1 Vooo ollliory; gadget:;i

4 Grammcar: thtrd mnditlional' 5; Grammar: third (j(:mdi~ionall

:2 Vocobulmy.: describinggudgets :3 Li:stEmingl: ,inventions

" Ward SB{]rch: i iliventioi1S and discoveries


; ::j§l

Match the words, on the ~eftwith the wmils MlOil ke' the names (lif ga dgets.


tile r.i.ghl

board chair



e clip
d. clock ~ cClQ]ar f notes







~8 paper 'y, washing 10

h pad i processor


Matcb the de6iniliolll:S witblhepictlll['es .. W['~te ~he carrect pidure .~et,ter)1l!edtlO each d@ftniUno..





You use thts fur getling your clothes clean.
Tbisis used for chopping, mdxing, find hlendiil!lg. ingredlenrs,

for example. to shred choose to usa on a pizza. ::I, You use thls to \.val!e up in. the morning . .<1 If YOl1lwlInl to keep picc~s Qfp1l1!}[~r~og€thl!):r, ymu can U5~ tM s. 5· If you make a mistake when you. aro writing, you can use this lo cover it,
6 You might use this ~'1'hQDYOIl :I.re chopping up food.

"} Tills is somatlrling you usa with computers. 8 When yom plates are dirty, you might USia this to d.OOl1 them, 17


Listen io len descnptleas of :mveutions. Malcl th'e descriptions
DB..~crlption 1

witb the ttems,



3. pllpGlr dip b microwave


Dcsf':~ipUCin :'I




Description 4
Description Ilescriptkm 5 6

d wtts-cut Ie glassea f


DiRscri.ption "7


Descnpti on 8
Desc:riptio.D 9

h pencil



Light blilb

, :"Unh5




Read theinformawom ,ab!lUlt eaclspersen. that lil:u~ams the s.aD1l.elhing.

Choose lhelhkd. (londitional sentence

Newton S3~.under an aJpple~])~f:and n]sf.:O\'{imci gravity when lila observed an apple falli.ng ilia ground. B. U Ne1lV~o.Dhadn't sat under the app]eb-ee, he wou]d have ~:HsaDv(m~d gr~l\'ity.


]I N!lwlOn

hadn't sat under the <lpple 1iroa,he


have discovered gravity .

.~ An:hi.medes took a hElt~l and, In doing so. disl!:O'I'eredithe .ArCbirn.ed~s priincip]e. Hf1shouted "Eurekal ".when he realized, a b Archimedes ]I Arehimedes

h~Jdn't taken <I bati't. b~ would have shouted "Eureka"! hadn't taken a barh, he wouldn't MV\e shouted ".Emeb"!~
p eniclllill,1I!!l'I.d

3, Fleming



.l'esI11t l{!l~sof p eople di.d]]t~ die fmm. iUm:':ss.


]I Flmliling

]f Flening

hadl) 't dlscevsred plIDiciUin, lOotsof peeplewould bave died. hadn't di5.coveredpeIl.iciUjn, lots of peopl.e wouldn't 11.8Jlle died . wnich c!iused~)ech.[I(]IJ[}gy to dcvelop faster,



Pm,.kes h,ac!discovered plastic, technological dav{lLopm.{lntwould have' bean slower. b If Parbs hadn't discoveredl plastle, lechnologica~ d.evoa~opmentwould have beeiJJffi.lower.
~ Curie d:i:scCI\fered radium. UnfOrhlll!lliei y. as a result" she d:ied. from le ukemia, ,O!, Curie had discovered :!<lJ:iiU.ll1, l~h~\i~'l)lJ.ddn·l ave dledtrotaleukemla. h b If CIITJ.ehadn ''t discovued rsdlum, she wouJdit!J.t have diecl from ieukemie. '



Crick and WlftS{ln di.s(.'Overed DNA, which meant scienrl sts were able to dOillJe Iivi ng th ~ Tlgs. a If Cri.ck and Watson hadn't d]scov~md! DNA, scientists wouldn't have boon able to done livtng thiJ:J!gs. b If Crick and. Wa'lSOFI had discovered DNA, sclentlsts weuldn'thave been able to done living things"


Co.mJlhJ~o tholbiiFd. cool1i:iJtlon al 8enlen.ces wiHIL.1l.E!' I:lIJlFil"ed form !TIll" tile verbs t in pare:ntheses, 1. if Bm Gates lu#ine :iaW:ed (not start) Microsoft. be ml!.ddnt ~ ~ (not beoome)
so rich. 2

Leonard.o da Vjnci scientist, [f Be.lljiElm:in F:ranllio.

[livi::) ]n the 20th cen:h:nry,. he
(not fly)

(heJ a famous
(nm strike]

kite, lightni.ng



[f Bessie Nes.rn.U.h If A1f:rod Noba~ Nobel pri:!l:®fundi.



secretw:y, she

(not invent] w:i.te·out.
(not leave) lots of 1liI.0J]ey~o star] the (net design) the raierowave

(be) poor, he (not malta)

III if LsBaJiOD oven.

1lIllStakS, ha

TfJonas Salk

[not find] a vaccine for polie,

mere people



If A ~(It}!;a;ndill" G~ah lI![1lJ BaH (not i.nvant~ the l'elepbonG. eommunteanaa _____ (not beClOm,e) so much ·!lllSlel".


Do th.e word search. The tlhe·me :is .m velllloni'i and Idj:scovel'i es, p U D S H G. D fA M 0 E L I F T G 1M 0 G I
'I( ill


:2 -_._--3 ------41, -----5


H W Ii K A P lA D

C Ii J





fi -----_.-


G E 11






N C r Il


N S R A D ! UI M 'Q 1ft


Vocabulary: food nutriients end d[e~

4 Vm:;abulmlf: desuib:ing food'

2 PrOl'llindotion:

rood words

5 Vocabulary; descr~bif'!grood
" Listening,:. dhQoolate

3 Ustening,; fO\lom~ foods


M.akm tlUilwords

with tbe d.e:6nUions.
substence in foods sufi 8JS. bread 11I1U[ p(!~toes that.gives yew body energy suhstanee Umt is addmli to food m drill ks to make them t:;L'lhl sweet C8i good combmauen of Ioods tu help keep yOllJ healthy - not tee mud1L or Httle of8Jny Cine type of food d 11 substance in mods such as THI.Elat, fil~.s> and milk that keeps you. hfilalth.y j;i' sl!!I.bst:3J!Ilcf!lskrundin foods that li::oop ycm hea]thy. E:!Ich onG jeo, giv~m a latter from thealphabet f someone W~~O is addicted. to chocolate g the units used for m.ells:m:ing how much energy you get from. you!" food
aJ 8J .o!

halenced diet caleries carfuoh.ydrflt.es choaoho~ic

2 3


protein 7 sugar B vltamms


help food pass IkrOllgll your body

the parts of fiLtH, vegetables.ead grains that



does not use bill that.



Write t1litewonJIs in. tl\te eorrect cohJJ1inn.in the lableavco.rdmg, to the stress. Them listen. to. check.
protein rninerala






!I •••

circulation carh Dh ydrate suhstanee choeohof c
4 •.•••



Lislen hil the convE"!·csa.liillilrl. rite the W to eacbperson according to wnatlhey
2: 3: 4


p~cbtfif! letter nlex~ like. There aTe two extra pictures,

Nhl.eo likes eating ".

likes eating


Sandra likes eElt~g

Ii kes ~::IHng .. _

The bad tbings about chocolate. . :Ether calortes lralanced diet Many people now have lIlmoS!l unl lmitsd choice about what tllJey {tat P~p19 are also extremely jm:pocla:m:e of having a (1) of pmt~in_ O:n® major source of (2) aWfLH! of the is .4 Complete the paragJa:phw. In the modern wo:dd. f~w~r and few~l' people nrs eating (it) food. 1 chiclen .they contained. Where cboeulate came from. WEiS the HIe'!' the diet People began t~~kingthese pi ~ tl'linking that il meant Is they could keep on eaUng things with high levels of [5]1 number of (6) t that ('7) . Why sugar is addled.rry ahout the this simply lad to more people being from 'Vegetalblesami. ad) acti ve:i' Lot!lk at the WDI\ds IIl'wno each blank to hslp you decide whGther a noun or l'ill lIdj~ctive goes tile!€'. Unfortunately. Is it a noun oe aI'J. The of fiber. 5 Match the w"Ords wiffu. to supplement and not wo. This fish honey oranges pota-toes rice ~p].. WithOlnl suffidG'nt carbohydrates fruit. your body cannot be healthy. One of tlle.i. eggs. drink. Check the things he mentlens. people feel happy. uses of cucoa beans hy the Aztecs. and (8) thy u S. dlE! defiIII. h[lDWn B Y°E. 'Ii. be Jess fatty than n. in countries Iike the U $. This fo 0 d is part]GldaJ'ly rich in iron. is addictive" 5 fi '} Why chocolate £I Wby chocolate makes. White meat is meanttn This lou d is made from milk and hils [I high pmwi n content.2 a iii This food is swoot because it is naturally high in sugar.'I 101 Liste':n to arnanta~king 1 2.tcb 3 4J [) c do e f g h roo d is.url type contal IlS .ld meat. When it became popular as a. Sume types of this are high in oil and most r:ontain lots ot' protein. '7 This type of food is very high in vttannn C.tbms. This is known as a white moot. 9 . and cheese. Of GOul'S~.. high in carbohydrat0~ and starch.iith the wordsfmm vitamins fut protqin the box. Thls is a typ e (If grain that comes in many colors. with plenty dairy products like milk. One trend that began in the use of (4!. Why chocolate helps protect you against heart disease. 3 4 about chocolate. Who first brought it back to Europe.n. what we eat is [ust asimportant lIS it was fifty HINT! Think about whaf part of speech each wo:rccl is.1.

or pest pmg ressive! 5 Rscadif!lg~eX4'lorers 1 Complete each sentence with the correct past peoed form of tbe verb inponli!!nth:esE!'s. (faU of favor Circle the correct verb fnrm to cOPl. .he f 1~lh'1d been rkmnin:g b was planning By the and of the fifteenth century. Cbeck tIm COlf. he for bWlisn't 1'a01:13 tfu€rr::twice. l!. rmbus sailed to the Amerlcas in 1'198.9!iI.e pradice: disooVery words 2."VhoW<ils the first p~rsCi:n to realize the Americas ware not part of Asia? u o ~ ~ [:I ~ 0 0 Q.plete the· se'Jiltl..sun 1 3 4.. ~ t aheady Il(lV·er [Q] --101 ~lodl'T 1 &211----rage . alFea. he _ B~fore Cohlmhus help by the king of Portugal.<likel his with lie Jlli~gand Q_u.he thougM he _ breached '1 LWEen Col.g.. 0 01 01 01 ~ 01 [JI . tl!~]'d. (A..md explorer for each 'qllestiom.2 he _ 0 the W6sl Indies. voya. '"" {I '1 Calumbus he last voyage" --101 -1011-----. as far as Iceland. How do lliey rela:te to l'lar:n otn~'I1 1 \tVhen Calursbus iii U dtseovered ~ America..ad re. he _ had looked 1<.. hn f0)1had <!heady been b WlIS a~r~ady 8 LWian Columbus died in 1506. 101 When Isabel gave Columbus her su pport. .i1k about the rime ofthl'l two clauses in €Il1C b sentence.: . WhD is JI!In~ read_ing ahcut? 01 . (fail) to find very much gold.lI!1i!1e his. was already refused 5 6 1<:911tad already sailed f(.eor Itve ye8iirs. ·W'ffitcn Cl]jlum'bIlil!!I m..i)1h..~ Who ~aV'ethe West Indies their name? Who wanted to [each the Spice Isllmds? o Who WEllS: a Viking? 5 ~ '] 6 Who was Amfl. l'eached. in areundthe ye!lil UmO? . (tah:) women befnrs . the ElIsl[ndies.~:_ 6 -101 -101 . . lNhen 11.eacaad r .lIvel'SatimIII about explorers. 1~lhadl1't sailed sailing Li stell to the ID£u.1 Grammclr' past Pcerled sirn pre and progressive 3 lis1entng~exp~orern 4 LanguQg.".lumliulII!I E!!'ik:.een. . U·y 15<00. Gromm(]r: pest perled. [ttElva]] fo].!llIces.out]Crn. h sailed Americ-a. he e. (a.d. ..y known bad already been refused 3 <I 1<10I<ilieBdy b the worl dI was round. (look) for a new route to the Spice Islands. h~ Wben Ooluml:ms. than five years.wifDeiW to SP8ilinb~emn IitiS_ .. three weeks.._. knew Think about which one happened f rst in time. :simple past.r:ieanamed after? Whow!lIS from Florence!' "VIlo landed! in Canadia. people _ a hail. m1:l:m.ttack) by some ofthe settlers.ge in 14. u~ hB nm iis tel1. .acb~d "discov{m~d" America in 1492.ClJl'o rnl ." a he 4 he .~. HINT: Thi.• (make} two earlier voyages..:9IW<l5 looking Fora way to mdi<l_ :2 When Col umbus se~sail In 1<l!92 _ the \'oY8J.

n1il: expedition he led dk:! f1Hlfl:age [0 drcu m f1aviga[e the WU rld. 0:1' way you go &o~none place to anolber settlers ~ peor Ie who ~o to RV(Iin a new p.:hs'entlelu.espedeUy by lioal 5 I. search fur something b 10 ask a quesuon about ~om€'tbi)1g route 4 a b 5 . . He had bean thin king of giving up when h am ::Ide his discovery..5 Q i:J 0 0 1:11 [:J ~ 01 [JI i:J I:J '6 'I 0 II He wasn't looldng fo[ I.en.I::iJG!3' b no ]on. supplies. f f!ri kS500 set out to explore thj. On rus return ro lee land. However.1 colonize a '(lxtnnneJy great 'Oil" big b lo send people to live in.r..~new I. bur he did n'r.fII longer way than necessary theroad.eif owes much to Bj:Jfna Herjollf. t.. 1:1 CI 0 Q 0 0 0 0 I:J! Q 01 0: 01 .r>eaHy do. (J I:] .nd.$ about turn LIl~ back.l sailed arnund the \vmJd. was blown Qff course in a storm and s~h[ed IMd.e'adlhe ted aiJuutthree' expdQI'.m rI.lclFer ror ear... unfortunatelY. Mageiral1. He planned to "discover" America. He oweS his luck. were light and the (nod 'Am ru nnlng au t. . but rhii'ippines 1iQjW<lgc. worris d or Hel"!IOUS VOYllBIB iii! Iii b to search for 60metlring a long jou.rney. America.Chec.!> [hou.e.'a.']! be one of rhe u n[uckie.::. J1jfar'ni told people of h is adventure and I. around SOD years before Columbus. a newplaoe 3 quest a .i. Amenc!l.sr European earlier. ]U5{ a few days before [01 LI rnbus was ~ucky when he d lscovered he sighted land. and tab! control of."ilY [hrou~h ehe ClIDlumlilIDS 1 Eriksson Magf:l~rnan He WllIS trying tu reach Indl 11. 'to someone He died on One of his vOYllge5. 0 else's misfortWlI'L 2: J: <1 He is known f[](f something he didn't . If Columbus haun't been derermmed ro find a rome ro tndia. He.8J[lot. explorer (0 reach. ship blbe people w 110go to live in.:~t exp'orers. On the or her hand.ge.'. V(!t)! ~ucky ".. some fourteen }'L"aL1. lie was short of essential.~ Lei f RLik.e. He must have heem to lce]allicl or lived there .gh~ to be t11Cfir. he had been tillk11'1. t-Ie i~ known as the m~m who fj.helJtcountry 2 crew a rue peQP~9 who work on EI.'i5rm. parh. The l\'jndrj..on who. Ferdinand M1ilgdJan [[:UJI. was killed In the jUM over h a]f.a.r who wa.re.. men who know~ what would have happened..kthe name ruf thllcorred exp. Am llhcr cxplo.

u.R5L_ ..owho read ras~iofi magazines Fool they are ov.. Cencernsaheut fi [9 images ofbealllt:y which are presented in the chi] dren iii T\llf. is g People who suffer from acne C8Jn aJ skinand Most w'O'm. . 2.e Ell[] cOined sentences. shceld also consider their 101 hea1ili.I'Tec1t Oil" I 0 o iimcorrood.t:rem. o 4 6 ~ Obesity. I r A B G C X IN J J G 0 I 0 IF J Y XLNBD0T N H ID I Z Z Y (I 0 P I I~I P L J D Il N S Y Y V N E E P 0 18 G t.. )111].Jg~s. a['@i~ about thatr leeks 0 K. L 0 t.IOI 3 Eighty par'~Il'Jllof men who h. 1 2: 3 011" non-defimmg relative .uffel"health ]lIlJobl.-.SiE!:\'iialFe 1 2 DF Elena .e~f tm.. c N8C 1 [Q]. Parents who arecencsmed about their should !:IDcourage beaUhy eaffii[Qj clethes . Dotibey cmllitaima 'defi:nmg Check Dle/iniRg or NQR ~defiR. N Z K IQ 0 0 R J K ]I[ .ers who wony girls.~de'6n:ing da1!ll. who tee h<lPlPYalb01i!ll their looks.~ 0 G K l D V E V 1 IP (I K 1 M E K.2 . B A FJ L D' SK0E [Q]__ '7 [Q]______ 6 __ I) _____ [Q]__ " TEDEPXf W V R S. brum on a WO' .lp<!!fl the pro~:{iem" of .Anorexia.A IF M SA0S UAWCSMJ P 0 r 'e s E B B E S 1T ¥ 0 I N [) I <G E 5 D B G N Z U IF Q 10' K . who d lst. is now regarded as an Ub:ltil'ls. ~ry "'1lI':i(n~s disease.whteh is a Jot less than Ihey spend ~rnL!n:llity" 8\i\1'om.clause? Fashlou magazlnes aw rid I Cif im ag. JI G GI C t.Brain and beauty 11 Grammor: defili1lngtJlild non-dhliFli ng r~lolille :3 Ward soorch: imoge (lind neollh 4 Voc11bulmy: i mgge end tJoo~nn § R':eading: ordering n ·tex!'(Joou! image douses 2. who commit cFimes • . who is an expen on.::ur!. Grammm: defining and non-daning ~el'aliveclauses '1 Read the sentences. which is becoming a major problem.e defimli:ngand. K p X N R IE N I T R I <0 0 N A U S E .o People.e. C NI E S M I S N Po.m 0 I A.·ear 0.rn'5.'hkb affects m<Lny b~{inaSi() irls.emswhen they get older.IOI meciia. Read the sentences and de(::id. ere m:ely to .101 _ liliego.S. spend $Hi billion on di~t p1'OdUf:t~L IC?I . wat am full of pictllNS showing thin w0:l11cn. N L T .enljOeight. The im. "'" 10 ___ :-~-=====-[Q]___ ~----------- 11:20 0 N G 50 D Y po E 0 Q T 0 ~ ].'.!il5 of women who ilalve perfect are slim..11 '!iI'YO'llng 10 l'eenag.should we.en in the u.!. The the:me IS: Hna. Cameron.[ 4 Magazines.. health.lI_g.i:nll!1.!1:1y heemful. CII'J. C S l J 10.. Ii E NI K P' Bra in and beouty .t fiJl magazhres can he e:x.I A NI E IMI . l.~ ___ -~---0 .ge·and hefllth. l!HlII!I..IOI :I DiD' theW-lOrd search. 'Cbecklh. become very depressed.1Ihli."" Imm I~' "I COnfi<ion~. _0________ 3 ___ N 1M. works in San t.

the definitions. lIllag!:l lu~ eh#'i!ilj'!1 S8B~~':HHfle'!!'l8ftt.s with. This obsession does not only manifest itself in the pictures in many of the glossy lnilgflzinos. So. women in the U. dieting than they do on begin dieting you can never stopl A worrying thought for 011 len times the amount! Although women spend a lot the problem is that most of thee e dieb don t work. whenyou llLMI o!.)h:ng again. either physkalily or mentally 5 Write the article in the correct order.Jry. is eaten fetlHng as if you 0'1' '7 !Ii n obesity 1111 the things around you al1l spiunlng. And.s so fat it is dangerous for his or her hea lth f g h a serious illness. but in the hundred}. in which mtle or no food. I clothes and }ewe. especially when you think you are going to fall having lots of acne on your face a fee1Jllg of being extremely unhappy <I fefi. the danger is that ouce man y people. wi th little or no hair on your head eo a condition in which someone . amount In met.ling of being extremely timd. The reason Ior this is that when yuu start di!ltin~. spend almost 'Len tmu'lS make-up and other beauty prnduets.gaR8BieFft Brain a nd beauty . your body records this. or it 3 >4 .1t l'!. Then. 5 Iii d.4: Matchthe :1 Z wurd.S. your body begins to to compensate for the next time you starve jt! this amount ill still only a third of theamount storl1 some of the food as fat in order spent on keeping thln. }'OU lnO~~ 0[1 01 mousy spent Oil them. a b c 11 general anorexia bald depression disorder dizzy fatigue nauseated obsession pimply term fOf a medical condition or Illness feeling sick or dtsgusted an emctioeal state in which someone or semethmg is so important to you that you are always th]nking about them. e't.j68 @l. of diets that lite around and the. mainly in women.!3"""B_Y~ it'Setl1He te l3(.

cmitmenl.2 TllewomMt is.1 hich is why I can do it 2 3 5 She wasn't good at math. I have good spatial awaeeness.tests 8t!!'9 now used for iDb rn.i~iers relc~~lve doyses es 3 Ustel1ing.a:ll. tests? 3 o Q I:J 4 Who isn't very good with shapes] 5 (I o o o o o o o o '7 8 {I o o o o Wbo cleimsto be in tel tigl3'ntin a way thaJt is not tested by most Brail'! and begufy . which is why I didn't do well En school. tests are inaccurate? WhQ thinks spatial awareness can he Isamed? Who explains how to get the correct answer to' one of the questions? Who first mentions the idea of different kinds of intelligence? Who knows how many kinds of intelligenoa there are in the idea of multiple intelligences? I. tests are now being us-ed in job interviews.godge procfice: pronunciatlo-n ~ LOl'Iguage: pmClice: woras connected with 1-0. 7 fCF. used as frequently which is why some learners don't do welt which is why I've n!iJwr taken one. Decide if each question refers to The man or The woman. which is why shu i~ unhappy. tests are accurate. I hated exams. 'le.rect .6 Mary just failed hee drh.. li!. which is what they were ongtnally devised for.Q. 4 He has poor spattal awareness. tQ. 'l sports. is why I'm pmtty good at puzzles. Buys are usually more spatially aWare. r. 2 Check the sentences that are cor.Brain and beouty 1 GrOimmo r: llion-dieti'ning rekltive dcuses as S'entene'e modifiers 2: .srr \l\(holltinksm. which 'explains why he couldn't complete the puzzle.Q.Q. tests. tests.efin ing sentence mod. 1 :2 3 I don't believe lQ.Q. There is mom pressure on boys at school. t I don't understand the question.Gramm(u: nonr-d. whieh explains why I'm not good at I. whlch is what they were originally devised.fining relative clauses o.8· Nobody has explained how it got there which ]s why we're So confused .ogic<ll reasoning and n umeri cal ability. g which is where the idaa of mulnple 8 I~I Intelligence comes from.ring test. 101 IC)I c d which Is why theyaren't nowadays . is why they don't do as well as girls on 4: I... 5 I'm not very go a d at math" S Most tests assess l. . Listen to a man and a woman talking about lQ. ta. exams.te$~S 4 IJ:J n. which is why t~ey do betterat j.Q. discrsd ltad. tests 1 Match the sentences on the left with the non-de. The mall 1 V\lho . .n the right. tests have been.51 which ? which Some people have dilferent kinds of Intelllgenee. which explains she failed. reading the magazine"? \lVhohas takon an tQ.

'• • • •• abilities •• '.or'G. 1111 fact. • n.n~n]§ence ' ' .rds from the box. (7) :against people WI! th other kinds 'OFabi Uties such as (8) tlI~'elilt.g quotien:t tests. • .. pO:Siiti..typically skills (the abinty to (5) awareness and their use numbers) and (6) _~ (th e abil it)' man ipu lata shap'e~..: ioooWgenee.. • '.. people around the worl d (I» ~ of (2) have been u.lies '•. • • . srtlsue ' nLlmeri(".:1Il • • . a way how smart they Oli'Fl!!.on.h~te thetext ilbi1mleS with the wo. Ev.4 Uste:nto lbe w10nls cmd underliae 1 " cognitive ' . .. inte]] • . .• ' 2: spatial • 3 disel']minlil~f:l . few (4) _ 10 .1 ' ' tJhe proJlUIDciatiom ' ~ i... ove r th e years many of these eests have been (3) as peepl e have co m e to reall ze dIal th ey Oil! re qui~e limirted in thai r scope.). 4 " 'em PEIIUllZ.. cogni ti ve discredited discriminate in tellige nee art j stl c assessing For more' than one hundred years.. .1 • " .e ' S • ilssessiDg •• . .mpl. discredited • 1 • .1 Y014 hear . 9 empathize • assessing 10 8JbUi.kin. . el i:gccI1l::e discredited numerl en I "" artistic • ..1. Quite cilealf~y. as.these kinds of mesa.. • • . Co.. ' • . However. diil:serim inate • .' . ' cognltive spat~al • . n umerical spatial 5. iM ost tests O'l1Ily focus on 0:lJ. . peel [il le real ized th at tQ-tests di d not guve 11 fu Il pictu re. sophii &cucated than any of the tests devek)ped so far: Broi nand beo uly . assessing sorneenes (9) abHities can be extremetry trkky and ailmost cer~iy need's somethi ng br m.s. '.en in the days before Gardner's theory of mliitiph..

4. same more. 0 ' Important. You don't mink. AUergies are increasing.abulory=heallh and disease 6 Usferning:lifestyle diseoses 1 Circle the 'COllect endtng fur eaeh sentence. You can rook well. i. ? ? ? 1 ? 23. Is she? 'Y.. completely B !11 r Ipl is it shou 1d they dishes. 1 YO1.. Peep I e H VIlI' IO]1_g{lTrnowad . 0' We should help Mom do the He looks really healthy. t People in Japan have thoelongest life sxpectanc lt's not good to eat lots of suga.I" 2 Japanese women live the longest. P{i-opl~shouldn't sIDoke. C!ln"t you? Unit 9 Brain and beolJiy - __..IO~ isn't it 'won't a we II.JJYS..ru 'l it c c c e <lie n't it do thelY dueslhey c don't they don't th y hasn't it don't tho._ - . wouldn't you? Men uSlLlaHy drink more You're from Ne\\' York.~ . do they? 1 :I rack just had a heart attack. h~1j' alcohol than women.Brain and beauty 1 Grammar: tag questions 2: Grammo'!". is 4 5 Ii 'i . 10 She.[]U '91 10 can speak Spanish.IOI 0 e. t Whal people ". '1 Nothing .I're nry healthy. we c don't e is. ~ a is a it b b b iii ill i. W(I a do they a II it do s th isn't it sheu ldn 't the-y shouldn't ]t Heart disease is tJrrQlggest killer in !:he developed world.B. aren't you? Nothing is completely healthy.r. He's old.s. El:IlIng junk food is bad.o't in She's very beautjful. 3 Men usually don't 4 0 live as long. doesn't be? He's real 1y fit. :. H e c II: a does It a does he II b are doesn't he isn't FII} didn't it shouldn't we Life expectancy used to 100about 101 1 III Wa should do more exercise. is H? .!havrm'] been there. 47 years.IOI' shall we b III. ? 3 Check the sentences that are coned. YOl.eats too much chocolate. 5 '6. El '1 II '? 1 ? f 9 You 'VI) stopped dieting. wasn't it b should WEl 2 C-omplete each seatenee with the correct tag question. don't they? You'd bke. tag questions 4 Pronum:iatio:ri: intoliotion ill tag questions :3 Grammo r: tag q uesncns 5 Voe.

Llstenand decide :if t1\tespeaker is asking for imonnation or checkinginfo:rmatioD.. diseases are f.S women.Z 9· You ~xf!rdSjj: (lVtu·y day. is:n'~iH 01 .ar less of. This is often like the U.V{! Gig<l'XGtte. aren't Yflbl'? This tastes great. and alcehol _ '1 . watel'..estiom.3J . ago... by ~ating the wrong kinds lm provements in slmita:tion ..• ]IfP . aren't you? o o o o B diidn't you? 1:1 o o o o o o o 9 10 h wasn't you.m't yom! 4 6 7 Men don't livess ]on.. andthe all aresnl 3 4 .md general Hf(l ~xpoctancy_ He<U'lt dise. day more than. don't you? o hygiene bacterial Im~style stress o 01 abuse chronic infected expectancy 1 The biggest.hllsOOnd wo[k so m U!cb'~ [nb security job SPllaJkel" 5· 3 he's concernedebom he has it .a.mericao. [If food. five ctgamUes it costs too much he dloesll't have enough t]mG b 5..hlUe. a to relax 11 to fo:rgetllhollt 4' SiP(1. dr. doesn't ~t? You cookl2d this yourself.l'i. o ~ o 0.. Writetbe coerect disease from. ..[Ik(. do th~'i' You're eomtng out tonight. 5 You're married..5 .lf O! tJheitEpm blems 4 us~di to smoke .K. Speaker 2 S~H!ilkeT3 Speaker 4' :2 What dn es Speaker 1 mean by "it's not surprising "1 a the.T[I b important Sp~k1lr thinks that m.rs in developulg 2: ln countries cOUfl..ase and cancer are' two __ 101__ Mo:my of the diseases peop I:~face to day are caused Many of to day 'sillnesses diseases. S. aren't you? That's had kil' you. the· box next to the ltllmber of the . alcohol In of exercise obesity t srnoking stress Speaker 11.mCIl!lIlI of junk Inn dJ people eat bWe fact that many people are OooSR l!VhY does Speaker iilJ 2'5 . than they were 3 Llstente peop I!etilllking about lifeS:ly ledislIlaSJes. a b Brain and baa uly . Them listen agam and circle the eorrect answer fOol" each qu.5 fi t of tno much wo:rk and worrles conneeted Life has almost dou'bl ®ri in the last HJOi ye!3:rs. .II are due tome wEly people lead their Hves.:Thlly people drink .i~'g. .speaker.tries are dteeases people catch from c"lr:inKing U. are lwo ofthe major reason s fur th e lncraase ill lllnesses that affec1tmany people today. Asking 1 Cbe>l!::king: You're l'I. a majnr causa of m health ]s tomalley.. These areknown as msans that The invsnneu of anUbiotks 100 yean.g 1I_. .5e. day Sp eaker 5 didn't join his local health cl ub bees 1J. Check Asking or Check.:1IproMe:m. was it? You want morn.

in centrast to the dry surrounding properly sothey ls turned 5 Many rlehpeeple People should he encouraged to turn off the Invery Mot weather tlre COO become '7 Dunng the driest part of Ula YVaf.OIl!rS that there W::lS 111.1"of syllables for each word ]I. water lush 1 drains drop shortage drlnkahln bu~kot:'l fuur. In.ro e three B Il 011 one one (lOG b two h two b b two e three e three II: tn[lfl:C iii 'i 8 iii ens two G three .nyficoIJIIe in India use . blocked and startto 37 Z Listen and circle the CITIIFFect numhe. I-i.lage o. ]n most of~hc _ area. lalnguag:e practioe: pronu no1otion 4 Grummor:quanlifiers 5 Gr~mrnor.a It 3J one one b two b two c three th:OOE: :2 c three C' 3 4: 1) aJ 01 onl) ona b b t\'I'O tv.) Them was so little rain 4 16. ill frem wells.\111lfl:f COWlI:ry. eoumrtes where there is. a d 11.'.ul supply _ W1Ite'E Only aJ small peroeelm.I The world around us i i:J1flQ.ffue world's wOller is to' draw ttl!} sumnHlr 2 MlI. th(') water B off [or three smell. a lack of waler" it is important te cOflserveevery in India have gardens. .UClg:e p:radice~ words COinneded with waler 2. few/a few/little/a IfNla 6 Grommar: quantifiers 3 Uslening.. don'l waste water.

cesand.they waste. Z H~'5 f!1l\~lIdyhad every' I hamly . a About half / severo) / very'". CI o 1:11 Dan. s:pmmcr.R.rn. enou_gl [J o ~ 3 <1.little the {I There are every I . :Ev.aiI HUla wal. hi.e. don't weT 6 '1 T.. He o s. There was 8J few / m~fly / very litHelo s:tartwiLh.gs wa should clio.. of lire.e progrram to check. Few people mink shout how much :wate']. Although we haveoocorne We m. l.11iI:n is O(J~md in. F~w people Therewas There were CI!II1l 2: affordto bu y whatever they want. He g8ive .hl th. have also 4l Circh" the entre ct quanti6.<l tl:i!ltlPeopie don't many _ just how ]mpo.~ to look at what we do with this '~Dli heen (10)001" contlll:m:inllting much reSOMoe..aro.'IjI'.cebeFgS far mom ~\1O!tw LiI'!<'1n Gan ~B)I . of]t in the first place. 110 There is a few I severo! I very JiUJe we can actuaUy do about tile problem. 8J W8Ji tilf.j wSiter there wou]d be no Me. you gb .ahollilt it.any / sa'~m' 3 <l nt's imp ortmrllo use eve'o/ I.I"JI'ect mean:img of Jew/a jewllitfJeiu little. 11mre'~ ]Ht1~ rain during " ] mew there 8< o o o wme a few places we could get fresh watar.y SIDliU arnountwhen d andthe you think . "7 A !.o1: of th~ !!la.hey don't get CI ffJW I a lot of I !fJiV min in pans of Africa.1Wil o o CJ [:J Not.l!~rl n wamr. !li Wa' maUl' WQ5tQJ a groat d(J(1J of I liIfi!_ith~1[: of tht: I 5~Wi'ml w~tllr.l 5 ting ]]1 B]1J. glasses ofwater.~i'am:ly any I very little drop. 1 L(m. 8 Them is very l:inle fresh waler in the world.k!There 's a 1o.angcst things isthat ili8m we do.ly any len. which is an a:ma:zingl. wat!lif.e .!of I e<veryI.a!fiw ceatatn ffiq. 1% 70 % Ii Complete' the summ ary of a radio Jlrogram:with mnunt the' words fnun the hoiX:.rtJmt\IVat~r is. The world around us . we simply (fi.g it and making it more aecesstble. seatence. hen IisleQ T understand vi l1l1 witho ut dri nk Icad ing rc-sp onsible reuse [k Paul RioOOrrsis a 1(1 J (2] of the surface 'Of our planet IiIIId(4!) sb'. 16. 6 )llI.Jea.!Jail I severolthin. it again and again.me a ]jnh~ lOllgel'? 01 G 'Chock the sentences that are cor. We reall y can't waste any. Dmy [1) 01 water 1i~'hatevel' of water .er.1ean:in. 1 2: ::I Sevlfrnl people warned me there'd btl a problem.el' tio complete each.ezy I Few I Hal! peop~e seem to wO!rry alwut how lliiuch water they use.oocl.few people dono_ o o We bad: a lm~e time left.. It's also intrnnstin!. One of the will always. I'm sure there WIIS few left.]1 pol. liNI !lWO could .dthe :seDh~!Il.stg:ive me flew ~:iters.Afew time we Clmdcl see signs either 41 Do you ha~ of the mi Ik!' 5. .l.5 .uch better !ill tlll:ii:nag care of wllte~ by c. .t. Waler rovers around I[a. cbec:kthe 1 cO. bs the same (5] . is actlJ18JHy rinkable. wateI' we use is was'!)~d.

with their W8Js~e. USf! a passi VB OF acri ve fumi.M of . (m1Jl5ll be) more careful. ][ People ________ People ________ :2 [sh[]iuld not ----- 11I1]OW}~D 0[[1 make so much 1!mS}L 3 Taxes ________ oil (ought to !lncrease] {should I non-recyclable products. 3 CUJDPI. a besns chocolates ice cream juiee toothpaste wins b chips 'C A beg of . .r1." . \'llbat flavor is that container of ice cream? .nnaded with Wilsie 1 Mah::h the enntainars containers 1 .. with..ood form efthe mu da.l'e(l nd pillssi.lFlciol1ion: s1ress in phro:SeS 3 Grammar: modal verbs octii'.e) to USG biodegradable centainers. Companies ___ You _______ fJiI1COufOlQ.. A bottle of . 1 Can r h.98J b8J~flf chips? 2 3 4 How much isthat boule of ".p. with the prodllcts... (should! not I pay) so much tax. Then listento chock.A Crull of beans. We need another lube of tooth paste.ve 5 wnguoge proclice: words oo. ~: 2 'U nde'f'Une thestressed words in each sentence.JiV..rn.. [should not I put) in iliis trash CaI1i. 8 D who. Iitter ________ P13Qph'lwho mcyda ________ 10 Clsss bottles ________ .p.. (sTh[JiIJJd try) tv use plastic f bags more than once. People ________ Veg.~.te the sfmtel!l(:e!s in parenfheses. s 6 7 (]lUll'll not I dlll.andve:rb Decide \vhether to.. He ate a whole hal" of chocolate! ill 5 6 \tVadrink two cartons of j nice '7 8 day.etllblll' waste ________ PCD'p]e (ou:gh~~o j plltJ on 11 compost ne!l.. A tl[lb~ of ..rine? Pass me the jar of .The world oround us 1 VOO] burary: mntai ners -I- 4 Re(]djn9~ SlJJC1[9 junk: 2: Prorll.honey.r .. please. the cOlif..(ought! pay) a heavy fine.r~ "" d honey e' f g h 5'l B Acarton 0:1' 6 Af. A DOJ< of . containee of .2 11 C8iD. Some go with merethan one product.p]1 your trasbhere. A. can of .

bfodegrll.. water.1.AU p:lck. 2. hnUl ss. 1.l1g vel'Y big e enteriag C' 11 b b E:mpty a.(l~hat pnUs a sense of of dangl:1!:[ th:ing.og '7 <IIW'l3'. or land a hCll~ in the ground in which garbage Js put can f g.}lRS.g up vast a a 01 miling mes5}' I'!!~W b deari.01 the fOl"('. destroys lImllzi.something more than once I¥lrb~gc incinerator lao. estimates 4 f::!ku I<Itions lmp ortent people i'lrgumtmts concerns deblcJs collides with gHl\r~ty a opinions a broken up trash a . 11 sed! fur~ppiIlg Wa$tf! pm d ucts d Ii: semethmg dial isthrown away - or j unk ~ litter '7 0.dllMe a to use . dut1~rin. a 4 Iii p~.3 5 6 iii b b b inform<ltion 'G 'C space helps 11 :IemJf hits bodIl~. made from something that harmfu I to tha environment be broken up natllrnUy an d is not h glUbagethat people have dropped on the ground in public places The world emu nd IJS .ging pollution recycle b G a rnaehine that d~stroys garbage by burning it b'l'l.'Is1iG..sto the ground responsibility 1 2.some8 c helpful C . the process of damaging the ail'. etc.

l1ow what rood containsThe man thinks fhat aU food is altered The man th iIlks .. • ... "\'Ve "Lots of Ieod '1 a cure soon.'• . The anrmymnus worker claimed that production nBid stm. Cows can be fed .CB.llg 9 11.[]~alli.' .e:r 5. . "We ~.l GM fuod had lots.'.'. The man thinks Ol£om_! c food 005tS mwv_ 01 Mill can't be GM free..4. o[ beneflts. _ the benefits (]If GM [ood.odify genetics lmplanting • • • . LcmglJoge pmcilice: pro.'tecli ~fure they knew the dang/Elr..mri nated • • . to help poo.hl y SbCl'P!plDg. '.r people.. '" 3: Th".." The !Company spokasp ersen clanned they had ah8ac]y seen me benefits of GM food. .The world around us 1 Grammar: reported to direct speech 2. • nourish • '. then it must 00 gClOdi. opposition party sta~(ld that lots of food was being imporll1:d.vHb GM foods. 6 genetics '7 •• Jie:nil1z.tieIll. ' •• • .l]JJate(i.g. Check :JEllS OF False rolf each !il'E!liI. •• ' • .n u n.0 '•. • '." bGforn we the d':rr!ng~r. . fertilizer Aoudsh • 8 '. of the verb.' m. The woman wiH eat anytbil:n. lJ 10: OW' lJ D! The woman thinks that if 8'o[!Jl(lllhi[IS dD['l~n't have GM lDgredl~ents in it. 0 0 The world oro uad us .e 01 ~ way.istant •• pesticides resi~:tan~ Listen te the ICJODVE!n:ation abmut G M fu (lid. b '1 •'. The woman thinks that :i o Q 01 QI (} 0 0 It GMrood is cONtll:m. [amine • . I' abundant 2 ]. Tril!U~ J:iJblll 1 The two people are pm biB.Alnt 6 "Production ~ Tbe charily worksr said that a lot eould be done to belp poor p eople.c food is healthler :m som.cJotroll 3 ~is~enrrLg: M food G 4 Grammar: dl red to Ireported :speech 5 OosS'W'Ord 1 Complete the sentences with the correct form.". .' •• •• t!11. • •• contaminated . abundant • famdne • oont. modify pesticides res.. . The man thinks It's important to k. •.. 1 He said tha. .' impLi[[~i. 0 01 01 ~ for him.' .

." He prediuted that 7 Ell] ill r-llliJM. 10'....VClY to soy ·jump· Is .. 1(1.." The spok!3sperson said that tbey 5 Do the crosswo.4: Comp lete tbe sentences with the COLuer::t form of 'Ihe verb .' 9' A . L 2 -- 3 . -recently careful what we already food GM what to do.. SUI'e- HL'l claimed it 9 "I can't help you." She said she 8 "It doeen't taste any diffcrcnt.. Is Q poor orea wilt! very bad housing.F G 7 8 [0 Il HJ ~' I t~ I. foil. .. f'i ii '16 The for~sl wes . '. The world around us .' lots of tests. him.. 16 L1 rr i 'Down l The gellQme is 1he ramplete thing.2 "They conducted [Ie stated thiThtthey :I... 'tou'lIl b@lineid. "I'm not sure what to do. She explained that she 10 "We're trying to help the world's poorest people.. the !lour wir~h vi'tom[ns and minerois.. The engineers ~ ~ . 12 Wh~Jllhe're 151"1'1 much 15 Desefls ore ~y'r@..1 food lots of tests.!t -r-<' A<wss 2 ifhe e(l(peflmenl WOiS a ".." the tests. 1 "GM food isn't harmful..• grli3@1land hool~hy.." He said they pad ct apple... !he need tor belt@r crops..... 13 Manufacturers '14 &ieIlN~ls"." . dangerous Vc: -.) He stated they 05 "They had already completed the tests..... j :!. heap. f. the tI harmful. in the street..... the polar Ice cap w111 mell in 1000years.. ~" i~i O'i (] product we sa. classes..... " I n~ver like 10 ..J_'~~ 3 Some people want to . . B . wIDo:r.." lIe clatmedthat Gfv...rd. Don't dump . 11 II is impossible Of :r LS 18 The opposl1'e oWa drought 19 TIleY ward to . n [4.... 4.." Sbe said w!. set ·of . mony ploslics to muse lhem.. ~I~keto golo oil of them. 'Ii " AU food will ba GM in the future.. 12: Another l._~h[l machlnes dall~ so lhey never 6.. tor.. 4 They"...... '.._....:i'..c." any diffemnt.yirs "'Eiry dry wilh few plants..-c- out€!F space.. foodl genelic:olly.. in a living substances if'll ~ I~ It o ~ '" 19C:.~. 11 Popu:lo.. • coonge will soon oH€ict a I of us'... to help the world's poorest paoplCl. _'.--..ifliol'ilpressures ... . S We pul our vegeldblB wos~ an 01 ... sucoass.... "We've recently produced! a perfect apple. 12 ... wilnout food is 01 .•._... "W!] should be careful what we wi Rh fOT. .

.{wen ~i1ig th~®G of hls mov:i~s. I morn taste. . this was (4) lV. ]roWLndi cm. Have YOI] St:1Bn/ been seeing I'V{I "OpGlfSJd6n Tdu:nJo"?' visited I b~oll visitiliS j~S:1 finished lire him ~l h:1'I81len times.(mgJlt th~y h~d a different channel this Saturday and hope ]t's Dot showing another ]s. Sat1i1railljl night at B Oil Monday mornillg (5]1 at work.g making aaother ns.dof a:rg-IIliDg however.y coHll'agu[ls.OO1l!tn(l value of ~lity t shews.A Why YOlll ~!I.tjusl holi.2 3 'it I've reGorded I b~en recording me movie' since 7p. I don't understand He's justwun. they were debating which one of the (6'}1. g Db! About t9El years. sure how ru (8) Media . 11 1\v ice.st S<a:tlIlidllYI turned onthe hope of seeing somelbjng of quality. though that it was (1) end I wlIu:hedi 11show that could Ihlrdly be called qua. ~(mgliJ(]g.coUeagues. d they'N still film inS- e f No. I th.ay'vQ h!1come I hml'n becoming celebrities. D '['ih!. of tharn showed any (3)1 _ was that.11 w. shnuld be thrown of!"the show next! [must SilY. I c1I11"1wa:it for the next series. AU of them.!!'pO[:l Ui]ar thiis kind of h~mblG show 18 .~aa.aHty show .. bfi3f next tothe cerreet uspoDSIe. The sad tlring was that not that was rsallyennoying o'clock! Sme]y mere are lJe'l~ershows on att:his lime. againl No. 5 6 lie's i3 I been /inishill. cast members cope gripping stuff TV lome prlme-tlma promise provocative switch to would-be ]]1 the Ui. ]ns. '7 B Now iOL'lg have YO:1J1W\l]i~d I been w.te? l'va talked I b~tln ~alkjng to Andy. took to be famous· actors and actresses.en lDiI1befof eaeh 8flnlBIlce you ill.bCiiu. because it no end of a:rgwneots between three of my . I ~hink. not.11 Listeni n g: present perfecl simple and progress~¥e 2: Grammo r: presenl peried simp!e or progne$sive 3. iii II: why.atcnj'ng 1111 the episodes. W<!S a. 11 I'vs soon I . I'U haveto (7ll reality show.MO 'leiters about re~lily f\I U 1 Listen and wrif:e ~h.g:Mt they had what ~t.m. Ir~ally _ th. I'm.[ must adwt stop watching 'file otherthing because J oowdn't m Itwas aU abDut II bunch of (:ilfl! (!)]l(l stars WhiJh.li~y.e pr(Jcti~e: words ool1nOOed with TV 4 Grammar: present perfect simple ondprogr~e 5 Reodil'l!QI.it's oor!RJinly ~I!]M'!d . what's it 1~? Nor have I.int~lnOlW. ]f it pretty diSi'!!ppcdnt&din m.aWng? j I love it] J'vewatcned bee.

77td.lled r-eaJity saows 18 sl:mply banal. 1. 5iYN.s:ne. '[V shew.g. 110 The . but most of the stuff on so·ca.g af.g to the writer of 1BUer lJo. arid the fad tiuJ1 "fflO.'l J gd a. Jt pYlf/_e ccm4:o. Over the past fe\. for th~? Who ws.£ Ii fiwn. n I(go)to drama 13. reality TV shows lire ~mriI!lg" Accoroing to tbe writer of letter A. TV ean beprGvocatl ve.the:1!' present perfect simple or present perfect progresstve. Use e:i!.a4:t 0.aHty TV is go 0 d. ~ ~. d's g.£i.s J(i.n1~ a. _(beHr) it's good..nts to see two poople s:ittmg up half the night and. wfu.d1ess show baa been shocking..OOlS wi1ll.. (ask) him if he'Il take paet In a [!I~w[l[mnty (uy) for so long.!t qf the ttirne.J t/-iJ. lot (!)f reality TV shows 0 0 CJ 0 0 0 I::l 0 in rscsnt yearn3 4 5 7 8 9 Acooroing to the writer ofl.in.rn. if .y~ J. olJ-: . I h:lVcn't T(7) I (ill you. there have baen ~.in. ::I: mean.tch OJ. parade of brainless biro bos? Get a.t' S wiIJa. The writer oUeller B suggests that people who don't Ii ke realjty show.. the people who a.v bu.ny !~ a'1'!.': alwllY~ Cl!in 01 D watch nthl.7!uqjm p-a!.dh v dU2n..ette!f A. the prolif.mte:r of letter Til sometimes watches these shows beci!JJJ~e they am exci ting andinteeestjng._'mp!y /-cK t/w nrrrrf1:y ftuiar-.ntfl to wa.t I say- carn. the ceerect furm of the ~eFbs in pallemihes. 1lru~ 1 2 F3J]sl:l The wl'.at1On of thts kind of m. A Whatal'e 8 Oh~The new Grisham novel.. [see] the movie of his last bookr A No.an. the A John (1) .es ..f -mr. CoHv'!l~SO!iliOD I[knOW) him slnce I was teo lind he (5) :2 yo III re8Jdi:og? you [plan) to. bre. cv b. 6 The writer of I~Um B dot:lsn't why people are <lgainst reality shows.~ tiff tid/' j wtJ.llrchann els.t.d'5 the.Apparently. SUI'ei. ym. IDe people Wfuu cumplain would !lClllsUy m. Amoro.K thi.. years..*.!. (6) A No."r<Mf! ""JJl. ca-»tf¥QS.s.>!qXe ~ant to pui the~l1-ti t~ /nJni ri til/:.M W'»lP.4 Compdele the cODVlersatii. &01'1001 TV studio (2) for yearn and finllily be got hls break . bull (lU) The reailliy of reality TV is that it's degra{JJ1ng and damag!n. The wrHer of Ietter A probably enjoys wetehingreelity hll1lilm'stal'ld 0 (J 0 T"i!.. talking ~bout what life means.s . rue people CJ 0 O! QI According to the writer otletter B. CI I:J . lie ~3~ ~ __ A Yepl I Il4~ -:--: aboutit jjj ll this lime.<ppng !tuff.'<r.iter of Iettee A thinks rce. whaappear on these shows have According to the writer of letter fI. no choice. but] [ust (OJ --_ (read] it? (not have) the lime.-n.s5 • .ppti'ar on these shows are Intelllgent.:t_£s rUMsn't do --'..d (j ~~ are adudL1~ p!ou.~1't th. who wa. if VOl' d.a.b::A W an.nRt -wIlt) 50. (dr~a][l) \I\'OW! He 111l1S.1'IAb'l1 ~lf1ry a.e to be on the ShClW5 themsel yes. ur e! Tha.l be really happy.f. a/xwl bunch of shallow men try kl talk to a. fuy-me tfl/.dy sd1i:n..

Ed. The pOOl' 0 0 0 0 (J 0 0 0 0 0 6 'l tale over graphics is what detracts from the game.the people's lives.e beginning or end of a sentence.f'(u\I:l lhe verb we are omphasizing the complement. 0 S 9 10 Video oonllm:mcing is (lne thil1. The action is whal I rea Ily like about tile new video games.1 Gmmmor: nOLlIl douses video and 111 complete 4 LiSiening.al 1 Emplil.1' being emphiil!sh~ed.and Iloug in London. intof'llJlion incomplete sentences 1 Read the sentences and decide whether the eemplement in ~he neun clause is neutral 0.ch. is that they don't appear lifelike. ill 0 0 Q 0 Q 0 0 gama ~. decide whe"ther ea. e'xtract is: th.iJ1g grul1tlS _ phune cassette recorder tape ] really enjoy playing video He bought a new video their mGllto Ilgs. video . Begjm1ing Extract 1 Extract 2. One thing that's good about DVDs is that 'they are dlJltab]e.rcad 1 :2 3 4J 5 cam ra c-onfeorenc. Extract 3 Extract 4 Extract 5 o o o Extrncl 5 ExtYact Extracl 7 (I o o o o o 1:1 .ewe going to get a new video .radie. He spends far toe much time playing games clown at the vi d100 '] JUst put the video in the machine and pre.loo phone.r. "\That I hate about video games is. ? This one keeps on mining the tapes. Check Beginmng or End. The OGSt is whatputs me offtluying a new vir. 3 4 it ]]vn~so good. LiS'~e:n and.genres 3 Pr.or Emplmtic. Their durability Is what makes 2. The thing that many boys find IItlractivG aOQllt""ideo games is the action and vlolence. 8'0 Iohn worh in New York. to shoot pictures of hls vacadon. Something that really annoys me about the tlamru. the 'Wa. It's great because yo iii can see w ho you're talking to.atic Remember that w hon we place the noun phrase be.g that would improve eommunicatlous at work Something l really hate is when people use videophones public pi aces. they use video to hold I just bought this new vi dso Morn! When a.e. ' 10.Check NeutnJ".onuncial1lof'l.. the effecfs of video gomes :2 Vornbul(]ry~ collocations with 5 to nguoge p.~s Play. Neutll'.

Media . There is a (4) ~_~ of evidence (~) that these kinds of gilllles are bad. the videD gE!lues.gnmes bad for YQur.OOct S~nJ:le. IN TH~S GAME. beneftts IfOl' m we shouldn't (8) mom video games. - AJsn. 5 Malchthe extracts with. fOTg~l .Uillig into trouble. lou have the power. In fsct it isn't so If31 hecause there are several sj des to rue issue.Por example.oUR FRIG'Hit to BE A WINN!ER. M <!Lily ki ds w'h 0 p~i'lYthe gllm~s have amazl rig nmcHon ami g11('l::JJt han dI·to·~ye cooedinatlon.m the bo::t.8 video games expert amd com plete the' provent amount lnriicatlng jot simple spending times treating "~"Uj' By asking the question Are video . by kJeeping the ki ds (1ft th ~ streets they help UO) them from gF.ew wi. by 1~!61 of viole[lce 1hal tnsrs 800 some _ psyrnol. Want to be the best? Do you have what it taKes to bea t the competition and be is! winner? Create your own teams al'ndgo for gold! n Ever wondered how :U feds to be a hero? Then take 111)) 'the chaflenge and see iif you're ready to do what it takes to save the w orld.ogical and social pl\obIerus often connected 10 the (71 many of these games. tli!. liowever.we are (1) ln 11 the topic _ very black-and-wlrite (2) . 1 heroic action Z horror J 4 l]lf1B~C sperts A Enter a world offantasy where anything can happen.Listen tn an intervi. Write' the extract letter nextte the OIlII".tIl SUIDDHIII'Y of what he says with. vou N:EED' 1"0 OVERCOME y. but can you use it wisel))? ARE vou SITTlNG COMfO:RTABLY? THEN GET REA!DY ToO IBE SCARED.ew10rds b'l.

at. 2 3 UI If YOM ]I you 4i [watch) Iss. ~1¥D!. }'Dll ]f you. ]ll'o'baMy talk to each ollie'!' more" If I'd . If '!hey ma. "1 8 9 to If w~ didn't have I haall 'tncrd 11 TV in the house.you.havewatchea it aU the time. TV when I .. more llITltereshfig s:hOIWS. would. you'd have more time to do other things. I'd hav8 stary-ed in if ~ known what was on TV. Ifthey watch I watched lessT\i':.a beuer picture quality. ]I I 4 !ii I'd have wal(".og.lt Ifj'1orUbuy a d~gital1V. will do I WQ. time In front olf the 111:..ke <mother one of those documentaries. 1.. had stay~d up to watch that movie" you will be I would have been tiredthis morning. IFyou staly art h. 9 10 rn.U you watch'! 3: lfI'd hacll a TV in my bedroom as a chiild. you'd ge'!. w lHU. YOM .a1:le part) in <I reality TV show? 1 2.bad II. (t. (m.0: ]f you spent ]I (buy) a new 1'\1' last yeu. . wOlitch TV- will I would rathsr readthen 3: 4 5 16..r. hadn '\~bad! a TV' when you were young. (oot soop )watclIiog everything. Y0lil. :11 week. ]'d be happy to watch them.Qmp~lIil1!_ if you.JI:ave w. wa~:cb lit every e\le:ning? If you watmrn.. f1Aedio . rd have. yOil 6 '1 iii ]f you had cahle 'TV. you'd walch.H ~F]'d known Hw:l5 on. addicted. defin:i~ely rerum H. they'd. he.sTV.u:1d yDIJ :have done? 1 ]I they .IJd w!!:ll'ch/ wi. ]f I buy I blil:.om~lonight. 9 you had tha eaaace. (be') rom-e' choosy. . .~ Gtammar~ colliditiooal:S 2 Grammar.lgh ~ a new TV.fuen.Juld . I'd never have believed H.ched the' sMw '~ogetheF. you willI wmdd damage y'CI1ll!il' 'eyes. 2. (1laJb) it. Word search: televjsjolll 1 Underline the cOl'red verb form :lineach sentence.night If .. w 'We .h more ']'V. I'd watch it all the time. have h~e:]I]. tn appear 00 5 6 U YOll ]f he'd.ab) good shows.my favorite show wasn.. as. ]f you wateh WO m1llch TV.[](oo than forty hours: or teievis]om . (not see] the' news. wiU watch I wouM . I win be 11 d:i.h~d. had an opportunity TV.'l !hadn't been On. you'll make ym. gone out last . you'd have gotten better dooL less. [b. our son would H YO!lii ant. you'd. i1I '] If Y0lil. it [f I had to choose.!l'S~lfsiG. ~(mditioflal!S 4 Vocabllil(]ry~ felevisioll 5 Listening: 1elevisoIiJ 6. stiLl bad! a TV. I'U probably watch iliai new soap opera.av~) 01 beU!'!!"social life. If youwat:cll mllH. what wi. ccnd itlOJ'ld~ 3 Gmrnmar.g~t:alone. you ']1 become addieted.

the two men in a supermarket b c on another TV show she didn't wo.A '~ 6 DRA f '1 -----8 --. K G T B T A F E T 0 c __ . 1 :2 talk show documentary a.s ky to answer usually a tOOJ!g Shil)l'!! that is shown intheaters as well as on TV UOOl.ent guests a show W]th qjuestions that cootestmrt.rk 4\ Why does tile second raaa say soaps and realli. 1 Oo:DIve:rsati. 'was really bad Who does l:1e first thee :6ystman b e cal! "shallow"? the second man the second W"om1lJn It'l/hy would she do._. show Iltait deels with.- Uniltl~ : 69'.-----.an.[lE!: funn y he watches 9ltVh!!.definitions.c rogram p quiz show ~o:aHty TV show s. 'Ei Wh:u kJi]lJ.d the first watchlast night? a a documentary b a soap Whll.t type C 11.felevision. real people or events a sbow that [ell. The' therae is .-- 3 . before? :!J a b Ii:: Ute fir5t woman the seeond man and second wom. it all~ill? she Hbs people knowing hill' secrets III she likes the mo. FT 1 t[? r:1 R I M CRN0 IEWV V Ii R.4 $ W S B Z.ches soaps and uiaHt.1Si.} to hear the news 8 W!hiCIwait.y shows!' Where' did she wm'k.tcb V'?' T appear befoee th]s snow? ii!I a dloeutmanWy b a talk show 'c a reality show 2 Why do~s tha seeondwnmen a. usually 'every daly a show where a. Z IE R Q. '6 I M F 'E Z (It Ii{ R IE .'Vel'sa:Uoni1. in the world.oilll WO'1EiL8JII. 2: (1(£ show di.tclhthe types 'of TV sbows with the .t11Tes S]]lgeTS . 8 9 1._- EQTuPH RLUIRT E Y Z 'I) M " 2: ----------.:Ings b torelax e .h~1l~"""S d e f :ill h a show showing sportin~._. fu:rmy way 51 I) . R ~ L U r H Ul G 0 Ul Y V 'Q.ty shows? if because tbe'y're addicu vii b because they'. show snowmg norm. bands <II showthat ta]ls you what is na[Jplm]]lg." b G show about the imagm<!fY lives I()If <I group of poo'p]a that is supposed to ['ellllect reaHty :3 4 movie ID1.t did she thlnk about the sho'\II' she was on? ill it was fun b c 10 21 c 5 IlJ because the:y'~e lm:rib]e" WO:milJ1 it was easy it. 9vmts Ii.-_. to learn ili. "hOS1" talks 10 dilIer.----. .4: Ma.ney C she liled! the people 6 no tlle word search.&! people in actuel situations 13.--. I {1 L N E V 1V G MTCS YyLS --_.and!.it~om a show ln which people deal with situations ]]1 11.dof show is j~? a b a dioClllmentaFy a talk show e a reality show 0[[1 reallty show 7 What kind of show did Samantha Wilson 'llVIl.0 soap opera sports show t.

--_' ~vcn though they are only pisces of p::lper. much The thing Lhats most is waiting to find out my I spent hours 1 got 11 3 _ _ 4 5 6 what we'd learned and IIstill failed the of 550 last year. Parks h Annie Jones Is the presenter surprised that Annie didn't pass English in school? II. Cir-cle the' correct answer for each question. number out of Eli tot . Parks at the end? it yes b no . 1'$Sts 3 Listening: a radio pmgrcm about exo rns pronunciation 6 Rooding: Iw'o. radio programahoul 1 exams. Wlwt kind of show is it~ a a talk. show b a phone-in '1\lho writes books? 2 . I hke Sl'leing my name on Listento a. from the box.obou1 excrns 1 Match the words with th@'definitions. oplnions . VOC{l bul'ary..iI yes b no 6 Who tails about leaving school? a Dr. usually because of fndling it d not to I'OOch the level required to pass a test 01' Hxam e to study your notes again. or tssting p~ople. Does Annia think that people can only be successful ifthey pass exams? . Parks b Anni e [ones 011 new method Exams are a fairly ".Looking ahead ~ VomtmliJfY: tests 4 Listen Ing: opauons 5 Lang uoge pm(. 7 8 {I y~~ h no Wha... method 5.tice: (J bout exams 2. 3 <1 Dr_Parks h Annie Jones Who thinks you can find out how de \fa'r peep le aTe from exams? it Dr.: grade !i prcssL1[1e 1'1 7 1:1 retake review score a letter or a number that shows the quality of a student's work the pereeutaga or grade that a student gets on tin exam. Dovel ist b engineer c doctor Docs Anni o agree with Dr. 1 certitieate 2 exam 3 fail 4. 1 If you Z the test" you can always _ It next year.I always feel under so.t's the first profession that Dr. Parks mentions? 3. b old.l c to take an exam again. I hate exams . usually in prepuratlon for an e-x:am If a piece of paper awarded to pnople who take or pass a test OJ:: exam g another word for a ttlst II a worried feeling that you get when you he e to do something difficult ur important a b 2 Complete each S'ep1ience with a word. usually inclicated as II.

not.ich text does tile writer think that tests differenti.n 1i-LI"3s ~ J.iSY help yCT'.ete (1) iV\Dto\el'\t of tiMe. ~ef"'pl.-w.Cl'!' t. (aJI I: Tall o..6 y.-n.d -'tWz. C<Jwork an_ 1JeYSonatly. 1t? 'fext JB Tests a. Tho. wAtch :. I'f"\ fu.cud.') pressure nervous fi • • '. to some people talking ahout exams.ceJc w'l~ em eKCIMJ b. which text does the' writer talk about.d tdw Ul..f .d. Bad" OF Not . a~fl.v wAat Uu.-o.p-rt.y (4) you. lind oui . Bad Notsme Speaker 1.t.Y ·J~at (5) So t/wi. f&n/f..- f(!.. LAC~ Clm.ate· between students? 0 0 CI 0 10 In. Speall::()]" 3. 1 exam Z 3. l. Good. an cdea a/' Y0u. co. Thoen read the texis again and check the correct text for each questien.se they w've you.>'IO'w i'N1. !r. 0 0 0 0 Underhne the correct stress..ch are.sum.y of (6) good and wfu. TJext A I -f}..Q-. T J!J.-re ¥ealty good 6eca:u..n. 0 Speaker 4 Speaker 5 Speaker 6 Speaker 7 Speaker a Speaker 9 0 D 0 0 0 Q Q 0 [:J Speaker 10 0 0 0 0 0 01 0 0 0 0 0 0 r:J 0 0 0. sxam •• roview retake pointless • review • re-take • '•.' forget • • . I f'". • pointless • 'J • . are.fI.i.lf1.. you. Speaker 2.. award pressure nervcus • 4 '.'.'• • It •• • award • forget • Ii Read thetexts.t thc!<l' doeSV\'i" Too . CODlp.. What do they think about exams? Check 'Good. • .s..e.enLfy ym-l. .47 4 Listen. •• •• '.eo.e-nls are Text A '1 III which text does the writer think tests EIHl TllIXt B not good'? Q 8 9 In which text does the writer think that you learn something from ths te-sts[ In wh. r ofte.. good at.1" CM't It-. }fou.K (z) r1\£:~!c\ r CxQl'I\s Gl¥"€: d. fcilr.d: tests ave a fjyea. Then listen to check. b{ling affected by pressure? 0 01 0 . pattern for each word.ele each 'Iext 'With werds from the box.

the e' yon should go to the . ad vice b suggestion {: promise 4 S 6 '7 a If yOlt].having problems s:rndyillg. a advice 11 offer e . ioin ~.al sentences.~1'i i ~nter that exam thl s time. endings of the condit. g. you won't pass. gym. your notes now. .make thatexam I rl!!aUy havfl to JXl. you. ]f ]f II. If you want to open a bank aCC()U nt. I'm gcling to take I . b e you're.al sentence'. a suggestion ~ waming c If you want to taka this class.: prom i£0 aidvice b offer c If you apply early. 2 . again.'ll need pl'!Jof of Identity. promise promise \'V(I OCIu~d study ~ogfithcr if yml want.er line the eerractword 1 2 in Eac1il sentence.r:Uon(1)£ each eandit:iml. you want to pass dut O}(<I. warning 2 3 If ] we[\E! you." I'd pay morn 3Uentirm inclass. the college. you ha1ile more chance of ge mug in. 8 If you don't attend class.Km. ]f YOlll have a question.ion.gmde. exam.m.et I lake another class. r COli! d h elP you w:ith yom English. UU:lbegimniIIIgs and.11 promise If you do well on your exams.~J'!. If Y'Oli want to gat medical insurance. ir you don't study hard.Looking ahead 1 Grnmmur:runCilion:s of condiliol'llols 4 Listening: stud'f~ng ot Wood 10 the! Lrmg.3 \l'Qcobulary:flirfneu eclumt~on 1 Cwde the correct fu:n. you won't be lIh]e to take the exam.uoge Schoo~ :5 R:eCidirtg: ordering o letter of adVice :2 Gr~mmClr.s. III n (It correct it. functions of COrlditkmols . Youreslly WhITt should g.e'L on . YOll havs to fill in th is form. I take 8J 5 1really need to 7 hjgh score on the exam. you should start reviewing 3 Und. d f g :Ii! your rllOr:tiOl' has to sl ~11~1 [onn also. He gmdUlited I fif~l'l:shfHi from college last year. a. promise ~ wuning c requirement [f 8 9 YOllhan d your hnmework in on time.cUd you your 9XWiI. 4.. hel p rna with math.g ahead .? Lookin. ad vice b offer r. 1']1bu y yo u dinner.!note . 1 If YOLlnoad a visa. advice ~ r!:lq)ui1J~rn.3 5 lfi. you should If you want to get fit.T'Il check it qudckly. please Clontaci. ::ulviJoe b offar c promise 2 Match. a.. 3 4 fi l need 10 rnv:i(lw my grades! neres before the gel After my degree. The college will onIy cuter I accept me:: if I pass the eeeam.~: c I might a promise If yo ur homework is late. we could study loge-the. 1 want a COUEse !comer in business.oossy. advice d offer d warning d...!:. pags He got the grSJdes he needed to into l en ter the grad uate program. ~. aJ requirem ent b offer Ii: promise d wlil"ning d suggestion d requireruent Ii requirement d walu:ing d.

. 1 think It's important fur yoWIg people today been to an English sorn ewh me J iku speaking country.v[cemtib.S EJ'\5t-\S~ been stL).t~d in Iearning r:ng]ish'? ! las your son ever or Britaiu. snou. especially English. I han! II few questions I hope this ad v lee helps.3~ess. Had one [hal I've been asked before.eadthe~etter .1'Int{l 111. the U.t ~I ? 0\0.S_ ideas and also seq uencers. AU the teachers are ulIlfled. M~ \f'I SO'f'I ~Cl. to realize how usefu lit can be to spr:::ik anorhsr language.:m1'. it cuuld be very good fur his Bnglish. F~ There are a lot of students ::It t. can 't help students find sui tabl e eecoramedatinn. Q 2: They only have Business and sxasr courses. Then wrltethe Ietter givmg ad. [:J Q 3 4! 5 16. p('0.@ coned order. or Brilain? If I were you. 0 0 0 0 Q I:J 01 01 0 '] 'rha school ol':g8Jniz~s vi sits to plaees ofi Il~'er()s:t a 8 Studeats can lake pan in some SPOritS actlvities. tel H~Nl: LODk for connecting he'd Like to spend a Isw months i II the U. Judy Ronson.oo l fol{" N\OtC:Ae ell'll_} bu. I'd talk to lOW' son and find out whether I'd Ij ko to as k you ~If: ymll' ~on in tf.asldI!lg(or advice. Studen ts always stay with families.h ~ schnal.d~·~"3 f'\"Je ~e.K ~e.C\~s ~'5~ sc1r. 0 1:11 01 5 R.S.ecl there. The teechers The school have a1\\'ays WClrk. 0\" ~ t~<\f\.

. TTl the next te-n Y0ars everyone will be t1ying planes. (use) renewable euerg.250. a a 4 til By 2020. nobody will ::I Check the sentences that are 'correct. In twenty years we'll all be living under the ocean. will . Lookin 9 ahead . nobody . be findmg ~ curs fur r:am:m'.. scientists 11av9found a cure for cancer. 1 By . be liv j§lg on the moon.nOO.. people will . In twenty yeal's scientists wUJ be finding a cure for AmS.. have destroyed most plant life. III have lived on the mo on... (become) extinct by the end of the decade. be being cloned. b b b b b b ~ b be reaching 10 billion.. he traveling hy solar powered cars.Looking ahead 1 Grammar: future progressive gnd future perfect 2 Gm m mor: future pmgmssWe one futUffi perfect 3 urommar:flJiure pmg resslve Qna rutur"\!!! pe-rfect 4: Readtr1g: clolling :5 Lang Ltage predice: p ronundallof1 6 Crossword 1 Circle the best ending to complete 'each. a 5. btllion. fifty years 'women win have done the same jobs as men.. (sufferJ from regular floods. Before the end of the decade. Wilbin the next decade the population In the next " 5 ti 7 of China will have reached five. By 2035i... must p eople will .. have traveled by solar powered cars.any places wil] 41· Thousands of animals 5 7 With:in the next twenty years. 1 By 2. it have found life on other planets.. life expectancy will be being 1 as. 7 The latest ecological disaster wiU . (rise) by up to a meter.YiU and plants will ~ Within the next fifty yeaJrS. (live) on the planet's surface. sentence. be destroying most plant life. In the Ile-xtfew a yeal:S rfloflpla will have driven petrol-free CflTS.. be:hitting us before the end of the year. we will . By 2.. (work) in an offioe.lhe president (If the Ll.y. most 01' future progressive people will (visit) the moon.. 2 Complete the sentences with the correct future perfect form of the verbs in parentheses. By this time next year I'll be studying at college.. 6 III the next il Eifty years or so. sea levels will ~ Fairly soon we'll By 2050. 1 2 3 By aoso.2 WithiIl tho next ten years. will . 2.S. pulhrtlon win . S 9 lOIn. be finding life on other planets. row years we'll be choosing the sex or our unborn children.tJle world's population Bl will .. . S In fifty years. have reached 10 billion . m.10ll. (kill] more than five million people. we' will be avoiding a major ecological disaster. have been cloned. a have hit us before the and of the year... an AIDS will B Bafnra tha and of thn century. With]n the next ten years.

': II 11 14 Chedk il oot .. for line Sir:holormip_ . :" Q . one one one one c c C n...aC1lM1ies ..U ' lwu three three 7 8 two c three three three four 9 10 a one a one two two e ... Not on Iy did Dolly take after her biokl9i cal molher. lhr~Il' a a OJ one h b b b iii b b b b h two tW(!) III d fnur .@:@oI]S another job."... Whot il made Dony such a brecJkthroug h WCIS thot $he 'WOs dOrled Jrom Ihe DNA of on adult. iThero's no I)clwn ~·:c c!@w-wt (lInSINeL I I] 15 14 2: lha~ ~m section requfres a . li~ ~nem.II." . 10 Those . m send has ·10~ it to you..Ihe ~l1!1lif we dOfll'lIPoss? 8 Yoor oc1ions . 1- 6 Conwe .._ 00 !he exam_ .Listern and. !@ft. These range from ooil19 ob!e to sove the endcmgered !pedes fo..ome C! •• " •• ~ 10 I . !Heads or ~oils? '7 Only people under :30 are .__ you best. bl}t Ih ese were i usf from embryos...reweuthlroogl'l.__. FIe 'Wffies d!Wllm -- !:'- 16 He keeps C! .k!r. Ten . ohmdy elenad I!iJfot. ! ~ A ..~"ICI lW<l e e d fouT d d four d fmu d four d a OJ.. lfIere's tile U~. 13 H@005 !J __ .. drd!E!tbe 1 cu... .. ." of !tree skIDs_ c~ a' . a good __.1. sc~enlisrs ow t from many Clonlfl9 of 01 bit morEl limited 5'0r1 ha~ been around for yeoH. 'I lVk!ny people wonllo Ii!Ie fo.._ . She\lWl5 in fcCI a carbon copy of. 3.-". - ~.' of hislhoughls. f-fe's Irvely 1(100 . thus crooting a modem day rrcmk-enst€lifl mOIi"1s. ..2 on~ >C thnm three three t]ufle four four 3 4! ens oIlle rwo t. S 5 . .__. '((Mil!..entigot everyIhing.. repmducing replocemenl' of organ5 for IJse in opemtions.7 Tn!!':I1' qoostion 15 ..._.When oecompl i ~hed whal Seotlo nd crec ted CJ sheep no mOO Dolly.' .R ::.~ I 6 5 " ~ He's a goOOlec!cnef. 0 coin.. 6.Scientist hove b~..uect l: p1!m!!be':r of sy1lJabies f(!lr each. word..! and fr'9gS. 12 T1he I'@fflom of..[1 Iong."Om' persooalr1y. ".__..1ilecrossword.II .~ing DNA leeds up to mC!!'I)'po~s1bilitle$. HI€i . They relied i~.. _.•• 4 He made an OtMoLlS. d four d four 6 Do t. .OOcid cnimal eon bec.110 '1 ropy her VIl'Qrk. __ ol1emp._ Qf money. 15 MV gii'lfii. 01 thte poyrty. . He Il. 10 Ilook cgO(lilj . Tho:abiljjy to (lone u.g. 1.!:'!tarS is also ~ I'~ ---~ 17 S Lei's ." ...r. . What frigMens many poople ~sfhe done (J rdoo tnat som 80M might to dBcide ro complete person. they had IhO!J:9M was an impossible.sludyinQ. llhinl:: he hal> only 0IlEt __ .

-h + ~{1n1pleml:!'nl ur nololh Unit 4 1 Ful~ when 11 decision has bean m~dlebeforellie time of speaki[lg: Sbe's g()i!1.Have _yo u l1ver bC~l! to Now Yol'kP Negative. :-..J.f!!..have a vacation last yoo.past p:lni. L --. continuous situation 00' rnp~at~dlilct iOl'llll now finished. cOl'lhfJJuing seuen ararted. an irritating habit that someone has! II definite arrangement [or the hJtlll:I'C. timetables. done (qUfrSli.-- . too. lIs~ gol.gs ID8il8Ja true.flren'll bGcn dl~m. Form AmtmH3:li~: 5. 1 wt~h we Ij(.-e~ent limt:l. .f!sting oook right n O'W. ro'l1li. vercib hllve -Ii.y.g. QI:U'l~tiOI..:-. appoi:otlnants made.lJ. Often used with hmll advQI'\biah.m'l ~Ii!.mother Jfll? No.-.!ll'k hard? 2 1"'0 talk about actions effect in the present. yet . didn" (.vity.e. Actions: The children used to gil swim.Jnlf'ltr we 'l'es~ntpmgW'Bssi {Sse V\l' ~.w.I~ t!l:l ..l'ld :had pizza .s nut been dlone. -_ " •• . With this use of the present p~r:rcct.. OF slates in the past that have some Simple past . (:he sUU works there) ~ IExpnri'lllcll~ Ihat we 1'1<11109 in O!H Hves (fit an had IJtl~ped:llecl time] and thlltwc' may haveagein.::-. n. ar d~ire abolll the present or Jl ast: J dOInlJrlM rli jO.. used to .:.a siJtuationlliat is developing or ~ changing.!'Jday. ~ ~"'r. eve!}'" day.l have happened AffirmaU .ld a job.!.at:iv~: Pvc lIllen to New YDrk lW'J'CR.ln.~. ln the simp le past tense: I've been to Chile'_ I went thew last ~f.{)'.!iP'f!J~ FOrnl' Regrets about something slmple tn iliEl present: past: If only 1 knew the anS"""f'T: if Dn. ~. <lind to emphasize ill.. - Grnmm'llr $l.~~.Did yo!.-:. ]_Js~ tl'lG proOO:l]:! pwgra~s]varmro.Ia~t 1higllt Negative: ~rb:J'1 mcellillW fate ill the f. lIgo) ~I haven't Jrlt:lt him yet (!:Jut I ClKp oct wJ.f ~ Affirmi.uS!!! TQ ta.~1~ !lOW finished.Unit 1 :J Simple pI'ie.".~: I wislil yow . SitUlitlOI1S.'.ing verb US'9' 8in. verb Use I've just deanfid the carpel. 2 AdrVll'fb:~ _. Situatiuns: We used to Ure by the ocean. hf.. of time: Wr:"VI') had t1n~~edogs fOfjive~.~T~~.!H". Unit 3 lP:r. -_. f Fenn l ~.lr_ WR took lIlI lJlfut1. 11l.. Question: . e. fr. niH I I .past Jl€Ifet. N [).w-.~ l)eerl in ~I(0l!i[\~. ~.. used for pOi]Il ill lima. only]: fane stilt hasn't tlllkRIl Gnyextlws.g in the present: Jack h I1S wo. WG'ro lscwillg ~oowilTO W.ly I i wish -II- Use To talk .ms.~.10 ~~y that an action llli. (!old ~'['1th~r_ 3 Rtlgrds (I wish /1/ only) Use To talk about things tlri.m.~: I'm Jlflading a rea}]y uUe:.: used with the preseat Pll'l'feor:t A~ _yt"Ju ". ~eady .~'roodlfig In !JelJ dgJJ t rww.rked for Fard since 1975.g ()tw~·.c·t:l .lk about 11 singl~ aetton in tha [last ttl a.fu1' very recent-actlcns: !III expected action hiJJS not blHiIII. tickets booked. WGl (lfllm go on to add mOTf! ~TlrOr:lnaLin~~. 1 baven 't caned her yet r~st To describe habits.! . NO'.to ~tMB when a._ • "'-: .!J~lld t~ wall{ ~o S'dwol.~~~ . ~peci£ic time reference.. ami to empfulsi~ 8J fiu:t orrccli..1t W[l r~. lin~l!intions'jand arrangemeats to + vetb to ex:pre~5 plans or intentions I'm H~' ~ gOP111l In bed early. OF repeated actions in the that are [10 ]{Il:l!jertrue or tbat do [lot hap'pm ]l!JW. Acli cm~ Of s tatas Lh~l bAgAn iI~the pa~t but that 8!re ~U']ltimtuUJ.rJ_g (l'1. 1haMn'r ~'eeti Simon since To say that we <11\~ OJ[ W~'Ia accustomed to something."efltJy s~l1ttea leolJ1'ningSpanish.).'o'.on and negati ve form only): Have you crrlled YOUT .l done (nll!j:ative fCJll'm. I've been to Chfl. ~.~{~2'.when we exp['!nt:ed it to b!. usually with 8.d destres al tho9' p.'Je Q1h fn a honk_ #8r/ri6!1dfi W M'wk diere.g. used iI be .i 'or reeli:l1g. ~. NflgH! iva: We (U't\_~.. to gal married.. QU{Jstion: md you lIo'.r.ou..'\y that j~sr .o·"""nrt. ~lahjt~: I used lo smok~. ~.l.d...lWlfiing_ Question: .m routina or schadL!led A\um:ts.ng.mect them at tiUe1 re.aHvE'!: Shf} .fur actions completed earlier than 'expected: I've already finished all the que!>':tions'. ..d~J':I'l H'\!I~k fate Vilry Qjtr:in_ Resre ts about something in the pIi5~: If only / I wish+. . _~~ r . To talk a:b01J[lllIl action happening now. roo? 11ft: MfA "frl' OflflA up 1:0 now i((~lleSUO'n fQrm ml]y): Have you ever been W LondDn? NIl~aliv!): far' ..~l~'Eill..fies.o:d oOOm'e to the pa'rt.'lo sElYsomething has bappoe!neci in past r ve . 81temporary situation 0. permoomrt f situations and slates. a last r~'[:lr:. ~ ---u .to state fur periods particulae Mo.cs!l!in~ perfect U!!e Qu~sHo:n: ."reguiar actions.. . .rif:i<!l.'fn.lb~)'u! acts oodt.tcl!..Dil!'t:lS s:he w.(oIdi'W anything i5(wd? Lnit 2 ~sed ~'o.1' ac:~i. -+ f wi!O'h i (jr. concerts: John·/: flight arrives: at 16:2().to ask whether an actirm hils boon done o:r~os. We didn't ..W long an ae t UOf'l hA. fl'Voei" - tile recent at least to ask 9JbQllt~xp!ill'ie<nt:es thB.ming Ftii'mll r'llcf1ilrly .dilJ .ff!(. Recerrl ~ctionlli or actions that we expect to do: I've jl1st had some coffee (a few minutes.Form !luxmv).~:. Faml a:1 is Affirnmtiv€: We . B"Wln) Affi:r-m. oflha veriJlo express definite plans.tl!fb dIll b'l.J(J trad vaea tiDn Use the simple' present form aflhl!l vl!lr'h!oOe:xpre~s avery dflnni.h. fu(. Form -ing . .!'k 011 (he wook9nd_ Th~y .ple (GK dOJl9.et fri€Hids a. a.'jj til' wulk home.ImmCllry .

e.tJis oofo. 2 The passi ve am US(! '[0 tMk ahOU'l iI~I.\i"Igd studied ll(lroer.-..] . hAing I'll Hm C1d: If yCJlJoo!lUm..roady know that.. past participle~ verb to llxpOOSS p~1'1:(lrlaJl op~n io:n s about the (uti!. Flli"m SMbjoct JiG' :lmve aE.. P05ili"..may (not) I can't oj. • \'Vhell W'eo irn.lat!'ld aU th~ COU'!'. . TJlie modal verbs show dJiffunm. ]t i~ aTt!lll usad with connectees such as Iliad b~()ome qi.oouid ~~ an autograph. uaknnwn: oct) (""'fH wa~ stoil:l{l las~ nighl_ ~ When we imll!!ine eoasequenees of ~Clio[l~ dl<l.fter. had •. before.. ----.5 11 Tih in:! c(~ndiiorll.. wh~1JJ in l1~aHty it did: ._' : _.ecly becausa the oondttlnn ill thl!!if ctausewlll probably not he rulli11ed: 1f J won the lottery.irplane. She go~ het degree afit'{ slIt! had Cllfllp... Negalivll: [certain) She can't I GDuldn·t :have arrived. th~ Cold Wl:Ir ~vol. Note that we do nol U.ll'rFil':ed by /lOW...If Fleming .et..illrn:i:ng of the l.. M1 finis.·~:·I.tcase.iill t (lIot) lI'li've .re' eatBli while you and Dad were oat ([at~ thW'll but don't w..i/da~!~e and o'thar modal verbs in th~. sha U5€ US>ij oweVBt.just before.:V!:iI"tlwlll&~ to express :m idea that makes a h prey iOliSly m.1i9..hQ\o-"e T· pas'!: ]lwiciple: TiJ&y Bury Unit ....ona l rUse' :action that is u[lUk. a.~levels of certainty. I'd {m m !lca happ. have to make deductlans Second eend iti. .i. sntJ WIlUJdn'l Ji:!rl!'"e met !eff~ 2 Past p~dlllo(.. Uw cookies U'ili. nhe !ol.I + "nodal. futl.entioned id aa Sln:pli~i. 1m wmdd llaw pm. even . Unit 7 1 Contrast ._1.(i1 tJ-rrefl o'clook.use didn·d gAt tile joh_ although" tnouWl.rilOO.. Past lPerooo pm.-.B iirnpmtant: Mom. I'd be much nllppi<e..Illld predicttons b~a~ rm past avidenc~: i think + the D!rmocmts movi.:ed. I had' already .ifea Latin Ame-..l!...h!>'rjgh~ qj}(JlificllhQn.sed .ll.ih~ali(ms in the pastthat t:Uo.r-.!!iJ to Gnnoy th!il dDg. The camiJII·g.-'_..{llIOl"!lmt~11! passad it but ' ..(j/ei'iB I #Q1W!feJ'..e or action in the if clause is contrary to a present fat:t: If 1 .1.l Form If + past... w. can be I!..I'. bllc:teria.!/" job. Nweftl\. have lIfflWOO.hed if in time. _.agi1'le conseqlJel1ica~ of sflmethillg not happoning. feU III hDme th ere.~_ . lhoush it may·b.u:~1ion..5'eS srJocess!uJlyThe p"'~t pHrrect..llOtt) I C'O!1.bj of lih(l verb is. If I had u big hOIJ:M.~ W~lIm Lh~ ~m1Ll (~~!.er and! a comma oomes after (he if clausa wilffi'1 it ecmes a1 the beg.l infection.ll~A: If &JmeQn~jeJmolJ~ w!.iMtmg for an .r ten mhllites.t (.m pmboMy win the eleclir'Hl_ U8~ me-lint Dorl!idUiuo~l ~O mah pMdictiO!l£ that dapsnd r. 1 would buy an a. a Unit'6 1 Ded.t in reality dJidn.~~ (oHrt"lnJ SnfJ mlt..._..may hav€'n '. (I don't have iI hiS nUllliE!.f)k OSQ wil} I WQ. . f'0miJ {J JrJl of people Wt':Iuld hffil'8 died of If + past per-fecl.flJ:li.m1:r8J.ug«Js~jrvl~ U5>e . l IfPerulY hadn 'I glJJf!l to UJapany._ .m a.~ .t: A ne~-v ltl w regarding .H.~ '10 pat new Information at the end of a sentence to give 1t n10l'-e i. To sJm. ..hadn 'f di~oovered peniciili.) about possibi lit}! in the pasl. "':"'"-. / l'd be mucllllllppifll'" if i had 1I big iW!Js!1. p.reen 'he u.'lirl:l' her the Nobel Prize? B{lca'us!3's.to M~n..his emilms.gur less tme:· ft 111'11$ a WlY dffficl..s. would j WO\uldn "t + ininili ve If Phil got a promotion.A Of tnt? dr:luds! Past rn:Ulli"fuc~ simpl.. fQl"ar:Ii£!!DS til at happened be(ore anotha r.~_-~~~~~.IS'sillns .Ihjfilc:t * had.ld f not) I about the past and to talk 'We . it will .-----.] Fo. 77 .!:]tfl:en lise this condltionel if the ~tat.had used ntidear "\'"f\Ilpon.iOofif> (jf . been • -ing vern: S'LiSlln had been w.n we do not Wiliit to :say who did SOIl'Ulthing.u~~!y with the present perfect ])[\ugre~s:iva or past p(lrrec~ pfGgfOi'ssive ./md a biB nOU5t1.erltefi09.. .~[\I'e'CBJ'L be used in rnQst t91l00S..f~ Fonn WEI h'Ur.:. AJth(. soI didn't waRI to seeit again last night.~H:y~n pas~ the iUse We use .urt m ildrIDllt...: 'I"··.yo t MO"Wll Jaets.ll....hOUl" before TIm QITived. (less.ed unlit or stepped.I!1gh I f'W}n lhousll (T/lQl..portlW.t1..ast participle: If RvS".l happem 1/ the RI... .ll: Sl.ountzy.Il. the paM ttm~ W!1l lim talking atout: ~Vehad' been Jj v ing in a~U6 f"(lE severol J"IJo. -. The froin isn't due fo.. «II. _.-------------- .l!iimpllt and p. 00" To talk about a futurn migh. fI!.riro. lhmlgh mit us.though' to iII trodUH! <J set:o[lfl ideal thal mekes the main ideaslllpd5~ fll.~'-'"~. U is possible to use allier past ronrl~in !hEl . Use .I!SBIlito gi.-c:: SUbjfilct ...i990s.~ast. The past: pcrfoct prClg)reSSive is used (Qr ongoing actions or sin! atlans which c::ontinu.._--- 'Grammar summery ----- .m list (not) I.w5eqttenC~ :in Ute.~·:: __ ..ier.5ethe negati ve of m usf er the [Jositi Vle of CWi." - - ~_. haVOi til7'iwd_ Her oo(J'C.u.«_.) e • Whe.r anolhe.mporla:llro~ ':rIm' llew Hllny POltter b~ok was eagerJy !1wtii!OO hy milUor:ls of ferns .tn:l' dos.~ -.bit~· . iJt!!W.a wd p oss~bi.r.v~an explanation far sorn.ciple The pru. "the elau sss can he plaeed in eHhlOlr ord.life.~_ --- -:-- - F_-.¥a.!~t6 pro/ir:ien ~ ir:l Spanish' botJore 1 viJ._ .: L ·LI:.!..-.Ildvertising WliS passed yesterday.Gtltmg: Why did they """. ... h ~ Hlliuld mo've to tht!' (.. wilen. ".~:hlt1Jg1llg if! d'l!'l llJUY (less oertain) She lJ1igJH !c(Mld I lmiJ'l ger..~ \lVihen the agent 15 knowm bllt not im.Igh SJIR ll(jd t.dA pred~IJHom for wbJth avid-enell now: It's going ..d"d:rn have ~lIded in the .t seen her :!1ui. ~_'~ . certain] She might not I. •• L IGraml:mallr summary . 101m . verb + . a. (w" (~OCb"l'~ Our know who..re we rea'll.gwocssi. •••: 2: Pnldicting the future USiE!going ro + verb to m.n'D !he vem bf! + past part. h'Q!11d I WGJJfdl'l·l + have . nlSl!I.main da.n-e condiUo.__ ~__.h~ had fought for peace alJ beE . stoIA it.. ._.

a lot of."pri~i n_g: He got th~ J'ol) in spU~ of / dii'~P.m to danger .k Jast !TJ(mtli. Ad v-erbs hO'weve:r.e er medlu ..\"_ Urnid' 8 t NOUIlil.e elauses Suberdinatlng crmjuoctions ..I1i go W llitt (rock_ r J ruther( \. Unrtl0 1 Qi!. ~HfI"!lnCe -~tlH m.FD1'1'l the main verb: is the only way lo ptl~6 ttre t!')!"am_ ~ As the complement OF object after some verbs: ¥OIJI worst habit is fJring to me.lElble noun: all th~ also follows the phrase nrrther h'at~.1tio[J:ie apoJqgized for: ~tlmg late {Oti' ffi eo f • A~ th~ s~lhjecl Ofl!IlTI the pron.hercrime SIl' us to get a lighter sen reace. The ~ng verb Use (If th~ senhmce lilll'.IDt of + plural countable or uncountable nnun: a IQ~ of boob.oun that is used instead of who! which. or ]dea.'0 lea!".ve:f01+ plu fa I C01i.:!to LTlh'od L~cer~.:!Vl.W! tHlfl. basim.lJ'" 1'0 and SfJ' (ill' lfJ fn'lgal iVIl by . ]rralso [a]]mv. Clliv sas G:il! hl'! placed in any order.JHg v~u11 on TIl !:bu. 50' as to" so (that)) that aee follm .I IIlol'ley 5wimrn1!l. (J'N wl!eJ'l. ytl'[]r.ed . !reGllI:JS'e sh:e doeslJ 't :have mliM money: 3 'fag (IUestiiot!:S Us!': A noun clause C8lI1 be the objec:l of what he is dojng.lenQe. d. dis.~:iUes 11il mally..det1l[l~D8[\ellttjVie clausee give additional morm1lltion about Ii person.r:ViJl arid M(frk lIrn1it~t m.I1.like. ThR police pu~ lhR nl'itm?s.:!s'8 precede 8.Ieam Il lot from IO!Jbllg a~poopJfj·s garoage.!"1ci·. If \'o.hair. wt:l. we ilra talkiag abo lit: Sh!"l' it dIe lIL10NHIJ'l wh(~ 'w(tEi' ~he hilluilty ()!i'i'1. Ileve~Hui4I.'€ leave U III !bf.m Lllrg.!'t'! rhe:!'tl? 3 Verb if. FUrni In simple tenses [simple present ood pastl we form the llIg question w:ith do / does / did: Jack lived ill this ho~we. Som~ 'vaths ca 11 he followed hy sithar the -iII£" verb or the verb + [0': I'vs ~tan.!S5. sentence: l1QW yQU nl'tl !'O1l!" life is IiOiJ~ of my cheek somethin!l that we think we mow.1 do.. and make or Jet: We s.Eluxili<l'l)' !oQ-l1 f(. There ar-e two tj'JH3~~ S-e"4'und San1'i:l!1r.ilo fficfflg . thO!Ig/l. often those that f!}!prflS~ wanls or dtlsirns: I ~ ~n t til! .rww • A noun clause Call also be the subject and Come at !he begirrning of <l. thetag question is poeiti V'e: It's r-eaJly cold tooay.hou.ak~ saasa: J\-1y ""''iff!.verb CO:nS!ffllil. including most verbs of Iiking: .~ (l.:o~'!'(l. mf~!5.ve clauses as !!'llmlmnce' modifiers Usc nou-definlngrelatfve clauses with whi'ch: to' Qm:mnent OIl the idea in a whole sentence: She fives in aV€"l'fbig house. ------------------------------~ .n't enjoy g@ing I. -ed subordinate clause: We went a [it for dinner "ill' celeb." Uoomrng J.the tag question is negative. S11'e speaks English. huven' l yo [..1 don't . . as ]t an (th()): noun: both book» or llm.l): rei either I each I eve!}' + singum ecuntable noun: each boa! all (the) + plura. and prepositions can also be followed! by verbs.!ill'i'1.!wl: This fonn roll OW~prepo8itiol1 s: You con . Where the relative pmnoan Is the object IJ'f the relative clause.! infO"I'i!TI<lI:ion ill 1'he relaHvoelcleuse. even lhoUlJ. used l(!l (-Orinthe rOllighl.lte reF. which.dions ManYV(ir'bs can 00 fonowed by ather verbs.SS pmpose willi coneeetcrs Uo.spend our vaCilltion i.apa1Ic. df'!rly. . rlO!l!ipil~ <'!fflrO~!owgd -i.mJ.knO'w Pilal". .~r. n is ptl'5s1blll to rna ke in Q)rd(. avuid.rale Mary's birl.s weekem:L tI.fl/i~!.t.2. $~Jgge~l_ ~ After a p[lepoiSi.oegn ·t :s:he? 71 We can .Uider the wat-er when r.l:!day. de~pill.f':m Unit' '9 t Re]altiJv.. allY con cetts here thi.Use iii spite of. f'Joria[] tIIil. iii order ~"O.rng form OF IhA verb.'S' ali lIJ'·d'l'.~:IiJ. SI. eGcb.."~ a Mfe in ho!l.~ml j r]ea tha: IDa kestllf:! l'rlai u id AA~lll. wilo. Iden'l:ify~ or delioiDlltela'live clauses tell lIS €'XE!Jotly w hkl1 pel"SOJlor thing.1l1~~WI q_uanlifi(tTS both. lliing.F1ll.It lIsually begim. with who. that. a great deal! a fflcmy J .lud.2. number of forme: t~ + verb Th.II? :::J '['U OO!J. A relative clause gives more information about iii noun in tne main clause of a Sle'.nQe is positive . we can Jeeve it 'Out: I failed th coma th exam (tha~)l ~=.cxprEl.he SeJ!I~e.. S~nl:p'levcrb This for-m. • 2 Expressing pUlI'lPose To ask a real question about sornellil.\filho~~l 00 ob~~~.' • Art~J'th!~ following common v(t:rb.A_ by a noun or Prepositlcns iIi ~prl~! vj.although.IT!.l"ks !Ol" .dtIi 11.u~we don't know.re eIljay. bom + plural countable W&!y.!!81rn:Ulefiil: .r.ti'ie JocaJ Smdying ham me mu rtJicipaWy. She confessed .~c. Non~de6nmg jrHP..~~ :510 .g.. hy an irrEinHi"e or II.it(J his lONg .r-di:u:te clause. mind.IiI. didn'f he? In other tenses we use I:he . wnere. Voice falb the tag question: YQU've been toll' Europe severei times.i. Tbeseverhs take a. sentence: I don'l :k. im'~it? There gren'. dOIUiIlS II rnlati. wmc1i: is odd.ld j!ilii!l'y our phone bill as s"OO'n possible..of . NU!'. Voice rises O"Jl the tag question: .h join 11main cleoseend a ~:~bo.taMe nOUfl: m(l1iy hooks a great droll a good dcal of + uncountnblo noun: 1I grot>l deal .~p. can ber [f the verb i:n the maiIil part of "It. If the veeb in themain part of the sentenceis negative. whore.money a .f. hale. 'quaJ::!.i ~ form follows a nurn her of verbs.follows modal verbs.ming ~~: lh~t I!..s a number of verbs.l countl3Jble boob I money [J()Qd df'NJJ uf. . t:lUh~r. keep.1I .'l. r:Ii~ !b~y7 With modal verbs we usc the modal tofurm the tag question: Brion CIll!·1 sing very'" I¥e.1M nlJ'i to ISXpOse hi.

hfJlf (I. yoa won 'f To talk about auacneu or . (a' mtle.ry carefuJ Unit 111 IPJo.u1mlma11ry :3 tru fPow "'" pluf".iIC"'""""-'::::::'_.oonk: aCCDunt }'!Ill IDIJ. .U~ wUi I per'leel won'~ + huve + pru. l'11 be ve.U5'fl' if you let me use tile CQ."OOk\i.latll the j"Drm .Have you' 1I. - . evenls or situations ill the past: .~(It home. The fumure perfect 15 used to talk 1!hout <! situation or an action that will be completed by or before a ~. . T1he fumJUre pro.ep:~rted spel]'ch hit reported speech the verb lIl'lually chaJm.110..molley oF neUh e.lcl! mOm m(Jvie.tl~t!' an idea.t been ~VDltch.esenl p e:l!'mct p:mgr.rr.rt.Form Fill'St condiMl:!(lilaJ if + present + wUi books I . and moves one step hackmto the past: I h.-.house. {a}few.! We oflen lise tht! p:repo~lli0. u\'"o-third5 of + noun.iJk.1' uncountable nOUI}: no book I .lnt p~gtl!.b.scs.Mild paslSi. - - .J. (o{J.e. Mun: la) fow books mU:fNW (a) SiUllc! 4' Lli'lOO\lllwbJo !:I!oll. r. QUll}sti. {l 11 ~oolmtabl'l:l qW"J. eompleraent mil C8[I come either before or a.If 1 got th~ rob. r11!1.ag_ilIl.r tbroa houm.en watch.Mo.rll..l'l8 of tha: no + singlli. "{"hey said tJlll'Y CIlI!i'ld fil~d it ThA modal dllll'lge: speecb: Why J:tollrnvel conn by troiD jfyou to ~ .l'l:l: 1/ we g.ny about th'r] mess.n.more of lJ1e try-side? ~van. within the !lext. + infinitive Wlle. (.oney .lIla.------ -.ggo!1sti&n!l SOime medal verbs change in rnpmt~d ii.efuture: WaUfor me.!.cll~S If you .road. DUg1J t to.' I mDuth~ yeaI'. '['0 talk ahout a series of actions.in tha prcsom. have finished the dishes in five Thll present porfecl poogressi!i'c can be used to talk about aclicns wHh a ~Ilsuh .ve We often use the passi ve . ]E we place tim noun clause before the vllrb.ll9 by and IJl:!jOl't! with Ih~ perfect: 1" II l'lfu'. ------ 'Gr.mg!.bt.lIllJJtalb]c noun: neilh~r of the .u1Uvi'ly that s~ad inllHi past !:!.vity~ We'm b.OIltifullnsr l1fe 'w ll~r~. situation or a:mL action tbatwill be in progress .ve: i'n mil'Ultes.~(jme Makes I mcmey Small 5oJ"l'le ! CO'l~f!. I'd move to 11 new ..li!i'Ven.'tJd d(Jr:i/i cntifJIr on fmy -of tJres-e PQin 's.rlVested in .IUI "Jbll seeand COf.~~ tty joining a dub.:l])..e f)l)sl!o'd ii' UI yo u by l. have + been + -ing vcrb Affirn1ati.lj of books m'e Ncgathr. haroly any.new peaple.mpietf] mmp.i1't/t!'(.t .n\'VIe make ~mggMtioml OFexpress obligations pru.t prod!Jcli' proof of identity IJrG. the suggestion 0]" obllgatton is objecti'lle:Vo to j:nvest more in mad.ng I reaJJy like ..IJIT.~enwalt:'hj.OOOK earlier.GIf (1 DV{) player.tl qYlmtmti:e~ s'OIl'le.Grammar :!.tElMe Condit lfinals [J.ul'l 111)1+-ii'lg verb + W~'ve been watching tl loto] TV recel'ltly.--- ----- .1l1iMD. we 1I1'1'l adding emphasis to the complement: The thi.s]ve.msem..al'l:exmo. ~ She said sIre hod un Moo. The p~t (J!. place..essive . ~-""_.er. • - .ffi Cr}I!I(I..oo]lill..t to op!?n 1I verbs rn us.. lUJ. t)pl~ will b.1"i'gM no'W. These nOlm d::U"LSElS take iii.boob or uncountable noun: nOlle non e of the + phnal countable of the books: I the m.r. 'Jbe third conditi>DJlla is used ~o talk about i.€ed havan'l fini~h(idym) :rvc .m u.l verrllts + a(. or fut uraorto I alk aooll~' im]] essihle events or situations in fhe prew:nl: ..~ qmlllltit~g~ 110."(Jrotjtl. and wOJ:JJd do.mi. hardly Wiy+ plural countable oranecuntahle noun: .n at alllfmes.l. or situatioes in Ihe p.l:~ ton f'tlC!i'Ili- I ThaUarHlis the food. IVlInl SIH.ondmOmlial~ Ad'lllice If you . .lm I phiral countable 0.~!ih'fl 'LlfiJIl ~\~(. 'of (.' tIml:' and.t Su:miay.t l)aJ:lkiple FlIlll.-~. '----=---'- --- _.fld is.ovie~ .building..of Hl'~.pedit: time 1n I. an the aEti.--.vul'il to IJIle'e'I.ing 1I lot of TV recently.r·o.lat&ly." should.l: i had hmlrt. :!:l~gggsttng L1:Jartha action hasoocmllly finished!: So.) 2 Future lise progfillss:~ve and future p!I!'I".x wtl'iJb I months I yE'fiI'F:'l' wi~hth{l fllWm progrn!:sive: P.gres!>ive is used 'to talk about 8. not ilIc form.fl:er the verb: Tne fooo is the thing I reaUy like about ThaiitlIild.. ~"e·ve been demroling..iruUve IIMd DUght if + pas! perfecl "" would I could I might + have + past participle colllidUJiUlnru Car:s ~h!Ju1d 8![Id. (If ~his lJ/UCtiWe can find m~ if yotl J1f..lrfat. but the focus is.l.uh~.«l Tho :li. Unit' '12 1 ::I R.2 Min dOli.Jolof TV recently? 2: NwlIUIJ dauses Noun claeses often oo[ltain . - _.dSJ~verbs: Seat belts must be ~ro.fi: hI} J'mJe Prm:I_SI! 'q.I migh f have finished the' . .buiiding. OJle.~tco.- - -- --- ._n..I!'.'tlll w:rif:iRg 1:0 Bl(p~G\SS duration: this GSS[]IYfo.. 1'11be lying on u heach in Fiio.tJiv(l .- - ..!l: thl~ rQtlW_ (Wi.at II de:fin.iti>OnI.!:" a Jot 01 fOrnign r.a relative clause. Should using the ti S!lcond liundili(Jllilil if + past +wollJd I ooald I rn~'gfu + illil. fiUt!.!"oj til e plural co.r. Wlt·1/ 1¥'Y.m.nigbt.UOilitlUes plura] (.J -ill She said ~l!e hod J!G'!l!rti' (If ~i!._"'.! doa~ not c"tl. l WlIfllim.l S used I.~ !if] said I muS'l Rm:luir'e:Jll.Im.bfJjorn f"rtdt"l y_ Mlfl ofl'liTI nlL~fl 'ti'!"" rima IliXPfli~S tons in X ~1. stlll (. Negtlti ve: We I.If 1 had had a compu fe.!1g Q' .log.am:lmar S.gs If you don't !i1pp1y JIfOUrs-eJJ 10 studying pass 'your exams. 'mmJll'Ig in lueJ effidcn t cars: Wiithin the : ne.tlbou t fl. You.I!~gJit~v in the [pilssive are used to 'express rules: Ilol be patked on Me sidewrl.OLll'ltah~a !.:.mc~io~.1LImmary ~-= .aru ts lI~Ad lo lall:: abeur avOI!!S or sinmHonswhir:h :m'l po~~rhlo In tll(l ])cru~onl Or 'l:ht~ futu.gestense.f! talk ahmu u nlik(fly ~ l!wC]II1l.on: . .ite time Ia the future: Nex.re ough t t:o be i.

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