used for dial-up connections.Commonlyfound in use with bar code scanners. and simple to set up. measuring tools. This is a very fast and simple network. but they are larger. there are no communications possible. Mesh .The SC connector is a fiber optic connector with a push-pull latching mechanism which provides quick insertion and removal while also ensuring a positive connection. Modems have rj-11 jacks that connect them to the wall outlet. Examples of this topology include RS-232 serial connections as well as laser network connections between buildings. The ST connector was the first standard for fiber optic cabling. easy to modify.
Point-to-Multipoint . imaging. since its able to transmit and receive communications.Hybrid topologies are combinations of the above and are common on very large networks. ATM . video. a star bus network has hubs connected in a row (like a bus network) and has computers connected to each hub as in the star topology. A T-1 line actually consists of 24 individual channels.SONET and SDH are a set of related standards for synchronous data transmission over fiber optic networks.Frame relay is a secure. as if the wire had been rolled over and you were viewing it from the other side. each of which supports 64Kbits per second.A straight through cable uses either the 568A or 568B wiring standard and is used for connecting devices to routers. Rollover . graphics.84 Mbps and a set of multiples of the base rate known as "Optical Carrier levels. D (data) . etc.Transfers data at 64Kbps. SONET is the United States version of the standard and SDH is the international version. The only difference between the two standards is that the green and orange pins are terminated to different pins. T-1 lines are a popular leased line option for businesses connecting to the Internet and for Internet Service Providers (ISPs) connecting to the Internet backbone. hubs. Frame relay is the premier high-speed packetswitching protocol communicating data.The number 568 refers to the order in which the individual wires inside a CAT 5 cable are terminated. ISDN involves the digitalization of the telephone network.5: WAN Technology Types and Properties Frame Relay . known as fractional T-1 access. which permits voice.54 Mbps). ATM can transmit voice. ISDN . T-1 comes in either copper or fiber optics. music.e. An crossover cable is used to connect computing devices together directly (i. Frame relay is available in a range of bandwidths from 56 Kbps to full T1 (1. Speeds approaching 40 gigabits per second are possible.544Mbps. and voice between multiple locations. Domain 2. This cable is typically flat and has a light blue color.4: Wiring Standards 568A and 568B . and data over a variablespeed LAN and WAN connections at speeds ranging from 1. This effectively gives the NIC the impression that it is communicating on a network. video. It gets the name rollover because the pinouts on one end are reversed from the other. data. There is no difference in signal and both the 568A and 568B are used as patch cords for Ethernet connections. Each 64Kbit/second channel can be configured to carry voice or data traffic. video. A crossover cable uses the 568A standard on one end and 568B on the other end.544Mbps to as high as 622Mbps.Rollover cable (also known as Cisco console cable) is a type of null-modem cable that is most commonly used to connect a computer terminal to a router's console port. SONET is short for Synchronous Optical NETwork and SDH is an acronym for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Domain 2. The most common example of this is the use of a wireless access point that provides a connection to multiple devices. An ISDN usually contains 2 B channels for a total of 128kbps. For example. Most telephone companies allow you to buy just some of these individual channels. and other source materials to be transmitted over existing telephone wires. SONET .A T-1 is a dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of 1. connecting 2 computers directly together).Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) is comprised of digital telephony and datatransport services offered by regional telephone carriers. Loopback . switches." (OCx). text.Handles signalling at either 16Kbps or 64Kbps(sometimes limited to 56Kbps) which enables the B channel to strictly pass data . The Internet backbone itself consists of faster T-3 connections. SONET defines a base rate of 51. T-1/T-3 . this is a method of communication between a series of receivers and transmitters to a central location. packet-switching technique that uses short fixed length packets called cells.ATM stands for Asynchronous Transfer Mode and is a high-speed. private network that utilizes a logical path or “virtual circuit” to allocate bandwidth for high performance transmissions.A loopback cable redirects the output back into itself and is used for troubleshooting purposes (loopback test).Also known as P2MP. There are 2 types of ISDN channels: • • B (bearer) . image and data. Straight through vs Crossover . Hybrid . ATM is capable of supporting a wide range of traffic types such as voice.
however. Once all the packets forming a message arrive at the destination. Specified in a standard.544 Mbps Medium Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Twisted pair Twisted-pair Varies Twisted-pair. normal telephone service is based on a circuit-switching technology.544kbps Up to 56 Kbps 64kbps/channel 56kbps-45mbps 1. This is the case with most real-time data. coaxial.544mbps 100mbps 512 Kbps to 52 Mbps 1gbps (avg 15mbps) 44. or optical fiber 256Kbps to 24Mbps Twisted-pair (ADSL 2+) 1.3.736 Mbps 51. The most common types currently use twisted pair cabling. Circuit-switching is ideal when data must be transmitted quickly and must arrive in the same order in which it is sent.Ethernet is the most widely-installed local area network ( LAN) technology. IEEE 802. including TCP/IP and Frame Relay are based on packet-switching technologies.Connection ISDN BRI ISDN PRI POTS PSTN Frame Relay T-1 ADSL SDSL VDSL Cable modem Satellite T-3 OC-1 OC-3 Wireless ATM SONET Speed 64kbps/channel 1. Ethernet was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox.Packet switching refers to protocols in which messages are divided into packets before they are sent. such as e-mail messages and Web pages. such as live audio and video. DEC.6: LAN Technology Types and Properties Ethernet . Packet switching is more efficient and robust for data that can withstand some delays in transmission. they are recompiled into the original message. fiber optic cabling is becoming much more common as standards and speeds increase. Most modern Wide Area Network (WAN) protocols. or optical fiber Optical fiber Optical fiber Air Optical fiber Optical fiber Packet and Circuit Switching . Early ethernet networks uses coaxial connections.84 Mbps 155. Each packet is then transmitted individually and can even follow different routes to its destination. Domain 2.52 Mbps 1gbps 10gbps 10gbps Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Coaxial Air Twisted-pair. In contrast. and Intel. Below are some of the ethernet standards: Maximum Length 100 meters (328 ft) Connection Type 10Base-T Cable Type Connector Speed 10 mbps Category 3 or better RJ-45 UTP cable . in which a dedicated line is allocated for transmission between two parties. coaxial.
How Ethernet CSMA/CD Works Bonding (AKA Link Aggregation. This standard is Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. etc.Uses multiple network cables/ports in parallel to increase the link speed beyond the limits of any one single cable or port. If a collision is detected.A peer to peer network is one in which lacks a dedicated server and every computer acts as both a client and a server. This jam signal indicates to all other devices on the Ethernet segment that there has been a collision. Domain 2.) . More importantly the wrong people may have access to the . A peer to peer network can be a security nightmare. SC RJ-45 SC SC 100 meters (328 ft) 100 mbps 2000 meters 100 mbps 100 meters (328 ft) Up to 5000 meters Up to 550 meters 25 meters 1 gbps 1 gbps 1 gbps 1000Base-CX 9-Pin shielded D-subminiature Twinax or short haul connector. SC fiber Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber LC. SC 1 gbps 10GBASE-SR 300 meters 10 Gbps 10GBASE-LR 2000 meters 10 Gbps 10GBASE-ER Laser over either single or multi-mode LC. a collision would occur. and to increase the redundancy for higher availability. SC 40 kilometers 10 Gbps 10GBASE-SW 300 meters 10 Gbps 10GBASE-LW 2000 meters 10 Gbps 10GBASE-EW Laser over either single or multi-mode LC.7: Common Logical Network Topologies Peer to Peer . and they should not send data onto the wire. because the people setting permissions for shared resources will be users rather than administrators and the right people may not have access to the right resources. SC optics Laser over singlemode fiber optics LC. SC fiber Cat 5e (or higher) twisted pair RJ-45 40 kilometers 10 Gbps 100 meters (328 ft) 10GBASE-T 10 Gbps CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection) . Shortwave laser over multi-mode fiber LC. both of the senders will send a jam signal over the Ethernet. EtherChannel. referred to as CSMA/CD. Port Trunking. This is a good networking solution when there are 10 or less users that are in close proximity to each other. A standard had to be created that would have the hosts follow rules relating to when they could send data and when they could not.In the early days of ethernet. when two hosts would send packets at the same time. CSMA/CD forces computers to “listen” to the wire before sending in order to make sure that no other host on the wire is sending.100Base-TX 100Base-FX 1000Base-T 1000Base-LX 1000Base-SX Cat 5 twisted pair Fiber Optic CAT5e or higher Laser over fiber Short wavelength laser over fiber RJ-45 ST. SC optics Laser over singlemode fiber optics LC. or 8-pin ANSI fiber copper channel type 2 (HSSC) connector.
VPN . One example of this is where all of the phone cabling inside a facility is run to planned phone locations (e. Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF) – is another place much like a Horizontal Cross Connect location or a Vertical Cross Connect location where network administrators can physically change the network media around and where they can house other needed network equipment such as routers. This type of network also allows for convenient backup services. Client/Server .This type of network is designed to support a large number of users and uses dedicated server/s to accomplish this. 110 Block – is the more modern replacement of the legacy 66 Block and is used as a wiring distribution . They have a 25-pair standard non-split capacity and generally are unsuited for traffic and data network communications above 10 megabits per second (Mbps). It is best suited for telephone / voice cable runs rather than data cable runs and is generally used as a feeder cable. As with Vertical Cross Connect configurations. a VPN uses "virtual" connections routed through the Internet from the company's private network to the remote site or employee. The main Patch Panel room will often be the connection point for the LAN to be connected to the WAN and / or the internet.A virtual LAN is a local area network with a definition that maps workstations on a basis other than geographic location (for example. When the local telephone company makes the external connections then all circuits are completed.8: Install components of Wiring Distribution Vertical Cross Connect – is a location within a building where cables originate and / or are terminated. P2P file sharing networks work under a similar architecture. copper based. These cables could be of multiple different types and mediums such as phone networks. type of user.A virtual private network is one that uses a public network (usually the Internet) to connect remote sites or users together. repeaters and so forth. or primary application). Security and permissions can be managed by 1 or more administrators which who set permissions to the servers' resources. Instead of using a dedicated. these locations can be of multiple different network types and mediums.g. Network management software keeps track of relating the virtual picture of the local area network with the actual physical picture. etc. data lines. Domain 2. 25 Pair – is a grouping of 25 pairs of wires all inside a single covering / housing or outer insulation casing. offices) back to the MDF. thus.wrong resources. by department. Patch Panel – wall or rack mounted collection of data connections where all of the network media converges. reduces network traffic and provides a host of other services that come with the network operating system. reconnected using jumpers or pass throughs or are connected to patch panels or other similar devices where the locations are from upper or lower floors in the building. this is only recommended in situations where security is not an issue. however. These rooms are generally some form of telecommunications closet in a facility and it is used to connect all of the different types of incoming and outgoing media types on the LAN. these are within a building where cables originate and / or are terminated but these locations are all on the same floor or building level. When they all span the same floor of a building they are sometimes referred to as Horizontal Cross Connect locations and when they span different levels of a location / different floors of a building they are sometimes referred to as Vertical Cross Connect locations. VLAN . fiber channel. there are differences between them and the LAN networking architecture. Clients log in to the server/s in order to run applications or obtain files. It is best suited for telephone / voice cable runs rather than data cable runs and is generally used as a feeder cable. switches. all of the 100 pairs of wires are inside a single covering / housing or outer insulation casing. 66 Block – is a legacy type of punch down block used to connect sets of 22 through 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG) solid copper wire in a telephone system. Horizontal Cross Connect – similar to Vertical Cross Connect locations. Main Distribution Frame (MDF) – is a wire distribution frame for connecting equipment inside a facility to cables and subscriber carrier equipment outside of the facility. real-world connection such as leased line. 100 Pair – is a larger cabling segment to its 25 pair cousin but used in the same manner. The virtual LAN controller can change or add workstations and manage load-balancing and bandwidth allocation more easily than with a physical picture of the LAN.
Attentuation is the degradation of a signal as it travels farther from its origination. This has historically been the copper wire runs associated with phone lines to the RJ-11 jacks / blocks to the data lines on the RJ-45 connections. or other network devices. External modems are connected to the back of the system board via a RS-232 serial connection.A physical layer device that boosts signals in order to allow a signal to travel farther and prevent attenuation. Repeaters can connect different cable types as shown in the image.A physical layer network device used to connect multiple Ethernet devices together. Repeater: . which means that you can't connect a token ring segment to an Ethernet segment.Signals can be passed in one direction only. . On one side of the block wires are punched down into RJ-11 connectors for voice and RJ-45 connectors for data communications.Half duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction. The building administration owns all the cabling responsibility between the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) on the ground floor and your Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF) on your floor. Wire termination is also a consideration on fiber optic pulls as well which requires a higher set of skill level. Wiring Installation – is the physical installation of internal wiring in a facility. Your responsibility probably ends at the Intermediate Distribution Frame (IDF) on your floor and the external administration (example – Phone Company) ends at the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) on the ground floor. Internal modems are installed in one of the motherboard's PCI or ISA expansion slots depending on the modem. Half Duplex . Demarc Extension – where the end of the line of the external administrative control is extended beyond that actual endpoint. Demarc – is the point of operational and administrative control change in a network.1: Common Network Devices Hub .point for wired telephone systems (voice) and other types of wired networking (data).The modem is a device that converts digital information to analog by MODulating it on the sending end and DEModulating the analog information into digital information at the receiving end. but not in both simultaneously. This is where the wire distribution frame for connecting equipment inside a facility to cables and subscriber carrier equipment outside of the facility occurs and this is considered a demarcation point of the operational control of the internal systems where it changes over to the control of the external presence. Domain 3. Wiring Termination – is the end point of networked cable runs that will generally end either in a patch panel or a jack location in an office. while passive hubs simply pass the signal through. however. Modems have different transmission modes as follows: • • Simplex . they can be internal or external. Example – you are one business inside of a large high rise building on the 15th floor only and the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) point is on the ground floor. The device handles all of the code and protocol differences between the two networks and is often the actual demarcation point between the two service entities. Most modern modems are internal. Modem . The modem contains an RJ-11 connection that is used to plug in the telephone line. Repeaters do not filter packets and will forward broadcasts. One example of this is the Main Distribution Frame (MDF) point in a facility. That cabling is effectively the Demarc Extension Smart Jack – is a network connection device that is used to connect your internal network to an external service provider network. Both segments must use the same access method. This may be the pulls of copper phone and data lines to the running of fiber optic medium from the different cross connect locations. Half-duplex modems can work in full-duplex mode. Most hubs have an uplink port that allows them to connect to other hubs. Active hubs act as a repeater and boost the signal in order to allow for it to travel farther. a router.0: Network Devices Domain 3.
This reduces competition for bandwidth between devices on the network. is an expansion board you insert into a computer so the computer can be connected to a network. Media Converters .34 at 28.Bridging address tables are stored on each PC on the network Spanning Tree . as well as multiple cabling types such as coax.Functioning at the network later of the OSI model. Firewall . If the bridge can't find the source address it will packets to all segments. Bridges create routing tables the source address. and are important in interconnecting fiber optic cabling-based systems with existing copper-based. and can relay data between the wireless devices (such as computers or printers) and wired devices on the network. etc. Most NICs are designed for a particular type of network. Modems can also be classified by their speed which is measured by the BAUD rate. Router . One baud is one electronic state change per second.A switch is a network device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments and ensures that data goes straight from its origin to its proper destination.Only one bridge is used.Functions the same as a repeater. see domain 1.8 kbps. Network Interface Card . Bridging methods: network in network based on forward the • • • Transparent . A bridge can also connect unlike segments (ie. . twisted pair. Bridge . Gigabit Ethernet. Source-Route . Routers can connect networks that use disimilar protocols. the Bits Per Second(BPS) unit of measurement has replaced it as a better expression of data transmission speed.6 kbps and V. multi-mode and single-mode fiber optics. A switch only operates with the computers on the same LAN. but stop unwanted traffic from the outside world from entering the internal network.90 at 56 Kbps.A Wireless Access Point is a radio frequency transceiver which allows your wireless devices to connect to a network. or across a WAN. T1/E1/J1. Routers create or maintain a table of the available routes and can be configured to use various routing protocols to determine the best route for a given data packet. and anticipate where data needs to go. but can also divide a order to reduce traffic problems.Prevents looping where there exists more than one path between segments Wireless Access Point . The range of the wireless signal depends greatly on obstructions such as walls.Either a hardware or software entity (or a combination of both) that protects a network by stopping network traffic from passing through it.• Full Duplex . token ring and ethernet).7. In most cases. often abbreviated as NIC. but it can also connect different logical networks or subnets and enable traffic that is destined for the networks on the other side of the router to pass through. Since a single state change can involve more than a single bit of data. These functions require a router. although some can serve multiple networks. Media converter types range from small standalone devices and PC card converters to high port-density chassis systems that offer many advanced features for network management. DS3/E3. They are also used in MAN access and data transport services to enterprise customers. Routers also typically provide improved security functions over a switch.A Network Interface Card. a router is similar to a switch. a firewall is placed on the network to allow all internal traffic to leave the network (email to the outside world. Fiber media converters support many different data communication protocols including Ethernet. Switch . protocol and media.simple networking devices that make it possible to connect two dissimilar media types such as twisted pair with fiber optic cabling. A wireless access point will support up to 32 wireless devices. The WAP usually connects to a wired network.34+ at 33. V. For more information about wireless standards. They were introduced to the industry nearly two decades ago.). Fast Ethernet. It isn't smart enough to send data out to the internet. web access.Full duplex means that signals can be passed in either direction simultaneously. Common modem speeds are V. structured cabling systems. Switches remember the address of every node on the network.
and when. Once this is determined the data is sent to the appropriate server which can handle the data. and router. A second major function that this type of switch can perform is to look at the incoming requests and see which websites are targeted. These devices tend to be very expensive. These devices are used with. As an example. DNS is the service that looks up the IP address for a domain name allowing a connection to be made. Domain 3. An example is wireless access points which often include one or more of the following: firewall. may increase reliability through redundancy.This is achieved by granting and denying access to resources based on a set of configurable rules. Google receives many.A server that is responsible for assiging unique IP address to the computers on a network. Some switches can use up to OSI layer 7 packet information. maximize throughput. etc. After that information is obtained. IPS. DHCP server. multifunction network devices combine the function of individual devices into a single unit. in order to get optimal resource utilization. content-switches. IDS/IPS . You call them with a name. Linux. actively shutting down attempted attacks as they’re sent over the wire. administrators can control who uses bandwidth. In most cases the switch looks to see what type of application or software the request is targeted at.These terms stand for Intrusion Detection System and Intrusion Prevention System respectively. IDS is a device (or application) that monitors network and/or system activities for malicious activities or policy violations. they are called layer 4-7 switches. administrators can . hard drives. The internet is based on numerical IP addresses. A DHCP server prevents the assignment of duplicate IP addresses to clients and reduces administrative effort in network configuration. Some MLSs are also able to route between VLAN and/or ports like a common router. web-switches or application-switches. DHCP Server . Vendors are increasingly combining the two technologies into a single box. by blocking access to the target from the user account. Bandwidth shaping is typically done using software installed on a network server. Bandwidth Shaper . on the other hand. many more search requests than a single server could handle. The main benefit of this approach is that the switch acts as a load balancer as it can balance data or requests across the different type of application servers used by the business. IP address. Load balancing is used to distribute workloads evenly across two or more computers.DNS is an Internet and networking service that translates domain names into IP addresses. but we use domain names because they are easier to remember. Load Balancer . If for example a web hosting company was hosting several thousand websites the switch could direct requests to the specific servers that the websites are running on. Using multiple components with load balancing. It can stop the attack by terminating the network connection or user session originating the attack. A bandwidth shaper essentially performs two key functions: monitoring and shaping. not instead of. DNS Server . for what.As you might guess.Describes the mechanisms used to control bandwidth usage on the network. For example if the data is targeted at an ftp port then the request will be sent to an ftp sever. Mutlifunction Network Devices . Monitoring includes identifying where bandwidth usage is high and at what time of day. or other resources. It does this by looking to see what port the requests is directed at. a firewall.The main function of a content switch is to inspect the network data that it receives so that it can decide where on the network that data (or request) needs to be forwarded to. sits inline with traffic flows on a network. or application. Bandwidth shaping establishes priorities to data traveling to and from the Internet and within the network. switch. From this server.) and network devices such as routers. service. wireless access point. Content Switch . minimize response time.A multilayer switch (MLS) is a computer networking device that switches on OSI layer 2 like an ordinary network switch and provides extra functions on higher OSI layers. The routing is normally as quick as switching (at wirespeed). gateway. instead of a single component. This process is very similar to calling information. A DHCP server is actually more of a service that is found on network operating systems such as Windows 2002/2008 server. or other attribute associated with that attacker.A load balancer is a hardware and/or software solution that provides load balancing services. The DNS service is included with server operating systems (Windows 2003/2008. they check their database and give you the phone number.2: Specialized Network Devices Multilayer Switch . now referred to as IDPS. This is important for large enterprises or hosting companies. IDS is a passive system that gives alerts when something suspicious is detected and logs the events into a database for reporting. so they distribute the requests across a massive array of servers. and avoid overload. or by blocking all access to the targeted host. network links. or on network devices such as routers. CPUs.
where only one bridge or switch exists on the network. Then there’s what you came for. All of these require more power than USB offers and very often must be powered over longer runs of cable than USB permits. . This allows a virtual network.A broadcast domain is normally created by the router. If the item is found in cache. If the page is not in the cache. CSU/DSU . the proxy server forwards it to the client. This reduces bandwidth through the gateway. the proxy server will request the page from the appropriate server. which prevents loops where there exists more than one path between segments.customize or shape bandwidth usage for the best needs of the network. Proxy Server . Such a conversion is necessary because the technologies used on WAN links are different from those used on LANs. Power can come from a power supply within a PoE-enabled networking device such as an Ethernet switch or from a device built for "injecting" power onto the Ethernet cabling. and WiFi switches to RFID readers and network security cameras.A proxy server acts as a middle-man between clients and the Internet providing security. and caching services. spanning tree. or T3 line and serial interface (typically a V. the proxy server looks in its local cache of previously downloaded web pages. In addition. but bandwidth shapers are typically software.3: Advanced Features of a Switch PoE . All they really do is interface between a 56K. LAN access points. a switch can create the broadcast domain. PoE uses only one type of connector. the functions of proxy servers are often built into firewalls. they are not modems. independent of physical location to be created. Many newer routers have CSU/DSUs built into them.A Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit (CSU/DSU) acts as a translator between the LAN data format and the WAN data format. VLAN .Generally speaking. on Ethernet cabling. whereas there are four different types of USB connectors. I am unaware why CompTIA listed this in the "network devices" section of their objectives. an 8P8C (RJ45). Which method you use usually will be determined by the network’s size. Domain 3. Although CSU/DSU's look similar to modems.Spanning Tree is one of three bridging methods a network administrator can use. When a user makes a request for an internet service and it passes filtering requirements. administrative control. Spanning Tree Protocol . STP was upgraded to Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP). The next is Source-Route. Nowadays. and they don't modulate or demodulate between analog and digital. IP Phones. along with data. Power over Ethernet technology describes a system to safely pass electrical power. Standard versions of PoE specify category 5 cable or higher. in which bridging address tables are stored on each PC on the network. The simplest method is transparent bridging. With VLAN’s.35 connector) that connects to the router. T1.
Used on a network switch to send a copy of network packets seen on one switch port (or an entire VLAN) to a network monitoring connection on another switch port.1x standard defines 802. This may be in the form of just getting it correctly configured to use TCP/IP or more involved such as installing a software suite so that specific network parameters can be leveraged for proper connectivity to network resources or resources on the domain.g. Port Mirroring . you can use the Network Tasks pane to Create a New Connection.VLANs are local to each switch's database. This is commonly used for network appliances that require monitoring of network traffic. Trunk links provide VLAN identification for frames traveling between switches. etc) as well as the protocols (e. With respect to peer to peer networks. drivers. etc). Set up a Home or small office network as well as change the Windows Firewall settings and view available wireless networks. The VLAN trunking protocol (VTP) is the protocol that switches use to communicate among themselves about VLAN configuration. . Additionally. Windows Vista. Client for Microsoft Networks). Network Connections Dialog Box – used to configure different aspects of the network connections by way of a graphical user interface (GUI) within the Microsoft Windows operating systems (Windows XP. Port Authentication .g. and VLAN information is not passed between switches.Trunking . Wireless Network Connection Dialog Box – the graphical user interface (GUI) within the Microsoft Windows operating systems used to configure the wireless devices and their settings. On the General tab you can configure the specific hardware settings (parameters.4: Implement a Basic Wireless Network Install Client – the actual steps taken to set up a computer. such as an intrusion-detection system. Domain 3. Server 2003.The IEEE 802. laptop or other network connected device to the network.1x port-based authentication as a clientserver based access control and authentication protocol that restricts unauthorized clients from connecting to a LAN through publicly accessible ports. TCP/IP) and the network client that the device will use (e. The authentication server validates each client connected to a switch port before making available any services offered by the switch or the LAN.
It is more work and it costs more in time money and effort to connect the WAPs using wired connections back to a switch or a router but it greatly reduces the potential connectively loss on the network. etc) as well as future plans to subdivide offices. Virtual Machine Network Service). 1. Domain 4.the process that is outlined for making sure that all the settings needed to connect a network node to the wireless device. 128 bit. metal superstructure. the loss of a single WAP where the WAPs are wired back results in only impacting the users of that one WAP instead of all WAPs up and downstream. 64 bit. Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the lowest form of the types of encryption available and is generally only used today to allow legacy devices that cannot handle more robust encryption protocols to gain somewhat secured access to the network. Once this is successfully done it is assumed all other network nodes would be able to successfully repeat the same steps to access the network securely and with the traffic encrypted. Disabled simply means that everything is passed as clear text. The Wireless Networks tab will show you the available networks and allow you to configure preference for each of the networks encountered.4GHz frequency range and require network administrators to set up the channels for the devices to use. It’s easier to connect WAP to WAP in a daisy chain signal relay configuration but when you do this you need to realize that a physical failure in one WAP device may take out all the devices. Wired or Wireless Connectivity – planning for WAP to WAP connections only or a mix of wired and wireless connections. Configuring Channels and Frequencies – most wireless routers work in the 2. microwave ovens. Setting ESSID and Beacon – Extended Service Set identifier (ESSID) is the “advertisement” from the Wireless Access Point that basically announces its availability for network devices to make a connection.you can install services from this screen as well (e. Once that is successful you would then incorporate the security protocol that you wanted to use and to make sure the client can operate on the network again.g. 6 and 11 are the main channels used because they generally will not be interfered with from other devices such as cordless phones and Bluetooth devices that also work at this frequency range. Install Access Point – another term for the Wireless Access Point(s) that will allow you to correctly gain access to the network with your device. Physical Locations of Wireless Access Points (WAPs) – device placement best practices include planning for more than just nominal half distances between devices. Wi Fi Protected Access version 2 (WPA2) offers additional protection because it uses the strongest authentication and encryption algorithms available in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). It is important to understand that there are many things that affect the wireless access point signal with respect to broadcast and receiving strength that include the construction and architecture of the building where the devices are distributed as well as general disruption of the frequency range that the access points operate on by other devices (e. Verifying Installation . By correctly placing the devices. Configuring Encryption – with respect to wireless clients these are the settings most commonly used. 153 bit and 256 bit strength. Consideration needs to be given to what type of obstructions may be currently in the way (physical fire breaks in between walls.g. The best practice steps generally include on initial installation of the Wireless Access Point (WAP) to do so without any security to verify that a client can get on the network. Wi Fi Protected Access (WPA) was created by the Wi-Fi Alliance to better secure wireless networks and was created in response to the weaknesses researchers found in Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP).0: Network Management . WEP has been challenged and defeated for a number of years mainly due to the increase in computing power and the fact that the keys are alphanumeric or hexadecimal characters that are configured in 40 bit. Access Point Placement – correctly positioning your Wireless Access Points will allow for the seamless use of wireless devices on your network. The announcement signal that is sent out is called the beacon. This point onto the network will allow the client device to configure itself with the necessary encryption (if required) and any other network required settings or else risk being defaulted off the network. Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) is used in WPA to encrypt the authentication and encryption information that was initially passed on the wire in clear text before a network node could secure its communications on the network. etc). cordless phones. users will not generally experience signal loss of their connection to the network. Electrical motors and other higher current carrying lines need to be considered as well to keep interference to a minimum.
The first letter of each word corresponds to the first letter of the layers starting with Application and ending with the physical layer. Most network problems occur at the Physical layer. Each layer has a different responsibility. Addresses messages and translates logical addresses and names into physical addresses. such as software for file transfers. The phases involved in a session dialog are as follows: establishment. It provides protocol conversion. The Data Link layer is divided into two sub-layers: the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) sub-layer. error handling. Consult your book(s) for more information about these topics. character-set conversion. flow control. It also manages data traffic and congestion involved in packet switching and routing. . or are too expansive for the purposes of this guide. Determines data exchange formats and translates specific files from the Application layer format into a commonly recognized data format. server workstation). It handles general network access. Layer Description Represents user applications. One of its main tasks is to create and interpret different frame types based on the network type in use. It is only concerned with moving bits of data on and off the network medium. or are too expansive for the purposes of this guide. and reassembles incoming packets into the original sequence. and all the layers work together to provide network data communication. logic circuitry. the electronics. combines small packets into larger ones for transmission. database access. yet easy way to remember the 7 layers.4: Conduct Network Monitoring to Identify Performance and Connectivity Issues The topics covered in this section are either already covered elsewhere. It enables the option of specifying a service address (sockets. It also breaks up large data files into smaller packets. Data Link Application Presentation Session Transport Network • • LLC sub-layer starts maintains connections between devices (e. Consult your book(s) for more information about these topics. Provides a consistent neutral interface for software to access the network and advertises the computers resources to the network. and error recovery. half-duplex or full-duplex. Domain 4. and wiring that transmit the actual signal. Handles security and name recognition to enable two applications on different computers to communicate over the network.1: OSI Model The OSI networking model is divided into 7 layers.Domain 4. data translation. ports) to point the data to the correct program on the destination computer. encryption. and is involved in correction of transmission/reception problems. Manages dialogs between computers by using simplex(rare). and email.3: Evaluate the Network Based on Configuration Management Documentation The topics covered in this section are either already covered elsewhere. Here is an idiotic. MAC sub-layer maintains physical device (MAC) addresses for communicating locally (the MAC address of the nearest router is used to send information onto a WAN). Physical The specification for the hardware connection. Domain 4.g. data-transfer and termination. MAC sub-layer enables multiple devices to share the same medium. The interface between the upper "software" layers and the lower "hardware" Physical layer. Memorize the following sentence: All People Seem To Need Data Processing. and graphics-command expansion. Provides flow control.
Since a computer system or a network consists of many parts in which all parts usually need to be present in order for the whole to be operational.wikipedia. or other resources. Some availability experts emphasize that.(QoS) is a set of parameters that controls the level of quality provided to different types of network traffic. the SLA also describes remedial measures or penalties to be incurred in the event that the ISP fails to provide the QoS promised in the SLA.Domain 4.999 percent) availability. Using multiple components with load balancing. or cache. a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) is one approach. For example. it is in a position to also cache the files that are received for later recall by any user. the parts of a system should be well-designed and thoroughly tested before they are used. QoS parameters include the maximum amount of delay. this is because enterprise resources are being protected by a firewall server.(aka server) is a dedicated network server or service acting as a server that saves Web pages or other Internet content locally. By placing previously requested information in temporary storage.5: Explain Different Methods and Rationales for Network Performance Optimization Quality of Service . and avoid overload. Traffic Shaping (also known as "packet shaping" or ITMPs: Internet Traffic Management Practices) is the control of computer network traffic in order to optimize or guarantee performance.cite_note-2) or by an element in the network.org/wiki/Traffic_shaping . traffic shaping is any action on a set of packets (often called a stream or a flow) which imposes additional delay on those packets such that they conform to some predetermined constraint (a contract or traffic profile). Load Balancing ." A widely-held but difficult-to-achieve standard of availability for a system or product is known as "five 9s" (99. In doing so. and/or increase usable bandwidth by delaying packets that meet certain criteria. That server allows outgoing requests to go out but screens all incoming traffic. increase/decrease latency. the proxy and cache servers are invisible. The load balancing service is usually provided by a dedicated program or hardware device (such as a multilayer switch or a DNS server). Cache Engine . Traffic policing is the distinct but related practice of packet dropping and packet marking. bandwidth priority.is a technique to distribute workload evenly across two or more computers. maximize throughput. which is a server that "represents" users by intercepting their Internet requests and managing them for users. instead of a single component. signal loss. minimize response time. a cache server both speeds up access to data and reduces demand on an enterprise's bandwidth. . in order to get optimal resource utilization. Both the transmitter and the receiver enter into an agreement known as the Service Level Agreement (SLA). In addition to defining QoS parameters. To the user. Typically. including media files or other documents. For storage. CPUs. noise that can be accommodated for a particular type of network traffic. A proxy server helps match incoming messages with outgoing requests.Traffic shaping provides a means to control the volume of traffic being sent into a network in a specified period (bandwidth throttling). for any system to be highly available. however traffic shaping is always achieved by delaying packets. Cache servers also allow users to access content offline." A cache server is almost always also a proxy server. but can also be applied by the traffic source (for example.(aka Uptime) refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time. hard drives. computer or network cardhttp://en. and CPU usage for a specific stream of data. A cache server is sometimes called a "cache engine. These parameters are usually agreed upon by the transmitter and the receiver. High Availability . More specifically. or the maximum rate at which the traffic is sent (rate limiting). much planning for high availability centers around backup and failover processing and data storage and access. or more complex criteria such as GCRA. network links. Availability can be measured relative to "100% operational" or "never failing. Traffic shaping is commonly applied at the network edges to control traffic entering the network. This control can be accomplished in many ways and for many reasons. A more recent approach is the storage area network (SAN). may increase reliability through redundancy. a new application program that has not been thoroughly tested is likely to become a frequent point-of-breakdown in a production system.
and caching can be used individually or combined to optimize the network and reduce latency for sensitive applications. As the name suggests. its IP address has to be specified as a configuration option to the browser or other protocol program. load balancing. phase timing.Jitter is the deviation in or displacement of some aspect of the pulses in a high-frequency digital signal. when the computer that sent the packet waits for confirmation that the packet has been received. and processes are sensitive to the time it takes for their requests and results to be transmitted over the network. Latency and bandwidth are the two factors that determine your network connection speed. Latency in a packet-switched network is measured either one-way (the time from the source sending a packet to the destination receiving it). a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service. and online games. traffic shaping. fault tolerance is achieved by duplexing each hardware component. At a hardware level. in the event that a component fails. The amount of allowable jitter depends greatly on the application. the faulty component is determined and taken out of service. The time from the start of packet transmission to the end of packet transmission at the near end is measured separately and called serialization delay. Examples of latency sensitive applications include VOIP. and loss of transmitted data between network devices. Jitter . .(AKA "lag") is the amount of time it takes a packet of data to move across a network connection. Disks are mirrored. the operating system provides an interface that allows a programmer to "checkpoint" critical data at pre-determined points within a transaction. Many software platforms provide a service called ping that can be used to measure round-trip latency. the programmer does not need to be aware of the fault-tolerant capabilities of the machine. Multiple processors are "lock-stepped" together and their outputs are compared for correctness. When a packet is being sent.e. and is the time required by the system to signal the full packet to the wire. (The proxy is not quite invisible. performs a no-op). Ping performs no packet processing. there is "latent" time. Network management techniques such as QoS. protocols. Where precision is important. video conferencing. Fault tolerance can be provided with software." Among the causes of jitter are electromagnetic interference (EMI) and crosstalk with other signals. Note that round trip latency excludes the amount of time that a destination system spends processing the packet. you can provide a higher level of service to end users. or provided by some combination.is the average number of bits that can be transmitted from the source to a destination over the network in one second. one-way latency for a link can be more strictly defined as the time from the start of packet transmission to the start of packet reception. jitter can be thought of as shaky pulses. or round-trip (the one-way latency from source to destination plus the one-way latency from the destination back to the source). When an anomaly occurs. or the width of the signal pulse. This is known as latency sensitivity. or embedded in hardware. with Stratus and its VOS operating system). Some applications. By regularly testing for latency and monitoring those devices that are susceptible to latency issues. thus it is a relatively accurate way of measuring latency. Latency . high latency can mean an annoying and counterproductive delay between a speaker’s words and the listener’s reception of those words. Parameters Influencing QOS Bandwidth . This definition of latency depends on the throughput of the link and the size of the packet. Round-trip latency is more often quoted. introduce clicks or other undesired effects in audio signals. it merely sends a response back when it receives a packet (i. The deviation can be in terms of amplitude. but the machine continues to function as usual. affect the ability of the processor in a personal computer to perform as intended. Jitter can cause a display monitor to flicker.describes a computer system or component designed so that.) Fault-tolerance . because it can be measured from a single point. In the software implementation. In a VOIP deployment.all Internet requests and returned responses appear to be coming from the addressed place on the Internet. In the hardware implementation (for example. Another definition is that it is "the period frequency displacement of the signal from its ideal location.
concealment may be used to minimize the effects of lost packets. resulting in degradation of a network system. problems are typically discovered and reported by one of the following types of users: • • • External customers dialing into a call center to order products. Echo . obtain customer service. In videoconference environments it can create jitter. Internal users using administrative phones to call employees in other company locations or PSTN destinations. The causes of packet loss include inadequate signal strength at the destination. High Bandwidth Applications . Examples: • • • • Thin Clients Voice over IP Real Time Video Multi-media Domain 4. excessive system noise. In pure audio communications.is the failure of one or more transmitted packets to arrive at their destination. Internal agents receiving incoming calls from a call queue or initiating outbound collection calls to customers. Packet Loss . Detailed. To correct for echo. Capturing the information electronically will also permit you to retrieve and reexamine this information in the future. it can cause jitter and frequent gaps in received speech. bandwidth issues will become more frequent. accurate information will make this task easier. should the problem repeat itself. broken-up images. packet loss can cause severe mutilation of received data. such as VoIP. Echoes can occur during many locations along the route. Often more than one of these factors is involved. packet loss produces errors. One way to combat the effects of these applications on a network is to manage the amount of bandwidth allocated to them. In the worst cases. A form will encourage users to provide more details about the problem and also put them into the habit of looking for particular error messages and indicators. This event can cause noticeable effects in all types of digital communications. In a case where the cause cannot be remedied. which causes the sound of an echo. As you turn up your network. unintelligible speech or even the complete absence of a received signal.is when portions of the transmission are repeated. natural or human-made interference. Splices and improper termination in the network can cause a transmission packet to reflect back to the source. you may consider putting these questions in an on-line form. hardware failure. network technicians can introduce an echo canceller to the network design. software corruption or overburdened network nodes.6: Implement the Following Network Troubleshooting Methodology Gather Information on the Problem In a contact center network. Identify The Affected Area . This allows users to still use the applications without degrading the QoS of network services. you must collect sufficient information from these users to allow you to isolate the problem. As demand for these applications continues to increase. As the network administrator. The effects of packet loss: • • • • In text and data. and perform basic actions such as call transfers and dialing into conferences. This will cancel out the energy being reflected. and so forth.A high bandwidth application is a software package or program that tends to require large amounts of bandwidth in order to fulfill a request.
You can help them with leading questions such as. Determine If Escalation Is Necessary While troubleshooting a network problem. detailing each step taken while attempting to resolve the issue. or the entire network. it is advisable to continue monitoring and testing for several days or even weeks after the problem appears to be resolved. when did you first notice you couldn’t do it anymore? Try do find out what happened just before the problem came up. Establish The Most Probable Cause T o establish the most probable cause. It may be necessary to contact a fellow employee who has specialized knowledge. you might find the cause of the problem is not an issue that can be resolved over the phone or at the user’s desktop. Test the solution. Also consider the how the plan will affect the user or other aspects of the network. or a more senior administrator with the appropriate permissions and authoration. Document the Process and Solution Document the problem and process used to arrived at the solution. Be sure to document each step because you can lose sight of what you have tried in complex troubleshooting scenarios. one segment. or additional hardware of software. Create an Action Plan and Solution. Creating a troubleshooting template with required information included in all trouble reports will ensure all trouble reports are accurate and consistent no matter who completes them. ask question such as: • • • Could you do this task before? If this is a new task. or several workstations. Do not overlook straightforward and smple corrections that can fix a range of problems and do not cost much time or effort to try. What has changed since the last time you were able to do this task? Users can give you information about events that mightaffect their local systems. One should also be certain that the original state (before troubleshooting) can be returned to in case things do not go as planned. the problem should be escalated to the appropriate personel to be resolved as quickly as possible.out and documented. If groups of workstations are affected. there might cascading effects elsewhere on the local system or on the network. or the network configuration. Implement and Test the Solution Implement the action plan step by step to fix the problem. If only one person is experiencing a certain problem. a server. Even if the problem is solved. Identify the Results and Effects of the Solution Verify that the user agrees that the problem is solved before you proceed with final documentation and closing the request. Determine If Anything Has Changed To determine what has changed. or at least try to pinpoint the time. since the source of the problem might be related to other changes elsewhere on the network. and the solution was well thought. starting with the obvious and simplest one and working back through other causes. the problem might lie at a part of the network that users all have in common.especially if the problem is specific to the organization. If a major change was made. such as a particular software application or database. If multiple changes are made at once. Test for this before closing out the issue. Make sure the solution implemented actually solves the problem and didn’t cause any new ones.Determine if the problem is limited to one workstation. you will be unable to verify exactly what effect each adjustment had. Thinking ahead can help ensure productivity doesn’t suffer and that downtime is minimized. the problem is most likely at the workstation. perhaps the user needs different sysetm permissions. use a systematic approach. You might find you can resolve the issue on the spot. Domain 4. Use several options and situations to conduct the tests. the network segment. If you could do it before. Eliminate possible causes. Sometimes testing over time is needed to ensure the solution is the correct one. Maintain the records as part of an overall documentation plan. ”Did someone add something to your computer?” or “Did you do something differently this time?”. Identifying Potential Effect Once you have determined the probable cause. one server. In these cases. you should create an action plan before changes are made. This will provide and ever-growing database of information specific to your network and also it will be valuable reference material for future troubleshooting instances….7: Troubleshoot Common Connectivity Issues and Select an Appropriate Solution Crosstalk .
For example. Attenuation Symptoms: Slow response from the network. Collect and review data. Causes: The mismatching of electrical resistance. Blue-Tooth devices. and clients in ad-hoc mode. The interference you would look for would depend on the spectrum used. Near-End Crosstalk Symptoms: Signal loss or interference Causes: Near-end crosstalk is crosstalk that occurs closer along the cable to the transmitting end. Maintaining proper distance between cables can also help. and intermittent connectivity issues. To resolve problems proactively. unauthorized access points. paging systems. and static are all signs of interference. and/or add repeaters and signal boosters to the cable path. Causes: Generally crosstalk occurs when two cables run in parallel and the signal of one cable interferes with the other. . Or. Collisions Symptoms: High latency. Resolution: Use a TDR to detect and locate shorts. Causes: RFI can be caused by a number of devices including cordless phones. Causes: Two nodes of an electrical circuit that are meant to be at different voltages create a lowresistance connection causing a short circuit. test areas prior to deployment using tools such as spectrum analyzers. add more access points. Causes: Collisions are a natural part of Ethernet networking as nodes attempt to access shred resources. Resolution: Test with cable tester from both ends of the cable and correct any crossed or crushed wires. network degradation. and determine the root cause in order to correct the cause. Resolution: Depends on the network.Symptoms: Slow network performance and/or an excess of dropped or unintelligible packets. Ensure there is adequate LAN coverage. Resolution: the use of twisted pair cabling or digital signal can reduce the effects of crosstalk. Interference Symptoms: Crackling. Replace cables and connectors with known working ones. and poor voice quality are also symptoms of interference. Resolution: Use shorter cable runs. users hear pieces of voice or conversations from a separate line. reduced network performance. Resolution: Remove or avoid environmental interferences as much as possible. cameras. Shorts Symptoms: Electrical shorts—complete loss of signal. Often occurs in or near the terminating connector. the tell-tale sign of open mismatch is an echo on either the talker or listener end of the connection. Causes: Attenuation is the degradation of signal strength. Open Impedance Mismatch Symptoms: Also known as echo. This may entail simply turning off competing devices. replacing a hub with a switch will often solve the problem. Crosstalk can also be caused by crossed or crushed wire pairs in twisted pair cabling. In telephony applications. Resolution: Use a TDR to detect impedance.interpret the symptoms. evaluate the environment for interference. Additionally. Verify that the cable is terminated properly and that the twists in the pairs of wires are maintained. low throughput. humming.
For example. Causes: Either the source or destination device has an incorrect IP address. Causes: Devices are configured to use different VLAN’s Resolution: Reconfigure devices to use the same VLAN. and FCS errors are present during testing. Causes: Ports are configured to operate at different speeds and are therefore incompatible with each other. empty the arp cache on both computers. Check the IP address on both devices. Resolution: Change the IP address of the gateway to the correct address. Resolution: Use the ping command to determine if there is connectivity between devices. Wrong Subnet Mask Symptoms: No connectivity between devices. Causes: Either the source or destination device has an incorrect subnet mask. Check TCP/IP configuration information using ipconfig /all on Window machines and ifconfig on Linux/UNIX/Apple machines. if a switch is running at 100 Mbs. Change the incorrect subnet mask to a correct subnet mask. Test for connectivity. . Wrong Gateway Symptoms: No connectivity between devices.). Open TCP/IP properties and check the IP address of the DNS server listed for the client. It could be the case that a static IP address was entered incorrectly. Resolution: Use the ping command to determine if there is connectivity between devices. etc. If a network is running a rouge DHCP server. Incorrect IP Address Symptoms: No connectivity between devices.) Port Duplex Mismatch Symptoms: Late collisions. Causes: A device is configured to use the wrong DNS server. but a computer’s NIC card runs at10 Mbs. Check IP addresses. etc. Causes: The IP address of the gateway is incorrect for the specified route. In that case troubleshoot DHCP (it may be off line. Resolution: Open the network properties on a Windows machine. Resolution: Verify that equipment is compatible and operating at the highest compatible speeds. Replace the card with one that runs at 100 Mbs and throughput will be increased to the higher level (or at least higher levels since there are variables such as network congestion. for example. Put in the correct IP address. Test for connectivity. Resolution: Verify that the switch port and the device are configured to use the same duplex setting. This may entail having to upgrade one of the devices. two computers could have leased the same IP address. Causes: Mismatches are generally caused by configuration errors.Port Speed Symptoms: No or low speed connectivity between devices. Resolution will depend on the problem. These occur when the switch port and a device are configured to use a different duplex setting or when both ends are set to auto-negotiate the setting. Incorrect VLAN Symptoms: No connectivity between devices. alignment errors. the computer will run at the slower speed (10 Mbs). Wrong DNS Symptoms: No connectivity between devices.
11b/g because the first operates at 5 GHz and the second at 2. ESSID Mismatch Symptoms: No connectivity between devices. dropped packets. etc. Resolution: Devices have to be chosen to work together. Resolution: Set the devices to use the same SSID. and poor voice quality are all symptoms caused by interference.11b. Proxy arp: If mis-configured. paging systems.11g router could be set only for “g” mode and you are trying to connect with a 802. network degradation. convergence (in which you have to wait for the discovery process to complete). Incorrect Frequency Symptoms: No connectivity. Causes: RFI can be caused by cordless phones. Change the mode on the router. Note: SSIDs are case sensitive. and clients in ad-hoc mode. O a 802. if encryption levels between two devices (access point and client) do not match. Routing Loop: Packets are routed in a circle continuously. intermittent connectivity. devices must operate on the same frequency. unauthorized access points.11a. Causes: Interference from neighboring wireless network. 802. Ensure that the wireless client and the access point are the same. connection is impossible. Causes: Improper configuration. metal building framing.). Resolution: Many wireless routers are set to auto configure the wireless channel. DoS attacks can occur. Congested Channel Symptoms: Very slow speeds. Route Problems: Packets don’t reach their intended destination. A device for a 802. Wireless Connectivity Issues Interference Symptoms: Low throughput. Resolution: Ensure that security settings match between and among devices.11a/b/g/n. Resolution: Deploy devices that operate on the same frequency. Standard Mismatch Symptoms: No connectivity between devices. This could be caused by a number of things: configuration problems.4 GHz. congested network channel. Similarly. for example. if different encryption keys are used between to devices they can’t negotiate the key information for verification and decryption in order to initiate communication. cameras.11b wireless card.Issues that should be ID’d but Escalated Switching Loop: Need spanning tree protocol to ensure loop free topologies. Resolution: Remove or avoid environmental interferences as much as possible. Try logging into the router and manually change the channel the wireless router is operating on. Distance . Causes: In wireless. Causes: Devices are configured to use different ESSIDs. Causes: Devices are configured to use different standards such as 802. Incorrect Encryption Symptoms: For wireless. Broadcast Storms: The network becomes overwhelmed by constant broadcast traffic. Bluetooth devices. is incompatible with 802. or a broken segment (a router is down.11a frequency can’t communicate with one designed for 802.
retransmission. This will show how many hops the packets have to travel and how long it takes. Causes: The distance between two points may be to blame for this connectivity issue. IPCONFIG . ipconfig /renew forces the DHCP server. ipconfig /release forces the release of a lease.This command is used to view network settings from a Windows computer command line. Causes: The position of the access point’s antenna can negatively affect overall performance.A command-line troubleshooting tool that enables you to view the route to a specified host. Below are the ipconfig switches that can be used at a command prompt. do not exceed distance limitations. Use a spectrum analyzer to determine coverage and signal strength. • • • ipconfig /all will display all of your IP settings. Causes: Signal from device bounces off obstructions and is not received buy the receiving device. packet loss. Incorrect Antenna Placement Symptoms: No or low signal and connectivity. move one device or the other to avoid obstructions. or transient traffic. Domain 5. Monitor performance and check for interference. you may need to increase coverage. Resolution: I f the issue is with cabling. In Windows operating systems.Symptoms: Slow connection and low throughput. Bounce Symptoms: No or low connectivity between devices.0: Network Tools Domain 5. . Resolution: Change the position of the antenna and monitor device performance. The longer the distance between the two points the prominent the problem may become. if available to renew a lease. the command used is "tracert".1: Command Line Interface Tools Traceroute . If the issue is with wireless. Issues that can occur between the two points include latency. Resolution: If possible.
A host PC must have the MAC and IP addresses of a remote host in order to send data to that remote host. PING . PING uses ICMP echo requests that behave similarly to SONAR pings. system administrators routinely use the utility to display and analyze network interface parameters. or a domain name. as ARP cannot be routed across gateways (routers). As an interactive tool. NSLOOKUP is a useful tool for troubleshooting DNS problems. Arping operates at the Link Layer (OSI Layer 2) using the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) for probing hosts on the local network (link) only. The standard format for the command is ping ip_address/hostname. which probes hosts using the Internet Control Message Protocol at the Internet Layer (OSI Layer 3). Common uses for ifconfig include setting an interface's IP address and netmask.PING (Packet InterNet Groper) is a command-line utility used to verify connections between networked devices. in networks employing repeaters that use proxy ARP. type "nslookup" followed by an IP address. a computer name. If unsuccessful. and Proxy ARP ARP PING (ARPING) . If successful. the arping response may be coming from such proxy hosts and not from the probed target. To use nslookup.IFCONFIG is a Linux/Unix command line tool that is similar to IPCONFIG in Windows. all known IP addresses and all known aliases (which are just alternate names) for the identified machine. NSLOOKUP will return the name. this command is now available on Windows and other operating systems. ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) . Guide To ARP.ARPING is a computer software tool that is used to discover hosts on a computer network. you will likely recieve and error message. and it's ARP that allows the local host to request the remost host to send the local host its MAC address through an ARP Request. The arping tool is similar in function to ping. This is one of the most important tools for determining network connectivity between hosts. Originally written for Unix operating systems. the ping command will return replies from the remote host with the time it took to receive the reply. . At boot time. IARP. NSLOOKUP . many UNIX-like operating systems initialize their network interfaces with shell-scripts that call ifconfig. IFCONFIG . and can get additional information about the device using that address. However. and disabling or enabling a given interface. RARP.This is a command that queries a DNS server for machine name and address information. The program tests whether a given IP address is in use on the local network.
Is a Windows.This tool is used to monitor network traffic and display packet and protocol statistics and information. and detecting intrusion attempts. Hostname .The route command is used to display and manipulate a local routing table. a computer connected to the network) that uniquely identifies it on a network and thus allows it to be addressed without using its full IP address.This was covered earlier in domain 3. and a number of network interface statistics. Most tools sold today combine the functions of the listening device (packet sniffer) and the analytical device (packet analyzer). .1. NBTSTAT .e. monitoring network traffic. Intrusion Prevention Software . This tool is available in Unix. Protocol Analyzers .Mtr is a Linux command line tool that combines the functionality of the traceroute and ping programs in a single network diagnostic tool. It is one of the most basic of the network administrative utilities. and Unix command-line tool that displays network connections (both incoming and outgoing).A port scanner is a program designed to probe network hosts for open ports. A host name is a name that is assigned to a host (i. Domain 5. The packets are logged and can be decoded in order to provide information and statistics about the traffic on the network or network segment. Port Scanners .A packet sniffer is a device or software used to capture packets traveling over a network connection.1.The hostname command is used to show or set a computer's host name and domain name.Cable testers are electronic devices used to test a cable's integrity by checking for opens and shorts which can cause connectivity problems. Route ..2: Network Scanners Packet Sniffers . routing tables. it is pretty much the same thing as a packet sniffer. Domain names are user-friendly substitutes for numeric IP addresses. Examples of its use include adding and deleting a static route. Linux. It performs DNS lookups and displays the answers that are returned from the name server(s) that were queried. Intrusion Detection Software .Dig is a Linux/Unix tool for interrogating DNS name servers. NETSTAT . These tools are used for troubleshooting difficult network problems. Dig (domain information groper) . Also known as Packet Analyzers. Linux and Windows. Domain 5. Mtr .This was covered earlier in domain 3. As far as we're concerned. This is often used by administrators to verify security policies of their networks and by attackers to identify running services on a host that can be exploited to gain access. NBTSTAT examines the contents of the NetBIOS name cache and gives MAC address.3: Hardware Tools Cable Testers . It is used for finding problems in the network and to determine the amount of traffic on the network as a performance measurement. by displaying protocol statistics and current connections.Is a Windows utility used to troubleshoot connectivity problems between 2 computers communicating via NetBT.
Network Layer – An application layer firewall works at the application layer of a protocol stack. Voltage Event Recorder .Special scissors used for cutting cable.Similar to the TDR above.1: Hardware and Software Security Devices The topics covered in this section are already covered elsewhere in this guide. Cable Stripper . (This is true for both the OSI model and the Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP)) Sometimes referred to as a proxy-based firewall or proxy server.A multimeter. this is used to test fiber optic cables with light. Domain 6. Mostly used for mission critical devices such as those found in a hospital. Certifiers . is an electronic measuring instrument used to measure voltage. Multimeter .We aren't entirely sure what CompTIA is referring to with this.A portable telephone that connects to a line using alligator clips and is used to test telephone circuits. Used to find opens and shorts in cables. Temperature Monitor . OTDR (Optical Time Domain Reflectometer) .Fairly self explanatory. TDR (Time Domain Reflectometer) .2: Firewalls Application Layer vs. The devices will not allow packets to pass the firewall unless they match the rule set as configured by the firewall administrator.Sends a signal down a cable and measures the distance that the signal travelled before bouncing back (like sonar). This includes checking the speed loads that it can handle. Butt Set . it can be software running on a computer or server or as a stand-alone piece of hardware. A network layer firewall is sometimes referred to as a packet filter and these will operate at the network layer.Captures and logs electrical current information for devices which can then be accessed on a PC. Domain 6. Snips . The main function of the application layer firewall is to analyze traffic before passing it to a gateway point. Punch Down Tool .Most will detect opens and shorts like a cable tester. also known as a volt/ohm meter. however. current and resistance.Certifiers are a tool that tests cables in order to ensure that they will perform the job intended. A tool used to strip the jackets off of cables in order to expose the wire that can be connected to connectors or wall jacks. but this tool is mainly used to locate the termination points of cables.0: Network Security Domain 6. . Toner Probe . There are all kinds of temperature monitors from CPU temperature monitoring software to devices that monitor the temperature of a server room.A punch down tool is used to connect cabling such as telephone and ethernet to wall jacks.
to block sites with objectionable material. Content Filtering – generally used at the application level to restrict or prevent access to websites that are not approved for work use. is trying to establish a new connection. or site content labeling as defined by the website host itself (e. or on a corporate black list for one reason or another. A network external to the internal network is generally considered “the internet” or external zones. Domain 6. This might include source and destination IP address. Sometimes they will just review the header information or they may be configured to look at the data as well. type of data transfer and so forth. Content could be filtered in many different ways from suspect keywords.g. Zones – demarcation points from one network type to another. . The benefit of this solution is that it allows clients to access a corporate network from nearly anywhere which is not practical with a typical VPN. Signature Identification – a method of indentifying certain types of traffic based on a known behavior of that traffic. images on the site. UDP or TCP ports. Scanning Services – the process that is used by all firewalls to review the packets that are passing through them. or is just a rogue packet. A firewall would know based on the signature definition comparison whether the traffic should be allowed to pass as permitted (e. More advanced firewalls might also combine virus detection and / or other forms of malware detection as part of their scanning process to halt the transmission of suspect packets through the device.3: Network Access Security ACL (Access Control List) . it will be evaluated according to the rule set for new connections. With Stateful processing if a packet does not match a currently established connection. SSL VPN (Secure Sockets Layer virtual private network) . Stateful vs. They have no way to know if any given packet is part of an existing connection. If it does match it will be allowed to pass without needing to be compared to the rule sets in use. Unlike a traditional VPN. The main purpose of this zone is to act as an additional layer of security buffer between the intranet and the internet. Networks internal to a company are considered internal zones or intranets.This method controls access based on the IP addresses (or a range of addresses) of network devices. IP Filtering . Stateless – Stateful firewalls maintain pertinent information about any active sessions they have will speed packet processing using this information. http traffic or DNS traffic) or whether to deny traffic (e. repeated attempts to connect to multiple systems from multiple sessions. this method does not require the use of IPSec. If there is a network that the company manages that is not a part of the internal intranet but is in place between the intranet and the internet this is called the demilitarized zone or the DMZ.This method controls access based on the unique MAC address assigned to all network devices.g. It allows users to establish secure remote access sessions from virtually any Internet connected browser.An ACL is a table in an operating system or network device (such as a router) that denies or allows access to resources.This is a VPN that runs on SSL and is accessible via https over a web browser.g. an adult site that defines itself as such – the content filter would review the site content level and apply the filter). Stateless firewalls treat all of the packets on the network in isolation and independently from all of the other traffic on the wire. and other details about the connection such as the session initiation. downloadable files present.Network layer firewalls can be either stateful or stateless. appearing as a possible Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. • • MAC Filtering .
Provides a standard means of encapsulating data packets sent over a single-channel WAN link. by encrypting data at the sending end and decrypting it at the receiving end.L2TP is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used on VPNs. send the data through a "tunnel" that cannot be "entered" by data that is not properly encrypted.ICA is a proprietary protocol for an application server system. VPN (Virtual Private Network) . PPP replaced SLIP as the standard for dial-up connections as it supports more protocols than just TCP/IP. In effect. An example of this would be a server that dial-up users dial into.A VPN is a network that uses a public telecommunication infrastructure. RDP 4. current technologies have replaced dial-up internet connections with DSL and cable. A VPN works by using the shared public infrastructure while maintaining privacy through security procedures and tunneling protocols such as the Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) or IPSec. designed by Citrix Systems. IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) . These permit . however. IPSEC is made of two different protocols: AH and ESP. The term was originally coined by Microsoft during the Windows NT era and is now called Routing and Remote Access Service (RRAS). As a tunnelling protocol. Citrix XenApp (formerly called MetaFrame/Presentation Server). most internet users were connected to the internet via a serial modem using PPP. PPPoE (Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet) . the protocols. L2TP merges the best features of two other tunneling protocols: PPTP from Microsoft and L2F from Cisco Systems. Unlike Microsoft's RDP.VNC makes it possible to interact with a computer from any computer or mobile device on the Internet. VNC (Virtual Network Computing) . to provide remote offices or individual users with secure access to their organization's network. RDP uses TCP port 3389.IPsec is a protocol suite that ensures confidentiality.RAS refers to any combination of hardware and software to enable remote access to a network.0 Terminal Services. Products conforming to ICA are Citrix's WinFrame. and Citrix XenDesktop products. and authenticity of data communications across a public network by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a data stream. PPP provides a method for connecting a personal computer to the Internet using a standard phone line and a modem using a serial connection (Dial-up). AH (Authentication header) is responsible for authenticity and integrity. or connect to a server for maintenance and administration purposes. RAS (Remote Access Service) . ICA (Independent Computing Architecture) . or vice versa. By default. RDP (Remote Desktop Protocol) . while ESP (Encapsulating Security payload) encrypts the payload. PPPoE is a network protocol for encapsulating PPP frames in Ethernet frames. integrity. IPSec is often used in conjunction with L2TP on VPNs. Specifically. A RAS server is a specialized computer which aggregates multiple communication channels together. L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol) . L2TP does not include encryption. Popular uses for this technology include remote technical support and accessing files on one's work computer from one's home computer. Remote Desktop allows systems administrators to remotely connect to a user's computer for technical support purposes.0 will allow one to connect to specific applications rather than the entire desktop of the remote computer.Originally released with Windows NT 4. version 6. VNC offers cross-platform support allowing remote control between different types of computers. but is often used with IPsec provide VPN connections from remote users to a remote network. With the release of Windows Vista and upcoming Windows Longhorn.In the past. for example. such as the Internet.0 allowed users to connect to a computer and remotely control (AKA Shadow) it. In short. PPP (Point to Point Protocol) .
and for any supported client to gain access to those applications. . Besides Windows. but sends challenges at regular intervals to make sure the client hasn't been replaced by an intruder. In order for this security method to work. it is paramount that the KDC is available and secure. The core of a Kerberos architecture is the KDC (Key Distribution Server) that serves as the trusted third party and is responsible for storing authentication information and using it to securely authenticate users and services. and it ensures confidentiality because all protocol exchanges between a network access server and a TACACS+ daemon are encrypted. CHAP uses a 3-way handshake in which the authentication agent sends the client program a key to be used to encrypt the user name and password. Unix.RADIUS is a networking protocol that provides centralized Authentication. Kerberos is a network authentication protocol which utilizes symmetric cryptography to provide authentication for client-server applications. this protocol has been evolving in the Unix world for over a decade and has become a standard in Windows operating systems.1X . Another difference is that TACACS+ uses the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) while RADIUS uses the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). CHAP not only requires the client to authenticate itself in the beginning. The clocks of all hosts involved must be synchronized as well. This standard is designed to enhance the security of wireless local area networks (WLANs) by providing an authentication framework that allows a user to be authenticated by a central authority. TACACS+ (Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System) .This is Microsoft's version of CHAP and is a one-way encrypted password. Like the standard version of CHAP.ordinary Windows applications to be run on a Windows server. • • RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service) . Kerberos . The public key infrastructure provides for a digital certificate that can identify an individual or an organization and directory services that can store and. revoke the certificates.A public key infrastructure (PKI) is the combination of software. and Accounting (AAA) management and provides a method that allows multiple dial-in Network Access Server (NAS) devices to share a common authentication database. 802. and services that enable an organization to secure its communications and business transactions.AAA commonly stands for “authentication. encryption technologies. MS-CHAPv2 was released to solve many of the problems and deficiencies of the first version. The TACACS+ protocol provides authentication between the network access server and the TACACS+ daemon. processes.11 access points and is based on the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP). when necessary.A type of authentication protocol used on PPP connections. mutual authentication process used in Windows operating systems. Mac. but is considered by some to be more secure. PKI uses a public and a private cryptographic key pair that is obtained and shared through a trusted authority. and various Smartphones. MS-CHAP (MicroSoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) .802.TACACS+ is a proprietary Cisco security application that provides centralized validation of users attempting to gain access to a router or network access server. Whereas RADIUS combines authentication and authorization in a user profile. TACACS+ separates the two operations. It is used for securing wireless 802. RADIUS is often used by ISPs and enterprises to manage access to the Internet or internal networks. ICA is also supported on a number of Unix server platforms and can be used to deliver access to applications running on these platforms. Authorization. There is a wide range of clients supported including Windows. CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol) . authorization and accounting”. Linux. MS-CHAP is used for PPP authentication.1X is an IEEE Standard for port-based Network Access Control (PNAC). and wireless networks. Microsoft's answer to corporate wireless security is the use of RADIUS authentication through its Internet Authentication Services (IAS) product. AAA .Invented by MIT.4: Methods of User Authentication PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) . Domain 6.
1X enabled Network Access Server (NAS) device such as an 802.EAP is an extension to the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) was developed in response to an increasing demand to provide an industry-standard architecture for support of additional authentication methods within PPP. authentication that verifies that the inbound data is from an expected source system as well as encryption for the traffic stream itself. EAP-SIM. Commonly used methods capable of operating in wireless networks include EAP-TLS. Depending on the depth of security needed there may be additional layers of security such as an access badge that operates a door that is additionally checked by a guard. not a specific authentication mechanism that is typically used on wireless networks. and so forth. The PMK can then be used for the wireless encryption session which uses TKIP or CCMP (based on AES) encryption. Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that functions on port 443 by default and uses the standard Hypertext Transfer Protocol with the SSL/TLS protocol to provide encryption and secure identification of the server which allows the server / client communications to be secured. EAP-AKA. EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) .11 Wireless Access Point. Restricting Local and Remote Access – A lot of local access restriction will come from physical security measures but you can also set systems to not allow local login at the console except for certain specific account names in the domain or certain specific account names in the local accounts database. Secure Copy Protocol (SCP) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that leverages the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol using TCP port 22 by default to copy files from system to . Secure Shell (SSH) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that allows data to be exchanged using a secure channel between two networked devices and was designed as a replacement for Telnet and other insecure remote shells. Domain 6. There are roughly 40 different methods defined. An everyday example of this would be anytime you purchase something online and the shopping website takes you from the regular store front pages defined as http:// and redirects you to their secured servers at https:// Simple Network Management Protocol version 3 (SNMPv3) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that is used mostly in network management systems to monitor network attached devices. Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) – sometimes called SSH file transfer protocol is a network protocol that provides secured. Version 3 provides important security features that the prior versions did not including message integrity that ensures packets were not altered. encrypted file transfer capability over TCP port 22 by default. cameras everywhere. Those that are allowed the access should then still need to provide at least a username and password in order to authenticate to the remote system. It provides some common functions and negotiation of authentication methods. which send information including account name information and passwords in clear text. You might have a dual door entrance such as a “man trap” where the first door you badge opens and you walk through it and it must completely close before the next door a few feet in front of you becomes operational to bade through. called EAP methods. When EAP is invoked by an 802. LEAP and EAP-TTLS. such as CHAP or MS-CHAP. Strong EAP types such as those based on certificates offer better security against brute-force or dictionary attacks and password guessing than password-based authentication protocols. PEAP. EAP is an authentication framework.5: Issues That Affect Device Security Physical Security – physical security is just as it sounds. With respect to remote access you can also mange the same principle of least privilege by only allowing remote access to just the individuals that absolutely need it as part of their role responsibly and by denying everyone else. modern EAP methods can provide a secure authentication mechanism and negotiate a secure Pair-wise Master Key (PMK) between the client and NAS. locks on the doors.
Since new threats are created almost constantly.A DoS attack is a common type of attack in which false requests to a server overload it to the point that it is unable to handle valid requests. Remote Shell (RSH) – a command line program which can execute shell commands as another user and on another computer across a computer network. Version 2 did offer some improvements in performance. It has been replaced by Secure File Transfer Protocol (SFTP) which is sometimes called SSH file transfer protocol. It is a client server protocol that runs on port 23 by default. and the ability to attach itself to another computer file. Secure Shell (SSH) is the secure replacement for this utility.Worms are stand alone programs that do not need other programs in order to replicate themselves like a virus which relies on users to inadvertently spread it. cause it to reset. The utility sends unencrypted information over the network including any applicable account and password information. Worm . Version 1 was originally introduced in the late 80s and does not have really any applicable security features available. Adware. Trojan Horses. There are many different anti-virus programs available to prevent and remove viruses.A Computer Virus is a program that can copy itself and infect a computer without the permission or knowledge of the user. Telnet . Often FTP is set up for anonymous access for the putting and getting of files. All of the commands that are sent are done in clear text and any authentication is also sent over the wire unencrypted. Spyware. security. The term "computer virus" is often used incorrectly as a catch-all phrase to include all types of Malware such as Computer Worms. Today it is sometimes used to connect to headless network equipment such as switches and routers by using a command window. There are many different types of DoS attacks including Syn Flooding and Ping Flooding. Domain 6.6: Common Security Threats DoS (Denial of Service) . and confidentiality but it did this through a “party-based” security system that was considered overly complex and it was not widely accepted as a result. allowing it to spread to other files and computers. and does not encrypt any data sent over the connection. Remote Copy Protocol (RCP) – a Unix based command line utility that is used to copy data from one system to another. or shut it down completely.Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that was traditionally used to connect dumb terminals to mainframe systems. internet clients contact a web server and request pages back from that server to their web browsers which render the returned content from the connection call. firewalls and other .system on the same network or across different networks. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that uses port 20 for data connections and listens on port 21. Even when user name identification is required and password authentication is request to systems using FTP it is done via clear text. Authentication is performed using the “community string". Every file or program that becomes infected can also act as a Virus itself. Viruses and Worms can be prevented by installing anti-virus software which can be run on servers. Viruses . and Rootkits. which is effectively nothing more than a password and that was transmitted in clear text. A Computer Virus has 2 major characteristics: the ability to replicate itself. clients. it is important to keep the virus definition files updated for your software. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that is the standard protocol in use on the World Wide Web. Simple Network Management Protocol versions 1 or 2 (SNMP) – Application Layer protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite that is used for system management and configuration. Operating on port 80 by default.
organizations can install wireless intrusion prevention systems to monitor the radio spectrum for unauthorized access points.This is a type of denial-of-service attack that floods a target system via spoofed broadcast ping messages in an attempt to cause massive network traffic. and anyone else who attempts to interfere with normal computer and network operations. Generally. The term attackers refers to any person or group of people that cause harm on individual computers.Social engineering describes various types of deception used for the purpose of information gathering.These attacks can include the interception of email. Attackers . the attacker sends ICMP echo packets to broadcast addresses of vulnerable networks with a forged source address pointing to the target (victim) of the attack. fraud. Man in the Middle . most of the patches and some of the updates are released in order to correct recently discovered security deficiencies in the code. Types of Rogue APs could include one installed by an employee without proper consent. Additionally. Smurf . Patches and Updates – operating system updates and application fixes that are released to enhance security features or to fix known issues with software. Generally they are drafted by system and network administrators as an outline of service and use and legal will generally tighten up the actual meaning. This training usually consists of rudimentary explanations of expected and acceptable use and what the procedures are for violations. These will often define acceptable use of network systems and repercussions for violations. so we'll keep it brief with the following: • • • Policies and Procedures – an outline in a group.We aren't entirely sure what CompTIA is referring to with this term so we will offer a general definition. Social Engineering (Phishing) . organization or across an enterprise which outlines different sets of standards and actions.For the purposes of this guide. virus and malware creators. it will include some basic level of explanation of security threats and how user interaction can help defend the network as well as make it more at risk when the wrong actions are taken. This could include hackers. But in general. Mitigation Techniques . a form of social engineering. These types of attacks are very easy to prevent. . is the fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information such as usernames. a misconfigured AP that presents a security risk. or instant messaging. Rogue Access Point .devices. and as a result. networks. it would refer to any unauthorized device regardless of its intent. To prevent the installation of rogue access points. Management will ultimately need to follow up with approval authorization and who will actually enforce them. or one used by an attacker. This is a form of Data Theft attack. and the internet. files. passwords and other types of data that can be transferred across a network. To accomplish this. chat. All the systems on these networks reply to the victim with ICMP echo replies which will overload it. Users and administrators would generally download these updates manually to install onto systems or set up some type of automated system for delivery to managed systems and devices. These updates are always delivered by the application owner unless a specific agreement is made between the application owner and another vendor. passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication such as email. we can't cover all of the various options to prevent security breaches. User Training – skills that need to be communicated to the end user community that are using the network resources and connected systems. AP from neighboring WLANs. Phishing. or computer system access.This term most often refers to unauthorized access points that are deployed with malicious intent. are no longer very common.
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